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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of October 21, 2019

Title 46Chapter IVSubchapter C → Part 565


Title 46: Shipping


PART 565—CONTROLLED CARRIERS


Contents
§565.1   Purpose and scope.
§565.2   Definitions.
§565.3   Classification as controlled carrier.
§565.4   Notification to Commission of change in control.
§565.5   Exceptions.
§565.6   Level of rates and charges generally.
§565.7   Effective dates.
§565.8   Special permission.
§565.9   Commission review, suspension and prohibition of rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations.
§565.10   Suspension procedures, period of suspension, and replacement rates.
§565.11   Presidential review.
§565.12   Stay, postponement, discontinuance or suspension of action.
§565.13   OMB control number assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act

Authority: 46 U.S.C. 40701-40706.

Source: 64 FR 8010, Feb. 18, 1999, unless otherwise noted.

§565.1   Purpose and scope.

(a) Purpose. The regulations of this part are intended to carry out the Commission's mandate under section 9 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C. 40701-40706), as amended by the Ocean Shipping Reform Act of 1998, to monitor the practices of controlled carriers and ensure that they do not:

(1) Maintain rates or charges in their tariffs and service contracts that are below a level that is just and reasonable; nor

(2) Establish, maintain or enforce unjust or unreasonable classifications, rules or regulations in those tariffs or service contracts which result or are likely to result in the carriage or handling of cargo at rates or charges that are below a just and reasonable level.

(b) Scope. The regulations contained in this part set forth the special procedures whereby controlled carriers' tariffs and service contracts become effective and are reviewed by the Commission. These regulations in no way exempt controlled carriers from other Commission regulations or statutory authority to which they may otherwise be subject as ocean common carriers. These regulations apply to all controlled carriers operating in the foreign commerce of the United States unless excepted under section 9(f) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C. 40706), as reflected by §565.5.

[64 FR 8010, Feb. 18, 1999, as amended at 74 FR 50735, Oct. 1, 2009]

§565.2   Definitions.

(a) Controlled carrier means an ocean common carrier that is, or whose operating assets are, directly or indirectly owned or controlled by a government. Ownership or control by a government shall be deemed to exist with respect to any ocean common carrier if:

(1) A majority portion of the interest in the carrier is owned or controlled in any manner by that government, by any agency thereof, or by any public or private person controlled by that government; or

(2) That government has the right to appoint or disapprove the appointment of a majority of the directors, the chief operating officer or the chief executive officer of the carrier.

(b) Effective date has the same meaning it has in 46 CFR part 520.

§565.3   Classification as controlled carrier.

(a) Notification. The Commission will periodically review the ocean common carriers operating in the foreign commerce of the United States and will notify any ocean common carrier of any change in its classification as a controlled carrier.

(b) Rebuttal of classification. (1) Any ocean common carrier contesting such a classification may, within 30 days after the date of the Commission's notice, submit a rebuttal statement.

(2) The Commission shall review the rebuttal and notify the ocean common carrier of its final decision.

§565.4   Notification to Commission of change in control.

Whenever the operation, control or ownership of an ocean common carrier is transferred resulting in a majority portion of the interest of that ocean common carrier being owned or controlled in any manner by a government, the ocean common carrier shall immediately send written notification of the details of the change to the Secretary of the Commission. If a carrier is newly commencing ocean common carrier operations in a United States trade, and if a majority portion of the carrier is owned or controlled by a government, or if a government may approve or disapprove the majority of directors or the chief executive or operating officer of the carrier, the carrier shall immediately send written notification to the Secretary of the details of such ownership or control.

§565.5   Exceptions.

All controlled carriers shall be subject to provisions of this part and section 9 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C. 40701-40706) except those which meet the following exceptions:

(a) When the vessels of the controlling state are entitled by a treaty of the United States to receive national or most-favored-nation treatment; or

(b) When the controlled carrier operates in a trade served exclusively by controlled carriers.

[64 FR 8010, Feb. 18, 1999, as amended at 74 FR 50735, Oct. 1, 2009]

§565.6   Level of rates and charges generally.

No controlled carrier may maintain or enforce rates or charges in its tariffs or service contracts that are below a level that is just and reasonable. No controlled carrier may establish or maintain unjust or unreasonable classifications, rules, or regulations in its tariffs or service contracts. An unjust or unreasonable classification, rule or regulation means one that results or is likely to result in the carriage or handling of cargo at rates or charges that are below a just and reasonable level. See §565.9(a)(2) (Rate standards).

§565.7   Effective dates.

(a) Generally. Except for service contracts, the rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations of controlled carriers may not, unless the Commission has granted special permission, become effective sooner than the 30th day after the date of publication.

(b) Open rates—(1) Generally. Controlled carriers that are members of conference agreements publishing rates for commodities designated as open by the conference are subject to the 30-day controlled carrier notice requirement, except when special permission is granted by the Commission under §565.8.

(2) Conference publication of reduced open rates. Notwithstanding paragraph (b)(1) of this section, a conference may, on less than 30 days' notice, publish reduced rates on behalf of controlled carrier members for open-rated commodities:

(i) At or above the minimum level set by the conference; or

(ii) At or above the level set by a member of the conference that has not been determined by the Commission to be a controlled carrier subject to section 9 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C. 40701-40706).

(c) Independent action rates of controlled carriers. Conferences may publish on behalf of their controlled carrier members lower independent action rates on less than 30 days' notice, subject to the requirements of their basic agreements and subject to such rates being published at or above the level set by a member of the conference that has not been determined by the Commission to be a controlled carrier subject to section 9 of the Shipping Act of 1984.

[64 FR 8010, Feb. 18, 1999, as amended at 74 FR 50735, Oct. 1, 2009]

§565.8   Special permission.

Section 8(d) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C. 40501(e)) authorizes the Commission, in its discretion and for good cause shown, to permit increases or decreases in rates, or the issuance of new or initial rates, on less than statutory notice under §565.7. Section 9(c) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C. 40703, 40704(a)) authorizes the Commission to permit a controlled carrier's rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations to become effective on less than 30 days' notice. The Commission may also in its discretion and for good cause shown, permit departures from the requirements of this part. The Commission will consider such requests for special permission by controlled carriers pursuant to its procedures set forth at 46 CFR part 520.

[64 FR 8010, Feb. 18, 1999, as amended at 74 FR 50735, Oct. 1, 2009]

§565.9   Commission review, suspension and prohibition of rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations.

(a)(1) Request for justification. Within 20 days of a request (with respect to its existing or proposed rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations) from the Commission, each controlled carrier shall file a statement of justification that sufficiently details the controlled carrier's need and purpose for such rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations upon which the Commission may reasonably base its determination of the lawfulness thereof.

(2) Rate standards. (i) In determining whether rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations by a controlled carrier are just and reasonable, the Commission shall take into account whether the rates or charges which have been published or assessed or which would result from the pertinent rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations are below a level which is fully compensatory to the controlled carrier based upon that carrier's actual or constructive costs.

(ii) For the purposes of paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section, constructive costs means the costs of another carrier, other than a controlled carrier, operating similar vessels and equipment in the same or a similar trade.

(iii) The Commission may also take into account other appropriate factors, including, but not limited to, whether:

(A) The rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations are the same as or similar to those published or assessed by other carriers in the same trade;

(B) The rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations are required to assure movement of particular cargo in the trade; or

(C) The rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations are required to maintain acceptable continuity, level or quality of common carrier service to or from affected ports.

(3) Time for determination. The Commission shall determine within 120 days of the receipt of information requested by the Commission under this section, whether the rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations of a controlled carrier may be unjust and unreasonable. Whenever the Commission is of the opinion that the rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations published or assessed by a controlled carrier may be unjust and unreasonable, the Commission shall issue an order to the controlled carrier to show cause why those rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations should not be prohibited.

(b) Suspension. Pending a decision on whether to prohibit the rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations of a controlled carrier, the Commission may suspend the rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations. See §565.10.

(c) Prohibition. The Commission shall prohibit the use of any rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations that the controlled carrier has failed to demonstrate to be just and reasonable. In a proceeding under this paragraph, the burden of proof is on the controlled carrier to demonstrate that its rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations are just and reasonable. The use of rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations published or assessed by a controlled carrier that have been suspended or prohibited by the Commission is unlawful.

(d) Publication. All final orders of prohibition shall be published in the Federal Register.

§565.10   Suspension procedures, period of suspension, and replacement rates.

(a)(1) Suspension prior to effective date. Pending a determination as to their lawfulness in a prohibition proceeding as described in §565.9, the Commission may suspend the rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations at any time before their effective date.

(2) Suspension after effective date. In the case of rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations that have already become effective, the Commission may, upon the issuance of an order to show cause, suspend those rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations on not less than 30 days' notice to the controlled carrier.

(b) Period of suspension. In any case, no period of suspension may be greater than 180 days.

(c) Implementation. (1) Upon issuance of an order suspending a rate, charge, classification, rule or regulation in whole or in part, the Commission shall direct the controlled carrier to remove the suspended material from its tariff publication; or

(2) if the matter subject to the suspension order is not covered by paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the Commission shall set forth procedures in the order for implementing the suspension.

(3) Publication. All orders of suspension shall be published in the Federal Register.

(d) Replacement rates. Controlled carriers may publish in tariffs or file in service contracts rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations in lieu of the suspended matter (“replacement rates”).

(1) Effective date. In the case of replacement rates which are published in tariffs and which are scheduled to become effective during a suspension period, may become effective immediately upon either their publication in tariffs or upon the effective date of the suspension, whichever is later.

(2) Rejection of replacement rates. The Commission may reject the replacement rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations published in tariffs or filed in service contracts to take effect during the suspension period if they are unjust and unreasonable. In determining whether to reject replacement rates, charges, classifications, rules or regulations, the Commission will consider whether they would result in total charges (i.e, rate plus applicable surcharges) that are lower than the lowest comparable charges effective for a common carrier, other than a controlled carrier, serving the same trade.

(3) At the same time it announces replacement rates, the controlled carrier shall submit to the Secretary of the Commission, a letter identifying the specific competing common carrier's rates, charges, classification or rules resulting in total charges which are equal to or lower than its own.

§565.11   Presidential review.

The Commission shall transmit all orders of suspension or final orders of prohibition to the President of the United States concurrently with the submission of such orders to the Federal Register pursuant to §565.9(d) or §565.10(c)(3). The President may, within 10 days of either the receipt or effective date of the order, request in writing that the Commission stay the effect of the order for reasons of national defense or foreign policy.

§565.12   Stay, postponement, discontinuance or suspension of action.

The Commission may, on its own motion or upon petition, postpone, discontinue, or suspend any and all actions taken by it under the provisions of this part. The Commission shall immediately stay the effect of any order issued under this part as requested by the President pursuant to §565.11.

§565.13   OMB control number assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act

The Commission has received OMB approval for this collection of information pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as amended. In accordance with that Act, agencies are required to display a currently valid control number. The valid control number for this collection of information is 3072-0060.

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