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e-CFR data is current as of July 31, 2020

Title 21Chapter ISubchapter EPart 500Subpart B → §500.45

Title 21: Food and Drugs
Subpart B—Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions

§500.45   Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

(a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) represent a class of toxic industrial chemicals manufactured and sold under a variety of trade names, including: Aroclor (United States); Phenoclor (France); Colphen (Germany); and Kanaclor (Japan). PCB's are highly stable, heat resistant, and nonflammable chemicals. Industrial uses of PCB's include, or did include in the past, their use as electrical transformer and capacitor fluids, heat transfer fluids, hydraulic fluids, plasticizers, and in formulations of lubricants, coatings, and inks. Their unique physical and chemical properties and widespread, uncontrolled industrial applications have caused PCB's to be a persistent and ubiquitous contaminant in the environment, causing the contamination of certain foods. In addition, incidents have occurred in which PCB's have directly contaminated animal feeds as a result of industrial accidents (leakage or spillage of PCB fluids from plant equipment). These accidents in turn cause the contamination of food intended for human consumption (meat, milk, and eggs). Investigations by the Food and Drug Administration have revealed that heat exchange fluids for certain pasteurization equipment used in processing animal feed contain PCB's. Although heat exchange fluids in such equipment are considered to be in closed systems, leakage has occurred that resulted in direct contamination of animal feed with PCB's and subsequently resulted in the transfer of PCB's to human food produced by animals consuming the contaminated feed. The use of PCB-containing coatings on the inner walls of silos has resulted in the contamination of silage which has in turn caused PCB residues in the milk of dairy cows consuming the contaminated silage. Since PCB's are toxic chemicals, the PCB contamination of food as a result of these and other incidents represent a hazard to public health. It is therefore necessary to place certain restrictions on the industrial uses of PCB's in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

(b) The following special provisions are necessary to preclude accidental PCB contamination of animal feed:

(1) Coatings or paints for use on the contact surfaces of feed storage areas may not contain PCB's or any other harmful or deleterious substances likely to contaminate feed.

(2) New equipment or machinery for handling or processing feed in or around an establishment producing animal feed shall not contain PCB's.

(3) On or before Sept. 4, 1973, the management of establishments producing animal feed shall:

(i) Have the heat exchange fluid used in existing equipment or machinery for handling and processing feed sampled and tested to determine whether it contains PCB's, or verify the absence of PCB's in such formulations by other appropriate means. On or before Sept. 4, 1973, any such fluid formulated with PCB's must to the fullest extent possible commensurate with current good manufacturing practices, be replaced with a heat exchange fluid that does not contain PCB's.

(ii) Eliminate to the fullest extent possible commensurate with current good manufacturing practices from the animal feed producing establishment any PCB-containing lubricants for equipment or machinery used for handling or processing animal feed.

(iii) Eliminate to the fullest extent possible commensurate with current good manufacturing practices from the animal feed producing establishment any other PCB-containing materials, whenever there is a reasonable expectation that such materials could cause animal feed to become contaminated with PCB's either as a result of normal use or as a result of accident, breakage, or other mishap.

(iv) The toxicity and other characteristics of fluids selected as PCB replacements must be adequately determined so that the least potentially hazardous replacement should be used. In making this determination with respect to a given fluid, consideration should be given to (a) its toxicity; (b) the maximum quantity that could be spilled onto a given quantity of food before it would be noticed, taking into account its color and odor; (c) possible signaling devices in the equipment to indicate a loss of fluid, etc.; (d) and its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to whether a replacement fluid is sufficiently non-hazardous is to be made on an individual installation and operation basis.

(c) For the purpose of this section, the provisions do not apply to electrical transformers and condensers containing PCB's in sealed containers.

(d) For the purpose of this section, the term animal feed includes all articles used for food or drink for animals other than man.

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