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e-CFR data is current as of September 28, 2020

Title 26Chapter ISubchapter APart 1 → §1.270-1


Title 26: Internal Revenue
PART 1—INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED)


§1.270-1   Limitation on deductions allowable to individuals in certain cases.

(a) Recomputation of taxable income. (1) Under certain circumstances, section 270 limits the deductions (other than certain deductions described in subsection (b) thereof) attributable to a trade or business carried on by an individual which are otherwise allowable to such individual under the provisions of chapter 1 of the Code or the corresponding provisions of prior revenue laws. If, in each of five consecutive taxable years (including at least one taxable year beginning after December 31, 1953, and ending after August 16, 1954), the deductions attributable to a trade or business carried on by an individual (other than the specially treated deductions described in paragraph (b) of this section) exceed the gross income derived from such trade or business by more than $50,000, the taxable income computed under section 63 (or the net income computed under the corresponding provisions of prior revenue laws) of such individual shall be recomputed for each of such taxable years.

(2) In recomputing the taxable income (or the net income, in the case of taxable years which are otherwise subject to the Internal Revenue Code of 1939) for each of the five taxable years, the deductions (other than the specially treated deductions described in paragraph (b) of this section with the exception of the net operating loss deduction) attributable to the trade or business carried on by the individual shall be allowed only to the extent of (i) the gross income derived from such trade or business, plus (ii) $50,000. The specially treated deductions described in paragraph (b) of this section (other than the net operating loss deduction) shall each be allowed in full. The net operating loss deduction, to the extent attributable to such trade or business, shall be disallowed in its entirety. Thus, a carryover or a carryback of a net operating loss so attributable, either from a year within the period of five consecutive taxable years or from a taxable year outside of such period, shall be ignored in making the recomputation of taxable income or net income, as the case may be.

(3) The limitations on deductions provided by section 270 are also applicable in determining under section 172, or the corresponding provisions of prior revenue laws, the amount of any net operating loss carryover or carryback from any year which falls within the provisions of section 270 to any year which does not fall within such provisions. Also, in determining under section 172, or the corresponding provisions of prior revenue laws, the amount of any net operating loss carryover from a year which falls within the provisions of section 270 to a year which does not fall within such provisions, the amount of net operating loss is to be reduced by the taxable income or net income, as the case may be (computed as provided in §1.172-5, or 26 CFR (1939) 39.122-4(c) (Regulations 118), as the case may be and, in the case of any taxable year which falls within the provisions of section 270, determined after the application of section 270), of any taxable year preceding or succeeding the taxable year of the net operating loss to which such loss must first be carried back or carried over under the provisions of section 172(b), or the corresponding provisions of prior revenue laws, even though the net operating loss deduction is not an allowable deduction for such preceding or succeeding taxable year.

(4) If an individual carries on several trades or businesses, the deductions attributable to such trades or businesses and the gross income derived therefrom shall not be aggregated in determining whether the deductions (other than the specially treated deductions) exceed the gross income derived from such trades or businesses by more than $50,000 in any taxable year. For the purposes of section 270, each trade or business shall be considered separately. However, where a particular business of an individual is conducted in one or more forms such as a partnership, joint venture, or individual proprietorship, the individual's share of the profits and losses from each business unit must be aggregated to determine the applicability of section 270. See paragraphs (a)(8)(ii) and (b) of §1.702-1, relating to applicability of section 270 to a partner. Where it is established that for tax purposes a husband and wife are partners in the same trade or business or that each is participating independently of the other in the same trade or business with his and her own money, the husband's gross income and deductions from that trade or business shall be considered separately from the wife's gross income and deductions from that trade or business even though they file a joint return. Where a taxpayer is engaged in a trade or business in a community property State under circumstances such that the income therefrom is considered to be community income, the taxpayer and his spouse are treated for purposes of section 270 as two individuals engaged separately in the same trade or business and the gross income and deductions attributable to the trade or business are allocated one-half to the taxpayer and one-half to the spouse. Where several business activities emanate from a single commodity, such as oil or gas or a tract of land, it does not necessarily follow that such activities are one business for the purposes of section 270. However, in order to be treated separately, it must be established that such business activities are actually conducted separately and are not closely interrelated with each other. For the purposes of section 270, the trade or business carried on by an individual must be the same in each of the five consecutive years in which the deductions (other than the specially treated deductions) exceed the gross income derived from such trade or business by more than $50,000.

(5) For the purposes of section 270, a taxable year may be part of two or more periods of five consecutive taxable years. Thus, if the deductions (other than the specially treated deductions) attributable to a trade or business carried on by an individual exceed the gross income therefrom by more than $50,000 for each of six consecutive taxable years, the fifth year of such six consecutive taxable years shall be considered to be a part both of a five-year period beginning with the first and ending with the fifth taxable year and of a five-year period beginning with the second and ending with the sixth taxable year.

(6) For the purposes of section 270, a short taxable year required to effect a change in accounting period constitutes a taxable year. In determining the applicability of section 270 in the case of a short taxable year, items of income and deduction are not annualized.

(b) Specially treated deductions. (1) For the purposes of section 270 and paragraph (a) of this section, the specially treated deductions are:

(i) Taxes,

(ii) Interest,

(iii) Casualty and abandonment losses connected with a trade or business deductible under section 165(c)(1) or the corresponding provisions of prior revenue laws,

(iv) Losses and expenses of the trade or business of farming which are directly attributable to drought,

(v) The net operating loss deduction allowed by section 172, or the corresponding provisions of prior revenue laws, and

(vi) Expenditures as to which a taxpayer is given the option, under law or regulations, either (a) to deduct as expenses when incurred, or (b) to defer or capitalize.

(2) For the purpose of subparagraph (1)(iv) of this paragraph, an individual is engaged in the “trade or business of farming” if he cultivates, operates, or manages a farm for gain or profit, either as owner or tenant. An individual who receives a rental (either in cash or in kind) which is based upon farm production is engaged in the trade or business of farming. However, an individual who receives a fixed rental (without reference to production) is engaged in the trade or business of farming only if he participates to a material extent in the operation or management of the farm. An individual engaged in forestry or the growing of timber is not thereby engaged in the trade or business of farming. An individual cultivating or operating a farm for recreation or pleasure rather than a profit is not engaged in the trade or business of farming. The term farm is used in its ordinarily accepted sense and includes stock, dairy, poultry, fruit, crop, and truck farms, and also plantations, ranches, ranges, and orchards. An individual is engaged in the trade or business of farming if he is a member of a partnership engaged in the trade or business of farming.

(3) In order for losses and expenses of the trade or business of farming to qualify as specially treated deductions under subparagraph (1)(iv) of this paragraph such losses and expenses must be directly attributable to drought conditions and not to other causes such as faulty management or unfavorable market conditions. In general, the following are the types of losses and expenses which, if otherwise deductible, may qualify as specially treated deductions under subparagraph (1)(iv) of this paragraph:

(i) Losses for damages to or destruction of property as a result of drought conditions, if such property is used in the trade or business of farming or is purchased for resale in the trade or business of farming;

(ii) Expenses directly related to raising crops or livestock which are destroyed or damaged by drought. Included in this category are, for example, payments for labor, fertilizer, and feed used in raising such crops or livestock. If such crops or livestock to which the expenditures relate are only partially destroyed or damaged by drought then only a proportionate part of the expenditures is regarded as specially treated deductions; and

(iii) Expenses which would not have been incurred in the absence of drought conditions, such as expenses for procuring pasture or additional supplies of water or feed.

(4) The expenditures referred to in subparagraph (1)(vi) of this paragraph include, but are not limited to, intangible drilling and development costs in the case of oil and gas wells as provided in section 263(c) and the regulations thereunder, and expenditures for the development of a mine or other natural deposit (other than an oil or gas well) as provided in section 616 and the regulations thereunder.

(5) The provisions of section 270(b) do not operate to make an expenditure a deductible item if it is not otherwise deductible under the law applicable to the particular year in which it was incurred. Thus, for example, if it is necessary, pursuant to the provisions of section 270, to recompute the taxable or net income of an individual for the taxable years 1950 through 1954, the individual in making the recomputation may not deduct expenditures paid or incurred in the years 1950 through 1953 which must be capitalized under the law applicable to those years, even though the expenditures are deductible under the Code.

(c) Applicability to taxable years otherwise subject to the Internal Revenue Code of 1939. The net income of a taxable year otherwise subject to the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 shall be recomputed pursuant to section 270 if (i) such taxable year is included in a period of five consecutive taxable years which includes at least one taxable year beginning after December 31, 1953, and ending after August 16, 1954, and (ii) the deductions (other than the specially treated deductions specified in section 270(b)) for each taxable year in such five-year period exceed the $50,000 limitation specified in section 270. As described in paragraph (a)(5) of this section, a taxable year may be part of two or more periods of five consecutive taxable years, one meeting the requirements for recomputation pursuant to section 130 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 and the other meeting the requirements for recomputation pursuant to section 270 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, then the recomputation for such taxable year shall be made pursuant to section 270. For example, if a calendar year taxpayer sustains a loss from a trade or business for each of the years 1949 through 1954, the years 1950, 1951, 1952, and 1953 may be a part of two such periods of five consecutive taxable years. If, however, a taxable year is part of a period of five consecutive taxable years which meets the requirements for recomputation pursuant to section 130 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, but is not part of a period which meets the requirements for recomputation, pursuant to section 270, then a recomputation of net income for such taxable year must be made pursuant to section 130.

(d) Redetermination of tax. The tax imposed by Chapter 1 of the Code, or by the corresponding provisions of prior revenue laws, for each of the five consecutive taxable years specified in paragraph (a) of this section shall be redetermined upon the basis of the taxable income or net income of the individual, as the case may be, recomputed in the manner described in paragraph (a) of this section. If the assessment of a deficiency is prevented (except for the provisions of Part II (section 1311 and following), Subchapter Q, Chapter 1 of the Code, relating to the effect of limitations and other provisions in income tax cases) by the operation of any provision of law (e.g., sections 6501 and 6502, or the corresponding provisions of prior revenue laws, relating to the period of limitations upon assessment and collection) except section 7122, or the corresponding provisions of prior revenue laws, relating to compromises, or by any rule of law (e.g., res judicata), then the excess of the tax for such year as recomputed over the tax previously determined for such year shall be considered a deficiency for the purposes of section 270. The term tax previously determined shall have the same meaning as that assigned to such term by section 1314(a). See §1.1314 (a)-1.

(e) Assessment of tax. Any amount determined as a deficiency in the manner described in paragraph (d) of this section in respect of any taxable year of the five consecutive taxable years specified in paragraph (a) of this section may be assessed and collected as if on the date of the expiration of the period of limitation for the assessment of a deficiency for the fifth taxable year of such five consecutive taxable years, one year remained before the expiration of the period of limitation upon assessment for the taxable year in respect of which the deficiency is determined. If the taxable year is one in respect of which an assessment could be made without regard to section 270, the amount of the actual deficiency as defined in section 6211(a) (whether it is greater than, equal to, or less than the deficiency determined under section 270(c)) shall be assessed and collected. However, if the assessment of a deficiency for such taxable year would be prevented by any provision of law (e.g., the period of limitation upon the assessment of tax) except section 7122, or the corresponding provision of prior revenue laws, relating to compromises, or by the operation of any rule of law (e.g., res judicata), then the excess of the tax recomputed as described in paragraph (d) of this section over the tax previously determined may be assessed and collected even though in fact there is no actual deficiency, as defined in section 6211(a), in respect of the given taxable year.

(f) Effective date; cross reference. The provisions of section 270 and this section apply to taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970. Thus, for instance, if the taxpayer had a profit of $2,000 attributable to a trade or business in 1965, section 270 and this section would not apply to the taxable years 1966 through 1970, even though he had losses of more than $50,000 in each of the 5 years ending with 1970. For provisions relating to activities not engaged in for profit applicable to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969, see section 183 and the regulations thereunder.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11402, Nov. 26, 1960; 25 FR 14021, Dec. 31, 1960, as amended by T.D. 7198, 37 FR 13685, July 13, 1972]

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