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Title 40Chapter ISubchapter D → Part 143


Title 40: Protection of Environment


PART 143—OTHER SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT REGULATIONS


Contents

Subpart A—National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations

§143.1   Purpose.
§143.2   Definitions.
§143.3   Secondary maximum contaminant levels.
§143.4   Monitoring.
§§143.5--143.9   [Reserved]

Subpart B—Use of Lead Free Pipes, Fittings, Fixtures, Solder, and Flux for Drinking Water

§ 143.10   Applicability and scope.
§ 143.11   Definitions.
§ 143.12   Definition of lead free and calculation methodology.
§ 143.13   Use prohibitions.
§ 143.14   State enforcement of use prohibitions.
§ 143.15   Introduction into commerce prohibitions.
§ 143.16   Exemptions.
§ 143.17   [Reserved]
§ 143.18   Required labeling of solder and flux that is not lead free.
§ 143.19   Required certification of products.
§ 143.20   Compliance provisions.

Authority: 42 U.S.C. 300f et seq.

Source: 44 FR 42198, July 19, 1979, unless otherwise noted.

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Subpart A—National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations

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§143.1   Purpose.

This subpart establishes National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations pursuant to section 1412 of the Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 300g-1). The regulations in this subpart control contaminants in drinking water that primarily affect the aesthetic qualities relating to the public acceptance of drinking water. At considerably higher concentrations of these contaminants, health implications may also exist as well as aesthetic degradation. The regulations in this subpart are not Federally enforceable but are intended as guidelines for the States.

[44 FR 42198, July 19, 1979, as amended at 85 FR 54256, Sept. 1, 2020]

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§143.2   Definitions.

(a) Act means the Safe Drinking Water Act as amended (42 U.S.C. 300f et seq.).

(b) Contaminant means any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water.

(c) Public water system means a system for the provision to the public of piped water for human consumption, if such a system has at least fifteen service connections or regularly serves an average of at least twenty-five individuals daily at least 60 days out of the year. Such term includes (1) any collection, treatment, storage, and distribution facilities under control of the operator of such system and used primarily in connection with such system, and (2) any collection or pretreatment storage facilities not under such control which are used primarily in connection with such system. A public water system is either a “community water system” or a “non-community water system.”

(d) State means the agency of the State or Tribal government which has jurisdiction over public water systems. During any period when a State does not have responsibility pursuant to section 1443 of the Act, the term “State” means the Regional Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

(e) Supplier of water means any person who owns or operates a public water system.

(f) Secondary maximum contaminant levels means SMCLs which apply to public water systems and which, in the judgement of the Administrator, are requisite to protect the public welfare. The SMCL means the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water which is delivered to the free flowing outlet of the ultimate user of public water system. Contamimants added to the water under circumstances controlled by the user, except those resulting from corrosion of piping and plumbing caused by water quality, are excluded from this definition.

[44 FR 42198, July 19, 1979, as amended at 53 FR 37412, Sept. 26, 1988]

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§143.3   Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

The secondary maximum contaminant levels for public water systems are as follows:

ContaminantLevel
Aluminum0.05 to 0.2 mg/l.
Chloride250 mg/l.
Color15 color units.
Copper1.0 mg/l.
CorrosivityNon-corrosive.
Fluoride2.0 mg/l.
Foaming agents0.5 mg/l.
Iron0.3 mg/l.
Manganese0.05 mg/l.
Odor3 threshold odor number.
pH6.5-8.5.
Silver0.1 mg/l.
Sulfate250 mg/l.
Total dissolved solids (TDS)500 mg/l.
Zinc5 mg/l.

These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking water quality. The States may establish higher or lower levels which may be appropriate dependent upon local conditions such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors, provided that public health and welfare are not adversely affected.

[44 FR 42198, July 19, 1979, as amended at 51 FR 11412, Apr. 2, 1986; 56 FR 3597, Jan. 30, 1991]

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§143.4   Monitoring.

(a) It is recommended that the parameters in these regulations should be monitored at intervals no less frequent than the monitoring performed for inorganic chemical contaminants listed in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations as applicable to community water systems. More frequent monitoring would be appropriate for specific parameters such as pH, color, odor or others under certain circumstances as directed by the State.

(b) Measurement of pH, copper and fluoride to determine compliance under §143.3 may be conducted with one of the methods in §141.23(k)(1). Analyses of aluminum, chloride, foaming agents, iron, manganese, odor, silver, sulfate, total dissolved solids (TDS) and zinc to determine compliance under §143.3 may be conducted with the methods in the following table or alternative methods listed in appendix A to subpart C of part 141. Criteria for analyzing aluminum, copper, iron, manganese, silver and zinc samples with digestion or directly without digestion, and other analytical test procedures are contained in Technical Notes on Drinking Water Methods, EPA-600/R-94-173, October 1994. This document is available from the National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP), P.O. Box 42419, Cincinnati, OH 45242-0419 or http://www.epa.gov/nscep/.

Contaminant EPA ASTM3 SM4 18th and 19th ed.SM4 20th ed.SM7 Online Other
1. Aluminum200.723120 B3120 B3120 B-99
   200.823113 B3113 B-99
   200.923111 D3111 D-99
2. Chloride300.01, 300.16D4327-97, 034110 B4110 B4110 B-00
   4500-Cl D4500-Cl D4500-Cl D-97
      D512-89 (Reapproved 1999) B4500-Cl B4500-Cl B4500-Cl B-97
   D6508, Rev. 28
3. Color2120 B2120 B2120 B-01
4. Foaming Agents5540 C5540 C5540 C-00
5. Iron200.723120 B3120 B3120 B-99
   200.923111 B3111 B-99
   3113 B3113 B-99
6. Manganese200.723120 B3120 B3120 B-99
   200.823111 B3111 B-99
   200.923113 B3113 B-99
7. Odor2150 B2150 B2150 B-97
8. Silver200.723120 B3120 B3120 B-99.I-3720-855
   200.823111 B3111 B-99
   200.923113 B3113 B-99
9. Sulfate300.01, 300.16D4327-97, 034110 B4110 B4110 B-00
   375.214500-SO42 F4500-SO42 F
   4500-SO42 C, D4500-SO42 C, D
   D516-90, 024500-SO42 E4500-SO42 E
   D6508, Rev. 28
10. Total Dissolved Solids2540 C2540 C2540 C-97
11. Zinc200.723120 B3120 B3120 B-99
   200.823111 B3111 B-99

The procedures shall be done in accordance with the documents listed below. The incorporation by reference of the following documents was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the documents may be obtained from the sources listed below. Information regarding obtaining these documents can be obtained from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 800-426-4791. Documents may be inspected at EPA's Drinking Water Docket, EPA West, 1301 Constitution Avenue, NW., Room 3334, Washington, DC (Telephone: 202-566-2426); or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal__register/code__of__federal__regulations/ibr__locations.html.

1“Methods for the Determination of Inorganic Substances in Environmental Samples,” EPA/600/R-93-100, August 1993. Available at NTIS, PB94-120821.

2“Methods for the Determination of Metals in Environmental Samples—Supplement I,” EPA/600/R-94-111, May 1994. Available at NTIS, PB 95-125472.

3Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 1994, 1996, 1999, or 2004, Vols. 11.01 and 11.02, ASTM International; any year containing the cited version of the method may be used. Copies may be obtained from the ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428.

4Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 18th edition (1992), 19th edition (1995), or 20th edition (1998). American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005. The cited methods published in any of these three editions may be used, except that the versions of 3111 B, 3111 D, and 3113 B in the 20th edition may not be used.

5Method I-3720-85, Techniques of Water Resources Investigation of the U.S. Geological Survey, Book 5, Chapter A-1, 3rd ed., 1989. Available from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225-0425.

6“Methods for the Determination of Organic and Inorganic Compounds in Drinking Water,” Vol. 1, EPA 815R-00-014, August 2000. Available at NTIS, PB2000-106981.

7Standard Methods Online are available at http://www.standardmethods.org. The year in which each method was approved by the Standard Methods Committee is designated by the last two digits in the method number. The methods listed are the only online versions that may be used.

8Method D6508, Rev. 2, “Test Method for Determination of Dissolved Inorganic Anions in Aqueous Matrices Using Capillary Ion Electrophoresis and Chromate Electrolyte,” available from Waters Corp, 34 Maple St., Milford, MA, 01757, Telephone: 508/482-2131, Fax: 508/482-3625.

[44 FR 42198, July 19, 1979, as amended at 53 FR 5147, Feb. 19, 1988; 56 FR 30281, July 1, 1991; 59 FR 62470, Dec. 5, 1994; 64 FR 67466, Dec. 1, 1999; 67 FR 65252, Oct. 23, 2002; 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, 2004; 72 FR 11248, Mar. 12, 2007; 74 FR 30959, June 29, 2009]

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§§143.5--143.9   [Reserved]

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Subpart B—Use of Lead Free Pipes, Fittings, Fixtures, Solder, and Flux for Drinking Water

Source: 85 FR 54256, Sept. 1, 2020, unless otherwise noted.

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§ 143.10   Applicability and scope.

(a) This subpart establishes regulations pertaining to pipes, pipe or plumbing fittings, or fixtures, solder and flux, pursuant to, inter alia, sections 1417 and 1461 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300g-6 and 300j-21). It applies to any person who introduces these products into commerce, such as manufacturers, importers, wholesalers, distributors, re-sellers, and retailers. It also applies to any person who uses these products in the installation or repair of:

(1) A public water system; or

(2) A residential or nonresidential facility providing water for human consumption.

(b) Reserved.

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§ 143.11   Definitions.

The following definitions apply to this subpart:

Accredited third party certification body means those bodies that are accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to provide product certification to meet the lead free requirements of not more than a weighted average of 0.25 percent lead content when used with respect to the wetted surfaces, consistent with section 1417 of the Safe Drinking Water Act and §143.12, such as certification to the NSF/ANSI 372 standard.

Administrator means the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or his or her authorized representative.

Affiliated means a person or entity that directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by, or is under common control with, the person or entity specified. Affiliated persons or entities include but are not limited to: A parent company and all wholly or partially owned subsidiaries of a parent company, or two or more corporations or family partnerships that have overlap in ownership or control.

Alloy means a substance composed of two or more metals or of a metal and a nonmetal.

Coating means a thin layer of material such as paint, epoxy, zinc galvanization, or other material usually applied by spraying or in liquid form to coat internal surfaces of pipes, fittings, or fixtures.

Custom fabricated product means a product that:

(1) Is manufactured on a case-by-case basis to accommodate the unique needs of a single customer;

(2) Does not have a Universal Product Code (UPC) assigned to the product;

(3) Is not stocked by and is not available through inventory from a manufacturer, importer, wholesaler, distributor, retailer, or other source for distribution; and

(4) Is not cataloged in print or on the internet with a specific item number or code.

Drinking water cooler means any mechanical device, affixed to drinking water supply plumbing, which actively cools water for human consumption.

Fitting means a pipe fitting or plumbing fitting.

Fixture means a receptacle or device that is connected to a water supply system or discharges to a drainage system or both. Fixtures used for potable uses shall include but are not limited to:

(1) Drinking water coolers, drinking water fountains, drinking water bottle fillers, dishwashers;

(2) Plumbed in devices, such as point-of-use treatment devices, coffee makers, and refrigerator ice and water dispensers; and

(3) Water heaters, water meters, water pumps, and water tanks, unless such fixtures are not used for potable uses.

Flux means a substance used for helping to melt or join metals such as by removal of oxides and other coatings or residues from the metals before joining by using solder or other means.

Importer means any person who introduces into commerce any pipe, any pipe or plumbing fitting or fixture, or any solder or flux entering the United States; or any “importer” as defined in 19 CFR 101.1; or both.

Introduce into commerce or introduction into commerce means the sale or distribution of products or offering products for sale or distribution in the United States.

Liner means a rigid lining such as a plastic or copper sleeve that is:

(1) Sealed with a permanent barrier to exclude lead-bearing surfaces from water contact; and

(2) Of sufficient thickness and otherwise having physical properties necessary to prevent erosion and cracking for the expected useful life of the product.

Manufacturer means a person or entity who:

(1) Processes or makes a product; or

(2) Has products processed or made under a contractual arrangement for distribution, using the person's or entity's brand name or trademark.

Nonpotable services means all product uses and applications that are not potable uses.

Person means an individual; corporation; company; association; partnership; municipality; or State, federal, or Tribal agency (including officers, employees, and agents of any corporation, company, association, municipality, State, Tribal, or federal agency).

Pipe means a conduit, conductor, tubing, or hose and may also include permanently attached end fittings.

Pipe fitting means any piece (such as a coupling, elbow, or gasket) used for connecting pipe lengths together or to connect other plumbing pieces together or to change direction.

Plumbing fitting means a plumbing component that controls the volume and/or directional flow of water, such as kitchen faucets, bathroom lavatory faucets, manifolds, and valves.

Point-of-use treatment device means point-of-use treatment device as defined in §141.2 of this chapter.

Potable uses, for purposes only of this subpart, means services or applications that provide water for human ingestion, such as for drinking, cooking, food preparation, dishwashing, teeth brushing, or maintaining oral hygiene.

Product means a pipe, fitting, or fixture.

Public water system means a public water system as defined in §141.2 of this chapter.

Solder means a type of metal that is used to join metal parts such as sections of pipe, without melting the existing metal in the parts to be joined. Solder is usually sold or distributed in the form of wire rolls or bars.

State means state as defined in §142.2 of this chapter.

United States includes its commonwealths, districts, States, Tribes, and Territories.

Water distribution main means a pipe, typically found under or adjacent to a roadway, that supplies water to buildings via service lines.

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§ 143.12   Definition of lead free and calculation methodology.

(a) “Lead free” for the purposes of this subpart means:

(1) Not containing more than 0.2 percent lead when used with respect to solder and flux; and

(2) Not more than a weighted average of 0.25 percent lead when used with respect to the wetted surfaces of pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, and fixtures.

(b) The weighted average lead content of a pipe, pipe fitting, plumbing fitting, or fixture is calculated by using the following formula: For each wetted component, the percentage of lead in the component is multiplied by the ratio of the wetted surface area of that component to the total wetted surface area of the entire product to arrive at the weighted percentage of lead of the component. The weighted percentage of lead of each wetted component is added together, and the sum of these weighted percentages constitutes the weighted average lead content of the product. The lead content of the material used to produce wetted components is used to determine compliance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section. For lead content of materials that are provided as a range, the maximum content of the range must be used.

(c) If a coating, as defined in §143.11, is applied to the internal surfaces of a pipe, fitting or fixture component, the maximum lead content of both the coating and the alloy must be used to calculate the lead content of the component.

(d) If a liner, as defined in §143.11, is manufactured into a pipe, fitting or fixture, the maximum lead content of the liner must be used to calculate the lead content of the component.

(e) If a fixture contains any media (e.g., activated carbon, ion exchange resin) contained in filters, the media are not to be used in determining the “total wetted surface area of the entire product” in paragraph (b) of this section.

(f) In addition to the definitions of “lead free” in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, no drinking water cooler, which contains any solder, flux, or storage tank interior surface, which may come into contact with drinking water, is lead free if the solder, flux, or storage tank interior surface contains more than 0.2 percent lead. Drinking water coolers must be manufactured such that each individual part or component that may come in contact with drinking water shall not contain more than 8 percent lead while still meeting the maximum 0.25 percent weighted average lead content of the wetted surfaces of the entire product.

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§ 143.13   Use prohibitions.

(a) No person may use any pipe, any pipe or plumbing fitting or fixture, any solder or any flux that is not lead free as defined in §143.12 in the installation or repair of:

(1) Any public water system; or

(2) Any plumbing in a residential or nonresidential facility providing water for human consumption.

(b) Paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply to leaded joints necessary for the repair of cast iron pipes.

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§ 143.14   State enforcement of use prohibitions.

As a condition of receiving a full allotment of Public Water System Supervision grants under section 1443(a) of the Safe Drinking Water Act, States must enforce the requirements of section 1417(a)(1) of the Safe Drinking Water Act and §143.13 through State or local plumbing codes, or such other means of enforcement as the State may determine to be appropriate.

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§ 143.15   Introduction into commerce prohibitions.

(a) No person may introduce into commerce any pipe, or any pipe or plumbing fitting or fixture, that is not lead free, except for a pipe that is used in manufacturing or industrial processing;

(b) No person engaged in the business of selling plumbing supplies in the United States, except manufacturers, may sell solder or flux that is not lead free; and

(c) No person may introduce into commerce any solder or flux that is not lead free, unless the solder or flux bears a prominent label stating that it is illegal to use the solder or flux in the installation or repair of any plumbing providing water for human consumption.

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§ 143.16   Exemptions.

The prohibitions in §§143.13 and 143.15 and the product certification requirements in §143.19 shall not apply to the products listed in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section:

(a) Pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, or fixtures, including backflow preventers, that are used exclusively for nonpotable services such as manufacturing, industrial processing, irrigation, outdoor watering, or any other uses where the water is not anticipated to be used for human consumption. Additional products that could be “used exclusively for nonpotable services” include:

(1) Products that are clearly labeled, on the product, package, or tag with a phrase such as: “Not for use with water for human consumption” or another phrase that conveys the same meaning in plain language;

(2) Products that are incapable of use in potable services (e.g., physically incompatible) with other products that would be needed to convey water for potable uses; or

(3) Products that are plainly identifiable and marketed as being solely for a use other than the conveyance of water (these other uses include conveyance of air, chemicals other than water, hydraulic fluids, refrigerants, gasses, or other non-water fluids).

(b) Toilets, bidets, urinals, fill valves, flushometer valves, tub fillers, shower valves, fire hydrants, service saddles, and water distribution main gate valves (provided that such valves are 2 inches in diameter or larger).

(c) Clothes washing machines, emergency drench showers, emergency face wash equipment, eyewash devices, fire suppression sprinklers, steam capable clothes dryers, and sump pumps.

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§ 143.17   [Reserved]

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§ 143.18   Required labeling of solder and flux that is not lead free.

Solder and flux that is not “lead free” as defined in §143.12(a)(1) must bear a prominent label stating that it is illegal to use the solder or flux in the installation or repair of any plumbing providing water for human consumption.

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§ 143.19   Required certification of products.

(a) Manufacturers or importers that introduce into commerce products that must meet the lead free requirements of section 1417 of the Safe Drinking Water Act and §143.12 must ensure, except as provided in paragraphs (a)(1) through (3) of this section, that the products are certified to be in compliance as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section by September 1, 2023, or prior to product introduction into commerce, whichever occurs later. Such manufacturers or importers must maintain documentation to substantiate the certification for at least 5 years from the date of the last sale of the product by the manufacturer or importer.

(1) Product components of assembled pipes, fittings, or fixtures do not need to be individually certified if the entire product in its final assembled form is lead free certified.

(2) Direct replacement parts for previously installed lead free certified products do not need to be individually certified if the weighted average lead content of wetted surface area for the part does not exceed such lead content of the original part.

(3) Dishwashers do not need to be certified.

(b) Certification of products must be obtained by manufacturers or importers from an accredited third party certification body, except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section. The manufacturer or importer must keep records for all products certified by an accredited third party certification body that include, at a minimum, documentation of certification, of dates of certification, and of expiration. This documentation must be provided upon request to the Administrator as specified in §143.20(b).

(c) Products may be self-certified by manufacturers or importers as provided in paragraph (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section. Such manufacturers or importers electing to self-certify products must comply with paragraphs (d) through (g) of this section.

(1) Manufacturers having fewer than 10 employees, or importers entering products purchased from or manufactured by manufacturers having fewer than 10 employees, may elect to self-certify products in lieu of obtaining certification from an accredited third party certification body. The number of employees includes any persons employed by the manufacturer and any of its affiliated entities. The number of employees must be calculated by averaging the number of persons employed, regardless of part-time, full-time, or temporary status, by an entity and all of its affiliated entities for each pay period over the entity's latest 12 calendar months or averaged over the number of months in existence if less than 12 months. Any such firms that subsequently expand employment to 10 or more employees, based on the most recent 12-month average number of persons employed, are no longer eligible to self-certify products and must obtain third party certification within 12 months of having 10 or more employees.

(2) Manufacturers or importers may elect to self-certify any custom fabricated product in lieu of obtaining certification from an ANSI accredited third party certification body, regardless of the number of persons employed by the manufacturer.

(d) In order for eligible manufacturers or importers to self-certify products, such manufacturers or importers must attest that products are in compliance with the definition of “lead free” in §143.12 by developing and maintaining a “certificate of conformity.” The certificate of conformity must be:

(1) Signed by a responsible corporate officer; a general partner or proprietor; or an authorized representative of a responsible corporate officer, general partner, or proprietor; and

(2) Posted to a website with continuing public access in the United States, unless it is distributed by other means (e.g., electronically or in hard copy) with the product through the distribution channel for final delivery to the end use installer of the product.

(e) The certificate of conformity must be in English and include:

(1) Contact information for the manufacturer or importer to include:

(i) The entity or proprietor name;

(ii) Street and mailing addresses;

(iii) Phone number; and

(iv) Email address;

(2) For products imported into the United States, the contact information must also be included for the manufacturer;

(3) A brief listing of the products to include, when applicable, unique identifying information such as model names and numbers;

(4) A statement attesting that the products meet the lead free requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act and 40 CFR part 143, subpart B, and also that the manufacturer or importer is eligible to self-certify the product consistent with this regulation;

(5) A statement indicating how the manufacturer or importer verified conformance with the Safe Drinking Water Act and 40 CFR part 143, subpart B; and

(6) The signature, date, name, and position of the signatory; and, if the signatory is an authorized representative of a responsible corporate officer, a general partner, or a proprietor, the name and position of the officer, partner, or proprietor.

(f) Manufacturers or importers that self-certify products must maintain, at a primary place of business within the United States, certificates of conformity and sufficient documentation to confirm that products meet the lead free requirements of this subpart. Sufficient documentation may include detailed schematic drawings of the products indicating dimensions, records of calculations of the weighted average lead content of the product, documentation of the lead content of materials used in manufacture, and other documentation used in verifying the lead content of a plumbing device. This documentation and certificates of conformity must be provided upon request to the Administrator as specified in §143.20(b) and must be maintained for at least five (5) years after the last sale of the product by the manufacturer or importer.

(g) The certificate of conformity and documentation must be completed prior to a product's introduction into commerce.

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§ 143.20   Compliance provisions.

(a) Noncompliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act or this subpart may be subject to enforcement. Enforcement actions may include seeking injunctive or declaratory relief, civil penalties, or criminal penalties.

(b) The Administrator may, on a case-by-case basis, request any information, such as records deemed necessary to determine whether a person has acted or is acting in compliance with section 1417 of the Safe Drinking Water Act and this subpart. Information, such as records requested, must be provided to the Administrator at a time and in a format as may be reasonably determined by the Administrator.

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