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Title 50Chapter ISubchapter B → Part 10

Title 50: Wildlife and Fisheries



Subpart A—Introduction

§10.1   Purpose of regulations.
§10.2   Scope of regulations.
§10.3   Other applicable laws.
§10.4   When regulations apply.

Subpart B—Definitions

§10.11   Scope of definitions.
§10.12   Definitions.
§10.13   List of Migratory Birds.
§10.14   xxx

Subpart C—Addresses

§10.21   Director.
§10.22   Law enforcement offices.

Authority: 16 U.S.C. 668a-d, 703-712, 742a-j-l, 1361-1384, 1401-1407, 1531-1543, 3371-3378; 18 U.S.C. 42; 19 U.S.C. 1202.

Source: 38 FR 22015, Aug. 15, 1973, unless otherwise noted.

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Subpart A—Introduction

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§10.1   Purpose of regulations.

The regulations of this Subchapter B are promulgated to implement the following statutes enforced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service which regulate the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of wildlife:

Lacey Act, 18 U.S.C. 42.

Lacey Act Amendments of 1981, 16 U.S.C. 3371-3378.

Migratory Bird Treaty Act, 16 U.S.C. 703-712.

Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. 668a-668d.

Endangered Species Act of 1973, 16 U.S.C. 1531-1543.

Tariff Classification Act of 1962, 19 U.S.C. 1202, [Schedule 1, Part 15D, Headnote 2(d), T.S.U.S.].

Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956, 16 U.S.C. 742a-742j-l.

Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, 16 U.S.C. 1361-1384, 1401-1407.

[38 FR 22015, Aug. 15, 1973, as amended at 53 FR 6649, Mar. 2, 1988]

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§10.2   Scope of regulations.

The various parts of this subchapter B are interrelated, and particular note should be taken that the parts must be construed with reference to each other.

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§10.3   Other applicable laws.

No statute or regulation of any State shall be construed to relieve a person from the restrictions, conditions, and requirements contained in this subchapter B. In addition, nothing in this subchapter B, nor any permit issued under this subchapter B, shall be construed to relieve a person from any other requirements imposed by a statute or regulation of any State or of the United States, including any applicable health, quarantine, agricultural, or customs laws or regulations, or other Service enforced statutes or regulations.

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§10.4   When regulations apply.

The regulations of this subchapter B shall apply to all matters arising after the effective date of such regulations, with the following exceptions:

(a) Civil penalty proceedings. Except as otherwise provided in §11.25, the civil penalty assessment procedures contained in this subchapter B shall apply only to any proceeding instituted by notice of violation dated subsequent to the effective date of these regulations, regardless of when the act or omission which is the basis of a civil penalty proceeding occurred.

(b) Permits. The regulations in this subchapter B shall apply to any permit application received after the effective date of the appropriate regulations in this subchapter B and, insofar as appropriate, to any permit which is renewed after such effective date.

[38 FR 22015, Aug. 15, 1973, as amended at 39 FR 1159, Jan. 4, 1974]

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Subpart B—Definitions

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§10.11   Scope of definitions.

In addition and subject to definitions contained in applicable statutes and subsequent parts or sections of this subchapter B, words or their variants shall have the meanings ascribed in this subpart. Throughout this subchapter B words in the singular form shall include the plural, words in the plural form shall include the singular, and words in the masculine form shall include the feminine.

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§10.12   Definitions.

Aircraft means any contrivance used for flight in the air.

Amphibians means a member of the class, Amphibia, including, but not limited to, frogs, toads, and salamanders; including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.

Animal means an organism of the animal kingdom, as distinguished from the plant kingdom; including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.

Birds means a member of the class, Aves; including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.

Country of exportation means the last country from which the animal was exported before importation into the United States.

Country of origin means the country where the animal was taken from the wild, or the country of natal origin of the animal.

Crustacean means a member of the class, Crustacea, including but not limited to, crayfish, lobsters, shrimps, crabs, barnacles, and some terrestrial forms; including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.

Director means the Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, or his authorized representative.

Endangered wildlife means any wildlife listed in §17.11 or §17.12 of this subchapter.

Fish means a member of any of the following classes:

(1) Cyclostomata, including, but not limited to, hagfishes and lampreys;

(2) Elasmobranchii, including but not limited to, sharks, skates, and rays; and

(3) Pisces, including but not limited to trout, perch, bass, minnows, and catfish; including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.

Fish or wildlife means any wild animal, whether alive or dead, including without limitation any wild mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish, mollusk, crustacean, arthropod, coelenterate, or other invertebrate, whether or not bred, hatched, or born in captivity, and including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof.

Foreign commerce includes, among other things, any transaction (1) between persons within one foreign country, or (2) between persons in two or more foreign countries, or (3) between a person within the United States and a person in one or more foreign countries, or (4) between persons within the United States, where the fish or wildlife in question are moving in any country or countries outside the United States.

Fossil means the remains of an animal of past geological ages which has been preserved in the earth's crust through mineralization of the object.

Import means to land on, bring into, or introduce into, or attempt to land on, bring into, or introduce into any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, whether or not such landing, bringing, or introduction constitutes an importation within the meaning of the tariff laws of the United States.

Injurious Wildlife means any wildlife for which a permit is required under subpart B of part 16 of this subchapter before being imported into or shipped between the continental United States, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any possession of the United States.

Mammal means a member of the class, Mammalia; including any part, product, egg, or offspring, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.

Migratory bird means any bird, whatever its origin and whether or not raised in captivity, which belongs to a species listed in §10.13, or which is a mutation or a hybrid of any such species, including any part, nest, or egg of any such bird, or any product, whether or not manufactured, which consists, or is composed in whole or part, of any such bird or any part, nest, or egg thereof.

Migratory game birds: See §20.11 of this subchapter.

Mollusk means a member of the phylum, Mollusca, including but not limited to, snails, mussels, clams, oysters, scallops, abalone, squid, and octopuses; including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.

Permit means any document designated as a “permit,” “license,” “certificate,” or any other document issued by the Service to authorize, limit, or describe activity and signed by an authorized official of the Service.

Person means any individual, firm, corporation, association, partnership, club, or private body, any one or all, as the context requires.

Plant means any member of the plant kingdom, including seeds, roots and other parts thereof.

Possession means the detention and control, or the manual or ideal custody of anything which may be the subject of property, for one's use and enjoyment, either as owner or as the proprietor of a qualified right in it, and either held personally or by another who exercises it in one's place and name. Possession includes the act or state of possessing and that condition of facts under which one can exercise his power over a corporeal thing at his pleasure to the exclusion of all other persons. Possession includes constructive possession which means not actual but assumed to exist, where one claims to hold by virtue of some title, without having actual custody.

Public as used in referring to museums, zoological parks, and scientific or educational institutions, refers to such as are open to the general public and are either established, maintained, and operated as a governmental service or are privately endowed and organized but not operated for profit.

Reptile means a member of the class, Reptilia, including but not limited to, turtles, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, and alligators; including any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof, whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.

Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior or his authorized representative.

Service means the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior.

Shellfish means an aquatic invertebrate animal having a shell, including, but not limited to, (a) an oyster, clam, or other mollusk; and (b) a lobster or other crustacean; or any part, product, egg, or offspring thereof, or the dead body or parts thereof (excluding fossils), whether or not included in a manufactured product or in a processed food product.

State means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, and Guam.

Take means to pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or attempt to pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect. (With reference to marine mammals, see Part 18 of this subchapter.)

Transportation means to ship, convey, carry or transport by any means whatever, and deliver or receive for such shipment, conveyance, carriage, or transportation.

United States means the several States of the United States of America, District of Columbia, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Navassa Island, Palmyra Atoll, and Wake Atoll, and any other territory or possession under the jurisdiction of the United States.

Whoever means the same as person.

Wildlife means the same as fish or wildlife.

[38 FR 22015, Aug. 15, 1973, as amended at 42 FR 32377, June 24, 1977; 42 FR 59358, Nov. 16, 1977; 45 FR 56673, Aug. 25, 1980; 50 FR 52889, Dec. 26, 1985; 72 FR 48445, Aug. 23, 2007]

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§10.13   List of Migratory Birds.

(a) Legal authority for this list. The legal authorities for this list are the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA; 16 U.S.C. 703-712), the Fish and Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978 (16 U.S.C. 742l), and the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742a-742j). The MBTA implements Conventions between the United States and four neighboring countries for the protection of migratory birds, as follows:

(1) Canada: Convention between the United States and Great Britain [on behalf of Canada] for the Protection of Migratory Birds, August 16, 1916, 39 Stat. 1702 (T.S. No. 628), as amended;

(2) Mexico: Convention between the United States and Mexico for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, 50 Stat. 1311 (T.S. No. 912), as amended;

(3) Japan: Convention between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Japan for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Birds in Danger of Extinction, and Their Environment, March 4, 1972, 25 U.S.T. 3329 (T.I.A.S. No. 7990); and

(4) Russia: Convention between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Concerning the Conservation of Migratory Birds and Their Environment, November 19, 1976, 20 U.S.T. 4647 (T.I.A.S. No. 9073).

(b) Purpose of this list. The purpose is to inform the public of the species protected by regulations that enforce the terms of the MBTA. These regulations, found in parts 10, 20, and 21 of this chapter, cover most aspects of the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds.

(c) What species are protected as migratory birds? Species protected as migratory birds are listed in two formats to suit the varying needs of the user: Alphabetically in paragraph (c)(1) of this section and taxonomically in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Taxonomy and nomenclature generally follow the 7th edition of the American Ornithologists' Union's (AOU, now recognized as American Ornithological Society (AOS)) Check-list of North American birds (1998, as amended through 2019). For species not treated by the AOS Check-list, we generally follow Clements Checklist of Birds of the World (Clements et al. 2017).

(1) Alphabetical listing. Species are listed alphabetically by common (English) group names, with the scientific name of each species following the common name.

ACCENTOR, Siberian, Prunella montanella

’AKEKE’E, Loxops caeruleirostris

’AKEPA, Hawaii, Loxops coccineus

Maui, Loxops ochraceus

O’ahu, Loxops wolstenholmei

’AKIALOA, Kauai, Akialoa stejnegeri

Maui Nui, Akialoa lanaiensis

O’ahu, Akialoa ellisiana

’AKIAPOLA’AU, Hemignathus wilsoni

’AKIKIKI, Oreomystis bairdi

’AKOHEKOHE, Palmeria dolei

’ALAUAHIO, Maui, Paroreomyza montana

O’ahu, Paroreomyza maculata

ALBATROSS, Black-browed, Thalassarche melanophris

Black-footed, Phoebastria nigripes

Chatham, Thalassarche eremita

Laysan, Phoebastria immutabilis

Light-mantled, Phoebetria palpebrata

Salvin's, Thalassarche salvini

Short-tailed, Phoebastria albatrus

Wandering, Diomedea exulans

White-capped, Thalassarche cauta

Yellow-nosed, Thalassarche chlororhynchos

’AMAKIHI, Hawaii, Chlorodrepanis virens

Kauai, Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri

O’ahu, Chlorodrepanis flava

ANHINGA, Anhinga anhinga

ANI, Groove-billed, Crotophaga sulcirostris

Smooth-billed, Crotophaga ani

’ANIANIAU, Magumma parva

’APAPANE, Himatione sanguinea

AUKLET, Cassin's, Ptychoramphus aleuticus

Crested, Aethia cristatella

Least, Aethia pusilla

Parakeet, Aethia psittacula

Rhinoceros, Cerorhinca monocerata

Whiskered, Aethia pygmaea

AVOCET, American, Recurvirostra americana

BANANAQUIT, Coereba flaveola

BEAN-GOOSE, Taiga, Anser fabalis

Tundra, Anser serrirostris

BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET, Northern, Camptostoma imberbe

BECARD, Gray-collared, Pachyramphus major

Rose-throated, Pachyramphus aglaiae

BITTERN, American, Botaurus lentiginosus

Black, Ixobrychus flavicollis

Least, Ixobrychus exilis

Schrenck's, Ixobrychus eurhythmus

Yellow, Ixobrychus sinensis

BLACKBIRD, Brewer's, Euphagus cyanocephalus

Red-winged, Agelaius phoeniceus

Rusty, Euphagus carolinus

Tawny-shouldered, Agelaius humeralis

Tricolored, Agelaius tricolor

Yellow-headed, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus

Yellow-shouldered, Agelaius xanthomus

BLUEBIRD, Eastern, Sialia sialis

Mountain, Sialia currucoides

Western, Sialia mexicana

BLUETAIL, Red-flanked, Tarsiger cyanurus

BLUETHROAT, Cyanecula svecica

BOBOLINK, Dolichonyx oryzivorus

BOOBOOK, Northern, Ninox japonica

BOOBY, Abbott's, Papasula abbotti

Blue-footed, Sula nebouxii

Brown, Sula leucogaster

Masked, Sula dactylatra

Nazca, Sula granti

Red-footed, Sula sula

BRAMBLING, Fringilla montifringilla

BRANT, Branta bernicla

BUFFLEHEAD, Bucephala albeola

BULLFINCH, Eurasian, Pyrrhula pyrrhula

Puerto Rican, Melopyrrha portoricensis

BUNTING, Blue, Cyanocompsa parellina

Gray, Emberiza variabilis

Indigo, Passerina cyanea

Lark, Calamospiza melanocorys

Lazuli, Passerina amoena

Little, Emberiza pusilla

McKay's, Plectrophenax hyperboreus

Painted, Passerina ciris

Pallas's, Emberiza pallasi

Pine, Emberiza leucocephalos

Reed, Emberiza schoeniclus

Rustic, Emberiza rustica

Snow, Plectrophenax nivalis

Varied, Passerina versicolor

Yellow-breasted, Emberiza aureola

Yellow-browed, Emberiza chrysophrys

Yellow-throated, Emberiza elegans

BUSHTIT, Psaltriparus minimus

BUZZARD, Gray-faced, Butastur indicus

CANVASBACK, Aythya valisineria

CARACARA, Crested, Caracara cheriway

CARDINAL, Northern, Cardinalis cardinalis

CARIB, Green-throated, Eulampis holosericeus

Purple-throated, Eulampis jugularis

CATBIRD, Black, Melanoptila glabrirostris

Gray, Dumetella carolinensis

CHAFFINCH, Common, Fringilla coelebs

CHAT, Yellow-breasted, Icteria virens

CHICKADEE, Black-capped, Poecile atricapillus

Boreal, Poecile hudsonicus

Carolina, Poecile carolinensis

Chestnut-backed, Poecile rufescens

Gray-headed, Poecile cinctus

Mexican, Poecile sclateri

Mountain, Poecile gambeli

CHIFFCHAFF, Common, Phylloscopus collybita

CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW, Antrostomus carolinensis

CONDOR, California, Gymnogyps californianus

COOT, American, Fulica americana

Eurasian, Fulica atra

Hawaiian, Fulica alai

CORMORANT, Brandt's, Phalacrocorax penicillatus

Double-crested, Phalacrocorax auritus

Great, Phalacrocorax carbo

Little Pied, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos

Neotropic, Phalacrocorax brasilianus

Pelagic, Phalacrocorax pelagicus

Red-faced, Phalacrocorax urile

COWBIRD, Bronzed, Molothrus aeneus

Brown-headed, Molothrus ater

Shiny, Molothrus bonariensis

CRAKE, Corn, Crex crex

Paint-billed, Neocrex erythrops

Spotless, Porzana tabuensis

Yellow-breasted, Hapalocrex flaviventer

CRANE, Common, Grus grus

Sandhill, Antigone canadensis

Whooping, Grus americana

CREEPER, Brown, Certhia americana

Hawaii, Loxops mana

CROSSBILL, Cassia, Loxia sinesciuris

Red, Loxia curvirostra

White-winged, Loxia leucoptera

CROW, American, Corvus brachyrhynchos

Fish, Corvus ossifragus

Hawaiian, Corvus hawaiiensis

Mariana, Corvus kubaryi

Northwestern, Corvus caurinus

Tamaulipas, Corvus imparatus

White-necked, Corvus leucognaphalus

CUCKOO, Black-billed, Coccyzus erythropthalmus

Common, Cuculus canorus

Mangrove, Coccyzus minor

Oriental, Cuculus optatus

Yellow-billed, Coccyzus americanus

CURLEW, Bristle-thighed, Numenius tahitiensis

Eskimo, Numenius borealis

Eurasian, Numenius arquata

Far Eastern, Numenius madagascariensis

Little, Numenius minutus

Long-billed, Numenius americanus

DICKCISSEL, Spiza americana

DIPPER, American, Cinclus mexicanus

DOTTEREL, Eurasian, Charadrius morinellus

DOVE, Common Ground, Columbina passerina

Inca, Columbina inca

Mourning, Zenaida macroura

Ruddy Ground, Columbina talpacoti

White-tipped, Leptotila verreauxi

White-winged, Zenaida asiatica

Zenaida, Zenaida aurita

DOVEKIE, Alle alle

DOWITCHER, Long-billed, Limnodromus scolopaceus

Short-billed, Limnodromus griseus

DUCK, American Black, Anas rubripes

Eastern Spot-billed, Anas zonorhyncha

Falcated, Mareca falcata

Harlequin, Histrionicus histrionicus

Hawaiian, Anas wyvilliana

Laysan, Anas laysanensis

Long-tailed, Clangula hyemalis

Masked, Nomonyx dominicus

Mottled, Anas fulvigula

Muscovy, Cairina moschata

Pacific Black, Anas superciliosa

Ring-necked, Aythya collaris

Ruddy, Oxyura jamaicensis

Tufted, Aythya fuligula

Wood, Aix sponsa

DUNLIN, Calidris alpina

EAGLE, Bald, Haliaeetus leucocephalus

Golden, Aquila chrysaetos

White-tailed, Haliaeetus albicilla

EGRET, Cattle, Bubulcus ibis

Chinese, Egretta eulophotes

Great, Ardea alba

Intermediate, Ardea intermedia

Little, Egretta garzetta

Reddish, Egretta rufescens

Snowy, Egretta thula

EIDER, Common, Somateria mollissima

King, Somateria spectabilis

Spectacled, Somateria fischeri

Steller's, Polysticta stelleri

ELAENIA, Caribbean, Elaenia martinica

Greenish, Myiopagis viridicata

White-crested, Elaenia albiceps

EMERALD, Puerto Rican, Chlorostilbon maugaeus

EUPHONIA, Antillean, Euphonia musica

FALCON, Amur, Falco amurensis

Aplomado, Falco femoralis

Peregrine, Falco peregrinus

Prairie, Falco mexicanus

Red-footed, Falco vespertinus

FIELDFARE, Turdus pilaris

FINCH, Cassin's, Haemorhous cassinii

House, Haemorhous mexicanus

Laysan, Telespiza cantans

Nihoa, Telespiza ultima

Purple, Haemorhous purpureus

FLAMINGO, American, Phoenicopterus ruber

FLICKER, Gilded, Colaptes chrysoides

Northern, Colaptes auratus

FLYCATCHER, Acadian, Empidonax virescens

Alder, Empidonax alnorum

Ash-throated, Myiarchus cinerascens

Asian Brown, Muscicapa dauurica

Brown-crested, Myiarchus tyrannulus

Buff-breasted, Empidonax fulvifrons

Cordilleran, Empidonax occidentalis

Crowned Slaty, Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus

Dark-sided, Muscicapa sibirica

Dusky, Empidonax oberholseri

Dusky-capped, Myiarchus tuberculifer

Fork-tailed, Tyrannus savana

Gray, Empidonax wrightii

Gray-streaked, Muscicapa griseisticta

Great Crested, Myiarchus crinitus

Hammond's, Empidonax hammondii

La Sagra's, Myiarchus sagrae

Least, Empidonax minimus

Mugimaki, Ficedula mugimaki

Narcissus, Ficedula narcissina

Nutting's, Myiarchus nuttingi

Olive-sided, Contopus cooperi

Pacific-slope, Empidonax difficilis

Pine, Empidonax affinis

Piratic, Legatus leucophaius

Puerto Rican, Myiarchus antillarum

Scissor-tailed, Tyrannus forficatus

Social, Myiozetetes similis

Spotted, Muscicapa striata

Sulphur-bellied, Myiodynastes luteiventris

Taiga, Ficedula albicilla

Tufted, Mitrephanes phaeocercus

Variegated, Empidonomus varius

Vermilion, Pyrocephalus rubinus

Willow, Empidonax traillii

Yellow-bellied, Empidonax flaviventris

FOREST-FALCON, Collared, Micrastur semitorquatus

FRIGATEBIRD, Great, Fregata minor

Lesser, Fregata ariel

Magnificent, Fregata magnificens

FRUIT-DOVE, Crimson-crowned, Ptilinopus porphyraceus

Many-colored, Ptilinopus perousii

Mariana, Ptilinopus roseicapilla

FULMAR, Northern, Fulmarus glacialis

GADWALL, Mareca strepera

GALLINULE, Azure, Porphyrio flavirostris

Common, Gallinula galeata

Purple, Porphyrio martinicus

GANNET, Northern, Morus bassanus

GARGANEY, Spatula querquedula

GNATCATCHER, Black-capped, Polioptila nigriceps

Black-tailed, Polioptila melanura

Blue-Gray, Polioptila caerulea

California, Polioptila californica

GODWIT, Bar-tailed, Limosa lapponica

Black-tailed, Limosa limosa

Hudsonian, Limosa haemastica

Marbled, Limosa fedoa

GOLDENEYE, Barrow's, Bucephala islandica

Common, Bucephala clangula

GOLDEN-PLOVER, American, Pluvialis dominica

European, Pluvialis apricaria

Pacific, Pluvialis fulva

GOLDFINCH, American, Spinus tristis

Lawrence's, Spinus lawrencei

Lesser, Spinus psaltria

GOOSE, Barnacle, Branta leucopsis

Cackling, Branta hutchinsii

Canada, Branta canadensis

Emperor, Anser canagicus

Greater White-fronted, Anser albifrons

Hawaiian, Branta sandvicensis

Lesser White-fronted, Anser erythropus

Pink-footed, Anser brachyrhynchus

Ross's, Anser rossii

Snow, Anser caerulescens

GOSHAWK, Northern, Accipiter gentilis

GRACKLE, Boat-tailed, Quiscalus major

Common, Quiscalus quiscula

Greater Antillean, Quiscalus niger

Great-tailed, Quiscalus mexicanus

GRASSHOPPER-WARBLER, Middendorff's, Locustella ochotensis

GRASSQUIT, Black-faced, Melanospiza bicolor

Yellow-faced, Tiaris olivaceus

GREBE, Clark's, Aechmophorus clarkii

Eared, Podiceps nigricollis

Horned, Podiceps auritus

Least, Tachybaptus dominicus

Pied-billed, Podilymbus podiceps

Red-necked, Podiceps grisegena

Western, Aechmophorus occidentalis

GREENFINCH, Oriental, Chloris sinica

GREENSHANK, Common, Tringa nebularia

Nordmann's, Tringa guttifer

GROSBEAK, Black-headed, Pheucticus melanocephalus

Blue, Passerina caerulea

Crimson-collared, Rhodothraupis celaeno

Evening, Coccothraustes vespertinus

Pine, Pinicola enucleator

Rose-breasted, Pheucticus ludovicianus

Yellow, Pheucticus chrysopeplus

GROUND-DOVE, Shy, Alopecoenas stairi

White-throated, Alopecoenas xanthonurus

GUILLEMOT, Black, Cepphus grylle

Pigeon, Cepphus columba

GULL, Belcher's, Larus belcheri

Black-headed, Chroicocephalus ridibundus

Black-tailed, Larus crassirostris

Bonaparte's, Chroicocephalus philadelphia

California, Larus californicus

Franklin's, Leucophaeus pipixcan

Glaucous, Larus hyperboreus

Glaucous-winged, Larus glaucescens

Gray-hooded, Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus

Great Black-backed, Larus marinus

Heermann's, Larus heermanni

Herring, Larus argentatus

Iceland, Larus glaucoides

Ivory, Pagophila eburnea

Kelp, Larus dominicanus

Laughing, Leucophaeus atricilla

Lesser Black-backed, Larus fuscus

Little, Hydrocoloeus minutus

Mew, Larus canus

Ring-billed, Larus delawarensis

Ross's, Rhodostethia rosea

Sabine's, Xema sabini

Slaty-backed, Larus schistisagus

Swallow-tailed, Creagrus furcatus

Western, Larus occidentalis

Yellow-footed, Larus livens

Yellow-legged, Larus michahellis

GYRFALCON, Falco rusticolus

HARRIER, Northern, Circus hudsonius

HAWFINCH, Coccothraustes coccothraustes

HAWK, Broad-winged, Buteo platypterus

Common Black, Buteogallus anthracinus

Cooper's, Accipiter cooperii

Crane, Geranospiza caerulescens

Ferruginous, Buteo regalis

Gray, Buteo plagiatus

Great Black, Buteogallus urubitinga

Harris's, Parabuteo unicinctus

Hawaiian, Buteo solitarius

Red-shouldered, Buteo lineatus

Red-tailed, Buteo jamaicensis

Roadside, Rupornis magnirostris

Rough-legged, Buteo lagopus

Sharp-shinned, Accipiter striatus

Short-tailed, Buteo brachyurus

Swainson's, Buteo swainsoni

White-tailed, Geranoaetus albicaudatus

Zone-tailed, Buteo albonotatus

HAWK-CUCKOO, Hodgson's, Hierococcyx nisicolor

HERON, Gray, Ardea cinerea

Great Blue, Ardea herodias

Green, Butorides virescens

Little Blue, Egretta caerulea

Tricolored, Egretta tricolor

HOBBY, Eurasian, Falco subbuteo

HONEYCREEPER, Laysan, Himatione fraithii

Red-legged, Cyanerpes cyaneus

HOOPOE, Eurasian, Upupa epops

HOUSE-MARTIN, Common, Delichon urbicum

HUMMINGBIRD, Allen's, Selasphorus sasin

Anna's, Calypte anna

Antillean Crested, Orthorhyncus cristatus

Berylline, Amazilia beryllina

Black-chinned, Archilochus alexandri

Broad-billed, Cynanthus latirostris

Broad-tailed, Selasphorus platycercus

Buff-bellied, Amazilia yucatanensis

Bumblebee, Atthis heloisa

Calliope, Selasphorus calliope

Cinnamon, Amazilia rutila

Costa's, Calypte costae

Lucifer, Calothorax lucifer

Rivoli's, Eugenes fulgens

Ruby-throated, Archilochus colubris

Rufous, Selasphorus rufus

Vervain, Mellisuga minima

Violet-crowned, Amazilia violiceps

White-eared, Hylocharis leucotis

Xantus's, Hylocharis xantusii

IBIS, Glossy, Plegadis falcinellus

Scarlet, Eudocimus ruber

White, Eudocimus albus

White-faced, Plegadis chihi

’I’IWI, Drepanis coccinea

IMPERIAL-PIGEON, Pacific, Ducula pacifica

JABIRU, Jabiru mycteria

JACANA, Northern, Jacana spinosa

JACKDAW, Eurasian, Corvus monedula

JAEGER, Long-tailed, Stercorarius longicaudus

Parasitic, Stercorarius parasiticus

Pomarine, Stercorarius pomarinus

JAY, Blue, Cyanocitta cristata

Brown, Psilorhinus morio

Canada, Perisoreus canadensis

Green, Cyanocorax yncas

Mexican, Aphelocoma wollweberi

Pinyon, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus

Steller's, Cyanocitta stelleri

JUNCO, Dark-eyed, Junco hyemalis

Yellow-eyed, Junco phaeonotus

KĀKĀWAHIE, Paroreomyza flammea

KĀMA`O, Myadestes myadestinus

KESTREL, American, Falco sparverius

Eurasian, Falco tinnunculus

KILLDEER, Charadrius vociferus

KINGBIRD, Cassin's, Tyrannus vociferans

Couch's, Tyrannus couchii

Eastern, Tyrannus tyrannus

Gray, Tyrannus dominicensis

Loggerhead, Tyrannus caudifasciatus

Thick-billed, Tyrannus crassirostris

Tropical, Tyrannus melancholicus

Western, Tyrannus verticalis

KINGFISHER, Amazon, Chloroceryle amazona

Belted, Megaceryle alcyon

Common, Alcedo atthis

Green, Chloroceryle americana

Guam, Todiramphus cinnamominus

Mariana, Todiramphus albicilla

Pacific, Todiramphus sacer

Ringed, Megaceryle torquata

KINGLET, Golden-crowned, Regulus satrapa

Ruby-crowned, Regulus calendula

KISKADEE, Great, Pitangus sulphuratus

KITE, Black, Milvus migrans

Double-toothed, Harpagus bidentatus

Hook-billed, Chondrohierax uncinatus

Mississippi, Ictinia mississippiensis

Snail, Rostrhamus sociabilis

Swallow-tailed, Elanoides forficatus

White-tailed, Elanus leucurus

KITTIWAKE, Black-legged, Rissa tridactyla

Red-legged, Rissa brevirostris

KNOT, Great, Calidris tenuirostris

Red, Calidris canutus

KOEL, Long-tailed, Urodynamis taitensis

LAPWING, Northern, Vanellus vanellus

LARK, Horned, Eremophila alpestris

LIMPKIN, Aramus guarauna

LIZARD-CUCKOO, Puerto Rican, Coccyzus vieilloti

LONGSPUR, Chestnut-collared, Calcarius ornatus

Lapland, Calcarius lapponicus

McCown's, Rhynchophanes mccownii

Smith's, Calcarius pictus

LOON, Arctic, Gavia arctica

Common, Gavia immer

Pacific, Gavia pacifica

Red-throated, Gavia stellata

Yellow-billed, Gavia adamsii

MAGPIE, Black-billed, Pica hudsonia

Yellow-billed, Pica nuttalli

MALLARD, Anas platyrhynchos

MANGO, Antillean, Anthracothorax dominicus

Green, Anthracothorax viridis

Green-breasted, Anthracothorax prevostii

MARSH-HARRIER, Eastern, Circus spilonotus

MARTIN, Brown-chested, Progne tapera

Caribbean, Progne dominicensis

Cuban, Progne cryptoleuca

Gray-breasted, Progne chalybea

Purple, Progne subis

Southern, Progne elegans

MEADOWLARK, Eastern, Sturnella magna

Western, Sturnella neglecta

MERGANSER, Common, Mergus merganser

Hooded, Lophodytes cucullatus

Red-breasted, Mergus serrator

MERLIN, Falco columbarius

MILLERBIRD, Acrocephalus familiaris

MOCKINGBIRD, Bahama, Mimus gundlachii

Blue, Melanotis caerulescens

Northern, Mimus polyglottos

MOORHEN, Common, Gallinula chloropus

MOUNTAIN-GEM, Amethyst-throated, Lampornis amethystinus

Blue-throated, Lampornis clemenciae

MURRE, Common, Uria aalge

Thick-billed, Uria lomvia

MURRELET, Ancient, Synthliboramphus antiquus

Craveri's, Synthliboramphus craveri

Guadalupe, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus

Kittlitz's, Brachyramphus brevirostris

Long-billed, Brachyramphus perdix

Marbled, Brachyramphus marmoratus

Scripps's, Synthliboramphus scrippsi

NEEDLETAIL, White-throated, Hirundapus caudacutus

NIGHTHAWK, Antillean, Chordeiles gundlachii

Common, Chordeiles minor

Lesser, Chordeiles acutipennis

NIGHT-HERON, Black-crowned, Nycticorax nycticorax

Japanese, Gorsachius goisagi

Malayan, Gorsachius melanolophus

Rufous, Nycticorax caledonicus

Yellow-crowned, Nyctanassa violacea

NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH, Black-headed, Catharus mexicanus

Orange-billed, Catharus aurantiirostris

NIGHTJAR, Buff-collared, Antrostomus ridgwayi

Gray, Caprimulgus jotaka

Puerto Rican, Antrostomus noctitherus

White-tailed, Hydropsalis cayennensis

NODDY, Black, Anous minutus

Blue-gray, Anous ceruleus

Brown, Anous stolidus

NUKUPU’U, Kauai, Hemignathus hanapepe

Maui, Hemignathus affinis

O’ahu, Hemignathus lucidus

NUTCRACKER, Clark's, Nucifraga columbiana

NUTHATCH, Brown-headed, Sitta pusilla

Pygmy, Sitta pygmaea

Red-breasted, Sitta canadensis

White-breasted, Sitta carolinensis

OLOMA’O, Myadestes lanaiensis

’ŌMA’O, Myadestes obscurus

ORIOLE, Altamira, Icterus gularis

Audubon's, Icterus graduacauda

Baltimore, Icterus galbula

Black-backed, Icterus abeillei

Black-vented, Icterus wagleri

Bullock's, Icterus bullockii

Hooded, Icterus cucullatus

Orchard, Icterus spurius

Puerto Rican, Icterus portoricensis

Scott's, Icterus parisorum

Streak-backed, Icterus pustulatus

OSPREY, Pandion haliaetus

’Ō ’Ū, Psittirostra psittacea

OVENBIRD, Seiurus aurocapilla

OWL, Barn, Tyto alba

Barred, Strix varia

Boreal, Aegolius funereus

Burrowing, Athene cunicularia

Elf, Micrathene whitneyi

Flammulated, Psiloscops flammeolus

Great Gray, Strix nebulosa

Great Horned, Bubo virginianus

Long-eared, Asio otus

Mottled, Ciccaba virgata

Northern Hawk, Surnia ulula

Northern Saw-whet, Aegolius acadicus

Short-eared, Asio flammeus

Snowy, Bubo scandiacus

Spotted, Strix occidentalis

Stygian, Asio stygius

OYSTERCATCHER, American, Haematopus palliatus

Black, Haematopus bachmani

Eurasian, Haematopus ostralegus

PALILA, Loxioides bailleui

PALM-SWIFT, Antillean, Tachornis phoenicobia

PARROTBILL, Maui, Pseudonestor xanthophrys

PARULA, Northern, Setophaga americana

Tropical, Setophaga pitiayumi

PAURAQUE, Common, Nyctidromus albicollis

PELICAN, American White, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos

Brown, Pelecanus occidentalis

PETREL, Bermuda, Pterodroma cahow

Black-capped, Pterodroma hasitata

Black-winged, Pterodroma nigripennis

Bonin, Pterodroma hypoleuca

Bulwer's, Bulweria bulwerii

Cook's, Pterodroma cookii

Fea's, Pterodroma feae

Gould's, Pterodroma leucoptera

Gray-faced, Pterodroma gouldi

Hawaiian, Pterodroma sandwichensis

Herald, Pterodroma heraldica

Jouanin's, Bulweria fallax

Juan Fernandez, Pterodroma externa

Kermadec, Pterodroma neglecta

Mottled, Pterodroma inexpectata

Murphy's, Pterodroma ultima

Parkinson's, Procellaria parkinsoni

Phoenix, Pterodroma alba

Providence, Pterodroma solandri

Stejneger's, Pterodroma longirostris

Tahiti, Pseudobulweria rostrata

Trindade, Pterodroma arminjoniana

White-chinned, Procellaria aequinoctialis

White-necked, Pterodroma cervicalis

Zino's, Pterodroma madeira

PEWEE, Cuban, Contopus caribaeus

Greater, Contopus pertinax

Hispaniolan, Contopus hispaniolensis

Lesser Antillean, Contopus latirostris

PHAINOPEPLA, Phainopepla nitens

PHALAROPE, Red, Phalaropus fulicarius

Red-necked, Phalaropus lobatus

Wilson's, Phalaropus tricolor

PHOEBE, Black, Sayornis nigricans

Eastern, Sayornis phoebe

Say's, Sayornis saya

PIGEON, Band-tailed, Patagioenas fasciata

Plain, Patagioenas inornata

Red-billed, Patagioenas flavirostris

Scaly-naped, Patagioenas squamosa

White-crowned, Patagioenas leucocephala

PINTAIL, Northern, Anas acuta

White-cheeked, Anas bahamensis

PIPIT, American, Anthus rubescens

Olive-backed, Anthus hodgsoni

Pechora, Anthus gustavi

Red-throated, Anthus cervinus

Sprague's, Anthus spragueii

Tree, Anthus trivialis

PLOVER, Black-bellied, Pluvialis squatarola

Collared, Charadrius collaris

Common Ringed, Charadrius hiaticula

Kentish, Charadrius alexandrinus

Little Ringed, Charadrius dubius

Mountain, Charadrius montanus

Piping, Charadrius melodus

Semipalmated, Charadrius semipalmatus

Snowy, Charadrius nivosus

Wilson's, Charadrius wilsonia

POCHARD, Baer's, Aythya baeri

Common, Aythya ferina

POND-HERON, Chinese, Ardeola bacchus

POORWILL, Common, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii

PO’OULI, Melamprosops phaeosoma

PUAIOHI, Myadestes palmeri

PUFFIN, Atlantic, Fratercula arctica

Horned, Fratercula corniculata

Tufted, Fratercula cirrhata

PYGMY-OWL, Ferruginous, Glaucidium brasilianum

Northern, Glaucidium gnoma

PYRRHULOXIA, Cardinalis sinuatus

QUAIL-DOVE, Bridled, Geotrygon mystacea

Key West, Geotrygon chrysia

Ruddy, Geotrygon montana

QUETZAL, Eared, Euptilotis neoxenus

RAIL, Black, Laterallus jamaicensis

Buff-banded, Gallirallus philippensis

Clapper, Rallus crepitans

Guam, Gallirallus owstoni

King, Rallus elegans

Ridgway's, Rallus obsoletus

Spotted, Pardirallus maculatus

Virginia, Rallus limicola

Yellow, Coturnicops noveboracensis

RAVEN, Chihuahuan, Corvus cryptoleucus

Common, Corvus corax

RAZORBILL, Alca torda

REDHEAD, Aythya americana

REDPOLL, Common, Acanthis flammea

Hoary, Acanthis hornemanni

REDSHANK, Common, Tringa totanus

Spotted, Tringa erythropus

REDSTART, American, Setophaga ruticilla

Common, Phoenicurus phoenicurus

Painted, Myioborus pictus

Slate-throated, Myioborus miniatus

REDWING, Turdus iliacus

REEF-HERON, Pacific, Egretta sacra

Western, Egretta gularis

ROADRUNNER, Greater, Geococcyx californianus

ROBIN, American, Turdus migratorius

European, Erithacus rubecula

Rufous-backed, Turdus rufopalliatus

Rufous-tailed, Larvivora sibilans

Siberian Blue, Larvivora cyane

ROCK-THRUSH, Blue, Monticola solitarius

ROSEFINCH, Common, Carpodacus erythrinus

Pallas's, Carpodacus roseus

ROSY-FINCH, Asian, Leucosticte arctoa

Black, Leucosticte atrata

Brown-capped, Leucosticte australis

Gray-crowned, Leucosticte tephrocotis

RUBYTHROAT, Siberian, Calliope calliope

RUFF, Calidris pugnax

SANDERLING, Calidris alba

SANDPIPER, Baird's, Calidris bairdii

Broad-billed, Calidris falcinellus

Buff-breasted, Calidris subruficollis

Common, Actitis hypoleucos

Curlew, Calidris ferruginea

Green, Tringa ochropus

Least, Calidris minutilla

Marsh, Tringa stagnatilis

Pectoral, Calidris melanotos

Purple, Calidris maritima

Rock, Calidris ptilocnemis

Semipalmated, Calidris pusilla

Sharp-tailed, Calidris acuminata

Solitary, Tringa solitaria

Spoon-billed, Calidris pygmea

Spotted, Actitis macularius

Stilt, Calidris himantopus

Terek, Xenus cinereus

Upland, Bartramia longicauda

Western, Calidris mauri

White-rumped, Calidris fuscicollis

Wood, Tringa glareola

SAND-PLOVER, Greater, Charadrius leschenaultii

Lesser, Charadrius mongolus

SAPSUCKER, Red-breasted, Sphyrapicus ruber

Red-naped, Sphyrapicus nuchalis

Williamson's, Sphyrapicus thyroideus

Yellow-bellied, Sphyrapicus varius

SCAUP, Greater, Aythya marila

Lesser, Aythya affinis

SCOPS-OWL, Oriental, Otus sunia

SCOTER, Black, Melanitta americana

Common, Melanitta nigra

Stejneger's, Melanitta stejnegeri

Surf, Melanitta perspicillata

White-winged, Melanitta deglandi

SCREECH-OWL, Eastern, Megascops asio

Puerto Rican, Megascops nudipes

Western, Megascops kennicottii

Whiskered, Megascops trichopsis

SCRUB-JAY, California, Aphelocoma californica

Florida, Aphelocoma coerulescens

Island, Aphelocoma insularis

Woodhouse's, Aphelocoma woodhouseii

SEA-EAGLE, Steller's, Haliaeetus pelagicus

SEEDEATER, Morelet's, Sporophila morelleti

SHEARWATER, Audubon's, Puffinus lherminieri

Barolo, Puffinus baroli

Black-vented, Puffinus opisthomelas

Bryan's, Puffinus bryani

Buller's, Ardenna bulleri

Cape Verde, Calonectris edwardsii

Christmas, Puffinus nativitatis

Cory's, Calonectris diomedea

Flesh-footed, Ardenna carneipes

Great, Ardenna gravis

Manx, Puffinus puffinus

Newell's, Puffinus newelli

Pink-footed, Ardenna creatopus

Short-tailed, Ardenna tenuirostris

Sooty, Ardenna grisea

Streaked, Calonectris leucomelas

Wedge-tailed, Ardenna pacifica

SHOVELER, Northern, Spatula clypeata

SHRIKE, Brown, Lanius cristatus

Loggerhead, Lanius ludovicianus

Northern, Lanius borealis

SILKY-FLYCATCHER, Gray, Ptiliogonys cinereus

SISKIN, Eurasian, Spinus spinus

Pine, Spinus pinus

SKIMMER, Black, Rynchops niger

SKUA, Great, Stercorarius skua

South Polar, Stercorarius maccormicki

SKYLARK, Eurasian, Alauda arvensis

SMEW, Mergellus albellus

SNIPE, Common, Gallinago gallinago

Jack, Lymnocryptes minimus

Pin-tailed, Gallinago stenura

Solitary, Gallinago solitaria

Swinhoe's, Gallinago megala

Wilson's, Gallinago delicata

SOLITAIRE, Brown-backed, Myadestes occidentalis

Townsend's, Myadestes townsendi

SORA, Porzana carolina

SPARROW, American Tree, Spizelloides arborea

Bachman's, Peucaea aestivalis

Baird's, Centronyx bairdii

Bell's, Artemisiospiza belli

Black-chinned, Spizella atrogularis

Black-throated, Amphispiza bilineata

Botteri's, Peucaea botterii

Brewer's, Spizella breweri

Cassin's, Peucaea cassinii

Chipping, Spizella passerina

Clay-colored, Spizella pallida

Field, Spizella pusilla

Five-striped, Amphispiza quinquestriata

Fox, Passerella iliaca

Golden-crowned, Zonotrichia atricapilla

Grasshopper, Ammodramus savannarum

Harris's, Zonotrichia querula

Henslow's, Centronyx henslowii

Lark, Chondestes grammacus

LeConte's, Ammospiza leconteii

Lincoln's, Melospiza lincolnii

Nelson's, Ammospiza nelsoni

Olive, Arremonops rufivirgatus

Rufous-crowned, Aimophila ruficeps

Rufous-winged, Peucaea carpalis

Sagebrush, Artemisiospiza nevadensis

Saltmarsh, Ammospiza caudacuta

Savannah, Passerculus sandwichensis

Seaside, Ammospiza maritima

Song, Melospiza melodia

Swamp, Melospiza georgiana

Vesper, Pooecetes gramineus

White-crowned, Zonotrichia leucophrys

White-throated, Zonotrichia albicollis

Worthen's, Spizella wortheni

SPARROWHAWK, Chinese, Accipiter soloensis

Japanese, Accipiter gularis

SPINDALIS, Puerto Rican, Spindalis portoricensis

Western, Spindalis zena

SPOONBILL, Roseate, Platalea ajaja

STARLING, Chestnut-cheeked, Agropsar philippensis

White-cheeked, Spodiopsar cineraceus

STARTHROAT, Plain-capped, Heliomaster constantii

STILT, Black-necked, Himantopus mexicanus

Black-winged, Himantopus himantopus

STINT, Little, Calidris minuta

Long-toed, Calidris subminuta

Red-necked, Calidris ruficollis

Temminck's, Calidris temminckii

STONECHAT, Saxicola torquatus

STORK, Wood, Mycteria americana

STORM-PETREL, Ashy, Hydrobates homochroa

Band-rumped, Hydrobates castro

Black, Hydrobates melania

Black-bellied, Fregetta tropica

European, Hydrobates pelagicus

Fork-tailed, Hydrobates furcatus

Leach's, Hydrobates leucorhous

Least, Hydrobates microsoma

Matsudaira's, Oceanodroma matsudairae

Polynesian, Nesofregetta fuliginosa

Ringed, Hydrobates hornbyi

Swinhoe's, Hydrobates monorhis

Townsend's, Hydrobates socorroensis

Tristram's, Hydrobates tristrami

Wedge-rumped, Hydrobates tethys

White-bellied, Fregetta grallaria

White-faced, Pelagodroma marina

Wilson's, Oceanites oceanicus

SURFBIRD, Calidris virgata

SWALLOW, Bahama, Tachycineta cyaneoviridis

Bank, Riparia riparia

Barn, Hirundo rustica

Cave, Petrochelidon fulva

Cliff, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota

Mangrove, Tachycineta albilinea

Northern Rough-winged, Stelgidopteryx serripennis

Tree, Tachycineta bicolor

Violet-green, Tachycineta thalassina

SWAMPHEN, Purple, Porphyrio porphyrio

SWAN, Trumpeter, Cygnus buccinator

Tundra, Cygnus columbianus

Whooper, Cygnus cygnus

SWIFT, Alpine, Apus melba

Black, Cypseloides niger

Chimney, Chaetura pelagica

Common, Apus apus

Fork-tailed, Apus pacificus

Short-tailed, Chaetura brachyura

Vaux's, Chaetura vauxi

White-collared, Streptoprocne zonaris

White-throated, Aeronautes saxatalis

SWIFTLET, Mariana, Aerodramus bartschi

White-rumped, Aerodramus spodiopygius

TANAGER, Flame-colored, Piranga bidentata

Hepatic, Piranga flava

Puerto Rican, Nesospingus speculiferus

Scarlet, Piranga olivacea

Summer, Piranga rubra

Western, Piranga ludoviciana

TATTLER, Gray-tailed, Tringa brevipes

Wandering, Tringa incana

TEAL, Baikal, Sibirionetta formosa

Blue-winged, Spatula discors

Cinnamon, Spatula cyanoptera

Green-winged, Anas crecca

TERN, Aleutian, Onychoprion aleuticus

Arctic, Sterna paradisaea

Black, Chlidonias niger

Black-naped, Sterna sumatrana

Bridled, Onychoprion anaethetus

Caspian, Hydroprogne caspia

Common, Sterna hirundo

Elegant, Thalasseus elegans

Forster's, Sterna forsteri

Gray-backed, Onychoprion lunatus

Great Crested, Thalasseus bergii

Gull-billed, Gelochelidon nilotica

Large-billed, Phaetusa simplex

Least, Sternula antillarum

Little, Sternula albifrons

Roseate, Sterna dougallii

Royal, Thalasseus maximus

Sandwich, Thalasseus sandvicensis

Sooty, Onychoprion fuscatus

Whiskered, Chlidonias hybrida

White, Gygis alba

White-winged, Chlidonias leucopterus

THRASHER, Bendire's, Toxostoma bendirei

Brown, Toxostoma rufum

California, Toxostoma redivivum

Crissal, Toxostoma crissale

Curve-billed, Toxostoma curvirostre

LeConte's, Toxostoma lecontei

Long-billed, Toxostoma longirostre

Pearly-eyed, Margarops fuscatus

Sage, Oreoscoptes montanus

THRUSH, Aztec, Ridgwayia pinicola

Bicknell's, Catharus bicknelli

Clay-colored, Turdus grayi

Dusky, Turdus naumanni

Eyebrowed, Turdus obscurus

Gray-cheeked, Catharus minimus

Hermit, Catharus guttatus

Red-legged, Turdus plumbeus

Swainson's, Catharus ustulatus

Varied, Ixoreus naevius

White-throated, Turdus assimilis

Wood, Hylocichla mustelina

TIGER-HERON, Bare-throated, Tigrisoma mexicanum

TITMOUSE, Black-crested, Baeolophus atricristatus

Bridled, Baeolophus wollweberi

Juniper, Baeolophus ridgwayi

Oak, Baeolophus inornatus

Tufted, Baeolophus bicolor

TITYRA, Masked, Tityra semifasciata

TOWHEE, Abert's, Melozone aberti

California, Melozone crissalis

Canyon, Melozone fusca

Eastern, Pipilo erythrophthalmus

Green-tailed, Pipilo chlorurus

Spotted, Pipilo maculatus

TROGON, Elegant, Trogon elegans

TROPICBIRD, Red-billed, Phaethon aethereus

Red-tailed, Phaethon rubricauda

White-tailed, Phaethon lepturus

TURNSTONE, Black, Arenaria melanocephala

Ruddy, Arenaria interpres

TURTLE-DOVE, Oriental, Streptopelia orientalis

VEERY, Catharus fuscescens

VERDIN, Auriparus flaviceps

VIOLETEAR, Mexican, Colibri thalassinus

VIREO, Bell's, Vireo bellii

Black-capped, Vireo atricapilla

Black-whiskered, Vireo altiloquus

Blue-headed, Vireo solitarius

Cassin's, Vireo cassinii

Cuban, Vireo gundlachii

Gray, Vireo vicinior

Hutton's, Vireo huttoni

Philadelphia, Vireo philadelphicus

Plumbeous, Vireo plumbeus

Puerto Rican, Vireo latimeri

Red-eyed, Vireo olivaceus

Thick-billed, Vireo crassirostris

Warbling, Vireo gilvus

White-eyed, Vireo griseus

Yellow-green, Vireo flavoviridis

Yellow-throated, Vireo flavifrons

Yucatan, Vireo magister

VULTURE, Black, Coragyps atratus

Turkey, Cathartes aura

WAGTAIL, Citrine, Motacilla citreola

Eastern Yellow, Motacilla tschutschensis

Gray, Motacilla cinerea

White, Motacilla alba

WARBLER, Adelaide's, Setophaga adelaidae

Aguiguan Reed, Acrocephalus nijoi

Arctic, Phylloscopus borealis

Bachman's, Vermivora bachmanii

Bay-breasted, Setophaga castanea

Black-and-white, Mniotilta varia

Blackburnian, Setophaga fusca

Blackpoll, Setophaga striata

Black-throated Blue, Setophaga caerulescens

Black-throated Gray, Setophaga nigrescens

Black-throated Green, Setophaga virens

Blue-winged, Vermivora cyanoptera

Blyth's Reed, Acrocephalus dumetorum

Canada, Cardellina canadensis

Cape May, Setophaga tigrina

Cerulean, Setophaga cerulea

Chestnut-sided, Setophaga pensylvanica

Colima, Leiothlypis crissalis

Connecticut, Oporornis agilis

Crescent-chested, Oreothlypis superciliosa

Dusky, Phylloscopus fuscatus

Elfin-woods, Setophaga angelae

Fan-tailed, Basileuterus lachrymosus

Golden-cheeked, Setophaga chrysoparia

Golden-crowned, Basileuterus culicivorus

Golden-winged, Vermivora chrysoptera

Grace's, Setophaga graciae

Hermit, Setophaga occidentalis

Hooded, Setophaga citrina

Kamchatka Leaf, Phylloscopus examinandus

Kentucky, Geothlypis formosa

Kirtland's, Setophaga kirtlandii

Lanceolated, Locustella lanceolata

Lucy's, Leiothlypis luciae

MacGillivray's, Geothlypis tolmiei

Magnolia, Setophaga magnolia

Mourning, Geothlypis philadelphia

Nashville, Leiothlypis ruficapilla

Nightingale Reed, Acrocephalus luscinius

Olive, Peucedramus taeniatus

Orange-crowned, Leiothlypis celata

Pagan Reed, Acrocephalus yamashinae

Pallas's Leaf, Phylloscopus proregulus

Palm, Setophaga palmarum

Pine, Setophaga pinus

Prairie, Setophaga discolor

Prothonotary, Protonotaria citrea

Red-faced, Cardellina rubrifrons

River, Locustella fluviatilis

Rufous-capped, Basileuterus rufifrons

Saipan Reed, Acrocephalus hiwae

Sedge, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus

Swainson's, Limnothlypis swainsonii

Tennessee, Leiothlypis peregrina

Thick-billed, Arundinax aedon

Townsend's, Setophaga townsendi

Virginia's, Leiothlypis virginiae

Willow, Phylloscopus trochilus

Wilson's, Cardellina pusilla

Wood, Phylloscopus sibilatrix

Worm-eating, Helmitheros vermivorum

Yellow, Setophaga petechia

Yellow-browed, Phylloscopus inornatus

Yellow-rumped, Setophaga coronata

Yellow-throated, Setophaga dominica

WATERTHRUSH, Louisiana, Parkesia motacilla

Northern, Parkesia noveboracensis

WAXWING, Bohemian, Bombycilla garrulus

Cedar, Bombycilla cedrorum

WHEATEAR, Northern, Oenanthe oenanthe

Pied, Oenanthe pleschanka

WHIMBREL, Numenius phaeopus

WHIP-POOR-WILL, Eastern, Antrostomus vociferus

Mexican, Antrostomus arizonae

WHISTLING-DUCK, Black-bellied, Dendrocygna autumnalis

Fulvous, Dendrocygna bicolor

West Indian, Dendrocygna arborea

WHITETHROAT, Lesser, Sylvia curruca

WIGEON, American, Mareca americana

Eurasian, Mareca penelope

WILLET, Tringa semipalmata

WOODCOCK, American, Scolopax minor

Eurasian, Scolopax rusticola

WOODPECKER, Acorn, Melanerpes formicivorus

American Three-toed, Picoides dorsalis

Arizona, Dryobates arizonae

Black-backed, Picoides arcticus

Downy, Dryobates pubescens

Gila, Melanerpes uropygialis

Golden-fronted, Melanerpes aurifrons

Great Spotted, Dendrocopos major

Hairy, Dryobates villosus

Ivory-billed, Campephilus principalis

Ladder-backed, Dryobates scalaris

Lewis's, Melanerpes lewis

Nuttall's, Dryobates nuttallii

Pileated, Dryocopus pileatus

Puerto Rican, Melanerpes portoricensis

Red-bellied, Melanerpes carolinus

Red-cockaded, Dryobates borealis

Red-headed, Melanerpes erythrocephalus

White-headed, Dryobates albolarvatus

WOOD-PEWEE, Eastern, Contopus virens

Western, Contopus sordidulus

WOOD-RAIL, Rufous-necked, Aramides axillaris

WOODSTAR, Bahama, Nesophlox evelynae

WREN, Bewick's, Thryomanes bewickii

Cactus, Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus

Canyon, Catherpes mexicanus

Carolina, Thryothorus ludovicianus

House, Troglodytes aedon

Marsh, Cistothorus palustris

Pacific, Troglodytes pacificus

Rock, Salpinctes obsoletus

Sedge, Cistothorus platensis

Sinaloa, Thryophilus sinaloa

Winter, Troglodytes hiemalis

WRENTIT, Chamaea fasciata

WRYNECK, Eurasian, Jynx torquilla

YELLOWLEGS, Greater, Tringa melanoleuca

Lesser, Tringa flavipes

YELLOWTHROAT, Common, Geothlypis trichas

Gray-crowned, Geothlypis poliocephala

(2) Taxonomic listing. Species are listed in phylogenetic sequence by scientific name, with the common (English) name following the scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, we also list the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, and Subfamily.




Dendrocygna autumnalis, Black-bellied Whistling-Duck

Dendrocygna arborea, West Indian Whistling-Duck

Dendrocygna bicolor, Fulvous Whistling-Duck


Anser canagicus, Emperor Goose

Anser caerulescens, Snow Goose

Anser rossii, Ross's Goose

Anser albifrons, Greater White-fronted Goose

Anser erythropus, Lesser White-fronted Goose

Anser fabalis, Taiga Bean-Goose

Anser serrirostris, Tundra Bean-Goose

Anser brachyrhynchus, Pink-footed Goose

Branta bernicla, Brant

Branta leucopsis, Barnacle Goose

Branta hutchinsii, Cackling Goose

Branta canadensis, Canada Goose

Branta sandvicensis, Hawaiian Goose

Cygnus buccinator, Trumpeter Swan

Cygnus columbianus, Tundra Swan

Cygnus cygnus, Whooper Swan

Subfamily ANATINAE

Cairina moschata, Muscovy Duck

Aix sponsa, Wood Duck

Sibirionetta formosa, Baikal Teal

Spatula querquedula, Garganey

Spatula discors, Blue-winged Teal

Spatula cyanoptera, Cinnamon Teal

Spatula clypeata, Northern Shoveler

Mareca strepera, Gadwall

Mareca falcata, Falcated Duck

Mareca penelope, Eurasian Wigeon

Mareca americana, American Wigeon

Anas laysanensis, Laysan Duck

Anas wyvilliana, Hawaiian Duck

Anas zonorhyncha, Eastern Spot-billed Duck

Anas platyrhynchos, Mallard

Anas rubripes, American Black Duck

Anas fulvigula, Mottled Duck

Anas superciliosa, Pacific Black Duck

Anas bahamensis, White-cheeked Pintail

Anas acuta, Northern Pintail

Anas crecca, Green-winged Teal

Aythya valisineria, Canvasback

Aythya americana, Redhead

Aythya ferina, Common Pochard

Aythya baeri, Baer's Pochard

Aythya collaris, Ring-necked Duck

Aythya fuligula, Tufted Duck

Aythya marila, Greater Scaup

Aythya affinis, Lesser Scaup

Polysticta stelleri, Steller's Eider

Somateria fischeri, Spectacled Eider

Somateria spectabilis, King Eider

Somateria mollissima, Common Eider

Histrionicus histrionicus, Harlequin Duck

Melanitta perspicillata, Surf Scoter

Melanitta deglandi, White-winged Scoter

Melanitta stejnegeri, Stejneger's Scoter

Melanitta nigra, Common Scoter

Melanitta americana, Black Scoter

Clangula hyemalis, Long-tailed Duck

Bucephala albeola, Bufflehead

Bucephala clangula, Common Goldeneye

Bucephala islandica, Barrow's Goldeneye

Mergellus albellus, Smew

Lophodytes cucullatus, Hooded Merganser

Mergus merganser, Common Merganser

Mergus serrator, Red-breasted Merganser

Nomonyx dominicus, Masked Duck

Oxyura jamaicensis, Ruddy Duck



Phoenicopterus ruber, American Flamingo



Tachybaptus dominicus, Least Grebe

Podilymbus podiceps, Pied-billed Grebe

Podiceps auritus, Horned Grebe

Podiceps grisegena, Red-necked Grebe

Podiceps nigricollis, Eared Grebe

Aechmophorus occidentalis, Western Grebe

Aechmophorus clarkii, Clark's Grebe



Patagioenas squamosa, Scaly-naped Pigeon

Patagioenas leucocephala, White-crowned Pigeon

Patagioenas flavirostris, Red-billed Pigeon

Patagioenas inornata, Plain Pigeon

Patagioenas fasciata, Band-tailed Pigeon

Streptopelia orientalis, Oriental Turtle-Dove

Alopecoenas xanthonurus, White-throated Ground-Dove

Alopecoenas stairi, Shy Ground-Dove

Columbina inca, Inca Dove

Columbina passerina, Common Ground Dove

Columbina talpacoti, Ruddy Ground Dove

Geotrygon montana, Ruddy Quail-Dove

Geotrygon chrysia, Key West Quail-Dove

Geotrygon mystacea, Bridled Quail-Dove

Leptotila verreauxi, White-tipped Dove

Zenaida asiatica, White-winged Dove

Zenaida aurita, Zenaida Dove

Zenaida macroura, Mourning Dove

Ptilinopus perousii, Many-colored Fruit-Dove

Ptilinopus porphyraceus, Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove

Ptilinopus roseicapilla, Mariana Fruit-Dove

Ducula pacifica, Pacific Imperial-Pigeon




Crotophaga ani, Smooth-billed Ani

Crotophaga sulcirostris, Groove-billed Ani


Geococcyx californianus, Greater Roadrunner


Urodynamis taitensis, Long-tailed Koel

Hierococcyx nisicolor, Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo

Cuculus canorus, Common Cuckoo

Cuculus optatus, Oriental Cuckoo

Coccyzus americanus, Yellow-billed Cuckoo

Coccyzus minor, Mangrove Cuckoo

Coccyzus erythropthalmus, Black-billed Cuckoo

Coccyzus vieilloti, Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo




Chordeiles acutipennis, Lesser Nighthawk

Chordeiles minor, Common Nighthawk

Chordeiles gundlachii, Antillean Nighthawk


Nyctidromus albicollis, Common Pauraque

Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, Common Poorwill

Antrostomus carolinensis, Chuck-will's-widow

Antrostomus ridgwayi, Buff-collared Nightjar

Antrostomus vociferus, Eastern Whip-poor-will

Antrostomus arizonae, Mexican Whip-poor-will

Antrostomus noctitherus, Puerto Rican Nightjar

Hydropsalis cayennensis, White-tailed Nightjar

Caprimulgus jotaka, Gray Nightjar




Cypseloides niger, Black Swift

Streptoprocne zonaris, White-collared Swift


Chaetura pelagica, Chimney Swift

Chaetura vauxi, Vaux's Swift

Chaetura brachyura, Short-tailed Swift

Hirundapus caudacutus, White-throated Needletail

Aerodramus spodiopygius, White-rumped Swiftlet

Aerodramus bartschi, Mariana Swiftlet

Subfamily APODINAE

Apus apus, Common Swift

Apus pacificus, Fork-tailed Swift

Apus melba, Alpine Swift

Aeronautes saxatalis, White-throated Swift

Tachornis phoenicobia, Antillean Palm-Swift



Colibri thalassinus, Mexican Violetear

Anthracothorax prevostii, Green-breasted Mango

Anthracothorax dominicus, Antillean Mango

Anthracothorax viridis, Green Mango

Eulampis jugularis, Purple-throated Carib

Eulampis holosericeus, Green-throated Carib

Eugenes fulgens, Rivoli's Hummingbird

Heliomaster constantii, Plain-capped Starthroat

Lampornis amethystinus, Amethyst-throated Mountain-gem

Lampornis clemenciae, Blue-throated Mountain-gem

Calothorax lucifer, Lucifer Hummingbird

Archilochus colubris, Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Archilochus alexandri, Black-chinned Hummingbird

Mellisuga minima, Vervain Hummingbird

Nesophlox evelynae, Bahama Woodstar

Calypte anna, Anna's Hummingbird

Calypte costae, Costa's Hummingbird

Atthis heloisa, Bumblebee Hummingbird

Selasphorus platycercus, Broad-tailed Hummingbird

Selasphorus rufus, Rufous Hummingbird

Selasphorus sasin, Allen's Hummingbird

Selasphorus calliope, Calliope Hummingbird

Chlorostilbon maugaeus, Puerto Rican Emerald

Cynanthus latirostris, Broad-billed Hummingbird

Orthorhyncus cristatus, Antillean Crested Hummingbird

Amazilia beryllina, Berylline Hummingbird

Amazilia yucatanensis, Buff-bellied Hummingbird

Amazilia rutila, Cinnamon Hummingbird

Amazilia violiceps, Violet-crowned Hummingbird

Hylocharis leucotis, White-eared Hummingbird

Hylocharis xantusii, Xantus's Hummingbird



Coturnicops noveboracensis, Yellow Rail

Laterallus jamaicensis, Black Rail

Gallirallus philippensis, Buff-banded Rail

Gallirallus owstoni, Guam Rail

Crex crex, Corn Crake

Rallus obsoletus, Ridgway's Rail

Rallus crepitans, Clapper Rail

Rallus elegans, King Rail

Rallus limicola, Virginia Rail

Aramides axillaris, Rufous-necked Wood-Rail

Porzana carolina, Sora

Porzana tabuensis, Spotless Crake

Hapalocrex flaviventer, Yellow-breasted Crake

Neocrex erythrops, Paint-billed Crake

Pardirallus maculatus, Spotted Rail

Porphyrio martinicus, Purple Gallinule

Porphyrio flavirostris, Azure Gallinule

Porphyrio porphyrio, Purple Swamphen

Gallinula galeata, Common Gallinule

Gallinula chloropus, Common Moorhen

Fulica atra, Eurasian Coot

Fulica alai, Hawaiian Coot

Fulica americana, American Coot


Aramus guarauna, Limpkin


Subfamily GRUINAE

Antigone canadensis, Sandhill Crane

Grus grus, Common Crane

Grus americana, Whooping Crane



Himantopus himantopus, Black-winged Stilt

Himantopus mexicanus, Black-necked Stilt

Recurvirostra americana, American Avocet


Haematopus ostralegus, Eurasian Oystercatcher

Haematopus palliatus, American Oystercatcher

Haematopus bachmani, Black Oystercatcher



Vanellus vanellus, Northern Lapwing


Pluvialis squatarola, Black-bellied Plover

Pluvialis apricaria, European Golden-Plover

Pluvialis dominica, American Golden-Plover

Pluvialis fulva, Pacific Golden-Plover

Charadrius morinellus, Eurasian Dotterel

Charadrius vociferus, Killdeer

Charadrius hiaticula, Common Ringed Plover

Charadrius semipalmatus, Semipalmated Plover

Charadrius melodus, Piping Plover

Charadrius dubius, Little Ringed Plover

Charadrius mongolus, Lesser Sand-Plover

Charadrius leschenaultii, Greater Sand-Plover

Charadrius wilsonia, Wilson's Plover

Charadrius collaris, Collared Plover

Charadrius montanus, Mountain Plover

Charadrius alexandrinus, Kentish Plover

Charadrius nivosus, Snowy Plover


Jacana spinosa, Northern Jacana



Bartramia longicauda, Upland Sandpiper

Numenius tahitiensis, Bristle-thighed Curlew

Numenius phaeopus, Whimbrel

Numenius minutus, Little Curlew

Numenius borealis, Eskimo Curlew

Numenius americanus, Long-billed Curlew

Numenius madagascariensis, Far Eastern Curlew

Numenius arquata, Eurasian Curlew


Limosa lapponica, Bar-tailed Godwit

Limosa limosa, Black-tailed Godwit

Limosa haemastica, Hudsonian Godwit

Limosa fedoa, Marbled Godwit


Arenaria interpres, Ruddy Turnstone

Arenaria melanocephala, Black Turnstone

Calidris tenuirostris, Great Knot

Calidris canutus, Red Knot

Calidris virgata, Surfbird

Calidris pugnax, Ruff

Calidris falcinellus, Broad-billed Sandpiper

Calidris acuminata, Sharp-tailed Sandpiper

Calidris himantopus, Stilt Sandpiper

Calidris ferruginea, Curlew Sandpiper

Calidris temminckii, Temminck's Stint

Calidris subminuta, Long-toed Stint

Calidris pygmea, Spoon-billed Sandpiper

Calidris ruficollis, Red-necked Stint

Calidris alba, Sanderling

Calidris alpina, Dunlin

Calidris ptilocnemis, Rock Sandpiper

Calidris maritima, Purple Sandpiper

Calidris bairdii, Baird's Sandpiper

Calidris minuta, Little Stint

Calidris minutilla, Least Sandpiper

Calidris fuscicollis, White-rumped Sandpiper

Calidris subruficollis, Buff-breasted Sandpiper

Calidris melanotos, Pectoral Sandpiper

Calidris pusilla, Semipalmated Sandpiper

Calidris mauri, Western Sandpiper


Limnodromus griseus, Short-billed Dowitcher

Limnodromus scolopaceus, Long-billed Dowitcher

Lymnocryptes minimus, Jack Snipe

Scolopax rusticola, Eurasian Woodcock

Scolopax minor, American Woodcock

Gallinago solitaria, Solitary Snipe

Gallinago stenura, Pin-tailed Snipe

Gallinago megala, Swinhoe's Snipe

Gallinago gallinago, Common Snipe

Gallinago delicata, Wilson's Snipe


Xenus cinereus, Terek Sandpiper

Actitis hypoleucos, Common Sandpiper

Actitis macularius, Spotted Sandpiper

Tringa ochropus, Green Sandpiper

Tringa solitaria, Solitary Sandpiper

Tringa brevipes, Gray-tailed Tattler

Tringa incana, Wandering Tattler

Tringa flavipes, Lesser Yellowlegs

Tringa semipalmata, Willet

Tringa erythropus, Spotted Redshank

Tringa nebularia, Common Greenshank

Tringa guttifer, Nordmann's Greenshank

Tringa melanoleuca, Greater Yellowlegs

Tringa totanus, Common Redshank

Tringa glareola, Wood Sandpiper

Tringa stagnatilis, Marsh Sandpiper

Phalaropus tricolor, Wilson's Phalarope

Phalaropus lobatus, Red-necked Phalarope

Phalaropus fulicarius, Red Phalarope


Stercorarius skua, Great Skua

Stercorarius maccormicki, South Polar Skua

Stercorarius pomarinus, Pomarine Jaeger

Stercorarius parasiticus, Parasitic Jaeger

Stercorarius longicaudus, Long-tailed Jaeger


Alle alle, Dovekie

Uria aalge, Common Murre

Uria lomvia, Thick-billed Murre

Alca torda, Razorbill

Cepphus grylle, Black Guillemot

Cepphus columba, Pigeon Guillemot

Brachyramphus perdix, Long-billed Murrelet

Brachyramphus marmoratus, Marbled Murrelet

Brachyramphus brevirostris, Kittlitz's Murrelet

Synthliboramphus scrippsi, Scripps's Murrelet

Synthliboramphus hypoleucus, Guadalupe Murrelet

Synthliboramphus craveri, Craveri's Murrelet

Synthliboramphus antiquus, Ancient Murrelet

Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cassin's Auklet

Aethia psittacula, Parakeet Auklet

Aethia pusilla, Least Auklet

Aethia pygmaea, Whiskered Auklet

Aethia cristatella, Crested Auklet

Cerorhinca monocerata, Rhinoceros Auklet

Fratercula arctica, Atlantic Puffin

Fratercula corniculata, Horned Puffin

Fratercula cirrhata, Tufted Puffin


Subfamily LARINAE

Creagrus furcatus, Swallow-tailed Gull

Rissa tridactyla, Black-legged Kittiwake

Rissa brevirostris, Red-legged Kittiwake

Pagophila eburnea, Ivory Gull

Xema sabini, Sabine's Gull

Chroicocephalus philadelphia, Bonaparte's Gull

Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus, Gray-hooded Gull

Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Black-headed Gull

Hydrocoloeus minutus, Little Gull

Rhodostethia rosea, Ross's Gull

Leucophaeus atricilla, Laughing Gull

Leucophaeus pipixcan, Franklin's Gull

Larus belcheri, Belcher's Gull

Larus crassirostris, Black-tailed Gull

Larus heermanni, Heermann's Gull

Larus canus, Mew Gull

Larus delawarensis, Ring-billed Gull

Larus occidentalis, Western Gull

Larus livens, Yellow-footed Gull

Larus californicus, California Gull

Larus argentatus, Herring Gull

Larus michahellis, Yellow-legged Gull

Larus glaucoides, Iceland Gull

Larus fuscus, Lesser Black-backed Gull

Larus schistisagus, Slaty-backed Gull

Larus glaucescens, Glaucous-winged Gull

Larus hyperboreus, Glaucous Gull

Larus marinus, Great Black-backed Gull

Larus dominicanus, Kelp Gull


Anous stolidus, Brown Noddy

Anous minutus, Black Noddy

Anous ceruleus, Blue-gray Noddy

Gygis alba, White Tern

Onychoprion fuscatus, Sooty Tern

Onychoprion lunatus, Gray-backed Tern

Onychoprion anaethetus, Bridled Tern

Onychoprion aleuticus, Aleutian Tern

Sternula albifrons, Little Tern

Sternula antillarum, Least Tern

Phaetusa simplex, Large-billed Tern

Gelochelidon nilotica, Gull-billed Tern

Hydroprogne caspia, Caspian Tern

Chlidonias niger, Black Tern

Chlidonias leucopterus, White-winged Tern

Chlidonias hybrida, Whiskered Tern

Sterna dougallii, Roseate Tern

Sterna sumatrana, Black-naped Tern

Sterna hirundo, Common Tern

Sterna paradisaea, Arctic Tern

Sterna forsteri, Forster's Tern

Thalasseus maximus, Royal Tern

Thalasseus bergii, Great Crested Tern

Thalasseus sandvicensis, Sandwich Tern

Thalasseus elegans, Elegant Tern


Rynchops niger, Black Skimmer



Phaethon lepturus, White-tailed Tropicbird

Phaethon aethereus, Red-billed Tropicbird

Phaethon rubricauda, Red-tailed Tropicbird



Gavia stellata, Red-throated Loon

Gavia arctica, Arctic Loon

Gavia pacifica, Pacific Loon

Gavia immer, Common Loon

Gavia adamsii, Yellow-billed Loon



Thalassarche chlororhynchos, Yellow-nosed Albatross

Thalassarche cauta, White-capped Albatross

Thalassarche eremita, Chatham Albatross

Thalassarche salvini, Salvin's Albatross

Thalassarche melanophris, Black-browed Albatross

Phoebetria palpebrata, Light-mantled Albatross

Diomedea exulans, Wandering Albatross

Phoebastria immutabilis, Laysan Albatross

Phoebastria nigripes, Black-footed Albatross

Phoebastria albatrus, Short-tailed Albatross


Oceanites oceanicus, Wilson's Storm-Petrel

Pelagodroma marina, White-faced Storm-Petrel

Fregetta tropica, Black-bellied Storm-Petrel


Hydrobates pelagicus, European Storm-Petrel

Fregetta grallaria, White-bellied Storm-Petrel

Nesofregetta fuliginosa, Polynesian Storm-Petrel

Hydrobates furcatus, Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel

Hydrobates hornbyi, Ringed Storm-Petrel

Hydrobates monorhis, Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel

Hydrobates leucorhous, Leach's Storm-Petrel

Hydrobates socorroensis, Townsend's Storm-Petrel

Hydrobates homochroa, Ashy Storm-Petrel

Hydrobates castro, Band-rumped Storm-Petrel

Hydrobates tethys, Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel

Oceanodroma matsudairae, Matsudaira's Storm-Petrel

Hydrobates melania, Black Storm-Petrel

Hydrobates tristrami, Tristram's Storm-Petrel

Hydrobates microsoma, Least Storm-Petrel


Fulmarus glacialis, Northern Fulmar

Pterodroma gouldi, Gray-faced Petrel

Pterodroma solandri, Providence Petrel

Pterodroma neglecta, Kermadec Petrel

Pterodroma arminjoniana, Trindade Petrel

Pterodroma heraldica, Herald Petrel

Pterodroma ultima, Murphy's Petrel

Pterodroma inexpectata, Mottled Petrel

Pterodroma cahow, Bermuda Petrel

Pterodroma hasitata, Black-capped Petrel

Pterodroma externa, Juan Fernandez Petrel

Pterodroma sandwichensis, Hawaiian Petrel

Pterodroma cervicalis, White-necked Petrel

Pterodroma hypoleuca, Bonin Petrel

Pterodroma nigripennis, Black-winged Petrel

Pterodroma feae, Fea's Petrel

Pterodroma madeira, Zino's Petrel

Pterodroma cookii, Cook's Petrel

Pterodroma longirostris, Stejneger's Petrel

Pterodroma alba, Phoenix Petrel

Pterodroma leucoptera, Gould's Petrel

Pseudobulweria rostrata, Tahiti Petrel

Bulweria bulwerii, Bulwer's Petrel

Bulweria fallax, Jouanin's Petrel

Procellaria aequinoctialis, White-chinned Petrel

Procellaria parkinsoni, Parkinson's Petrel

Calonectris leucomelas, Streaked Shearwater

Calonectris diomedea, Cory's Shearwater

Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde Shearwater

Ardenna pacifica, Wedge-tailed Shearwater

Ardenna bulleri, Buller's Shearwater

Ardenna tenuirostris, Short-tailed Shearwater

Ardenna grisea, Sooty Shearwater

Ardenna gravis, Great Shearwater

Ardenna creatopus, Pink-footed Shearwater

Ardenna carneipes, Flesh-footed Shearwater

Puffinus nativitatis, Christmas Shearwater

Puffinus puffinus, Manx Shearwater

Puffinus newelli, Newell's Shearwater

Puffinus bryani, Bryan's Shearwater

Puffinus opisthomelas, Black-vented Shearwater

Puffinus lherminieri, Audubon's Shearwater

Puffinus baroli, Barolo Shearwater



Jabiru mycteria, Jabiru

Mycteria americana, Wood Stork



Fregata ariel, Lesser Frigatebird

Fregata magnificens, Magnificent Frigatebird

Fregata minor, Great Frigatebird


Sula dactylatra, Masked Booby

Sula granti, Nazca Booby

Sula nebouxii, Blue-footed Booby

Sula leucogaster, Brown Booby

Sula sula, Red-footed Booby

Papasula abbotti, Abbott's Booby

Morus bassanus, Northern Gannet


Phalacrocorax melanoleucos, Little Pied Cormorant

Phalacrocorax penicillatus, Brandt's Cormorant

Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Neotropic Cormorant

Phalacrocorax auritus, Double-crested Cormorant

Phalacrocorax carbo, Great Cormorant

Phalacrocorax urile, Red-faced Cormorant

Phalacrocorax pelagicus, Pelagic Cormorant


Anhinga anhinga, Anhinga



Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, American White Pelican

Pelecanus occidentalis, Brown Pelican


Botaurus lentiginosus, American Bittern

Ixobrychus sinensis, Yellow Bittern

Ixobrychus exilis, Least Bittern

Ixobrychus eurhythmus, Schrenck's Bittern

Ixobrychus flavicollis, Black Bittern

Tigrisoma mexicanum, Bare-throated Tiger-Heron

Ardea herodias, Great Blue Heron

Ardea cinerea, Gray Heron

Ardea alba, Great Egret

Ardea intermedia, Intermediate Egret

Egretta eulophotes, Chinese Egret

Egretta garzetta, Little Egret

Egretta sacra, Pacific Reef-Heron

Egretta gularis, Western Reef-Heron

Egretta thula, Snowy Egret

Egretta caerulea, Little Blue Heron

Egretta tricolor, Tricolored Heron

Egretta rufescens, Reddish Egret

Bubulcus ibis, Cattle Egret

Ardeola bacchus, Chinese Pond-Heron

Butorides virescens, Green Heron

Nycticorax nycticorax, Black-crowned Night-Heron

Nycticorax caledonicus, Rufous Night-Heron

Nyctanassa violacea, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron

Gorsachius goisagi, Japanese Night-Heron

Gorsachius melanolophus, Malayan Night-Heron



Eudocimus albus, White Ibis

Eudocimus ruber, Scarlet Ibis

Plegadis falcinellus, Glossy Ibis

Plegadis chihi, White-faced Ibis


Platalea ajaja, Roseate Spoonbill



Coragyps atratus, Black Vulture

Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture

Gymnogyps californianus, California Condor



Pandion haliaetus, Osprey


Subfamily ELANINAE

Elanus leucurus, White-tailed Kite


Chondrohierax uncinatus, Hook-billed Kite

Elanoides forficatus, Swallow-tailed Kite


Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle

Harpagus bidentatus, Double-toothed Kite

Circus spilonotus, Eastern Marsh-Harrier

Circus hudsonius, Northern Harrier

Accipiter soloensis, Chinese Sparrowhawk

Accipiter gularis, Japanese Sparrowhawk

Accipiter striatus, Sharp-shinned Hawk

Accipiter cooperii, Cooper's Hawk

Accipiter gentilis, Northern Goshawk

Milvus migrans, Black Kite

Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle

Haliaeetus albicilla, White-tailed Eagle

Haliaeetus pelagicus, Steller's Sea-Eagle

Ictinia mississippiensis, Mississippi Kite

Butastur indicus, Gray-faced Buzzard

Geranospiza caerulescens, Crane Hawk

Rostrhamus sociabilis, Snail Kite

Buteogallus anthracinus, Common Black Hawk

Buteogallus urubitinga, Great Black Hawk

Rupornis magnirostris, Roadside Hawk

Parabuteo unicinctus, Harris's Hawk

Geranoaetus albicaudatus, White-tailed Hawk

Buteo plagiatus, Gray Hawk

Buteo lineatus, Red-shouldered Hawk

Buteo platypterus, Broad-winged Hawk

Buteo solitarius, Hawaiian Hawk

Buteo brachyurus, Short-tailed Hawk

Buteo swainsoni, Swainson's Hawk

Buteo albonotatus, Zone-tailed Hawk

Buteo jamaicensis, Red-tailed Hawk

Buteo lagopus, Rough-legged Hawk

Buteo regalis, Ferruginous Hawk



Tyto alba, Barn Owl


Otus sunia, Oriental Scops-Owl

Psiloscops flammeolus, Flammulated Owl

Megascops kennicottii, Western Screech-Owl

Megascops asio, Eastern Screech-Owl

Megascops trichopsis, Whiskered Screech-Owl

Megascops nudipes, Puerto Rican Screech-Owl

Bubo virginianus, Great Horned Owl

Bubo scandiacus, Snowy Owl

Surnia ulula, Northern Hawk Owl

Glaucidium gnoma, Northern Pygmy-Owl

Glaucidium brasilianum, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl

Micrathene whitneyi, Elf Owl

Athene cunicularia, Burrowing Owl

Ciccaba virgata, Mottled Owl

Strix occidentalis, Spotted Owl

Strix varia, Barred Owl

Strix nebulosa, Great Gray Owl

Asio otus, Long-eared Owl

Asio stygius, Stygian Owl

Asio flammeus, Short-eared Owl

Aegolius funereus, Boreal Owl

Aegolius acadicus, Northern Saw-whet Owl

Ninox japonica, Northern Boobook




Trogon elegans, Elegant Trogon

Euptilotis neoxenus, Eared Quetzal



Upupa epops, Eurasian Hoopoe




Alcedo atthis, Common Kingfisher


Todiramphus sacer, Pacific Kingfisher

Todiramphus cinnamominus, Guam Kingfisher

Todiramphus albicilla, Mariana Kingfisher


Megaceryle torquata, Ringed Kingfisher

Megaceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher

Chloroceryle amazona, Amazon Kingfisher

Chloroceryle americana, Green Kingfisher



Subfamily JYNGINAE

Jynx torquilla, Eurasian Wryneck

Subfamily PICINAE

Melanerpes lewis, Lewis's Woodpecker

Melanerpes portoricensis, Puerto Rican Woodpecker

Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Red-headed Woodpecker

Melanerpes formicivorus, Acorn Woodpecker

Melanerpes uropygialis, Gila Woodpecker

Melanerpes aurifrons, Golden-fronted Woodpecker

Melanerpes carolinus, Red-bellied Woodpecker

Sphyrapicus thyroideus, Williamson's Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus nuchalis, Red-naped Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus ruber, Red-breasted Sapsucker

Picoides dorsalis, American Three-toed Woodpecker

Picoides arcticus, Black-backed Woodpecker

Dendrocopos major, Great Spotted Woodpecker

Dryobates pubescens, Downy Woodpecker

Dryobates nuttallii, Nuttall's Woodpecker

Dryobates scalaris, Ladder-backed Woodpecker

Dryobates borealis, Red-cockaded Woodpecker

Dryobates villosus, Hairy Woodpecker

Dryobates albolarvatus, White-headed Woodpecker

Dryobates arizonae, Arizona Woodpecker

Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker

Colaptes chrysoides, Gilded Flicker

Dryocopus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker

Campephilus principalis, Ivory-billed Woodpecker




Micrastur semitorquatus, Collared Forest-Falcon


Caracara cheriway, Crested Caracara

Falco tinnunculus, Eurasian Kestrel

Falco sparverius, American Kestrel

Falco vespertinus, Red-footed Falcon

Falco amurensis, Amur Falcon

Falco columbarius, Merlin

Falco subbuteo, Eurasian Hobby

Falco femoralis, Aplomado Falcon

Falco rusticolus, Gyrfalcon

Falco peregrinus, Peregrine Falcon

Falco mexicanus, Prairie Falcon



Tityra semifasciata, Masked Tityra

Pachyramphus major, Gray-collared Becard

Pachyramphus aglaiae, Rose-throated Becard



Camptostoma imberbe, Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet

Myiopagis viridicata, Greenish Elaenia

Elaenia martinica, Caribbean Elaenia

Elaenia albiceps, White-crested Elaenia


Mitrephanes phaeocercus, Tufted Flycatcher

Contopus cooperi, Olive-sided Flycatcher

Contopus pertinax, Greater Pewee

Contopus sordidulus, Western Wood-Pewee

Contopus virens, Eastern Wood-Pewee

Contopus caribaeus, Cuban Pewee

Contopus hispaniolensis, Hispaniolan Pewee

Contopus latirostris, Lesser Antillean Pewee

Empidonax flaviventris, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher

Empidonax virescens, Acadian Flycatcher

Empidonax alnorum, Alder Flycatcher

Empidonax traillii, Willow Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus, Least Flycatcher

Empidonax hammondii, Hammond's Flycatcher

Empidonax wrightii, Gray Flycatcher

Empidonax oberholseri, Dusky Flycatcher

Empidonax affinis, Pine Flycatcher

Empidonax difficilis, Pacific-slope Flycatcher

Empidonax occidentalis, Cordilleran Flycatcher

Empidonax fulvifrons, Buff-breasted Flycatcher

Sayornis nigricans, Black Phoebe

Sayornis phoebe, Eastern Phoebe

Sayornis saya, Say's Phoebe

Pyrocephalus rubinus, Vermilion Flycatcher


Myiarchus tuberculifer, Dusky-capped Flycatcher

Myiarchus cinerascens, Ash-throated Flycatcher

Myiarchus nuttingi, Nutting's Flycatcher

Myiarchus crinitus, Great Crested Flycatcher

Myiarchus tyrannulus, Brown-crested Flycatcher

Myiarchus sagrae, La Sagra's Flycatcher

Myiarchus antillarum, Puerto Rican Flycatcher

Pitangus sulphuratus, Great Kiskadee

Myiozetetes similis, Social Flycatcher

Myiodynastes luteiventris, Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher

Legatus leucophaius, Piratic Flycatcher

Empidonomus varius, Variegated Flycatcher

Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus, Crowned Slaty Flycatcher

Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropical Kingbird

Tyrannus couchii, Couch's Kingbird

Tyrannus vociferans, Cassin's Kingbird

Tyrannus crassirostris, Thick-billed Kingbird

Tyrannus verticalis, Western Kingbird

Tyrannus tyrannus, Eastern Kingbird

Tyrannus dominicensis, Gray Kingbird

Tyrannus caudifasciatus, Loggerhead Kingbird

Tyrannus forficatus, Scissor-tailed Flycatcher

Tyrannus savana, Fork-tailed Flycatcher


Lanius cristatus, Brown Shrike

Lanius ludovicianus, Loggerhead Shrike

Lanius borealis, Northern Shrike


Vireo atricapilla, Black-capped Vireo

Vireo griseus, White-eyed Vireo

Vireo crassirostris, Thick-billed Vireo

Vireo latimeri, Puerto Rican Vireo

Vireo gundlachii, Cuban Vireo

Vireo bellii, Bell's Vireo

Vireo vicinior, Gray Vireo

Vireo huttoni, Hutton's Vireo

Vireo flavifrons, Yellow-throated Vireo

Vireo cassinii, Cassin's Vireo

Vireo solitarius, Blue-headed Vireo

Vireo plumbeus, Plumbeous Vireo

Vireo philadelphicus, Philadelphia Vireo

Vireo gilvus, Warbling Vireo

Vireo olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo flavoviridis, Yellow-green Vireo

Vireo altiloquus, Black-whiskered Vireo

Vireo magister, Yucatan Vireo


Perisoreus canadensis, Canada Jay

Psilorhinus morio, Brown Jay

Cyanocorax yncas, Green Jay

Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, Pinyon Jay

Cyanocitta stelleri, Steller's Jay

Cyanocitta cristata, Blue Jay

Aphelocoma coerulescens, Florida Scrub-Jay

Aphelocoma insularis, Island Scrub-Jay

Aphelocoma californica, California Scrub-Jay

Aphelocoma woodhouseii, Woodhouse's Scrub-Jay

Aphelocoma wollweberi, Mexican Jay

Nucifraga columbiana, Clark's Nutcracker

Pica hudsonia, Black-billed Magpie

Pica nuttalli, Yellow-billed Magpie

Corvus monedula, Eurasian Jackdaw

Corvus kubaryi, Mariana Crow

Corvus brachyrhynchos, American Crow

Corvus caurinus, Northwestern Crow

Corvus leucognaphalus, White-necked Crow

Corvus imparatus, Tamaulipas Crow

Corvus ossifragus, Fish Crow

Corvus hawaiiensis, Hawaiian Crow

Corvus cryptoleucus, Chihuahuan Raven

Corvus corax, Common Raven


Alauda arvensis, Eurasian Skylark

Eremophila alpestris, Horned Lark



Riparia riparia, Bank Swallow

Tachycineta bicolor, Tree Swallow

Tachycineta cyaneoviridis, Bahama Swallow

Tachycineta thalassina, Violet-green Swallow

Tachycineta albilinea, Mangrove Swallow

Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Northern Rough-winged Swallow

Progne tapera, Brown-chested Martin

Progne dominicensis, Caribbean Martin

Progne subis, Purple Martin

Progne cryptoleuca, Cuban Martin

Progne chalybea, Gray-breasted Martin

Progne elegans, Southern Martin

Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow

Delichon urbicum, Common House-Martin

Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, Cliff Swallow

Petrochelidon fulva, Cave Swallow


Poecile carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee

Poecile atricapillus, Black-capped Chickadee

Poecile gambeli, Mountain Chickadee

Poecile sclateri, Mexican Chickadee

Poecile rufescens, Chestnut-backed Chickadee

Poecile hudsonicus, Boreal Chickadee

Poecile cinctus, Gray-headed Chickadee

Baeolophus wollweberi, Bridled Titmouse

Baeolophus inornatus, Oak Titmouse

Baeolophus ridgwayi, Juniper Titmouse

Baeolophus bicolor, Tufted Titmouse

Baeolophus atricristatus, Black-crested Titmouse


Auriparus flaviceps, Verdin


Psaltriparus minimus, Bushtit


Subfamily SITTINAE

Sitta canadensis, Red-breasted Nuthatch

Sitta carolinensis, White-breasted Nuthatch

Sitta pygmaea, Pygmy Nuthatch

Sitta pusilla, Brown-headed Nuthatch



Certhia americana, Brown Creeper


Salpinctes obsoletus, Rock Wren

Catherpes mexicanus, Canyon Wren

Troglodytes aedon, House Wren

Troglodytes pacificus, Pacific Wren

Troglodytes hiemalis, Winter Wren

Cistothorus platensis, Sedge Wren

Cistothorus palustris, Marsh Wren

Thryothorus ludovicianus, Carolina Wren

Thryomanes bewickii, Bewick's Wren

Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, Cactus Wren

Thryophilus sinaloa, Sinaloa Wren


Polioptila caerulea, Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher

Polioptila californica, California Gnatcatcher

Polioptila melanura, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher

Polioptila nigriceps, Black-capped Gnatcatcher


Cinclus mexicanus, American Dipper


Regulus satrapa, Golden-crowned Kinglet

Regulus calendula, Ruby-crowned Kinglet


Phylloscopus trochilus, Willow Warbler

Phylloscopus collybita, Common Chiffchaff

Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Wood Warbler

Phylloscopus fuscatus, Dusky Warbler

Phylloscopus proregulus, Pallas's Leaf Warbler

Phylloscopus inornatus, Yellow-browed Warbler

Phylloscopus borealis, Arctic Warbler

Phylloscopus examinandus, Kamchatka Leaf Warbler


Sylvia curruca, Lesser Whitethroat

Chamaea fasciata, Wrentit


Arundinax aedon, Thick-billed Warbler

Acrocephalus luscinius, Nightingale Reed Warbler

Acrocephalus hiwae, Saipan Reed Warbler

Acrocephalus nijoi, Aguiguan Reed Warbler

Acrocephalus yamashinae, Pagan Reed Warbler

Acrocephalus familiaris, Millerbird

Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, Sedge Warbler

Acrocephalus dumetorum, Blyth's Reed Warbler


Locustella ochotensis, Middendorff's Grasshopper-Warbler

Locustella fluviatilis, River Warbler

Locustella lanceolata, Lanceolated Warbler


Muscicapa griseisticta, Gray-streaked Flycatcher

Muscicapa dauurica, Asian Brown Flycatcher

Muscicapa striata, Spotted Flycatcher

Muscicapa sibirica, Dark-sided Flycatcher

Erithacus rubecula, European Robin

Larvivora cyane, Siberian Blue Robin

Larvivora sibilans, Rufous-tailed Robin

Cyanecula svecica, Bluethroat

Calliope calliope, Siberian Rubythroat

Tarsiger cyanurus, Red-flanked Bluetail

Ficedula narcissina, Narcissus Flycatcher

Ficedula mugimaki, Mugimaki Flycatcher

Ficedula albicilla, Taiga Flycatcher

Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Common Redstart

Saxicola torquatus, Stonechat

Oenanthe oenanthe, Northern Wheatear

Oenanthe pleschanka, Pied Wheatear


Monticola solitarius, Blue Rock-Thrush

Sialia sialis, Eastern Bluebird

Sialia mexicana, Western Bluebird

Sialia currucoides, Mountain Bluebird

Myadestes townsendi, Townsend's Solitaire

Myadestes occidentalis, Brown-backed Solitaire

Myadestes myadestinus, Kāma’o

Myadestes lanaiensis, Olomao

Myadestes obscurus, Ōma’o

Myadestes palmeri, Puaiohi

Catharus aurantiirostris, Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush

Catharus mexicanus, Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush

Catharus fuscescens, Veery

Catharus minimus, Gray-cheeked Thrush

Catharus bicknelli, Bicknell's Thrush

Catharus ustulatus, Swainson's Thrush

Catharus guttatus, Hermit Thrush

Hylocichla mustelina, Wood Thrush

Turdus obscurus, Eyebrowed Thrush

Turdus naumanni, Dusky Thrush

Turdus pilaris, Fieldfare

Turdus iliacus, Redwing

Turdus grayi, Clay-colored Thrush

Turdus assimilis, White-throated Thrush

Turdus rufopalliatus, Rufous-backed Robin

Turdus migratorius, American Robin

Turdus plumbeus, Red-legged Thrush

Ixoreus naevius, Varied Thrush

Ridgwayia pinicola, Aztec Thrush


Melanotis caerulescens, Blue Mockingbird

Melanoptila glabrirostris, Black Catbird

Dumetella carolinensis, Gray Catbird

Margarops fuscatus, Pearly-eyed Thrasher

Toxostoma curvirostre, Curve-billed Thrasher

Toxostoma rufum, Brown Thrasher

Toxostoma longirostre, Long-billed Thrasher

Toxostoma bendirei, Bendire's Thrasher

Toxostoma redivivum, California Thrasher

Toxostoma lecontei, LeConte's Thrasher

Toxostoma crissale, Crissal Thrasher

Oreoscoptes montanus, Sage Thrasher

Mimus gundlachii, Bahama Mockingbird

Mimus polyglottos, Northern Mockingbird


Agropsar philippensis, Chestnut-cheeked Starling

Spodiopsar cineraceus, White-cheeked Starling


Bombycilla garrulus, Bohemian Waxwing

Bombycilla cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing


Ptiliogonys cinereus, Gray Silky-flycatcher

Phainopepla nitens, Phainopepla


Peucedramus taeniatus, Olive Warbler


Prunella montanella, Siberian Accentor


Motacilla tschutschensis, Eastern Yellow Wagtail

Motacilla citreola, Citrine Wagtail

Motacilla cinerea, Gray Wagtail

Motacilla alba, White Wagtail

Anthus trivialis, Tree Pipit

Anthus hodgsoni, Olive-backed Pipit

Anthus gustavi, Pechora Pipit

Anthus cervinus, Red-throated Pipit

Anthus rubescens, American Pipit

Anthus spragueii, Sprague's Pipit



Fringilla coelebs, Common Chaffinch

Fringilla montifringilla, Brambling


Euphonia musica, Antillean Euphonia


Coccothraustes vespertinus, Evening Grosbeak

Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Hawfinch

Carpodacus erythrinus, Common Rosefinch

Carpodacus roseus, Pallas's Rosefinch

Melamprosops phaeosoma, Po’ouli

Oreomystis bairdi, ’Akikiki

Paroreomyza maculata, O’ahu ’Alauahio

Paroreomyza flammea,Kākāwahie

Paroreomyza montana, Maui ’Alauahio

Loxioides bailleui, Palila

Telespiza cantans, Laysan Finch

Telespiza ultima, Nihoa Finch

Palmeria dolei, ’Akohekohe

Himatione fraithii, Laysan Honeycreeper

Himatione sanguinea, ’Apapane

Drepanis coccinea, ’I’iwi

Psittirostra psittacea, ’Ō ’ū

Pseudonestor xanthophrys, Maui Parrotbill

Hemignathus hanapepe, Kauai Nukupu’u

Hemignathus lucidus, O ’ahu Nukupu’u

Hemignathus affinis, Maui Nukupu’u

Hemignathus wilsoni, ’Akiapola’au

Akialoa stejnegeri, Kauai ’Akialoa

Akialoa ellisiana, O’ahu ’Akialoa

Akialoa lanaiensis, Maui Nui ’Akialoa

Magumma parva, ’Anianiau

Chlorodrepanis virens, Hawaii’Amakihi

Chlorodrepanis flava, O’ahu ’Amakihi

Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri, Kauai ’Amakihi

Loxops mana, Hawaii Creeper

Loxops caeruleirostris, ’Akeke’e

Loxops wolstenholmei, O’ahu ’Akepa

Loxops ochraceus, Maui ’Akepa

Loxops coccineus, Hawaii ’Akepa

Pinicola enucleator, Pine Grosbeak

Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Eurasian Bullfinch

Leucosticte arctoa, Asian Rosy-Finch

Leucosticte tephrocotis, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch

Leucosticte atrata, Black Rosy-Finch

Leucosticte australis, Brown-capped Rosy-Finch

Haemorhous mexicanus, House Finch

Haemorhous purpureus, Purple Finch

Haemorhous cassinii, Cassin's Finch

Chloris sinica, Oriental Greenfinch

Acanthis flammea, Common Redpoll

Acanthis hornemanni, Hoary Redpoll

Loxia curvirostra, Red Crossbill

Loxia sinesciuris, Cassia Crossbill

Loxia leucoptera, White-winged Crossbill

Spinus spinus, Eurasian Siskin

Spinus pinus, Pine Siskin

Spinus psaltria, Lesser Goldfinch

Spinus lawrencei, Lawrence's Goldfinch

Spinus tristis, American Goldfinch


Calcarius lapponicus, Lapland Longspur

Calcarius ornatus, Chestnut-collared Longspur

Calcarius pictus, Smith's Longspur

Rhynchophanes mccownii, McCown's Longspur

Plectrophenax nivalis, Snow Bunting

Plectrophenax hyperboreus, McKay's Bunting


Emberiza leucocephalos, Pine Bunting

Emberiza chrysophrys, Yellow-browed Bunting

Emberiza pusilla, Little Bunting

Emberiza rustica, Rustic Bunting

Emberiza elegans, Yellow-throated Bunting

Emberiza aureola, Yellow-breasted Bunting

Emberiza variabilis, Gray Bunting

Emberiza pallasi, Pallas's Bunting

Emberiza schoeniclus, Reed Bunting


Peucaea carpalis, Rufous-winged Sparrow

Peucaea botterii, Botteri's Sparrow

Peucaea cassinii, Cassin's Sparrow

Peucaea aestivalis, Bachman's Sparrow

Ammodramus savannarum, Grasshopper Sparrow

Arremonops rufivirgatus, Olive Sparrow

Amphispiza quinquestriata, Five-striped Sparrow

Amphispiza bilineata, Black-throated Sparrow

Chondestes grammacus, Lark Sparrow

Calamospiza melanocorys, Lark Bunting

Spizella passerina, Chipping Sparrow

Spizella pallida, Clay-colored Sparrow

Spizella atrogularis, Black-chinned Sparrow

Spizella pusilla, Field Sparrow

Spizella breweri, Brewer's Sparrow

Spizella wortheni, Worthen's Sparrow

Passerella iliaca, Fox Sparrow

Spizelloides arborea, American Tree Sparrow

Junco hyemalis, Dark-eyed Junco

Junco phaeonotus, Yellow-eyed Junco

Zonotrichia leucophrys, White-crowned Sparrow

Zonotrichia atricapilla, Golden-crowned Sparrow

Zonotrichia querula, Harris's Sparrow

Zonotrichia albicollis, White-throated Sparrow

Artemisiospiza nevadensis, Sagebrush Sparrow

Artemisiospiza belli, Bell's Sparrow

Pooecetes gramineus, Vesper Sparrow

Ammospiza leconteii, LeConte's Sparrow

Ammospiza maritima, Seaside Sparrow

Ammospiza nelsoni, Nelson's Sparrow

Ammospiza caudacuta, Saltmarsh Sparrow

Centronyx bairdii, Baird's Sparrow

Centronyx henslowii, Henslow's Sparrow

Passerculus sandwichensis, Savannah Sparrow

Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow

Melospiza lincolnii, Lincoln's Sparrow

Melospiza georgiana, Swamp Sparrow

Melozone fusca, Canyon Towhee

Melozone aberti, Abert's Towhee

Melozone crissalis, California Towhee

Aimophila ruficeps, Rufous-crowned Sparrow

Pipilo chlorurus, Green-tailed Towhee

Pipilo maculatus, Spotted Towhee

Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Eastern Towhee


Nesospingus speculiferus, Puerto Rican Tanager


Spindalis zena, Western Spindalis

Spindalis portoricensis, Puerto Rican Spindalis


Icteria virens, Yellow-breasted Chat



Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, Yellow-headed Blackbird


Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink


Sturnella magna, Eastern Meadowlark

Sturnella neglecta, Western Meadowlark


Icterus portoricensis, Puerto Rican Oriole

Icterus wagleri, Black-vented Oriole

Icterus spurius, Orchard Oriole

Icterus cucullatus, Hooded Oriole

Icterus pustulatus, Streak-backed Oriole

Icterus bullockii, Bullock's Oriole

Icterus gularis, Altamira Oriole

Icterus graduacauda, Audubon's Oriole

Icterus galbula, Baltimore Oriole

Icterus abeillei, Black-backed Oriole

Icterus parisorum, Scott's Oriole


Agelaius phoeniceus, Red-winged Blackbird

Agelaius tricolor, Tricolored Blackbird

Agelaius humeralis, Tawny-shouldered Blackbird

Agelaius xanthomus, Yellow-shouldered Blackbird

Molothrus bonariensis, Shiny Cowbird

Molothrus aeneus, Bronzed Cowbird

Molothrus ater, Brown-headed Cowbird

Euphagus carolinus, Rusty Blackbird

Euphagus cyanocephalus, Brewer's Blackbird

Quiscalus quiscula, Common Grackle

Quiscalus major, Boat-tailed Grackle

Quiscalus mexicanus, Great-tailed Grackle

Quiscalus niger, Greater Antillean Grackle


Seiurus aurocapilla, Ovenbird

Helmitheros vermivorum, Worm-eating Warbler

Parkesia motacilla, Louisiana Waterthrush

Parkesia noveboracensis, Northern Waterthrush

Vermivora bachmanii, Bachman's Warbler

Vermivora chrysoptera, Golden-winged Warbler

Vermivora cyanoptera, Blue-winged Warbler

Mniotilta varia, Black-and-white Warbler

Protonotaria citrea, Prothonotary Warbler

Limnothlypis swainsonii, Swainson's Warbler

Oreothlypis superciliosa, Crescent-chested Warbler

Leiothlypis peregrina, Tennessee Warbler

Leiothlypis celata, Orange-crowned Warbler

Leiothlypis crissalis, Colima Warbler

Leiothlypis luciae, Lucy's Warbler

Leiothlypis ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler

Leiothlypis virginiae, Virginia's Warbler

Oporornis agilis, Connecticut Warbler

Geothlypis poliocephala, Gray-crowned Yellowthroat

Geothlypis tolmiei, MacGillivray's Warbler

Geothlypis philadelphia, Mourning Warbler

Geothlypis formosa, Kentucky Warbler

Geothlypis trichas, Common Yellowthroat

Setophaga angelae, Elfin-woods Warbler

Setophaga citrina, Hooded Warbler

Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart

Setophaga kirtlandii, Kirtland's Warbler

Setophaga tigrina, Cape May Warbler

Setophaga cerulea, Cerulean Warbler

Setophaga americana, Northern Parula

Setophaga pitiayumi, Tropical Parula

Setophaga magnolia, Magnolia Warbler

Setophaga castanea, Bay-breasted Warbler

Setophaga fusca, Blackburnian Warbler

Setophaga petechia, Yellow Warbler

Setophaga pensylvanica, Chestnut-sided Warbler

Setophaga striata, Blackpoll Warbler

Setophaga caerulescens, Black-throated Blue Warbler

Setophaga palmarum, Palm Warbler

Setophaga pinus, Pine Warbler

Setophaga coronata, Yellow-rumped Warbler

Setophaga dominica, Yellow-throated Warbler

Setophaga discolor, Prairie Warbler

Setophaga adelaidae, Adelaide's Warbler

Setophaga graciae, Grace's Warbler

Setophaga nigrescens, Black-throated Gray Warbler

Setophaga townsendi, Townsend's Warbler

Setophaga occidentalis, Hermit Warbler

Setophaga chrysoparia, Golden-cheeked Warbler

Setophaga virens, Black-throated Green Warbler

Basileuterus lachrymosus, Fan-tailed Warbler

Basileuterus rufifrons, Rufous-capped Warbler

Basileuterus culicivorus, Golden-crowned Warbler

Cardellina canadensis, Canada Warbler

Cardellina pusilla, Wilson's Warbler

Cardellina rubrifrons, Red-faced Warbler

Myioborus pictus, Painted Redstart

Myioborus miniatus, Slate-throated Redstart


Piranga flava, Hepatic Tanager

Piranga rubra, Summer Tanager

Piranga olivacea, Scarlet Tanager

Piranga ludoviciana, Western Tanager

Piranga bidentata, Flame-colored Tanager

Rhodothraupis celaeno, Crimson-collared Grosbeak

Cardinalis cardinalis, Northern Cardinal

Cardinalis sinuatus, Pyrrhuloxia

Pheucticus chrysopeplus, Yellow Grosbeak

Pheucticus ludovicianus, Rose-breasted Grosbeak

Pheucticus melanocephalus, Black-headed Grosbeak

Cyanocompsa parellina, Blue Bunting

Passerina caerulea, Blue Grosbeak

Passerina amoena, Lazuli Bunting

Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting

Passerina versicolor, Varied Bunting

Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting

Spiza americana, Dickcissel


Subfamily DACNINAE

Cyanerpes cyaneus, Red-legged Honeycreeper


Coereba flaveola, Bananaquit

Tiaris olivaceus, Yellow-faced Grassquit

Melanospiza bicolor, Black-faced Grassquit

Melopyrrha portoricensis, Puerto Rican Bullfinch


Sporophila morelleti, Morelet's Seedeater

[78 FR 65850, Nov. 1, 2013, as amended at 85 FR 21290, Apr. 16, 2020]

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§10.14   xxx

Link to an amendment published at 86 FR 1165, Jan. 7, 2021.

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Subpart C—Addresses

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§10.21   Director.

(a) Mail forwarded to the Director for law enforcement purposes should be addressed to Chief, Office of Law Enforcement, at the address provided at 50 CFR 2.1(b).

(b) Mail sent to the Director regarding permits for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Fauna (CITES), injurious wildlife, Wild Bird Conservation Act species, international movement of all ESA-listed endangered or threatened species, and scientific research on, exhibition of, or interstate commerce in nonnative ESA-listed endangered and threatened species should be addressed to: Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, (Attention: Division of Management Authority), at the address provided for the Division of Management Authority at 50 CFR 2.1(b). Address mail for the following permits to the Regional Director. In the address include one of the following: for import/export licenses and exception to designated port permits (Attention: Import/export license); for native endangered and threatened species (Attention: Endangered/threatened species permit); and for migratory birds and eagles (Attention: Migratory bird permit office). You can find addresses for regional offices at 50 CFR 2.2.

[55 FR 48851, Nov. 23, 1990, as amended at 63 FR 52633, Oct. 1, 1998; 80 FR 26467, May 8, 2015]

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§10.22   Law enforcement offices.

(a) Service law enforcement offices are located in Service regional offices. Regional office addresses are provided at 50 CFR 2.2. Mail should be addressed to “Special Agent in Charge, Office of Law Enforcement, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service” at the appropriate regional office address. Telephone numbers for Service law enforcement offices follow:

RegionLaw enforcement
office telephone

(b) Any resident or official of a foreign country may contact the Service's Headquarters Office of Law Enforcement at the address provided at 50 CFR 2.1(b) or by telephone at 703-358-1949.

[78 FR 35151, June 12, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 43964, July 29, 2014]

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