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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 3, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 63Subpart UUUUU → §63.10010


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 63—NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)
Subpart UUUUU—National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units


§63.10010   What are my monitoring, installation, operation, and maintenance requirements?

(a) Flue gases from the affected units under this subpart exhaust to the atmosphere through a variety of different configurations, including but not limited to individual stacks, a common stack configuration or a main stack plus a bypass stack. For the CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems used to provide data under this subpart, the continuous monitoring system installation requirements for these exhaust configurations are as follows:

(1) Single unit-single stack configurations. For an affected unit that exhausts to the atmosphere through a single, dedicated stack, you shall either install the required CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems in the stack or at a location in the ductwork downstream of all emissions control devices, where the pollutant and diluents concentrations are representative of the emissions that exit to the atmosphere.

(2) Unit utilizing common stack with other affected unit(s). When an affected unit utilizes a common stack with one or more other affected units, but no non-affected units, you shall either:

(i) Install the required CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems in the duct leading to the common stack from each unit; or

(ii) Install the required CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems in the common stack.

(3) Unit(s) utilizing common stack with non-affected unit(s). (i) When one or more affected units shares a common stack with one or more non-affected units, you shall either:

(A) Install the required CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems in the ducts leading to the common stack from each affected unit; or

(B) Install the required CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems described in this section in the common stack and attribute all of the emissions measured at the common stack to the affected unit(s).

(ii) If you choose the common stack monitoring option:

(A) For each hour in which valid data are obtained for all parameters, you must calculate the pollutant emission rate and

(B) You must assign the calculated pollutant emission rate to each unit that shares the common stack.

(4) Unit with a main stack and a bypass stack that exhausts to the atmosphere independent of the main stack. If the exhaust configuration of an affected unit consists of a main stack and a bypass stack, you shall install CEMS on both the main stack and the bypass stack. If it is not feasible to certify and quality-assure the data from a monitoring system on the bypass stack, you shall:

(i) Route the exhaust from the bypass through the main stack and its monitoring so that bypass emissions are measured; or

(ii) Install a CEMS only on the main stack and count hours that the bypass stack is in use as hours of deviation from the monitoring requirements.

(5) Unit with a common control device with multiple stack or duct configuration. If the flue gases from an affected unit, which is configured such that emissions are controlled with a common control device or series of control devices, are discharged to the atmosphere through more than one stack or are fed into a single stack through two or more ducts, you may:

(i) Install required CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems in each of the multiple stacks;

(ii) Install required CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems in each of the ducts that feed into the stack;

(iii) Install required CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems in one of the multiple stacks or ducts and monitor the flows and dilution rates in all multiple stacks or ducts in order to determine total exhaust gas flow rate and pollutant mass emissions rate in accordance with the applicable limit; or

(iv) In the case of multiple ducts feeding into a single stack, install CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems in the single stack as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(6) Unit with multiple parallel control devices with multiple stacks. If the flue gases from an affected unit, which is configured such that emissions are controlled with multiple parallel control devices or multiple series of control devices are discharged to the atmosphere through more than one stack, you shall install the required CEMS, PM CPMS, and sorbent trap monitoring systems described in each of the multiple stacks. You shall calculate hourly flow-weighted average pollutant emission rates for the unit as follows:

(i) Calculate the pollutant emission rate at each stack or duct for each hour in which valid data are obtained for all parameters;

(ii) Multiply each calculated hourly pollutant emission rate at each stack or duct by the corresponding hourly stack gas flow rate at that stack or duct;

(iii) Sum the products determined under paragraph (a)(6)(ii) of this section; and

(iv) Divide the result obtained in paragraph (a)(6)(iii) of this section by the total hourly stack gas flow rate for the unit, summed across all of the stacks or ducts.

(b) If you use an oxygen (O2) or carbon dioxide (CO2) CEMS to convert measured pollutant concentrations to the units of the applicable emissions limit, the O2 or CO2 concentrations shall be monitored at a location that represents emissions to the atmosphere, i.e., at the outlet of the EGU, downstream of all emission control devices. You must install, certify, maintain, and operate the CEMS according to part 75 of this chapter. Use only quality-assured O2 or CO2 data in the emissions calculations; do not use part 75 substitute data values.

(c) If you are required to use a stack gas flow rate monitor, either for routine operation of a sorbent trap monitoring system or to convert pollutant concentrations to units of an electrical output-based emission standard in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart, you must install, certify, operate, and maintain the monitoring system and conduct on-going quality-assurance testing of the system according to part 75 of this chapter. Use only unadjusted, quality-assured flow rate data in the emissions calculations. Do not apply bias adjustment factors to the flow rate data and do not use substitute flow rate data in the calculations.

(d) If you are required to make corrections for stack gas moisture content when converting pollutant concentrations to the units of an emission standard in Table 1 of 2 to this subpart, you must install, certify, operate, and maintain a moisture monitoring system in accordance with part 75 of this chapter. Alternatively, for coal-fired units, you may use appropriate fuel-specific default moisture values from §75.11(b) of this chapter to estimate the moisture content of the stack gas or you may petition the Administrator under §75.66 of this chapter for use of a default moisture value for non-coal-fired units. If you install and operate a moisture monitoring system, do not use substitute moisture data in the emissions calculations.

(e) If you use an HCl and/or HF CEMS, you must install, certify, operate, maintain, and quality-assure the data from the monitoring system in accordance with appendix B to this subpart. Calculate and record a 30-boiler operating day rolling average HCl or HF emission rate in the units of the standard, updated after each new boiler operating day. Each 30-boiler operating day rolling average emission rate is the average of all the valid hourly HCl or HF emission rates in the preceding 30 boiler operating days (see section 9.4 of appendix B to this subpart).

(f)(1) If you use an SO2 CEMS, you must install the monitor at the outlet of the EGU, downstream of all emission control devices, and you must certify, operate, and maintain the CEMS according to part 75 of this chapter.

(2) For on-going QA, the SO2 CEMS must meet the applicable daily, quarterly, and semiannual or annual requirements in sections 2.1 through 2.3 of appendix B to part 75 of this chapter, with the following addition: You must perform the linearity checks required in section 2.2 of appendix B to part 75 of this chapter if the SO2 CEMS has a span value of 30 ppm or less.

(3) Calculate and record a 30-boiler operating day rolling average SO2 emission rate in the units of the standard, updated after each new boiler operating day. Each 30-boiler operating day rolling average emission rate is the average of all of the valid hourly SO2 emission rates in the 30 boiler operating day period.

(4) Use only unadjusted, quality-assured SO2 concentration values in the emissions calculations; do not apply bias adjustment factors to the part 75 SO2 data and do not use part 75 substitute data values. For startup or shutdown hours (as defined in §63.10042) the default gross output and the diluent cap are available for use in the hourly SO2 emission rate calculations, as described in §63.10007(f). Use a flag to identify each startup or shutdown hour and report a special code if the diluent cap or default gross output is used to calculate the SO2 emission rate for any of these hours.

(g) If you use a Hg CEMS or a sorbent trap monitoring system, you must install, certify, operate, maintain and quality-assure the data from the monitoring system in accordance with appendix A to this subpart. You must calculate and record a 30- (or, if alternate emissions averaging is used, 90-) boiler operating day rolling average Hg emission rate, in units of the standard, updated after each new boiler operating day. Each 30- (or, if alternate emissions averaging is used, 90-) boiler operating day rolling average emission rate, calculated according to section 6.2 of appendix A to the subpart, is the average of all of the valid hourly Hg emission rates in the preceding 30- (or, if alternate emissions averaging is used, a 90-) boiler operating days. Section 7.1.4.3 of appendix A to this subpart explains how to reduce sorbent trap monitoring system data to an hourly basis.

(h) If you use a PM CPMS to demonstrate continuous compliance with an operating limit, you must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate the PM CPMS and record the output of the system as specified in paragraphs (h)(1) through (5) of this section.

(1) Install, calibrate, operate, and maintain your PM CPMS according to the procedures in your approved site-specific monitoring plan developed in accordance with §63.10000(d), and meet the requirements in paragraphs (h)(1)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) The operating principle of the PM CPMS must be based on in-stack or extractive light scatter, light scintillation, beta attenuation, or mass accumulation detection of the exhaust gas or representative sample. The reportable measurement output from the PM CPMS may be expressed as milliamps, stack concentration, or other raw data signal.

(ii) The PM CPMS must have a cycle time (i.e., period required to complete sampling, measurement, and reporting for each measurement) no longer than 60 minutes.

(iii) The PM CPMS must be capable, at a minimum, of detecting and responding to particulate matter concentrations of 0.5 mg/acm.

(2) For a new unit, complete the initial PM CPMS performance evaluation no later than October 13, 2012 or 180 days after the date of initial startup, whichever is later. For an existing unit, complete the initial performance evaluation no later than October 13, 2015.

(3) Collect PM CPMS hourly average output data for all boiler operating hours except as indicated in paragraph (h)(5) of this section. Express the PM CPMS output as milliamps, PM concentration, or other raw data signal value.

(4) Calculate the arithmetic 30-boiler operating day rolling average of all of the hourly average PM CPMS output collected during all nonexempt boiler operating hours data (e.g., milliamps, PM concentration, raw data signal).

(5) You must collect data using the PM CPMS at all times the process unit is operating and at the intervals specified in paragraph (h)(1)(ii) of this section, except for periods of monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities (including, as applicable, calibration checks and required zero and span adjustments), and any scheduled maintenance as defined in your site-specific monitoring plan.

(6) You must use all the data collected during all boiler operating hours in assessing the compliance with your operating limit except:

(i) Any data collected during periods of monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, or required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities that temporarily interrupt the measurement of output data from the PM CPMS. You must report any monitoring system malfunctions or out of control periods in your annual deviation reports. You must report any monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities per the requirements of §63.10031(b);

(ii) Any data collected during periods when the monitoring system is out of control as specified in your site-specific monitoring plan, repairs associated with periods when the monitoring system is out of control, or required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities conducted during out-of-control periods. You must report any such periods in your annual deviation report;

(iii) Any data recorded during periods of startup or shutdown.

(7) You must record and make available upon request results of PM CPMS system performance audits, as well as the dates and duration of periods from when the PM CPMS is out of control until completion of the corrective actions necessary to return the PM CPMS to operation consistent with your site-specific monitoring plan.

(i) If you choose to comply with the PM filterable emissions limit in lieu of metal HAP limits, you may choose to install, certify, operate, and maintain a PM CEMS and record the output of the PM CEMS as specified in paragraphs (i)(1) through (5) of this section. The compliance limit will be expressed as a 30-boiler operating day rolling average of the numerical emissions limit value applicable for your unit in tables 1 or 2 to this subpart.

(1) Install and certify your PM CEMS according to the procedures and requirements in Performance Specification 11—Specifications and Test Procedures for Particulate Matter Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources in Appendix B to part 60 of this chapter, using Method 5 at Appendix A-3 to part 60 of this chapter and ensuring that the front half filter temperature shall be 160° ±14 °C (320° ±25 °F). The reportable measurement output from the PM CEMS must be expressed in units of the applicable emissions limit (e.g., lb/MMBtu, lb/MWh).

(2) Operate and maintain your PM CEMS according to the procedures and requirements in Procedure 2—Quality Assurance Requirements for Particulate Matter Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources in Appendix F to part 60 of this chapter.

(i) You must conduct the relative response audit (RRA) for your PM CEMS at least once annually.

(ii) You must conduct the relative correlation audit (RCA) for your PM CEMS at least once every 3 years.

(3) Collect PM CEMS hourly average output data for all boiler operating hours except as indicated in paragraph (i) of this section.

(4) Calculate the arithmetic 30-boiler operating day rolling average of all of the hourly average PM CEMS output data collected during all nonexempt boiler operating hours.

(5) You must collect data using the PM CEMS at all times the process unit is operating and at the intervals specified in paragraph (a) of this section, except for periods of monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, and required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities.

(i) You must use all the data collected during all boiler operating hours in assessing the compliance with your operating limit except:

(A) Any data collected during periods of monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, or required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities that temporarily interrupt the measurement of emissions (e.g., calibrations, certain audits). You must report any monitoring system malfunctions or out of control periods in your annual deviation reports. You must report any monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities per the requirements of §63.10031(b);

(B) Any data collected during periods when the monitoring system is out of control as specified in your site-specific monitoring plan, repairs associated with periods when the monitoring system is out of control, or required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities conducted during out-of-control periods. You must report any such periods in your annual deviation report;

(C) Any data recorded during periods of startup or shutdown.

(ii) You must record and make available upon request results of PM CEMS system performance audits, dates and duration of periods when the PM CEMS is out of control to completion of the corrective actions necessary to return the PM CEMS to operation consistent with your site-specific monitoring plan.

(j) You may choose to comply with the metal HAP emissions limits using CEMS approved in accordance with §63.7(f) as an alternative to the performance test method specified in this rule. If approved to use a HAP metals CEMS, the compliance limit will be expressed as a 30-boiler operating day rolling average of the numerical emissions limit value applicable for your unit in tables 1 or 2. If approved, you may choose to install, certify, operate, and maintain a HAP metals CEMS and record the output of the HAP metals CEMS as specified in paragraphs (j)(1) through (5) of this section.

(1)(i) Install, calibrate, operate, and maintain your HAP metals CEMS according to your CMS quality control program, as described in §63.8(d)(2). The reportable measurement output from the HAP metals CEMS must be expressed in units of the applicable emissions limit (e.g., lb/MMBtu, lb/MWh) and in the form of a 30-boiler operating day rolling average.

(ii) Operate and maintain your HAP metals CEMS according to the procedures and criteria in your site specific performance evaluation and quality control program plan required in §63.8(d).

(2) Collect HAP metals CEMS hourly average output data for all boiler operating hours except as indicated in section (j)(4) of this section.

(3) Calculate the arithmetic 30-boiler operating day rolling average of all of the hourly average HAP metals CEMS output data collected during all nonexempt boiler operating hours data.

(4) You must collect data using the HAP metals CEMS at all times the process unit is operating and at the intervals specified in paragraph (a) of this section, except for periods of monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, and required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities.

(i) You must use all the data collected during all boiler operating hours in assessing the compliance with your emission limit except:

(A) Any data collected during periods of monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, or required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities that temporarily interrupt the measurement of emissions (e.g., calibrations, certain audits). You must report any monitoring system malfunctions or out of control periods in your annual deviation reports. You must report any monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities per the requirements of §63.10031(b);

(B) Any data collected during periods when the monitoring system is out of control as specified in your site-specific monitoring plan, repairs associated with periods when the monitoring system is out of control, or required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities conducted during out-of-control periods. You must report any monitoring system malfunctions or out of control periods in your annual deviation reports. You must report any monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities per the requirements of §63.10031(b);

(C) Any data recorded during periods of startup or shutdown.

(ii) You must record and make available upon request results of HAP metals CEMS system performance audits, dates and duration of periods when the HAP metals CEMS is out of control to completion of the corrective actions necessary to return the HAP metals CEMS to operation consistent with your site-specific performance evaluation and quality control program plan.

(k) If you demonstrate compliance with the HCl and HF emission limits for a liquid oil-fired EGU by conducting quarterly testing, you must also develop a site-specific monitoring plan as provided for in §63.10000(c)(2)(iii) and Table 7 to this subpart.

(l) Should you choose to rely on paragraph (2) of the definition of “startup” in §63.10042 for your EGU, you must install, verify, operate, maintain, and quality assure each monitoring system necessary for demonstrating compliance with the PM or non-mercury metals work practice standards required to comply with §63.10020(e).

(1) You shall develop a site-specific monitoring plan for PM or non-mercury metals work practice monitoring during startup periods.

(2) You shall submit the site-specific monitoring plan upon request by the Administrator.

(3) The provisions of the monitoring plan must address the following items:

(i) Monitoring system installation;

(ii) Performance and equipment specifications;

(iii) Schedule for initial and periodic performance evaluations;

(iv) Performance evaluation procedures and acceptance criteria;

(v) On-going operation and maintenance procedures; and

(vi) On-going recordkeeping and reporting procedures.

(4) You may rely on monitoring system specifications or instructions or manufacturer's specifications to address paragraphs (l)(3)(i) through (vi) of this section.

(5) You must operate and maintain the monitoring system according to the site-specific monitoring plan.

[77 FR 9464, Feb. 16, 2012, as amended at 77 FR 23404, Apr. 19, 2012; 78 FR 24086, Apr. 24, 2013; 79 FR 68789, Nov. 19, 2014; 81 FR 20185, Apr. 6, 2016]

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