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e-CFR data is current as of September 24, 2020

Title 14Chapter ISubchapter CPart 25Subpart E → §25.961


Title 14: Aeronautics and Space
PART 25—AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES
Subpart E—Powerplant


§25.961   Fuel system hot weather operation.

(a) The fuel system must perform satisfactorily in hot weather operation. This must be shown by showing that the fuel system from the tank outlets to each engine is pressurized, under all intended operations, so as to prevent vapor formation, or must be shown by climbing from the altitude of the airport elected by the applicant to the maximum altitude established as an operating limitation under §25.1527. If a climb test is elected, there may be no evidence of vapor lock or other malfunctioning during the climb test conducted under the following conditions:

(1) For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the engines must operate at maximum continuous power, except that takeoff power must be used for the altitudes from 1,000 feet below the critical altitude through the critical altitude. The time interval during which takeoff power is used may not be less than the takeoff time limitation.

(2) For turbine engine powered airplanes, the engines must operate at takeoff power for the time interval selected for showing the takeoff flight path, and at maximum continuous power for the rest of the climb.

(3) The weight of the airplane must be the weight with full fuel tanks, minimum crew, and the ballast necessary to maintain the center of gravity within allowable limits.

(4) The climb airspeed may not exceed—

(i) For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the maximum airspeed established for climbing from takeoff to the maximum operating altitude with the airplane in the following configuration:

(A) Landing gear retracted.

(B) Wing flaps in the most favorable position.

(C) Cowl flaps (or other means of controlling the engine cooling supply) in the position that provides adequate cooling in the hot-day condition.

(D) Engine operating within the maximum continuous power limitations.

(E) Maximum takeoff weight; and

(ii) For turbine engine powered airplanes, the maximum airspeed established for climbing from takeoff to the maximum operating altitude.

(5) The fuel temperature must be at least 110 °F.

(b) The test prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section may be performed in flight or on the ground under closely simulated flight conditions. If a flight test is performed in weather cold enough to interfere with the proper conduct of the test, the fuel tank surfaces, fuel lines, and other fuel system parts subject to cold air must be insulated to simulate, insofar as practicable, flight in hot weather.

[Amdt. 25-11, 32 FR 6912, May 5, 1967, as amended by Amdt. 25-57, 49 FR 6848, Feb. 23, 1984]

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