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e-CFR data is current as of September 23, 2020

Title 33Chapter ISubchapter OPart 154Subpart P → §154.2107


Title 33: Navigation and Navigable Waters
PART 154—FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK
Subpart P—Marine Vapor Control Systems


§154.2107   Inerting, enriching, and diluting systems.

This section applies only to facilities that control vapors of flammable, combustible, or non-high flash point liquid cargoes.

(a) Before receiving cargo vapor, a vapor control system (VCS) that uses a gas for inerting, enriching, or diluting must be capable of inerting, enriching, or diluting the vapor collection system, at a minimum of two system volume exchanges of inerting, enriching, or diluting gas, downstream of the injection point.

(b) A VCS that uses an inerting, enriching, or diluting system must be equipped, except as permitted by 33 CFR 154.2105(a), with a gas injection and mixing arrangement located as close as practicable to the facility vapor connection and no closer than 10 meters (32.8 feet) upstream from the vapor processing unit or the vapor-moving device that is not protected by a detonation arrester required by 33 CFR 154.2108(b). The total pipe length between the arrangement and the facility vapor connection must not exceed 22 meters (72.2 feet). The arrangement must be such that it provides complete mixing of the gases within 20 pipe diameters of the injection point. The vapor piping between the arrangement and the facility vapor connection must be protected from any potential internal or external ignition source.

(c) A VCS that uses an inerting or enriching system may not be operated at a vacuum after the injection point unless—

(1) There are no vacuum relief valves or other devices that could allow air into the vapor collection system downstream of the injection point, and pipe connections are flanged, threaded, or welded so no air can leak into the VCS; or

(2) An additional analyzer is used to monitor the vapor concentration downstream of such device and a mechanism is provided to inject additional inerting or enriching gas.

(d) A VCS that uses analyzers to control the amount of inerting, enriching, or diluting gas injected into the vapor collection line must be equipped with at least two analyzers. The analyzers must be connected so that—

(1) When two oxygen analyzers are used, the higher oxygen concentration reading controls the inerting or enriching system and activates the alarm and automatic shutdown system required by paragraph (h), (j), or (k)(2) of this section;

(2) When voting systems using more than two oxygen analyzers are used, the majority pair controls the inerting or enriching system and activates the alarm and automatic shutdown system required by paragraph (h), (j), or (k)(2) of this section;

(3) When two hydrocarbon analyzers are used, the lower hydrocarbon concentration reading controls the enriching system and activates the alarm and automatic shutdown system required by paragraph (i) of this section;

(4) When voting systems using more than two hydrocarbon analyzers are used, the majority pair controls the enriching system and activates the alarm and automatic shutdown system required by paragraph (i) of this section;

(5) When two hydrocarbon analyzers are used, the higher hydrocarbon concentration reading controls the diluting system and activates the alarm and automatic shutdown system required by paragraph (l) of this section; and

(6) When voting systems using more than two hydrocarbon analyzers are used, the majority pair controls the diluting system and activates the alarm and automatic shutdown system required by paragraph (l) of this section.

(e) A VCS that uses volumetric measurements to control the amount of inerting, enriching, or diluting gas injected into the vapor collection line must be equipped, except as permitted by paragraph (m) of this section, with at least one analyzer to activate the alarms and automatic shutdown systems required by this section.

(f) Each oxygen or hydrocarbon analyzer required by this section must—

(1) Be installed in accordance with API 550 (incorporated by reference, see 33 CFR 154.106);

(2) Have a system response time of not more than one minute from sample input to 95 percent of final stable value as tested per 33 CFR 154.2180 and 33 CFR 154.2181; and

(3) Continuously sample the vapor concentration not more than 30 pipe diameters from the gas injection point.

(g) A VCS must not use oxygen analyzers that operate at elevated temperatures (i.e., zirconia oxide or thermomagnetic).

(h) An inerting system must—

(1) Supply sufficient inert gas to the vapor stream to ensure that the oxygen concentration downstream of the injection point is maintained at or below 60 percent by volume of the minimum oxygen concentration for combustion (MOCC) for the specific combination of cargo vapors and inert gas being processed, which may be determined by using Coast Guard guidance available at http://homeport.uscg.mil;

(2) Activate an alarm that satisfies the requirements of 33 CFR 154.2100(e) when the oxygen concentration in the vapor collection line exceeds 60 percent by volume of the MOCC for the specific combination of cargo vapors and inert gas being processed, which may be determined by using Coast Guard guidance available at http://homeport.uscg.mil;

(3) Close the remotely operated cargo vapor shutoff valve required by 33 CFR 154.2101(a) when the oxygen concentration in the vapor collection line exceeds 70 percent by volume of the MOCC for the specific combination of cargo vapors and inert gas being processed, which may be determined by using Coast Guard VCS guidance available at http://homeport.uscg.mil;

(4) Have a detonation arrester and a mechanism to prevent the backflow of flammable vapors installed between the combustion device and the inert gas injection point, if a combustion device is used to produce the inert gas; and

(5) Have an alarm value in paragraph (h)(2) of this section that is at least one percentage point less than the shutdown value in paragraph (h)(3) of this section. If the analyzers used to measure oxygen concentrations cannot accurately differentiate between the alarm value and the shutoff value, the alarm value must be lowered until the analyzers become operable.

(i) An enriching system must—

(1) Supply sufficient compatible hydrocarbon vapor to the vapor stream to make sure that the total flammable concentration downstream of the injection point is maintained either at or above 170 percent by volume of the upper flammable limit or above the upper flammable limit plus 10 percentage points, whichever is lower;

(2) Activate an alarm that satisfies the requirements of 33 CFR 154.2100(e) when the total flammable concentration in the vapor collection line either falls below 170 percent by volume of the upper flammable limit or below the upper flammable limit plus 10 percentage points, whichever is lower;

(3) Close the remotely operated cargo vapor shutoff valve required by 33 CFR 154.2101(a) when the total flammable concentration in the vapor collection line either falls below 150 percent by volume of the upper flammable limit or below the upper flammable limit plus 7.5 percentage points, whichever is lower; and

(4) Have an upper flammable limit listed in paragraphs (i)(1), (i)(2), and (i)(3) of this section which is either the cargo's upper flammable limit or the enriching gas's upper flammable limit, whichever is higher. Alternatively, the mixture's upper flammable limit, which may be determined by using methods found in Coast Guard guidance available at http://homeport.uscg.mil, may be used.

(j) Oxygen analyzers may be used instead of hydrocarbon analyzers in a VCS using an enriching system that receives cargo vapor only from a vessel with non-inerted cargo tanks, providing that the analyzers—

(1) Activate an alarm satisfying the requirements of 33 CFR 154.2100(e) when the oxygen concentration in the vapor collection line exceeds a level corresponding to either a total flammable concentration of 170 percent by volume of the upper flammable limit or the upper flammable limit plus 10 percentage points, whichever yields a higher oxygen concentration;

(2) Close the remotely operated cargo vapor shutoff valve required by 33 CFR 154.2101(a) when the oxygen concentration in the vapor collection line exceeds a level corresponding to either a total flammable concentration of 150 percent by volume of the upper flammable limit or the upper flammable limit plus 7.5 percentage points, whichever yields a higher oxygen concentration;

(3) Have an alarm value in paragraph (j)(1) of this section that is at least one percentage point less than the shutdown value in paragraph (j)(2) of this section. If the oxygen analyzers used to measure oxygen concentrations cannot accurately differentiate between the alarm value and the shutdown value, the alarm value must be lowered until the analyzers become operable; and

(4) Have an upper flammable limit listed in paragraphs (j)(1) and (j)(2) of this section which is either the cargo's upper flammable limit or the enriching gas's upper flammable limit, whichever is higher. Alternatively, the mixture's upper flammable limit, which may be determined by using methods found in Coast Guard VCS guidance available at http://homeport.uscg.mil, may be used.

(k) An enriching system may be used in a VCS that receives inerted cargo vapor from a vessel if—

(1) Hydrocarbon analyzers are used to comply with paragraphs (i)(2) and (i)(3) of this section; or

(2) Oxygen analyzers are used, in which case the analyzers must—

(i) Activate an alarm meeting 33 CFR 154.2100(e) when the oxygen concentration in the vapor collection line exceeds 60 percent by volume of the MOCC for the specific combination of cargo vapors and gases; and

(ii) Close the remotely operated cargo vapor shutoff valve required by 33 CFR 154.2101(a) when the oxygen concentration exceeds 70 percent by volume of the MOCC for the specific combination of cargo vapors and gases; and

(3) The MOCC in paragraphs (k)(2)(i) and (k)(2)(ii) of this section is either the cargo's MOCC or the enriching gas's MOCC, whichever is lower. Alternatively, the mixture's MOCC, which may be determined using Coast Guard VCS guidance available at http://homeport.uscg.mil, may be used.

(l) An air dilution system must—

(1) Supply a sufficient amount of additional air to the vapor stream to keep the total flammable concentration downstream of the injection point below 30 percent by volume of the lower flammable limit;

(2) Activate an alarm that satisfies the requirements of 33 CFR 154.2100(e) when the total flammable concentration in the vapor collection line exceeds 30 percent by volume of the lower flammable limit; and

(3) Close the remotely operated cargo vapor shutoff valve required by 33 CFR 154.2101(a) when the total flammable concentration in the vapor collection line exceeds 50 percent by volume of the lower flammable limit.

(m) An enriching system may use a base loading method to control the amount of enriching gas in a vapor collection system if—

(1) The flow rate of enriching gas is determined by assuming the vapor entering the facility vapor connection consists of 100 percent air;

(2) Two independent devices are used to verify the correct enriching gas volumetric flow rate. One of the two devices must be a flow meter;

(3) One of the devices activates an alarm that satisfies the requirements of 33 CFR 154.2100(e) when the amount of enriching gas added results in a total flammable concentration in the vapor collection line either below 170 percent by volume of the upper flammable limit or below the upper flammable limit plus 10 percentage points, whichever is lower;

(4) The second device activates closure of the remotely operated cargo vapor shutoff valve required by 33 CFR 154.2101(a) when the amount of enriching gas added results in a total flammable concentration in the vapor collection line either below 150 percent by volume of the upper flammable limit or below the upper flammable limit plus 7.5 percentage points, whichever is lower; and

(5) The upper flammable limit in paragraphs (m)(3) and (4) of this section is either the cargo's upper flammable limit or the enriching gas's upper flammable limit, whichever is higher. Alternatively, the mixture's upper flammable limit, which may be determined using Coast Guard guidance available at http://homeport.uscg.mil, may be used.

(n) For controlling vapors of different cargoes at multiple berths while using enriching gas, the highest upper flammable limit or the lowest MOCC of the cargo or enriching gas, whichever is applicable, is used to determine the analyzer alarm and shutdown setpoints. Alternatively, the mixture's upper flammable limit or MOCC, which may be determined by using Coast Guard guidance available at http://homeport.uscg.mil, may be used.

(o) For controlling vapors of inert and non-inert cargoes at multiple berths while using enriching gas—

(1) The lowest MOCC of the cargo or enriching gas is used to determine the analyzer alarm and shutdown setpoints at all berths. Alternatively, the mixture's MOCC, which may be determined using Coast Guard guidance available at http://homeport.uscg.mil, may be used; or

(2) A base loading method meeting the requirements of paragraph (m) of this section is used for all berths.

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