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Title 25Chapter ISubchapter L → Part 262


Title 25: Indians


PART 262—PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES


Contents
§262.1   Purpose, scope and information collection.
§262.2   Definitions.
§262.3   Consultation to determine need for a permit.
§262.4   Activities by Indian tribes or individuals that require a permit.
§262.5   Application for permits.
§262.6   Landowner consent by the Secretary.
§262.7   Notice to Indian tribes of possible harm to cultural or religious sites.
§262.8   Custody of archaeological resources.

Authority: 16 U.S.C. 470aa-11.

Cross Reference: For uniform regulations issued by the Departments of Agriculture, Defense, and the Interior and the Tennessee Valley Authority pertaining to the protection of archaeological resources, and for supplemental regulations issued by the Department of the Interior pertaining to the same, see 43 CFR part 7, subparts A and B.

Source: 58 FR 65249, Dec. 13, 1993, unless otherwise noted.

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§262.1   Purpose, scope and information collection.

(a) Purpose and scope. The purpose of this part is to implement certain provisions of the Archaeological Resources Protection Act (Act) of 1979 (16 U.S.C. 470aa-11), in accordance with section 10(b) and consistent with uniform regulations promulgated under section 10(a) by the Secretaries of the Interior, Agriculture, and Defense and the Chairman of the Board of the Tennessee Valley Authority (43 CFR part 7, 36 CFR part 296, 32 CFR parts 229 and 1312) on February 6, 1984. This part shall provide guidance to officials of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) on the implementation of the Act as it pertains to this agency.

(b) Information collection. The information collection requirements contained in §262.5 do not require approval by the Office of Management and Budget under 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.

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§262.2   Definitions.

As used for purposes of this part:

(a) Funerary objects means objects that, as a part of the death rite or ceremony of a culture, are reasonably believed to have been placed with human remains of Indians either at the time of death or later, or to have been made exclusively for burial purposes or to contain such remains.

(b) Sacred objects means specific ceremonial objects that are needed by traditional Indian religious leaders for the practice of traditional Indian religions by their present day adherents.

(c) Object of cultural patrimony means an object having ongoing historical, traditional, or cultural importance central to an Indian tribe itself and that shall have been considered inalienable by the tribe at the time the object was separated therefrom.

(d) Indian individual means:

(1) Any person who is an enrolled member of a Federally recognized Indian tribe;

(2) Any person who is a descendent of such a member and was, on June 1, 1934, physically residing within the present boundaries of any Indian reservation; or

(3) Any other person of one-half or more Indian blood of tribes indigenous to the United States.

(e) Lands of Indian tribes means land or any interest therein:

(1) The title to which is held in trust by the United States for an Indian tribe; or

(2) The title to which is held by an Indian tribe, but which cannot be alienated or encumbered by the owner without the approval of the Secretary because of limitations contained in the conveyance instrument pursuant to Federal law or because of a Federal law directly imposing such restrictions.

(f) Lands of Indian individuals means land or any interest therein:

(1) The title to which is held in trust by the United States for the benefit of Indian individuals; or

(2) The title to which is held by Indian individuals, but which cannot be alienated or encumbered by the owner without the approval of the Secretary because of limitations contained in the conveyance instrument pursuant to Federal law or because of a Federal law directly imposing such restrictions.

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§262.3   Consultation to determine need for a permit.

(a) Any person, except as provided in the uniform regulations at 43 CFR 7.5(b) through (d), who proposes to excavate or remove archaeological resources on Indian lands or on properties owned or administered by the BIA must first apply for and secure a permit under the Act. Procedures relating thereto are set forth in §262.5 of this part.

(b) No permit under the Act, nor any other Federally issued license or authorization, is required for archaeological investigations that do not involve the excavation or removal of archaeological resources on these lands, except for BIA consent on properties that it owns or administers. Notwithstanding, persons other than those covered under 43 CFR 7.5(b) through (d) shall, before engaging in such investigations:

(1) Write to the head of each tribal government having jurisdiction over the lands where investigations are to be conducted and request that he or she provide, within 30 days, written information on any permit, license or other form of authorization the tribe might require for the work proposed; and

(2) Provide the BIA Area Director with a copy of the tribe's written response (or a copy of the request to the tribe if 30 days have elapsed without any response) plus a brief but clear written description of the proposed work and obtain his or her written determination as to whether or not a permit under the Act is required. Area Directors shall provide determinations within 10 working days after receiving such documentation.

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§262.4   Activities by Indian tribes or individuals that require a permit.

(a) No Indian tribe may, without a permit under the Act, excavate or remove archaeological resources on:

(1) Lands of another Indian tribe; or

(2) Lands of Indian individuals, except those on which the law of that tribe regulates such activity.

(b) No individual Indian may, without a permit under the Act, excavate or remove archaeological resources on any Indian lands (including his or her own) other than those on which the law of the tribe of which he or she is a member regulates such activity.

(c) No person, as an employee, consultant, advisor or in any other capacity as an agent for any Indian tribe, shall be exempt from the permit requirements of the Act, except in the cases listed below:

(1) No permit shall be required if a person is a member of the tribe having jurisdiction over the resources in question and the law of that tribe regulates the excavation or removal of archaeological resources on its lands.

(2) Tribal employees need not submit permit applications to the BIA if:

(i) The proposed excavation or removal of archaeological resources is within the normal scope of their duties or otherwise carried out by direction of the tribal government;

(ii) The work is on Indian lands of the tribe or on which the law of that tribe regulates the excavation or removal of archaeological resources;

(iii) The tribe ensures that the provisions for permit issuance in this part and at 43 CFR part 7 have been met by other documented means; and

(iv) Before beginning the work, the tribe notifies the Area Director about the nature and location of the proposed work and allows 10 working days after mailing a notification or 5 working days after an oral notification (provided this is documented) for the Area Director to respond. The Area Director need only respond when action is required under §262.7 of this part, and may do so either in writing or, if documented, orally.

(3) Consultants, advisors, and others serving by contractual agreement as agents for Indian tribes may use the provisions in §262.5(f) of this part to expedite the process of obtaining a permit.

(4) Persons serving as agents for Indian tribes as employees or by contractual agreement may abbreviate the consultation required in §262.3(b) of this part by disregarding the requirement to consult first with the tribe and, provided the communication is documented, by consulting with the Area Director orally. In these cases, the Area Director need only respond when a permit is deemed necessary and may do so either orally or in writing. If a response is not received within 3 working days after an oral description of the proposed work is made or within 7 working days after a written description is mailed to the Area Director, the work may proceed.

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§262.5   Application for permits.

(a) Permits from the BIA shall be issued when an applicant meets the requirements set out in 43 CFR 7.8, and may be conditioned, modified, suspended, or revoked by the Area Director. Area Directors may delegate this authority to Agency Superintendents, but only on a permit-by-permit basis and only to those who have adequate professional support available.

(b) Prospective applicants may obtain details on how to apply for a permit by contacting the Area Director, at BIA Area Offices in: Aberdeen, SD; Albuquerque, NM; Anadarko, OK; Arlington, VA; Billings, MT; Gallup, NM; Juneau, AK; Minneapolis, MN; Muskogee, OK; Phoenix, AZ; Portland, OR; or Sacramento, CA; or by writing to the Deputy Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC 20240.

(c) Permit applications proposing the excavation or removal of archaeological resources on Indian lands shall include the following consent documents:

(1) Written permission from the Indian landowner and from the tribe, if any, having jurisdiction over those lands. This must contain such terms and conditions as the landowner or tribe may request be included in the permit. Where the permission is from a tribe, it should either state that no religious or cultural site will be harmed or destroyed by the proposed work or specify terms and conditions that the permit must include in order to safeguard against such harm or destruction.

(i) For lands of Indian tribes, permission must be granted by the tribe.

(ii) For lands of Indian individuals not under tribal jurisdiction, permission must be granted by the owner(s), except as provided in §262.6.

(iii) For lands of Indian individuals under tribal jurisdiction, permission must be granted by both the owner(s), except as provided in §262.6, and the tribe having such jurisdiction. Where an applicant is the owner, consent must still be obtained from the tribe.

(iv) Where the ownership of lands of Indian individuals is multiple, permission must be granted by the owners of a majority of interests, except as provided in §262.6. The same shall apply where the applicant is one of the owners.

(v) Where the terms and conditions a tribe or landowner requests be included in a permit are in conflict with the provisions of this or any other Act, with Federal regulations, or with each other, the Area Director may negotiate with the requestor to eliminate the conflict. If the conflict remains, the permit may not be issued.

(2) Copies of any permits required by tribal law for archaeological work on lands under tribal jurisdiction. This may serve as written consent from the tribe for the purposes of §262.5(c)(1).

(3) Written agreement by the Indian landowner(s) to release archaeological resources for curation or study, as specified in §262.8(b).

(d) Permits issued by the BIA shall include the following or similar condition: “Human remains of Indians, funerary objects, sacred objects, and objects of cultural patrimony may not be excavated or removed unless the permittee has obtained the written consent of the Area Director. In order to obtain consent, the permittee shall present to the Area Director written evidence of prior consultation with the appropriate Indian tribe. If the lands containing the remains or objects are tribal lands, the permittee shall first obtain the written consent of the tribe having jurisdiction over the lands.” Determination as to which tribe is the appropriate tribe shall be made in accordance with §262.8(a). Area Director consent shall be based on the scientific appropriateness of the research objectives and provisions for recovery, recording, and analysis and may, if documented, be oral. This condition may be omitted from the permit when such excavation or removal is proposed, and the requirements of the condition are met, in the permit application.

(e) Information and assistance in contacting Indian tribes and individual Indian landowners for the purpose of requesting the consent documents listed under paragraph (c) of this section or of seeking the consultation and consent required under paragraph (d) of this section may be obtained from the BIA office to which the permit application is submitted.

(f) Contractual agreements with the BIA or Indian tribes and permits issued by Indian tribes may be accepted as support documents for permit applications. They may also double as permit documents, if they demonstrate that the provisions for permit issuance in this part and at 43 CFR part 7 have been met and they are attached to a Department of the Interior permit form. This form must be signed by the Area Director, but need only contain the following or similar statement: “This permit is issued to the person(s) named, and in accordance with the terms and conditions in the attached (contractual agreement/tribal permit).”

(g) Area Directors shall respond to permit applications within 15 working days of receipt.

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§262.6   Landowner consent by the Secretary.

The Secretary of the Interior, or delegate thereof, may, on behalf of the owner(s) of lands of Indian individuals, grant consent for the purposes in §262.5(c)(1) and (3) when the Secretary or his or her delegate finds that such consent will not result in any injury to the land or owner(s) and when one or more of the following conditions exist:

(a) The owner is a minor or a person non compos mentis;

(b) The heirs or devisees of a deceased owner have not been determined;

(c) The whereabouts of the owner are unknown;

(d) Multiple owners are so numerous that the Secretary or his or her delegate finds, after documenting his or her efforts to do so, that it would be impractical to obtain their consent, as prescribed in §262.5(c)(1)(iv) and provided the Secretary or his or her delegate also notifies, in writing, the tribe, if any, having jurisdiction over the land and allows 15 working days from the date of mailing date for response; or

(e) The owner has given the Secretary or his or her delegate written authority to grant such consent on his or her behalf.

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§262.7   Notice to Indian tribes of possible harm to cultural or religious sites.

When consent by an Indian tribe to proposed excavation or removal of archaeological resources from Indian lands it owns or over which it has jurisdiction contains all of the information written as prescribed and advised in §262.5(c)(1), it may be taken to mean that subject to such terms and conditions as the tribe might specify, issuance of a permit for the proposed work will not result in harm to, or destruction of, any site of religious or cultural importance. No further notification is necessary, unless the Area Director has reason to believe that the proposed work might harm or destroy a site of religious or cultural importance to another tribe or Native American group. He or she shall then follow the notification procedures at 43 CFR 7.7. Those procedures must also be followed when proposed work might affect lands of Indian individuals over which there is no tribal jurisdiction or public lands owned or administered by the BIA.

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§262.8   Custody of archaeological resources.

(a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from Indian lands, except for human remains of Indians, funerary objects, sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony, remain the property of the Indian tribe or individual(s) having rights of ownership over such lands. Ownership and right of control over the disposition of the excepted items shall be in accordance with the order of priority provided in the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (Pub. L. 101-601), adapted for the purpose of this rule as follows:

(1) In the case of human remains of Indians and funerary objects, in the lineal descendants of the Indian; or

(2) In any case in which such lineal descendants cannot be ascertained, and in the case of sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony:

(i) In the Indian tribe on whose tribal lands, or on the individual Indian lands of whose members, such remains or objects are discovered;

(ii) In the Indian tribe recognized as aboriginally occupying the public lands owned or administered by the BIA on which such remains or objects are discovered, if upon notice, that tribe states a claim for those remains or objects; or

(iii) Where it can be so demonstrated by a preponderance of evidence, in the tribe other than that in paragraph (a)(2)(i) or (ii) of this section having the strongest cultural relationship with such remains or objects, if, upon notice, that tribe states a claim for those remains or objects.

(iv) The Area Director shall provide the required notice to any Indian tribe identified under paragraph (a)(2)(ii) or (iii) of this section, in writing, within 5 working days after such identification has been documented and confirmed, and shall at the same time submit a copy of the notice for publication in the Federal Register. This notice shall include a description of the remains or objects; of where, how, and why they were excavated or removed; and of the evidence used to identify the tribe being notified. The remains or objects in question shall be considered the property of the pertinent tribe under paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section or, in the case of paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section, held and administered by the BIA until or unless a claim is stated.

(b) No permit for the excavation or removal of archaeological resources on Indian lands may be issued without the written consent of the Indian landowner(s) either to grant custody of the resources recovered (other than human remains of Indians, funerary objects, sacred objects or objects of cultural patrimony) to a curatorial facility that meets the requirements of 36 CFR part 79 or to allow the permittee a reasonable period of time to hold or have ready access to them at an appropriate location for study. The excepted remains and objects are covered under §262.5(d) of this part which, in general, permits their excavation or removal only when the research objectives and provisions for recovery, recording, and analysis are scientifically appropriate. Written consent to custody by a curatorial facility may include terms and conditions regarding curation (e.g., cleaning, viewing, loaning, studying, etc.), provided these are consistent with 36 CFR part 79.

(1) On lands of Indian tribes, consent must be obtained from the tribe.

(2) On lands of Indian individuals, consent must be obtained from the owner of the land or the owners of a majority of interests therein, except as provided in §262.6.

(3) Where consent is by the owners of a majority of interests, it must, if the archaeological resources are to be retained by or returned after study to the interest holders, designate a representative to receive those resources. Whether and how these are subsequently distributed among themselves is a matter for the interest holders to decide.

(c) The Area Director may, after notifying the tribe (if any) having jurisdiction over such lands and allowing 15 working days for response, decline to issue a permit for lands of Indian individuals if he or she has any verifiable reason to believe that archaeological resources retained by the landowner(s) after being studied will be sold or exchanged other than to the tribe having jurisdiction or to a curatorial facility that meets the requirements of 36 CFR part 79. The basis for decline shall be that excavation or removal of resources under such circumstances would not be in the public interest and would thus be contrary to the purposes of the Act.

(d) The landowner(s) alone may grant custody of archaeological resources (except for human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony, which are subject to the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section) excavated or removed from lands of Indian individuals that are under tribal jurisdiction to a curatorial facility that meets the requirements of 36 CFR part 79. When, however, such consignment constitutes the ultimate disposition of these resources, the tribe having jurisdiction must also grant its consent. Any subsequent exchange or disposition by the facility must have the consent of both the landowner(s) and the tribe.

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