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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 9, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 63Subpart UUUUU → §63.10042


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 63—NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)
Subpart UUUUU—National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units


§63.10042   What definitions apply to this subpart?

Terms used in this subpart are defined in the Clean Air Act (CAA), in §63.2 (the General Provisions), and in this section as follows:

Affirmative defense means, in the context of an enforcement proceeding, a response or defense put forward by a defendant, regarding which the defendant has the burden of proof, and the merits of which are independently and objectively evaluated in a judicial or administrative proceeding.

Anthracite coal means solid fossil fuel classified as anthracite coal by American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method D388-05, “Standard Classification of Coals by Rank” (incorporated by reference, see §63.14).

Bituminous coal means coal that is classified as bituminous according to ASTM Method D388-05, “Standard Classification of Coals by Rank” (incorporated by reference, see §63.14).

Boiler operating day means a 24-hour period that begins at midnight and ends the following midnight during which any fuel is combusted at any time in the EGU, excluding startup periods or shutdown periods. It is not necessary for the fuel to be combusted the entire 24-hour period.

Capacity factor for a liquid oil-fired EGU means the total annual heat input from oil divided by the product of maximum hourly heat input for the EGU, regardless of fuel, multiplied by 8,760 hours.

Clean fuel means natural gas, synthetic natural gas that meets the specification necessary for that gas to be transported on a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulated pipeline, propane, distillate oil, synthesis gas that has been processed through a gas clean-up train such that it could be used in a system's combustion turbine, or ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) oil, including those fuels meeting the requirements of 40 CFR part 80, subpart I (“Subpart I—Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel”).

Coal means all solid fuels classifiable as anthracite, bituminous, sub-bituminous, or lignite by ASTM Method D388-05, “Standard Classification of Coals by Rank” (incorporated by reference, see §63.14), and coal refuse. Synthetic fuels derived from coal for the purpose of creating useful heat including but not limited to, coal derived gases (not meeting the definition of natural gas), solvent-refined coal, coal-oil mixtures, and coal-water mixtures, are considered “coal” for the purposes of this subpart.

Coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit means an electric utility steam generating unit meeting the definition of “fossil fuel-fired” that burns coal for more than 10.0 percent of the average annual heat input during the 3 previous calendar years after the compliance date for your facility in §63.9984 or for more than 15.0 percent of the annual heat input during any one of those calendar years. EGU owners and operators must estimate coal, oil, and natural gas usage for the first 3 calendar years after the applicable compliance date and they are solely responsible for assuring compliance with this final rule or other applicable standard based on their fuel usage projections. After the first 3 years of compliance, EGUs are required to evaluate applicability based on coal or oil usage from the three previous calendars years on an annual rolling basis.

Coal refuse means waste products of coal mining, physical coal cleaning, and coal preparation operations (e.g. culm, gob, etc.) containing coal, matrix material, clay, and other organic and inorganic material.

Cogeneration means a steam-generating unit that simultaneously produces both electrical and useful thermal (or mechanical) energy from the same primary energy source.

Cogeneration unit means a stationary, fossil fuel-fired EGU meeting the definition of “fossil fuel-fired” or stationary, integrated gasification combined cycle:

(1) Having equipment used to produce electricity and useful thermal energy for industrial, commercial, heating, or cooling purposes through the sequential use of energy; and

(2) Producing during the 12-month period starting on the date the unit first produces electricity and during any calendar year after which the unit first produces electricity:

(i) For a topping-cycle cogeneration unit,

(A) Useful thermal energy not less than 5 percent of total energy output; and

(B) Useful power that, when added to one-half of useful thermal energy produced, is not less than 42.5 percent of total energy input, if useful thermal energy produced is 15 percent or more of total energy output, or not less than 45 percent of total energy input, if useful thermal energy produced is less than 15 percent of total energy output.

(ii) For a bottoming-cycle cogeneration unit, useful power not less than 45 percent of total energy input.

(3) Provided that the total energy input under paragraphs (2)(i)(B) and (2)(ii) of this definition shall equal the unit's total energy input from all fuel except biomass if the unit is a boiler.

Combined-cycle gas stationary combustion turbine means a stationary combustion turbine system where heat from the turbine exhaust gases is recovered by a waste heat boiler.

Common stack means the exhaust of emissions from two or more affected units through a single flue.

Continental liquid oil-fired subcategory means any oil-fired electric utility steam generating unit that burns liquid oil and is located in the continental United States.

Default electrical load means an electrical load equal to 5 percent of the maximum sustainable electrical output (megawatts), as defined in section 6.5.2.1(a)(1) of Appendix A to part 75 of this chapter, of an affected EGU that is in startup or shutdown mode. For monitored common stack configurations, the default electrical load is 5 percent of the combined maximum sustainable electrical load of the EGUs that are in startup or shutdown mode during an hour in which the electrical load for all operating EGUs is zero. The default electrical load is used to calculate the electrical output-based emission rate (lb/MWh or lb/GWh, as applicable) for any startup or shutdown hour in which the actual electrical load is zero. The default electrical load is not used for EGUs required to make heat input-based emission rate (lb/MMBtu or lb/TBtu, as applicable) calculations. For the purposes of this subpart, the default electrical load is not considered to be a substitute data value.

Deviation. (1) Deviation means any instance in which an affected source subject to this subpart, or an owner or operator of such a source:

(i) Fails to meet any requirement or obligation established by this subpart including, but not limited to, any emission limit, operating limit, work practice standard, or monitoring requirement; or

(ii) Fails to meet any term or condition that is adopted to implement an applicable requirement in this subpart and that is included in the operating permit for any affected source required to obtain such a permit.

(2) A deviation is not always a violation. The determination of whether a deviation constitutes a violation of the standard is up to the discretion of the entity responsible for enforcement of the standards.

Diluent cap means a default CO2 or O2 concentration that may be used to calculate the Hg, HCl, HF, or SO2 emission rate (lb/MMBtu or lb/TBtu, as applicable) during a startup or shutdown hour in which the measured CO2 concentration is below the cap value or the measured O2 concentration is above the cap value. The appropriate diluent cap values for EGUs are presented in §63.10007(f) and in section 6.2.1.2 of Appendix A to this subpart. For the purposes of this subpart, the diluent cap is not considered to be a substitute data value.

Distillate oil means fuel oils, including recycled oils, that comply with the specifications for fuel oil numbers 1 and 2, as defined by ASTM Method D396-10, “Standard Specification for Fuel Oils” (incorporated by reference, see §63.14).

Dry flue gas desulfurization technology, or dry FGD, or spray dryer absorber (SDA), or spray dryer, or dry scrubber means an add-on air pollution control system located downstream of the steam generating unit that injects a dry alkaline sorbent (dry sorbent injection) or sprays an alkaline sorbent slurry (spray dryer) to react with and neutralize acid gases such as SO2 and HCl in the exhaust stream forming a dry powder material. Alkaline sorbent injection systems in fluidized bed combustors (FBC) or circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers are included in this definition.

Dry sorbent injection (DSI) means an add-on air pollution control system in which sorbent (e.g., conventional activated carbon, brominated activated carbon, Trona, hydrated lime, sodium carbonate, etc.) is injected into the flue gas steam upstream of a PM control device to react with and neutralize acid gases (such as SO2 and HCl) or Hg in the exhaust stream forming a dry powder material that may be removed in a primary or secondary PM control device.

Electric Steam generating unit means any furnace, boiler, or other device used for combusting fuel for the purpose of producing steam (including fossil-fuel-fired steam generators associated with integrated gasification combined cycle gas turbines; nuclear steam generators are not included) for the purpose of powering a generator to produce electricity or electricity and other thermal energy.

Electric utility steam generating unit (EGU) means a fossil fuel-fired combustion unit of more than 25 megawatts electric (MWe) that serves a generator that produces electricity for sale. A fossil fuel-fired unit that cogenerates steam and electricity and supplies more than one-third of its potential electric output capacity and more than 25 MWe output to any utility power distribution system for sale is considered an electric utility steam generating unit.

Emission limitation means any emissions limit, work practice standard, or operating limit.

Excess emissions means, with respect to this subpart, results of any required measurements outside the applicable range (e.g., emissions limitations, parametric operating limits) that is permitted by this subpart. The values of measurements will be in the same units and averaging time as the values specified in this subpart for the limitations.

Federally enforceable means all limitations and conditions that are enforceable by the Administrator, including the requirements of 40 CFR parts 60, 61, and 63; requirements within any applicable state implementation plan; and any permit requirements established under 40 CFR 52.21 or under 40 CFR 51.18 and 40 CFR 51.24.

Flue gas desulfurization system means any add-on air pollution control system located downstream of the steam generating unit whose purpose or effect is to remove at least 50 percent of the SO2 in the exhaust gas stream.

Fossil fuel means natural gas, oil, coal, and any form of solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel derived from such material.

Fossil fuel-fired means an electric utility steam generating unit (EGU) that is capable of producing more than 25 MW of electrical output from the combustion of fossil fuels. To be “capable of combusting” fossil fuels, an EGU would need to have these fuels allowed in its operating permit and have the appropriate fuel handling facilities on-site or otherwise available (e.g., coal handling equipment, including coal storage area, belts and conveyers, pulverizers, etc.; oil storage facilities). In addition, fossil fuel-fired means any EGU that fired fossil fuels for more than 10.0 percent of the average annual heat input during the 3 previous calendar years after the compliance date for your facility in §63.9984 or for more than 15.0 percent of the annual heat input during any one of those calendar years. EGU owners and operators must estimate coal, oil, and natural gas usage for the first 3 calendar years after the applicable compliance date and they are solely responsible for assuring compliance with this final rule or other applicable standard based on their fuel usage projections. After the first 3 years of compliance, EGUs are required to evaluate applicability based on coal or oil usage from the three previous calendars years on an annual rolling basis.

Fuel type means each category of fuels that share a common name or classification. Examples include, but are not limited to, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, anthracite, biomass, and residual oil. Individual fuel types received from different suppliers are not considered new fuel types.

Fluidized bed boiler, or fluidized bed combustor, or circulating fluidized boiler, or CFB means a boiler utilizing a fluidized bed combustion process.

Fluidized bed combustion means a process where a fuel is burned in a bed of granulated particles which are maintained in a mobile suspension by the upward flow of air and combustion products.

Gaseous fuel includes, but is not limited to, natural gas, process gas, landfill gas, coal derived gas, solid oil-derived gas, refinery gas, and biogas.

Generator means a device that produces electricity.

Gross output means the gross useful work performed by the steam generated and, for an IGCC electric utility steam generating unit, the work performed by the stationary combustion turbines. For a unit generating only electricity, the gross useful work performed is the gross electrical output from the unit's turbine/generator sets. For a cogeneration unit, the gross useful work performed is the gross electrical output, including any such electricity used in the power production process (which process includes, but is not limited to, any on-site processing or treatment of fuel combusted at the unit and any on-site emission controls), or mechanical output plus 75 percent of the useful thermal output measured relative to ISO conditions that is not used to generate additional electrical or mechanical output or to enhance the performance of the unit (i.e., steam delivered to an industrial process).

Heat input means heat derived from combustion of fuel in an EGU (synthetic gas for an IGCC) and does not include the heat input from preheated combustion air, recirculated flue gases, or exhaust gases from other sources such as gas turbines, internal combustion engines, etc.

Integrated gasification combined cycle electric utility steam generating unit or IGCC means an electric utility steam generating unit meeting the definition of “fossil fuel-fired” that burns a synthetic gas derived from coal and/or solid oil-derived fuel for more than 10.0 percent of the average annual heat input during the 3 previous calendar years after the compliance date for your facility in §63.9984 or for more than 15.0 percent of the annual heat input during any one of those calendar years in a combined-cycle gas turbine. EGU owners and operators must estimate coal, oil, and natural gas usage for the first 3 calendar years after the applicable compliance date and they are solely responsible for assuring compliance with this final rule or other applicable standard based on their fuel usage projections. No solid coal or solid oil-derived fuel is directly burned in the unit during operation. After the first 3 years of compliance, EGUs are required to evaluate applicability based on coal or oil usage from the three previous calendars years on an annual rolling basis.

ISO conditions means a temperature of 288 Kelvin, a relative humidity of 60 percent, and a pressure of 101.3 kilopascals.

Lignite coal means coal that is classified as lignite A or B according to ASTM Method D388-05, “Standard Classification of Coals by Rank” (incorporated by reference, see §63.14).

Limited-use liquid oil-fired subcategory means an oil-fired electric utility steam generating unit with an annual capacity factor when burning oil of less than 8 percent of its maximum or nameplate heat input, whichever is greater, averaged over a 24-month block contiguous period commencing on the first of the month following the compliance date specified in §63.9984.

Liquid fuel includes, but is not limited to, distillate oil and residual oil.

Monitoring system malfunction or out of control period means any sudden, infrequent, not reasonably preventable failure of the monitoring system to provide valid data. Monitoring system failures that are caused in part by poor maintenance or careless operation are not malfunctions.

Natural gas means a naturally occurring fluid mixture of hydrocarbons (e.g., methane, ethane, or propane) produced in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface that maintains a gaseous state at standard atmospheric temperature and pressure under ordinary conditions. Natural gas contains 20.0 grains or less of total sulfur per 100 standard cubic feet. Additionally, natural gas must either be composed of at least 70 percent methane by volume or have a gross calorific value between 950 and 1,100 Btu per standard cubic foot. Natural gas does not include the following gaseous fuels: landfill gas, digester gas, refinery gas, sour gas, blast furnace gas, coal-derived gas, producer gas, coke oven gas, or any gaseous fuel produced in a process which might result in highly variable sulfur content or heating value.

Natural gas-fired electric utility steam generating unit means an electric utility steam generating unit meeting the definition of “fossil fuel-fired” that is not a coal-fired, oil-fired, or IGCC electric utility steam generating unit and that burns natural gas for more than 10.0 percent of the average annual heat input during the 3 previous calendar years after the compliance date for your facility in §63.9984 or for more than 15.0 percent of the annual heat input during any one of those calendar years. EGU owners and operators must estimate coal, oil, and natural gas usage for the first 3 calendar years after the applicable compliance date and they are solely responsible for assuring compliance with this final rule or other applicable standard based on their fuel usage projections.

Net-electric output means the gross electric sales to the utility power distribution system minus purchased power on a calendar year basis.

Neural network or neural net for purposes of this rule means an automated boiler optimization system. A neural network typically has the ability to process data from many inputs to develop, remember, update, and enable algorithms for efficient boiler operation.

Non-continental area means the State of Hawaii, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or the Northern Mariana Islands.

Non-continental liquid oil-fired subcategory means any oil-fired electric utility steam generating unit that burns liquid oil and is located outside the continental United States.

Non-mercury (Hg) HAP metals means Antimony (Sb), Arsenic (As), Beryllium (Be), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Lead (Pb), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), and Selenium (Se).

Oil means crude oil or petroleum or a fuel derived from crude oil or petroleum, including distillate and residual oil, solid oil-derived fuel (e.g., petroleum coke) and gases derived from solid oil-derived fuels (not meeting the definition of natural gas).

Oil-fired electric utility steam generating unit means an electric utility steam generating unit meeting the definition of “fossil fuel-fired” that is not a coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit and that burns oil for more than 10.0 percent of the average annual heat input during the 3 previous calendar years after the compliance date for your facility in §63.9984 or for more than 15.0 percent of the annual heat input during any one of those calendar years. EGU owners and operators must estimate coal, oil, and natural gas usage for the first 3 calendar years after the applicable compliance date and they are solely responsible for assuring compliance with this final rule or other applicable standard based on their fuel usage projections. After the first 3 years of compliance, EGUs are required to evaluate applicability based on coal or oil usage from the three previous calendars years on an annual rolling basis.

Particulate matter or PM means any finely divided solid material as measured by the test methods specified under this subpart, or an alternative method.

Pulverized coal (PC) boiler means an EGU in which pulverized coal is introduced into an air stream that carries the coal to the combustion chamber of the EGU where it is fired in suspension.

Residual oil means crude oil, and all fuel oil numbers 4, 5 and 6, as defined by ASTM Method D396-10, “Standard Specification for Fuel Oils” (incorporated by reference, see §63.14).

Responsible official means responsible official as defined in 40 CFR 70.2.

Shutdown means the period in which cessation of operation of an EGU is initiated for any purpose. Shutdown begins when the EGU no longer generates electricity or makes useful thermal energy (such as heat or steam) for industrial, commercial, heating, or cooling purposes or when no coal, liquid oil, syngas, or solid oil-derived fuel is being fired in the EGU, whichever is earlier. Shutdown ends when the EGU no longer generates electricity or makes useful thermal energy (such as steam or heat) for industrial, commercial, heating, or cooling purposes, and no fuel is being fired in the EGU. Any fraction of an hour in which shutdown occurs constitutes a full hour of shutdown.

Startup means:

(1) Either the first-ever firing of fuel in a boiler for the purpose of producing electricity, or the firing of fuel in a boiler after a shutdown event for any purpose. Startup ends when any of the steam from the boiler is used to generate electricity for sale over the grid or for any other purpose (including on-site use). Any fraction of an hour in which startup occurs constitutes a full hour of startup; or

(2) The period in which operation of an EGU is initiated for any purpose. Startup begins with either the firing of any fuel in an EGU for the purpose of producing electricity or useful thermal energy (such as heat or steam) for industrial, commercial, heating, or cooling purposes (other than the first-ever firing of fuel in a boiler following construction of the boiler) or for any other purpose after a shutdown event. Startup ends 4 hours after the EGU generates electricity that is sold or used for any other purpose (including on site use), or 4 hours after the EGU makes useful thermal energy (such as heat or steam) for industrial, commercial, heating, or cooling purposes (16 U.S.C. 796(18)(A) and 18 CFR 292.202(c)), whichever is earlier. Any fraction of an hour in which startup occurs constitutes a full hour of startup.

Stationary combustion turbine means all equipment, including but not limited to the turbine, the fuel, air, lubrication and exhaust gas systems, control systems (except emissions control equipment), and any ancillary components and sub-components comprising any simple cycle stationary combustion turbine, any regenerative/recuperative cycle stationary combustion turbine, the combustion turbine portion of any stationary cogeneration cycle combustion system, or the combustion turbine portion of any stationary combined cycle steam/electric generating system. Stationary means that the combustion turbine is not self propelled or intended to be propelled while performing its function. Stationary combustion turbines do not include turbines located at a research or laboratory facility, if research is conducted on the turbine itself and the turbine is not being used to power other applications at the research or laboratory facility.

Steam generating unit means any furnace, boiler, or other device used for combusting fuel for the purpose of producing steam (including fossil-fuel-fired steam generators associated with integrated gasification combined cycle gas turbines; nuclear steam generators are not included).

Stoker means a unit consisting of a mechanically operated fuel feeding mechanism, a stationary or moving grate to support the burning of fuel and admit undergrate air to the fuel, an overfire air system to complete combustion, and an ash discharge system. There are two general types of stokers: underfeed and overfeed. Overfeed stokers include mass feed and spreader stokers.

Subbituminous coal means coal that is classified as subbituminous A, B, or C according to ASTM Method D388-05, “Standard Classification of Coals by Rank” (incorporated by reference, see §63.14).

Unit designed for coal ≥8,300 Btu/lb subcategory means any coal-fired EGU that is not a coal-fired EGU in the “unit designed for low rank virgin coal” subcategory.

Unit designed for low rank virgin coal subcategory means any coal-fired EGU that is designed to burn and that is burning nonagglomerating virgin coal having a calorific value (moist, mineral matter-free basis) of less than 19,305 kJ/kg (8,300 Btu/lb) that is constructed and operates at or near the mine that produces such coal.

Unit designed to burn solid oil-derived fuel subcategory means any oil-fired EGU that burns solid oil-derived fuel.

Voluntary consensus standards or VCS mean technical standards (e.g., materials specifications, test methods, sampling procedures, business practices) developed or adopted by one or more voluntary consensus bodies. The EPA/OAQPS has by precedent only used VCS that are written in English. Examples of VCS bodies are: American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), International Standards Organization (ISO), Standards Australia (AS), British Standards (BS), Canadian Standards (CSA), European Standard (EN or CEN) and German Engineering Standards (VDI). The types of standards that are not considered VCS are standards developed by: the U.S. states, e.g., California (CARB) and Texas (TCEQ); industry groups, such as American Petroleum Institute (API), Gas Processors Association (GPA), and Gas Research Institute (GRI); and other branches of the U.S. government, e.g., Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Transportation (DOT). This does not preclude EPA from using standards developed by groups that are not VCS bodies within an EPA rule. When this occurs, EPA has done searches and reviews for VCS equivalent to these non-VCS methods.

Wet flue gas desulfurization technology, or wet FGD, or wet scrubber means any add-on air pollution control device that is located downstream of the steam generating unit that mixes an aqueous stream or slurry with the exhaust gases from an EGU to control emissions of PM and/or to absorb and neutralize acid gases, such as SO2 and HCl.

Work practice standard means any design, equipment, work practice, or operational standard, or combination thereof, which is promulgated pursuant to CAA section 112(h).

[77 FR 9464, Feb. 16, 2012, as amended at 77 FR 23405, Apr. 19, 2012; 78 FR 24087, Apr. 24, 2013; 79 FR 68792, Nov. 19, 2014; 81 FR 20189, Apr. 6, 2016]

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