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e-CFR data is current as of January 21, 2020

Title 19Chapter I → Part 162


Title 19: Customs Duties


PART 162—INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE


Contents
§162.0   Scope.

Subpart A—Inspection, Examination, and Search

§§162.1-162.2   [Reserved]
§162.3   Boarding and search of vessels.
§162.4   Search for letters.
§162.5   Search of arriving vehicles and aircraft.
§162.6   Search of persons, baggage, and merchandise.
§162.7   Search of vehicles, persons, or beasts.
§162.8   Preclearance inspections and examinations.

Subpart B—Search Warrants

§162.11   Authority to procure warrants.
§162.12   Service of search warrant.
§162.13   Search of rooms not described in warrant.
§162.15   Receipt for seized property.

Subpart C—Seizures

§162.21   Responsibility and authority for seizures.
§162.22   Seizure of conveyances.
§162.23   Seizure under section 596(c), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1595a(c)).

Subpart D—Procedure When Fine, Penalty, or Forfeiture Incurred

§162.31   Notice of fine, penalty, or forfeiture incurred.
§162.32   Where petition for relief not filed.

Subpart E—Treatment of Seized Merchandise

§162.41   [Reserved]
§162.42   Proceedings by libel.
§162.43   Appraisement.
§162.44   Release on payment of appraised value.
§162.45   Summary forfeiture: Property other than Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances. Notice of seizure and sale.
§162.45a   Summary forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances.
§162.46   Summary forfeiture: Disposition of goods.
§162.47   Claim for property subject to summary forfeiture.
§162.48   Disposition of perishable and other seized property.
§162.49   Forfeiture by court decree.
§162.50   Forfeiture by court decree: Disposition.
§162.51   Disposition of proceeds of sale of property seized and forfeited other than under 19 U.S.C. 1592.
§162.52   Disposition of proceeds of sale of property seized and forfeited under 19 U.S.C. 1592.

Subpart F—Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana

§162.61   Importing and exporting controlled substances.
§162.62   Permissible controlled substances on vessels, aircraft, and individuals.
§162.63   Arrests and seizures.
§162.64   Custody of controlled substances.
§162.65   Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs or marihuana.
§162.66   Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana without a permit.

Subpart G—Special Procedures for Certain Violations

§162.70   Applicability.
§162.71   Definitions.
§162.72   Penalties and forfeitures under sections 466 and 584(a)(1), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.
§162.73   Penalties under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.
§162.73a   Penalties under section 593A, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.
§162.74   Prior disclosure.
§162.75   Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.
§162.76   Prepenalty notice for violations of sections 466 or 584(a)(1), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.
§162.77   Prepenalty notice for violations of section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.
§162.77a   Prepenalty notice for violation of section 593A, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.
§162.78   Presentations responding to prepenalty notice.
§162.79   Determination as to violation.
§162.79a   Other notice.
§162.79b   Recovery of actual loss of duties, taxes and fees or actual loss of revenue.
§162.80   Liability for duties; liquidation of entries.

Subpart H—Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act

§162.91   Exemptions.
§162.92   Notice of seizure.
§162.93   Failure to issue notice of seizure.
§162.94   Filing of a claim for seized property.
§162.95   Release of seized property.
§162.96   Remission of forfeitures and payment of fees, costs or interest.

Authority: 5 U.S.C. 301; 19 U.S.C. 66, 1592, 1593a, 1624, 6 U.S.C. 101, 8 U.S.C. 1324(b).

Section 162.3 also issued under 19 U.S.C. 1581;

Section 162.4 also issued under 39 U.S.C. 604, 605;

Section 162.5 also issued under 19 U.S.C. 1581, 49 U.S.C. 1509;

Section 162.6 also issued under 19 U.S.C. 1461, 1467, 1496;

Section 162.7 also issued under 19 U.S.C. 482;

Section 162.8 also issued under 9 U.S.C. 1629;

Section 162.21 also issued under 19 U.S.C. 482, 1581, 1582, 1602;

Section 162.22 also issued under 18 U.S.C. 546; 19 U.S.C. 1459, 1594, 1595a, 1701, 1703-1708;

Section 162.23 also issued under 19 U.S.C. 1595a(c).

Section 162.32 also issued under 19 U.S.C. 1603, 1610;

Section 162.32 also issued under 19 U.S.C. 1603, 1610;

Section 162.43 also issued under 19 U.S.C. 1606, 1608;

Section 162.44 also issued under 19 U.S.C. 1614;

Section 162.45 also issued under 19 U.S.C. 1607, 1608;

Section 162.45a also issued under 21 U.S.C. 881;

Section 162.46 also issued under 19 U.S.C. 1609, 1611;

Section 162.47 also issued under 19 U.S.C. 1608;

Section 162.48 also issued under 19 U.S.C. 1606, 1607, 1608, 1612, 1613b, 1618;

Section 162.49 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 5688;

Section 162.50 also issued under 19 U.S.C. 1611, 1705;

Section 162.61 also issued under 21 U.S.C. 952, 953, 957;

Section 162.62 also issued under 21 U.S.C. 952, 956;

Sections 162.63, 162.64 also issued under 21 U.S.C. 881, 966;

Section 162.65 also issued under 19 U.S.C. 1584, 21 U.S.C. 960, 961.

Sections 162.65 and 162.72 also issued under 19 U.S.C. 1431(b) and 19 U.S.C. 1644.

Sections 162.91 through 162.96 also issued under 18 U.S.C. 983.

Source: T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, unless otherwise noted.

§162.0   Scope.

This part contains provisions for the inspection, examination, and search of persons, vessels, aircraft, vehicles, and merchandise involved in importation, for the seizure of property, and for the forfeiture and sale of seized property. It also contains provisions for Customs enforcement of the controlled substances laws. Additional provisions concerning records maintenance and examination applicable to U.S. importers, exporters and producers under the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement, the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement, the Dominican Republic-Central America-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, the U.S.-Australia Free Trade Agreement, the U.S.-Morocco Free Trade Agreement, the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, the U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement, the U.S.-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement, and the U.S.-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement are contained in Part 10, Subparts H, I, J, L, M, Q, R, S and T of this chapter, respectively.

[T.D. 98-56, 63 FR 32945, June 16, 1998, as amended by CBP Dec. 05-07, 70 FR 10884, Mar. 7, 2005; CBP Dec. 07-81, 72 FR 58522, Oct. 16, 2007; CBP Dec. 08-22, 73 FR 33691, June 13, 2008; CBP Dec. 11-01, 76 FR 708, Jan. 6, 2011; CBP Dec. 12-03, 77 FR 15959, Mar. 19, 2012; CBP Dec. 12-16, 77 FR 59081, Sept. 26, 2012; USCBP-2013-0040, 78 FR 63068, Oct. 23, 2013; CBP Dec. 15-03; 80 FR 7317, Feb. 10, 2015]

Subpart A—Inspection, Examination, and Search

Source: T.D. 79-159, 44 FR 31970, June 4, 1979, unless otherwise noted.

§§162.1-162.2   [Reserved]

§162.3   Boarding and search of vessels.

(a) General authority. A Customs officer, for the purpose of examining the manifest and other documents and papers and examining, inspecting and searching the vessel, may at any time go on board:

(1) Any vessel at any place in the United States or within the Customs waters of the United States;

(2) Any American vessel on the high seas;

(3) Any vessel within a Customs-enforcement area designated such under the provisions of the Anti-Smuggling Act (Act of August 5, 1935, as amended, 49 Stat. 517; 19 U.S.C. 1701, 1703 through 1711), but Customs officers shall not board a foreign vessel upon the high seas in contravention of any treaty with a foreign government, or in the absence of a special arrangement with the foreign government concerned.

(b) Search of army or navy vessel. If the port director or special agent in charge believes that sufficient grounds exist to justify a search of any army or navy vessel, the facts shall be reported to the commanding officer or master of the vessel with a request that he cause a full search to be made, and advise the port director or special agent in charge of the result of such search. If, after the cargo has been discharged, passengers and their baggage landed, and the baggage of officers and crewmembers examined and passed, the port director or special agent in charge believes that sufficient grounds exist to justify the continuance of Customs supervision of the vessel, the commanding officer or master of the vessel shall be advised accordingly.

(c) Assistance of other agencies. Customs officers are authorized to assist any other agency in the enforcement of United States laws on any vessel.

[T.D. 84-18, 48 FR 52899, Nov. 23, 1983]

§162.4   Search for letters.

A Customs officer may search vessels for letters which may be on board or may have been conveyed contrary to law on board any vessel or on any post route, and shall seize such letters and deliver them to the nearest post office or detain them subject to the orders of the postal authorities.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972]

§162.5   Search of arriving vehicles and aircraft.

A customs officer may stop any vehicle and board any aircraft arriving in the United States from a foreign country for the purpose of examining the manifest and other documents and papers and examining, inspecting, and searching the vehicle or aircraft.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 90-34, 55 FR 17597, Apr. 26, 1990]

§162.6   Search of persons, baggage, and merchandise.

All persons, baggage, and merchandise arriving in the Customs territory of the United States from places outside thereof are liable to inspection and search by a Customs officer. Port directors and special agents in charge are authorized to cause inspection, examination, and search to be made under section 467, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1467), of persons, baggage, or merchandise, even though such persons, baggage, or merchandise were inspected, examined, searched, or taken on board the vessel at another port or place in the United States or the Virgin Islands, if such action is deemed necessary or appropriate.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972]

§162.7   Search of vehicles, persons, or beasts.

A Customs officer may stop, search, and examine any vehicle, person, or beast, or search any trunk or envelope wherever found, in accordance with section 3061 of the Revised Statutes (19 U.S.C. 482).

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 90-34, 55 FR 17597, Apr. 26, 1990]

§162.8   Preclearance inspections and examinations.

In connection with inspections and examinations conducted in accordance with §148.22(a) of this chapter, United States Customs officers stationed in a foreign country may exercise such functions and perform such duties (including inspections, examinations, searches, seizures, and arrests), as may be permitted by treaty, agreement, or law of the country in which they are stationed.

[T.D. 89-22, 54 FR 5077, Feb. 1, 1989]

Subpart B—Search Warrants

§162.11   Authority to procure warrants.

Customs officers are authorized to procure search warrants under the provisions of section 595, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1595). However, a Customs officer who is lawfully on any premises and is able to identify merchandise which has been imported contrary to law may seize such merchandise without a warrant. If merchandise is in a building on the boundary, see §123.71 of this chapter.

§162.12   Service of search warrant.

A search warrant shall be served in person by the officer to whom it is issued and addressed. In serving a search warrant, the officer shall leave a copy of the warrant with the person in charge or possession of the premises, or in the absence of any person, the copy shall be left in some conspicuous place on the premises searched.

§162.13   Search of rooms not described in warrant.

When a Customs officer is acting under a warrant to search the rooms in a building occupied by persons named or described in the warrant, no search shall be made of any rooms in such building which are not described in the warrant as occupied by such persons.

§162.15   Receipt for seized property.

A receipt for property seized under a search warrant shall be left with the person in charge or possession of the premises, or in the absence of any person, the receipt shall be left in some conspicuous place on the premises searched.

Subpart C—Seizures

§162.21   Responsibility and authority for seizures.

(a) Seizures by Customs officers. Property may be seized, if available, by any Customs officer who has reasonable cause to believe that any law or regulation enforced by Customs and Border Protection or Immigration and Customs Enforcement has been violated, by reason of which the property has become subject to seizure or forfeiture. This paragraph does not authorize seizure when seizure or forfeiture is restricted by law or regulation (see, for example, §162.75), nor does it authorize a remedy other than seizure when seizure or forfeiture is required by law or regulation. A receipt for seized property shall be given at the time of seizure to the person from whom the property is seized.

(b) Seizure by persons other than Customs officers. The port director may adopt a seizure made by a person other than a Customs officer if such port director has reasonable cause to believe that the property is subject to forfeiture under the Customs laws.

(c) Seizure by State official. If a duly constituted State official has seized any merchandise, vessel, aircraft, vehicle, or other conveyance under provisions of the statutes of such State, such property shall not be seized by a Customs officer unless the property is voluntarily turned over to him to be proceeded against under the Federal statutes.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 79-160, 44 FR 31956, June 4, 1979; USCBP-2006-0122, 73 FR 9011, Feb. 19, 2008]

§162.22   Seizure of conveyances.

(a) General applicability. If it shall appear to any officer authorized to board conveyances and make seizures that there has been a violation of any law of the United States whereby a vessel, vehicle, aircraft, or other conveyance, or any merchandise on board of or imported by such vessel, vehicle, aircraft, or other conveyance is liable to forfeiture, the officer shall seize such conveyance and arrest any person engaged in such violation. Common carriers are exempted from seizure except under certain specified conditions as provided for in section 594, Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1594) and section 274(b)(1) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1324(b)(1)).

(b) Facilitating importation contrary to law. Except as provided in §171.52(b), every vessel, vehicle, animal, aircraft, or other thing, which is being or has been used in, or to aid or facilitate, the importation, bringing in, unlading, landing, removal, concealing, harboring or subsequent transportation of any article which is being, or has been introduced or attempted to be introduced into the United States contrary to law, shall be seized and held subject to forfeiture. Any person who directs, assists financially or otherwise, or is in any way concerned in any such unlawful activity shall be liable to a penalty equal to the value of the article or articles involved.

(c) Common carrier clearance. Unless specifically authorized by law, clearance of vessels within the common carrier exception of section 594, Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1594), shall not be refused for the purpose of collecting a fine imposed upon the master or owner, unless either of them was a party to the illegal act. The Government's remedy in such cases is limited to an action against the master or owner.

(d) Maritime Administration vessels; exemption from penalty. (1) When a vessel owned or chartered under bareboat charter by the Maritime Administration and operated for its account becomes liable for the payment of a penalty incurred for violation of the Customs revenue or navigation laws, clearance of the vessel shall not be withheld nor shall any proceedings be taken against the vessel itself looking to the enforcement of such liability.

(2) This exemption shall not in any way be considered to relieve the master of any such vessel or other person incurring such penalties from personal liability for payment.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 89-86, 54 FR 37602, Sept. 11, 1989; USCBP-2006-0122, 73 FR 9012, Feb. 19, 2008]

§162.23   Seizure under section 596(c), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1595a(c)).

(a) Mandatory seizures. The following, if introduced or attempted to be introduced into the United States contrary to law, shall be seized pursuant to section 596(c), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1595a(c)):

(1) Merchandise that is stolen, smuggled, or clandestinely imported or introduced;

(2) A controlled substance, as defined in the Controlled Substance Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), not imported in accordance with law;

(3) A contraband article, as defined in section 1 of the Act of August 9, 1939 (49 U.S.C. 80302); or

(4) A plastic explosive, as defined in section 841(q) of title 18, United States Code, which does not contain a detection agent, as defined in section 841(p) of that title.

(b) Permissive seizures. The following, if introduced or attempted to be introduced into the United States contrary to law, may be seized pursuant to section 596(c), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1595a(c)):

(1) Merchandise the importation or entry of which is subject to any restriction or prohibition imposed by law relating to health, safety, or conservation, and which is not in compliance with the applicable rule, regulation or statute;

(2) Merchandise the importation or entry of which requires a license, permit or other authorization of a United States Government agency, and which is not accompanied by such license, permit or authorization;

(3) Merchandise or packaging in which copyright, trademark or trade name protection violations are involved (including, but not limited to, a violation of sections 42, 43 or 45 of the Act of July 5, 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1124, 1125 or 1127), sections 506 or 509 of title 17, United States Code, or sections 2318 or 2320 of title 18, United States Code);

(4) Trade dress merchandise involved in the violation of a court order citing section 43 of the Act of July 5, 1946 (15 U.S.C. 1125);

(5) Merchandise marked intentionally in violation of 19 U.S.C. 1304;

(6) Merchandise for which the importer has received written notices that previous importations of identical merchandise from the same supplier were found to have been in violation of 19 U.S.C. 1304; or

(7) Merchandise subject to quantitative restrictions, found to bear a counterfeit visa, permit, license, or similar document, or stamp from the United States or from a foreign government or issuing authority pursuant to a multilateral or bilateral agreement (but see paragraph (e), of this section).

(c) Resolution of seizure under §1595a(c). When merchandise is either required or authorized to be seized under this section, the forfeiture incurred may be remitted in accord with 19 U.S.C. 1618, to include as a possible option the exportation of the merchandise under such conditions as CBP shall impose, unless its release would adversely affect health, safety, or conservation, or be in contravention of a bilateral or multilateral agreement or treaty.

(d) Seizure under 19 U.S.C. 1592. If merchandise is imported, introduced or attempted to be introduced contrary to a provision of law governing its classification or value, and there is no issue of admissibility, such merchandise shall not be seized pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1595a(c). Any seizure of such merchandise shall be in accordance with section 1592 (see §162.75 of this chapter).

(e) Detention only. Merchandise subject to quantitative restrictions requiring a visa, permit, license, or other similar document, or stamp from the United States Government or from a foreign government or issuing authority pursuant to a bilateral or multilateral agreement, shall be subject to detention in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 1499, unless the appropriate visa, permit, license, or similar document, or stamp is presented to CBP (but see paragraph (b)(7), of this section for instances when seizure may occur).

(f) Exportations contrary to law. Merchandise exported or sent, or attempted to be exported or sent, from the United States contrary to law, or the proceeds or value thereof, and property used to facilitate the exporting or sending, or attempted exporting or sending, of such merchandise, will be seized and subject to forfeiture. In addition, the receipt, purchase, transportation, concealment or sale of such merchandise prior to exportation will result in its seizure and forfeiture to the United States.

[T.D. 96-2, 60 FR 67058, Dec. 28, 1995, as amended by T.D. 99-4, 64 FR 1123, Jan. 8, 1999; CBP Dec. 10-29, 75 FR 52452, Aug. 26, 2010]

Subpart D—Procedure When Fine, Penalty, or Forfeiture Incurred

§162.31   Notice of fine, penalty, or forfeiture incurred.

(a) Notice. Written notice of any fine or penalty incurred as well as any liability to forfeiture shall be given to each party that the facts of record indicate has an interest in the claim or seized property. The notice shall also inform each interested party of his right to apply for relief under section 618, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1618), or any other applicable statute authorizing mitigation of penalties or remission of forfeitures, in accordance with part 171 of this chapter. The notice shall inform any interested party in a case involving forfeiture of seized property that unless the petitioner provides an express agreement to defer judicial or administrative forfeiture proceedings until completion of the administrative process, the case will be referred promptly to the U.S. attorney or the Department of Justice if the penalty was assessed under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1592), for institution of judicial proceedings, or summary forfeiture proceedings will be begun. For violations involving the possession of personal use quantities of a controlled substance, also see §171.55.

(b) Contents of notice. The notice shall contain the following:

(1) The provisions of law alleged to have been violated;

(2) A description of the specific acts or omissions forming the basis of the alleged violations;

(3) If the alleged violations involve the entry or attempted entry of merchandise,

(i) A description of the merchandise and the circumstances of its entry or attempted entry, and

(ii) The identity of each entry, if specific entries are involved; and

(4) If the alleged violations involve a loss of revenue,

(i) The total loss of revenue and how it was computed, and

(ii) The loss of revenue attributable to each entry, if readily susceptible to calculation.

(c) Demand for deposit in case of smuggled articles of small value. In the case of smuggled articles of small value, demand shall be made for immediate deposit of an amount equivalent to the domestic value of the articles on account of the liability to a penalty incurred as distinct from liability of the goods to forfeiture. Such sum shall be deposited whether or not a petition for relief is filed in accordance with part 171 of this chapter. A demand for deposit need not be made in connection with any liability incurred by the master of a vessel under the provisions of section 453, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1453).

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 78-38, 43 FR 4255, Feb. 1, 1978; T.D. 79-160, 44 FR 31956, June 4, 1979; T.D. 85-90, 50 FR 21431, May 24, 1985; T.D. 89-86, 54 FR 37602, Sept. 11, 1989]

§162.32   Where petition for relief not filed.

(a) Fines, penalties and forfeitures. If any person who is liable for a fine, penalty, or claim for a monetary amount, or who has an interest in property subject to forfeiture, fails to petition for relief as set forth in part 171 of this chapter, or fails to pay the fine or penalty within 30 days from the mailing date of the violation/penalty notice provided in §162.31 (unless additional time is authorized for filing a petition, as set forth in part 171 of this chapter) the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer, shall, after any required collection action is complete, refer any fine or penalty case promptly to the U.S. attorney, or the Department of Justice if the penalty was assessed under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1592). In the case of property subject to forfeiture, the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer, where appropriate, shall complete administrative forfeiture proceedings or shall refer the matter promptly to the U.S. attorney, or the Department of Justice if the case arose under section 592, in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph (c) below, unless the Commissioner of Customs expressly authorizes other action.

(b) Institution of forefeiture proceedings before completion of administrative procedures. Nothing in these regulations is intended to prevent the institution of forfeiture proceedings before completion of the administrative remission or mitigation procedures pursuant to section 618, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1618).

(c) Seized property not eligible for administrative forfeiture. If the seized property is not eligible for administrative forfeiture, and neither a petition for relief in accordance with part 171 of this chapter, nor an offer to pay the domestic value as provided for in §162.44, is made within 30 days (unless additional time has been authorized under part 171 of this chapter), the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer shall refer the case promptly to the U.S. attorney for the judicial district in which the seizure was made, or the Department of Justice if the penalty was assessed under section 592.

[T.D. 85-195, 50 FR 50289, Dec. 10, 1985, as amended by T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999]

Subpart E—Treatment of Seized Merchandise

§162.41   [Reserved]

§162.42   Proceedings by libel.

If seizure is made under a statute which provides that the property may be seized and proceeded against by libel, the summary forfeiture procedures set forth in §§162.45, 162.46, and 162.47 do not apply. Such cases shall be referred to the U.S. attorney. The Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer may request the U.S. attorney to seek a decree of forfeiture providing for delivery of the property to the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer for sale or other appropriate disposition, if such property is not to be retained for official use.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1999, as amended by T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999]

§162.43   Appraisement.

(a) Property under seizure and subject to forfeiture. Seized property shall be appraised as required by section 606, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1606). The term “domestic value” as used therein shall mean the price at which such or similar property is freely offered for sale at the time and place of appraisement, in the same quantity or quantities as seized, and in the ordinary course of trade. If there is no market for the seized property at the place of appraisement, such value in the principal market nearest to the place of appraisement shall be reported.

(b) Property not under seizure. The basis for a claim for forfeiture value or for an assessment of a penalty relating to the forfeiture value of property not under seizure is the domestic value as defined in paragraph (a) of this section, except that the value shall be fixed as of the date of the violation. In the case of entered merchandise, the date of the violation shall be the date of the entry, or the date of the filing of the document, or the commission of the act forming the basis of the claim, whichever is later.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 79-160, 44 FR 31957, June 4, 1979; T.D. 85-123, 50 FR 29956, July 23, 1985]

§162.44   Release on payment of appraised value.

(a) Value exceeding $100,000. Any offer to pay the appraised domestic value of seized property in order to obtain the immediate release of the property which was seized under the Customs laws or laws administered by Customs and exceeding $100,000 in appraised domestic value, or which was seized under the navigation laws, shall be in writing, addressed to the Commissioner of Customs, and signed by the claimant or his attorney. It shall be submitted in duplicate to the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer having jurisdiction at the port where the property was seized. Proof of ownership shall be submitted with the application if the facts in the case make such action necessary.

(b) Value not over $100,000—(1) Authority to accept offer. The Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer is authorized to accept a written offer pursuant to section 614, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1614), to pay the appraised domestic value of property seized under the Customs laws and to release such property if:

(i) The appraised domestic value of the seized property does not exceed $100,000.

(ii) The Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer is satisfied that the claimant has, in fact, a substantial interest in the property; and

(iii) Entry of the seized property into the commerce of the United States is not prohibited by law.

(2) Referral of offer. The Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer shall refer to the Commissioner of Customs any offer where it appears that the claimant does not have a substantial interest in the seized property or where it appears it would not be in the best interest of the United States to accept.

(c) Retention of property. The Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer shall retain custody of the property pending payment of the amount of the offer when the application is approved.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 74-276, 39 FR 37633, Oct. 23, 1974; T.D. 85-195, 50 FR 50289, Dec. 10, 1985; T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999]

§162.45   Summary forfeiture: Property other than Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances. Notice of seizure and sale.

(a) Contents. The notice required by section 607, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1607), of seizure and intent to forfeit and sell or otherwise dispose of according to law property not exceeding $500,000 in value, or any seized merchandise the importation of which is prohibited, or any seized vessel, vehicle or aircraft that was used to import, export, transport, or store any controlled substance, or such seized merchandise is any monetary instrument within the meaning of 31 U.S.C. 5312(a)(3), shall:

(1) Describe the property seized and in the case of motor vehicles, specify the motor and serial numbers;

(2) State the time, cause, and place of seizure;

(3) State that any person desiring to claim property must appear at a designated place and file with the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer within 20 days from the date of first publication of the notice a claim to such property and a bond in the sum of $5,000 or 10% of the value of the claimed property, whichever is lower, but not less than $250, in default of which the property will be disposed of in accordance with the law; and

(4) State the name and place of residence of the person to whom any vessel or merchandise seized for forfeiture under the navigation laws belongs or is consigned, if that information is known to the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer.

(b) Publication. (1) If the appraised value of any property in one seizure from one person, other than Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances (as defined in 21 U.S.C. 802(6) and 812), exceeds $5,000, the notice will be published by its posting on an official Government forfeiture Web site for at least 30 consecutive days. Information pertaining to the Government forfeiture Web site will be posted in a conspicuous place that is accessible to the public at all customhouses and all sector offices of the U.S. Border Patrol. In CBP's sole discretion, and as circumstances warrant, additional publication for at least three successive weeks in a print medium may be provided. All known parties-in-interest will be notified in writing of the Government Web site address and the date of Internet publication (and pertinent information regarding print publication, when appropriate).

(2) In all other cases, except for Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances (see §162.45a), the notice will be published by its posting on an official Government forfeiture Web site for at least 30 consecutive days and by its posting for at least three successive weeks in a conspicuous place that is accessible to the public at the customhouse located nearest the place of seizure or the appropriate sector office of the U.S. Border Patrol. All known parties-in-interest will be notified in writing of the Government Web site address and the date of Internet publication (and pertinent information regarding print publication, when appropriate). The posting at the customhouse or sector office will contain the date of on-site posting. Articles of small value of the same class or kind included in two or more seizures will be advertised as one unit.

(c) Delay of publication. Publication of the notice of seizure and intent to summarily forfeit and dispose of property eligible for such treatment may be delayed for a period not to exceed 30 days in those cases where the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer has reason to believe that a petition for administrative relief in accord with part 171 of this chapter will be filed.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 83-72, 48 FR 11423, Mar. 18, 1983; T.D. 85-123, 50 FR 29956, July 23, 1985; T.D. 85-195, 50 FR 50290, Dec. 10, 1985; T.D. 91-52, 56 FR 25364, June 4, 1991; T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999; T.D. 00-37, 65 FR 33254, May 23, 2000; CBP Dec. 05-02, 70 FR 8510, Feb. 22, 2005; CBP Dec. 13-04, 78 FR 6033, Jan. 29, 2013]

§162.45a   Summary forfeiture of Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances.

The Controlled Substances Act (84 Stat. 1242, 21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.) provides that all controlled substances in Schedule I and Schedule II (as defined in 21 U.S.C. 802(6) and 812) that are possessed, transferred, sold or offered for sale in violation of the Act will be deemed contraband, seized and summarily forfeited to the United States (21 U.S.C. 881(f)). The Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.) incorporates by reference this contraband forfeiture provision of 21 U.S.C. 881. See 21 U.S.C. 965. Accordingly, in the case of a seizure of Schedule I or Schedule II controlled substances, the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer or his designee will contact the appropriate Drug Enforcement Administration official responsible for issuing permits authorizing the importation of such substances (see 21 CFR part 1312). If upon inquiry the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer or his designee is notified that no permit for lawful importation has been issued, he will declare the seized substances contraband and forfeited pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 881(f). Inasmuch as such substances are Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances, the notice procedures set forth in §162.45 are inapplicable. When seized controlled substances are required as evidence in a court proceeding, they will be preserved to the extent and in the quantities necessary for that purpose.

[T.D. 00-37, 65 FR 33254, May 23, 2000]

§162.46   Summary forfeiture: Disposition of goods.

(a) General. If no petition for relief from the forfeiture is filed in accordance with the provision of part 171 of this chapter, or if a petition was filed and has been denied, and the property is not retained for official use, it shall be disposed of in accordance with section 609, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1609) or section 491(b), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1491(b)).

(b) Articles required to be inspected by other Government agencies. Before seized drugs, insecticides, seeds, plants, nursery stock, and other articles required to be inspected by other Government agencies are sold, they shall be inspected by a representative of such agency to ascertain whether or not they meet the requirements of the laws and regulations of that agency, and if found not to meet such requirements, they shall be destroyed forthwith.

(c) Sale—(1) General. If the forfeited property is cleared for sale, it shall be sold in accordance with the applicable provisions of part 127 of this chapter. The Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer may postpone the sale of small seizures until he believes the proceeds of a consolidated sale will pay all expenses.

(2) Transfer to another port for sale. Property shall be moved to and sold at such other Customs port as the Commissioner of Customs may direct pursuant to the provisions of section 611, Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1611), if:

(i) The laws of a State in which property is seized and forfeited prohibit the sale of such property; or

(ii) The Commissioner is of the opinion that the sale of forfeited property may be made more advantageously at another Customs port.

(d) Destruction. If, after summary forfeiture of property is completed, it appears that the net proceeds of sale will not be sufficient to pay the costs of sale, the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer may order destruction of the property. Any vessel or vehicle summarily forfeited for violation of any law respecting the Customs revenue may be destroyed in lieu of the sale thereof when such destruction is authorized by the Commissioner of Customs to protect the revenue.

(e) Disposition of distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquor. In addition to disposition by sale or destruction as provided for by this section, distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquor may be delivered:

(1) To any Government agency the Commissioner of Customs or his designee determines has a need for these articles for medical, scientific, or mechanical purposes, or for any other official purpose for which appropriated funds may be expended by a Government agency, or

(2) By gift to any charitable institution the Commissioner of Customs or his designee determines has a need for the articles for medical purposes.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 77-12, 41 FR 56629, Dec. 29, 1976; T.D. 79-159, 44 FR 31971, June 4, 1979; T.D. 85-195, 50 FR 50290, Dec. 10, 1985; T.D. 92-69, 57 FR 30640, July 10, 1992; T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999]

§162.47   Claim for property subject to summary forfeiture.

(a) Filing of claim. Any person desiring to claim under the provisions of section 608, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1608), seized property not exceeding $500,000 in value (however there is no limit in value of merchandise, the importation of which is prohibited, or in the value of vessels, vehicles or aircraft used to import, export, transport, or store any controlled substance, or in the amount of any monetary instruments within the meaning of 31 U.S.C. 5312(a)(3), that may be seized and forfeited) and subject to summary forfeiture, shall file a claim to such property with the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer within 20 days from the date of the first publication of the notice prescribed in §162.45.

(b) Bond for costs. Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, the bond in the penal sum of $5,000 or 10% of the value of the claimed property, whichever is lower, but not less than $250, required by section 608, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, to be filed with a claim for seized property shall be on Customs Form 301, containing the bond conditions set forth in §113.72 of this chapter.

(c) Claimant not entitled to possession. The filing of a claim and the giving of a bond, if required, pursuant to section 608, Tariff Act of 1930, shall not be construed to entitle the claimant to possession of the property. Such action only stops the summary forfeiture proceeding.

(d) Report to the U.S. attorney. When the claim and bond, if required, are filed within the 20-day period, the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer shall report the case to the U.S. attorney for the institution of condemnation proceedings.

(e) Waiver of bond. Upon satisfactory proof of financial inability to post the bond, the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer shall waive the bond requirement for any person who claims an interest in the seized property.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 81-1, 45 FR 84994, Dec. 24, 1980; T.D. 84-213, 49 FR 41186, Oct. 19, 1984; T.D. 85-123, 50 FR 29956, July 23, 1985; T.D. 91-52, 56 FR 25364, June 4, 1991; T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999]

§162.48   Disposition of perishable and other seized property.

(a) Disposition of perishable property. Seized property which is perishable or otherwise enumerated in section 612, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1612), and is covered by the provisions of section 607, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1607), shall be advertised for sale and sold at public auction at the earliest possible date. The Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer shall proceed to give notice by advertisement of the summary sale for such time as he considers reasonable. This notice shall be of sale only and not notice of seizure and intent to forfeit. The proceeds of the sale shall be held subject to the claims of parties in interest in the same manner as the seized property would have been subject to such claims.

(b) Disposition of other seized property. (1) If the expense of keeping any vessel, vehicle, aircraft, merchandise or baggage is disproportionate to the value thereof, destruction or other disposition of such property may be ordered by the appropriate Customs officer. Storage expenses are presumed to be disproportionate to the value of the property where the expense has reached or is anticipated to reach 50 percent of the value of the property. The right of a claimant to seized property which has been destroyed or otherwise disposed of shall not be extinguished.

(2) Publication of a notice of the seizure, regardless of the disposition of the property, will be required pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1607. Claimants to seized property will be permitted to file a petition for remission of the forfeiture pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1618, and part 171 of this chapter. A claimant receiving full or partial relief from the forfeiture shall be reimbursed the difference between the value of the merchandise at the time of the seizure, pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1606 and §162.43 of this part, and any remitted forfeiture amount that the claimant is required to pay.

(3) A claimant to destroyed or otherwise disposed of seized property requesting relief in the form of payment may file a claim and cost bond and seek judicial hearing on the forfeiture pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1608.

(4) Successful claimants shall be compensated from Customs Forfeiture Fund pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1613b.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 85-195, 50 FR 50290, Dec. 10, 1985; T.D. 92-69, 57 FR 30640, July 10, 1992; T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999; T.D. 00-57, 65 FR 53575, Sept. 5, 2000]

§162.49   Forfeiture by court decree.

(a) Report to the U.S. attorney or the Department of Justice if the penalty was assessed under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1592). When it is necessary to institute legal proceedings in order to forfeit seized property, or to forfeit the value of property subject to forfeiture, the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer or the special agent in charge of the area involved shall furnish a report to the U.S. attorney or the Department of Justice if the penalty was assessed under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1592), in accordance with the provisions of section 603, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1603).

(b) Bonding of seized property. When a claimant desires to file a bond for the release of seized property which is the subject of a court proceeding, he shall be referred to the U.S. attorney. The Government is entitled to recover the penal sum of the bond if forfeiture is then decreed.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 85-90, 50 FR 21431, May 24, 1985; T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999]

§162.50   Forfeiture by court decree: Disposition.

(a) Sale. Forfeited property decreed by the court for sale or disposition by the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer shall be disposed of in the same manner as property summarily forfeited. (See §162.46.)

(b) Transfer to other ports for sale. If the laws of the State in which property is seized and forfeited prohibit the sale of such property, or if the Commissioner of Customs is of the opinion that the sale of forfeited property may be made more advantageously at another port, application may be made to the court to permit disposition in accordance with the provisions of section 611, Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1611). If the court permits such disposition, the property shall be moved to and sold at such other port as the Commissioner may direct provided it has been cleared for sale.

(c) Destruction—(1) Proceeds of sale not sufficient. Property forfeited under a decree of any court may be destroyed if it is provided in the decree of forfeiture that the property shall be delivered to the Secretary of the Treasury or the Commissioner of Customs for disposition in accordance with section 611, Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1611).

(2) For protection of the revenue. Any vessel or vehicle forfeited under a decree of any court for violation of any law respecting the Customs revenue may be destroyed in lieu of sale when such destruction is authorized by the Commissioner of Customs to protect the revenue if it is provided in the decree of forfeiture that the property shall be delivered to the Secretary of the Treasury or Commissioner of Customs for disposition under the provisions of 19 U.S.C. 1705.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999]

§162.51   Disposition of proceeds of sale of property seized and forfeited other than under 19 U.S.C. 1592.

(a) Order of payment of expenses incurred—(1) When application for remission and restoration is filed and approved. Section 613 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1613), and §171.41 of this chapter authorize the filing of an application for remission of the forfeiture and restoration of the proceeds from the sale of seized and forfeited property. If the application is filed within 3 months after the date of sale and is approved, the proceeds of the sale, or any part thereof, shall be restored to the applicant after deducting the following charges in the order named:

(i) Internal revenue taxes.

(ii) Marshal's fees and court costs.

(iii) Expenses of advertising and sale.

(iv) Expenses of cartage, storage, and labor. When the proceeds are insufficient to pay these expenses fully, they shall be paid pro rata.

(v) Duties.

(vi) Any sum due to satisfy a lien for freight, charges, or contributions in general average, provided notice of the lien has been given in the manner prescribed by law.

(2) When no application for remission and restoration is filed or the application is denied. If no application for remission and restoration is filed within 3 months after the date of sale of seized and forfeited property, or if the application is denied, the proceeds of the sale shall be disbursed in the following order:

(i) Internal revenue taxes.

(ii) Marshal's fees and court costs.

(iii) Expenses of advertising and sale.

(iv) Expenses of cartage, storage, and labor. When the proceeds are insufficient to pay these expenses fully, they shall be paid pro rata.

(v) Any sum due to satisfy a lien for freight, charges, or contributions in general average, provided notice of the lien has been given in the manner prescribed by law.

(vi) The residue, if any, shall be deposited with the Treasurer of the United States as a customs or navigation fine.

(b) Transfer of seized and forfeited property to another Federal agency. In the event that the seized and forfeited property has been authorized for transfer to another Federal agency for official use, the receiving agency shall reimburse Customs for the costs incurred in moving and storing the property from the date of seizure to the date of delivery.

[T.D. 79-160, 44 FR 31957, June 4, 1979; 44 FR 36376, June 22, 1979, as amended by T.D. 84-78, 49 FR 13492, Apr. 5, 1984]

§162.52   Disposition of proceeds of sale of property seized and forfeited under 19 U.S.C. 1592.

(a) Order of disposition of proceeds. Section 613 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1613), provides for the disposition of the proceeds from the sale of property seized and forfeited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1592), as provided for in §162.75 of this part. Distribution shall be made in the following order:

(1) Internal revenue taxes.

(2) Marshal's fees and court costs.

(3) Expenses of advertising and sale.

(4) Expenses of cartage, storage, and labor. When proceeds are insufficient to pay these expenses fully, they shall be paid pro rata.

(5) Duties.

(6) Any sum due to satisfy a lien for freight, charges, or contributions in general average, provided notice of the lien has been given in the manner prescribed by law.

(7) The monetary penalty assessed under 19 U.S.C. 1592.

(8) The remaining proceeds, if any, shall be paid to the appropriate party-in-interest as provided in paragraph (b).

(b) Determination of appropriate party-in-interest. (1) If the property is subject to a judicial forfeiture proceeding and if it appears at the time of this proceeding that 2 or more parties claim an interest in the remaining proceeds referred to in paragraph (a)(8), each of the parties shall be joined in the proceeding so that the issue of proper distribution may be determined by the court.

(2) If the property is sold under the summary forfeiture procedure, or if the court has not specified the manner of distribution, the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer shall hold the excess proceeds for 3 months from the date of the sale to allow any party-in-interest to claim the proceeds.

(3) If there is one alleged violator and no petition has been filed for the excess proceeds by another person, the excess proceeds shall be disbursed to the person against whom the penalty was assessed.

(4) If there are 2 or more persons with claims or possible claims to the excess proceeds, the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer shall attempt to obtain a written agreement from the parties as to the distribution. If an agreement cannot be reached, the matter shall be referred to Customs Headquarters for determination.

(c) Official use of seized and forfeited property. If the seized and forfeited property has been authorized for official use, its retention or delivery shall be regarded as a “sale” for the purposes of section 613, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1613). The appropriation available to the receiving agency for the purchase, hire, operation, maintenance, and repair of the type of property involved shall be distributed as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b).

[T.D. 79-160, 44 FR 31958, June 4, 1979, as amended by T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999]

Subpart F—Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana

§162.61   Importing and exporting controlled substances.

It shall be unlawful to import to or export from the United States any controlled substance or narcotic drug listed in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (Sec. 202, 84 Stat. 1247; 21 U.S.C. 812), unless there has been compliance with the provisions of said Act, the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act and the regulations of the Drug Enforcement Administration.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 78-99, 43 FR 13062, Mar. 29, 1978]

§162.62   Permissible controlled substances on vessels, aircraft, and individuals.

Upon compliance with the provisions of the Controlled Substances Act (84 Stat. 1242; 21 U.S.C. 801), the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (84 Stat. 1285; 21 U.S.C. 951), and the regulations of the Drug Enforcement Administration (21 CFR 1301.28, 1311.27), controlled substances listed in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act may be held:

(a) On vessels engaged in international trade in medicine chests and dispensaries.

(b) In aircraft operated by an air carrier under a certificate or permit issued by the Federal Aviation Administration for stocking in medicine chests and first aid packets.

(c) By an individual where lawfully obtained for personal medical use or for administration to an animal accompanying him to enter or depart the United States.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 78-99, 43 FR 13062, Mar. 29, 1978]

§162.63   Arrests and seizures.

Arrests and seizures under the Controlled Substances Act (84 Stat. 1242, 21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), and the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (84 Stat. 1285, 21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.), will be handled in the same manner as other Customs arrests and seizures. However, Schedule I and Schedule II controlled substances (as defined in 21 U.S.C. 802(6) and 812) imported contrary to law will be seized and forfeited in the manner provided in the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 881(f)). See §162.45a.

[T.D. 00-37, 65 FR 33255, May 23, 2000]

§162.64   Custody of controlled substances.

All controlled substances seized by a Customs officer shall be delivered immediately into the custody of the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer having jurisdiction where the seizure is made, together with a full report of the circumstances of the seizure.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999]

§162.65   Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs or marihuana.

(a) Cargo or baggage containing unmanifested narcotic drugs or marihuana. When a package of regular cargo or a passenger's baggage otherwise properly manifested is found to contain any narcotic drug or marihuana imported for sale or other commercial purpose and not shown as such on the manifest, the penalties prescribed in section 584, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1584), shall be assessed with respect to such narcotic drug or marihuana.

(b) Unmanifested narcotic drugs or marihuana. When an unmanifested narcotic drug or marihuana is found on board of, or after having been unladen from, a vessel, vehicle, or aircraft, the penalties prescribed in section 584, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1584), shall be assessed. The penalty shall be applied without exception and without regard to any question of negligence or responsibility.

(c) Notice and demand for payment of penalty. A written notice and demand for payment of the penalty for failure to manifest incurred under section 584, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1584), shall be sent to the master of the vessel, or commander of the aircraft, or the person in charge of the vehicle, and to the owner of the vessel, aircraft, or vehicle or any person directly or indirectly responsible. In the case of a vessel, if bond has been given, the notice also shall be sent to each surety. When a petition for relief from such penalty has been filed in accordance with part 171 of this chapter, and a decision has been made thereon, the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer shall send notice of such decision to the interested persons together with a demand for any payment required under the terms of such decision.

(d) Referral to the U.S. attorney. If the penalty incurred under section 584, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1584), is not paid, or a petition is not filed as provided in part 171 of this chapter, or if payment is not made in accordance with the decision on a petition or a supplemental petition, the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer, after required collection action, shall refer the case to the U.S. attorney.

(e) Withholding clearance of vessel. Where a penalty has been incurred under section 584, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1584), for failure to manifest narcotic drugs or marihuana, clearance of the vessel involved shall be withheld until the penalty is paid or a bond satisfactory to the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer is given for the payment thereof unless

(1) The narcotics or marihuana were discovered in a passenger's baggage and the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer is satisfied that neither the master nor any of the officers nor the owner of the vessel knew or had any reason to know or suspect that the narcotics or marihuana had been on board the vessel, or

(2) Prior authority for the clearance without payment of the penalty or the furnishing of the bond is obtained from Customs.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 79-160, 44 FR 31958, June 4, 1979; T.D. 86-59, 51 FR 8489, Mar. 12, 1986; T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999; T.D. 99-64, 64 FR 43267, Aug. 10, 1999]

§162.66   Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana without a permit.

In every case where a narcotic drug or marihuana is unladen without a permit, the penalties prescribed in section 453, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1453), shall be assessed. Penalties shall be assessed under this section when a package of regular cargo or a passenger's baggage otherwise covered by a permit to unlade is found to contain any narcotic drug or marihuana imported for sale or other commercial purpose and not specifically covered by a permit to unlade.

Subpart G—Special Procedures for Certain Violations

Source: T.D. 79-160, 44 FR 31958, June 4, 1979, unless otherwise noted.

§162.70   Applicability.

(a) The provisions of this subpart apply only to fines, penalties, or forfeitures incurred for the following violations of the customs laws:

(1) Violations of sections 466 and 584(a)(1), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1466, 1584(a)(1)), that occur after October 3, 1978, and

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, violations of section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1592), with respect to which proceedings have commenced after December 31, 1978. For purposes of this subparagraph, a proceeding commences with the issuance of a prepenalty notice or, if no prepenalty notice is issued, with the issuance of a notice of a claim for a monetary penalty.

(b) The provisions of this subpart do not apply to alleged intentional violations of 19 U.S.C. 1592 if the alleged violation:

(1) Involves television receivers that are the products of Japan and were or are the subject to antidumping proceedings,

(2) Occurred before October 3, 1978, and

(3) Was the subject of a Customs investigation begun before October 3, 1978.

(c) The provisions of subparts A through F of this part shall apply to the violations referred to in paragraph (a) of this section unless this subpart specifically provides otherwise.

[T.D. 79-160, 44 FR 31958, June 4, 1979; 44 FR 35208, June 19, 1979, as amended by T.D. 90-34, 55 FR 17597, Apr. 26, 1990]

§162.71   Definitions.

When used in this subpart, the following terms shall have the meanings indicated:

(a) Loss of duties under section 592. “Loss of duties” means the duties of which the Government is or may be deprived by reason of the violation and includes both actual and potential loss of duties.

(1) Actual loss of duties. “Actual loss of duties” means the duties of which the Government has been deprived by reason of the violation in respect of entries on which liquidation had become final.

(2) Potential loss of duties. “Potential loss of duties” means the duties of which the Government tentatively was deprived by reason of the violation in respect of entries on which liquidation had not become final.

(b) Loss of revenue under section 593A. When used in §162.73a, the term “loss of revenue” means the amount of drawback (see §191.2(i) of this chapter) that is claimed and to which the claimant is not entitled and includes both actual and potential loss of revenue.

(1) Actual loss of revenue. When used in §§162.73a, 162.74, 162.77a and 162.79b, the term “actual loss of revenue” means the amount of drawback (see §191.2(i) of this chapter) that is claimed and has been paid to the claimant and to which the claimant is not entitled.

(2) Potential loss of revenue. When used in §162.77a, the term “potential loss of revenue” means the amount of drawback (see §191.2(i) of this chapter) that is claimed and has not been paid to the claimant and to which the claimant is not entitled.

(c) Repetitive violation. When used in §162.73a to describe a violation, “repetitive” has reference to a violation by a person that involves the same issue as a prior violation by that person.

(d) Noncommercial importation. “Noncommercial importation” means merchandise imported by a traveler for an individual's personal or household use, or as a gift, but not imported for sale or other commercial purposes.

(e) Clerical error. “Clerical error” means an error in the preparation, assembly, or submission of a document which results when a person intends to do one thing but does something else. It includes, for example, errors in transcribing numbers, errors in arithmetic, and the failure to assemble all the documents in a record.

(f) Mistake of fact. “Mistake of fact” means an action based upon a belief by a person that the material facts are other than they really are; it can be that a fact exists but is unknown to the person, or that he believes something is a fact when in reality it is not. An action is not a mistake of fact if the erroneous belief is caused by the neglect of a legal duty.

[T.D. 79-160, 44 FR 31958, June 4, 1979, as amended by T.D. 84-18, 49 FR 1678, Jan. 13, 1984; 49 FR 3986, Feb. 1, 1984; T.D. 98-49, 63 FR 29131, May 28, 1998; T.D. 00-5, 65 FR 3808, Jan. 25, 2000]

§162.72   Penalties and forfeitures under sections 466 and 584(a)(1), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.

(a) Foreign repairs and equipment purchases; election to proceed. If the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer has reasonable cause to believe that a violation of section 466, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1466), has occurred, he may elect to proceed against the vessel or aircraft, or against the violator for forfeiture of a monetary amount up to the domestic value of the vessel or aircraft.

(b) Lack of manifest or discrepancy in manifest. The penalties for violation of section 584(a)(1), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1584(a)(1)), are as follows:

(1) A penalty of $1,000 against the master of a vessel, the commander of an aircraft, or the person in charge of a vehicle bound to the United States who does not produce the manifest on demand.

(2) A penalty of $1,000 against the master of a vessel, the commander of an aircraft, the person in charge of a vehicle, or the owner of the vessel, aircraft, or vehicle, or any person directly or indirectly responsible for the discrepancy, if any merchandise described in the manifest is not found on board (a “shortage”).

(3)(i) A penalty equal to the lesser of $10,000 or the domestic value of merchandise found on board of or after having been unladen from a vessel or vehicle, or

(ii) A penalty of $1,000 (see §122.161 of this chapter) if merchandise (other than narcotics or marihuana—see §162.65 of this chapter) is found on board of or after having been unladen from an aircraft—if the merchandise is not included or described in the manifest or does not agree with the manifest (an “overage”).

(iii) Unmanifested merchandise belonging to or consigned to the master or crew of the vessel, the commander or crew of the aircraft, or to the owner or person in charge of the vehicle, also shall be subject to forfeiture.

The appropriate of these penalties may be assessed against the master or crew of the vessel, the commander or crew of the aircraft, the person in charge of the vehicle, the owner of the vessel, aircraft, or vehicle, or any person directly or indirectly responsible for the discrepancy.

(c) Exception. There is no violation, and consequently no penalty incurred under paragraph (b), in the circumstances described in §§4.12(a)(5) and 122.162 of this chapter.

[T.D. 79-160, 44 FR 31958, June 4, 1979, as amended by T.D. 86-59, 51 FR 8490, Mar. 12, 1986; T.D. 88-12, 53 FR 9315, Mar. 22, 1988; T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999; T.D. 99-64, 64 FR 43267, Aug. 10, 1999]

§162.73   Penalties under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.

(a) Maximum penalty without prior disclosure. If the person concerned has not made a prior disclosure as provided in §162.74, the monetary penalty under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1592), shall not exceed:

(1) For fraudulent violations, the domestic value of the merchandise;

(2) For grossly negligent violations,

(i) The lesser of the domestic value of the merchandise or four times the loss of duties, taxes and fees or

(ii) If there is no loss of duties, taxes and fees 40 percent of the dutiable value of the merchandise; and

(3) For negligent violations,

(i) The lesser of the domestic value of the merchandise or two times the loss of duties, taxes and fees or

(ii) If there is no loss of duties, taxes and fees 20 percent of the dutiable value of the merchandise.

(b) Maximum penalty with prior disclosure. If the person concerned has made a prior disclosure, the monetary penalty shall not exceed:

(1) For fraudulent violations,

(i) One times the loss of duties, taxes and fees or

(ii) If there is no loss of duties, taxes and fees 10 percent of the dutiable value of the merchandise; and

(2) For grossly negligent and negligent violations, the interest on any loss of duties, taxes and fees. The interest shall be computed from the date of liquidation at the prevailing rate of interest applied under section 6621, Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended (26 U.S.C. 6621).

(c) Exception; clerical error or mistake of fact. There is no violation and, consequently, no penalty incurred, if the falsity or omission is due solely to clerical error or mistake of fact, unless the error or mistake is part of the pattern of negligent conduct.

[T.D. 79-160, 44 FR 31958, June 4, 1979, as amended by T.D. 99-64, 64 FR 43267, Aug. 10, 1999]

§162.73a   Penalties under section 593A, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.

(a) Maximum penalty without prior disclosure for a drawback compliance program nonparticipant. If the person concerned has not made a prior disclosure as provided in §162.74 and has not been certified as a participant in the drawback compliance program under part 191 of this chapter, the monetary penalty under section 593A, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1593a), cannot exceed:

(1) For fraudulent violations, three times the loss of revenue; and

(2) For negligent violations,

(i) 20 percent of the loss of revenue for the first violation,

(ii) 50 percent of the loss of revenue for the first repetitive violation, or

(iii) One times the loss of revenue for the second and each subsequent repetitive violation.

(b) Maximum penalty without prior disclosure for a drawback compliance program participant——(1) General. If the person concerned has not made a prior disclosure as provided in §162.74 and has been certified as a participant in, and is generally in compliance with the procedures and requirements of, the drawback compliance program provided for in part 191 of this chapter, the monetary penalty or other sanction under section 593A, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1593a), cannot exceed:

(i) For fraudulent violations, three times the loss of revenue; and

(ii) For negligent violations,

(A) Issuance of a written notice of a violation (warning letter) for the first violation and for any other violation that is not repetitive or that is repetitive but does not occur within three years from the date of the violation of which it is repetitive,

(B) 20 percent of the loss of revenue for the first repetitive violation that occurs within three years from the date of the violation of which it is repetitive,

(C) 50 percent of the loss of revenue for the second repetitive violation that occurs within three years from the date of the first of two violations of which it is repetitive, or

(D) One times the loss of revenue for the third and each subsequent repetitive violation that occurs within three years from the date of the first of three or more violations of which it is repetitive.

(2) Notice of violation and required response to notice. (i) The notice issued by Customs under paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(A) of this section will:

(A) State that the person concerned has violated section 593A;

(B) Explain the nature of the violation; and

(C) Warn the person concerned that future violations of section 593A may result in the imposition of monetary penalties. The notice will also warn the person concerned that repetitive violations may result in removal of certification under the drawback compliance program provided for in part 191 of this chapter until the person takes corrective action that is satisfactory to Customs.

(ii) Within 30 days from the date of mailing of the notice issued under paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(A) of this section:

(A) The person concerned must notify Customs in writing of the steps that have been taken to prevent a recurrence of the violation; or

(B) If the person concerned believes that no violation took place, he may advise Customs in writing of the basis for that position. If Customs agrees on further review that no violation in fact took place, Customs will in writing advise the person concerned and rescind the notice of violation. If on further review Customs remains of the opinion that the violation took place as alleged in the notice of violation, Customs will issue a written affirmation of the notice of violation advising the person concerned that the notice requirement of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A) of this section remains applicable and must be complied with either within the remainder of the prescribed 30-day period or within 15 days after issuance of the written affirmation, whichever period is longer.

(c) Maximum penalty with prior disclosure. If the person concerned has made a prior disclosure as provided in §162.74, whether or not such person has been certified as a participant in the drawback compliance program under part 191 of this chapter, the monetary penalty under section 593A, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1593a), cannot exceed:

(1) For fraudulent violations, one times the loss of revenue; and

(2) For negligent violations, an amount equal to the interest accruing on the actual loss of revenue during the period from the date of overpayment of the claim to the date on which the person concerned tenders the amount of the overpayment based on the prevailing rate of interest under 26 U.S.C. 6621.

[T.D. 00-5, 65 FR 3808, Jan. 25, 2000]

§162.74   Prior disclosure.

(a) In general—(1) A prior disclosure is made if the person concerned discloses the circumstances of a violation (as defined in paragraph (b) of this section) of 19 U.S.C. 1592 or 19 U.S.C. 1593a, either orally or in writing to a Customs officer before, or without knowledge of, the commencement of a formal investigation of that violation, and makes a tender of any actual loss of duties, taxes and fees or actual loss of revenue in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section. A Customs officer who receives such a tender in connection with a prior disclosure shall ensure that the tender is deposited with the concerned local Customs entry officer.

(2) A person shall be accorded the full benefits of prior disclosure treatment if that person provides information orally or in writing to Customs with respect to a violation of 19 U.S.C. 1592 or 19 U.S.C. 1593a if the concerned Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer is satisfied the information was provided before, or without knowledge of, the commencement of a formal investigation, and the information provided includes substantially the information specified in paragraph (b) of this section. In the case of an oral disclosure, the disclosing party shall confirm the oral disclosure by providing a written record of the information conveyed to Customs in the oral disclosure to the concerned Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer within 10 days of the date of the oral disclosure. The concerned Fines, Penalties and Forfeiture Officer may, upon request of the disclosing party which establishes a showing of good cause, waive the oral disclosure written confirmation requirement. Failure to provide the written confirmation of the oral disclosure or obtain a waiver of the requirement may result in denial of the oral prior disclosure.

(b) Disclosure of the circumstances of a violation. The term “discloses the circumstances of a violation” means the act of providing to Customs a statement orally or in writing that:

(1) Identifies the class or kind of merchandise involved in the violation;

(2) Identifies the importation or drawback claim included in the disclosure by entry number, drawback claim number, or by indicating each concerned Customs port of entry and the approximate dates of entry or dates of drawback claims;

(3) Specifies the material false statements, omissions or acts including an explanation as to how and when they occurred; and

(4) Sets forth, to the best of the disclosing party's knowledge, the true and accurate information or data that should have been provided in the entry or drawback claim documents, and states that the disclosing party will provide any information or data unknown at the time of disclosure within 30 days of the initial disclosure date. Extensions of the 30-day period may be requested by the disclosing party from the concerned Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer to enable the party to obtain the information or data.

(c) Tender of actual loss of duties, taxes and fees or actual loss of revenue. A person who discloses the circumstances of the violation shall tender any actual loss of duties, taxes and fees or actual loss of revenue. The disclosing party may choose to make the tender either at the time of the claimed prior disclosure, or within 30 days after CBP notifies the person in writing of CBP calculation of the actual loss of duties, taxes and fees or actual loss of revenue. The Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer may extend the 30-day period if there is good cause to do so. The disclosing party may request that the basis for determining CBP asserted actual loss of duties, taxes or fees be reviewed by Headquarters, provided that the actual loss of duties, taxes or fees determined by CBP exceeds $100,000 and is deposited with CBP, more than 1 year remains under the statute of limitations involving the shipments covered by the claimed disclosure, and the disclosing party has complied with all other prior disclosure regulatory provisions. A grant of review is within the discretion of CBP Headquarters in consultation with the appropriate field office, and such Headquarters review shall be limited to determining issues of correct tariff classification, correct rate of duty, elements of dutiable value, and correct application of any special rules (GSP, CBI, HTS 9802, etc.). The concerned Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer shall forward appropriate review requests to the Chief, Penalties Branch, Office of International Trade. After Headquarters renders its decision, the concerned Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer will be notified and the concerned Center director will recalculate the loss, if necessary, and notify the disclosing party of any actual loss of duties, taxes or fees increases. Any increases must be deposited within 30 days, unless the local CBP office authorizes a longer period. Any reductions of the CBP calculated actual loss of duties, or and fees shall be refunded to the disclosing party. Such Headquarters review decisions are final and not subject to appeal. Further, disclosing parties requesting and obtaining such a review waive their right to contest either administratively or judicially the actual loss of duties, taxes and fees or actual loss of revenue finally calculated by CBP under this procedure. Failure to tender the actual loss of duties, taxes and fees or actual loss of revenue finally calculated by CBP shall result in denial of the prior disclosure.

(d) Effective time and date of prior disclosure—(1) If the documents that provide the disclosing information are sent by registered or certified mail, return-receipt requested, and are received by Customs, the disclosure shall be deemed to have been made at the time of mailing.

(2) If the documents are sent by other methods, including in-person delivery, the disclosure shall be deemed to have been made at the time of receipt by Customs. If the documents are delivered in person, the person delivering the documents will, upon request, be furnished a receipt from Customs stating the time and date of receipt.

(3) The provision of information that is not in writing but that qualifies for prior disclosure treatment pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall be deemed to have occurred at the time that Customs was provided with information that substantially complies with the requirements set forth in paragraph (b) of this section.

(e) Addressing and filing prior disclosure—(1) A written prior disclosure should be addressed to the Commissioner of Customs, have conspicuously printed on the face of the envelope the words “prior disclosure,” and be presented to a Customs officer at the Customs port of entry of the disclosed violation.

(2) In the case of a prior disclosure involving violations at multiple ports of entry, the disclosing party may orally disclose or provide copies of the disclosure to all concerned Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officers. In accordance with internal Customs procedures, the officers will then seek consolidation of the disposition and handling of the disclosure. In the event that the claimed “multi-port” disclosure is made to a Customs officer other than the concerned Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer, the disclosing party must identify all ports involved to enable the concerned Customs officer to refer the disclosure to the concerned Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer for consolidation of the proceedings.

(f) Verification of disclosure. Upon receipt of a prior disclosure, the Customs officer shall notify Customs Office of Investigations of the disclosure. In the event the claimed prior disclosure is made to a Customs officer other than the concerned Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer, it is incumbent upon the Customs officer to provide a copy of the disclosure to the concerned Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer. The disclosing party may request, in the oral or written prior disclosure, that the concerned Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer request that the Office of Investigations withhold the initiation of disclosure verification proceedings until after the party has provided the information or data within the time limits specified in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. It is within the discretion of the concerned Fines, Penalties and Forfeitures Officer to grant or deny such requests.

(g) Commencement of a formal investigation. A formal investigation of a violation is considered to be commenced with regard to the disclosing party on the date recorded in writing by the Customs Service as the date on which facts and circumstances were discovered or information was received that caused the Customs Service to believe that a possibility of a violation existed. In the event that a party affirmatively asserts a prior disclosure (i.e., identified or labeled as a prior disclosure) and is denied prior disclosure treatment on the basis that Customs had commenced a formal investigation of the disclosed violation, and Customs initiates a penalty action against the disclosing party involving the disclosed violation, a copy of a “writing” evidencing the commencement of a formal investigation of the disclosed violation shall be attached to any required prepenalty notice issued to the disclosing party pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1592 or 19 U.S.C. 1593a.

(h) Scope of the disclosure and expansion of a formal investigation. A formal investigation is deemed to have commenced as to additional violations not included or specified by the disclosing party in the party's original prior disclosure on the date recorded in writing by the Customs Service as the date on which facts and circumstances were discovered or information was received that caused the Customs Service to believe that a possibility of such additional violations existed. Additional violations not disclosed or covered within the scope of the party's prior disclosure that are discovered by Customs as a result of an investigation and/or verification of the prior disclosure shall not be entitled to treatment under the prior disclosure provisions.

(i) Knowledge of the commencement of a formal investigation—(1) A disclosing party who claims lack of knowledge of the commencement of a formal investigation has the burden to prove that lack of knowledge. A person shall be presumed to have had knowledge of the commencement of a formal investigation of a violation if before the claimed prior disclosure of the violation a formal investigation has been commenced and:

(i) Customs, having reasonable cause to believe that there has been a violation of 19 U.S.C. 1592 or 19 U.S.C. 1593a, so informed the person of the type of or circumstances of the disclosed violation; or

(ii) A Customs Special Agent, having properly identified himself or herself and the nature of his or her inquiry, had, either orally or in writing, made an inquiry of the person concerning the type of or circumstances of the disclosed violation; or

(iii) A Customs Special Agent, having properly identified himself or herself and the nature of his or her inquiry, requested specific books and/or records of the person relating to the disclosed violation; or

(iv) Customs issues a prepenalty or penalty notice to the disclosing party pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1592 or 19 U.S.C. 1593a relating to the type of or circumstances of the disclosed violation; or

(v) The merchandise that is the subject of the disclosure was seized; or

(vi) In the case of violations involving merchandise accompanying persons entering the United States or commercial merchandise inspected in connection with entry, the person has received oral or written notification of Customs finding of a violation.

(2) The presumption of knowledge may be rebutted by evidence that, notwithstanding the foregoing notice, inquiry or request, the person did not have knowledge that an investigation had commenced with respect to the disclosed information.

(j) Prior disclosure using sampling. (1) A private party may use statistical sampling to “disclose the circumstances of a violation” and for calculation of lost duties, taxes, and fees or lost revenue for purposes of prior disclosure, provided that the statistical sampling satisfies the criteria in 19 CFR 163.11(c)(3). The prior disclosure must include an explanation of the sampling plan and methodology that meets with CBP's approval. The time period, scope, and any sampling plan employed by the private party, as well as the execution and results of the self-review, are subject to CBP review and approval. In accordance with 19 CFR 163.11(c)(1), in circumstances where the private party and CBP have discussed and accepted the sampling plan and its methodology, or adjustments to it, the private party submitting a prior disclosure employing sampling under this paragraph may not contest the validity of the sampling plan or its methodology, and challenges of the sampling itself will be limited to computational and clerical errors after CBP conducts its review and makes a determination. This is not a waiver of the private party's right to later contest substantive issues it may properly raise under applicable regulations, as provided in 19 CFR 163.11(c)(1).

(2) If a private party submits a prior disclosure claim employing sampling, CBP may review other transactions from the same time period and scope that are the subject of the prior disclosure.

[T.D. 98-49, 63 FR 29131, May 28, 1998; 63 FR 35798, July 1, 1998; T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999; T.D. 99-64, 64 FR 43267, Aug. 10, 1999; T.D. 00-5, 65 FR 3809, Jan. 25, 2000; T.D. 00-57, 65 FR 53575, Sept. 5, 2000; CBP Dec. 11-20, 76 FR 65960, Oct. 25, 2011; CBP Dec. No. 16-26, 81 FR 93024, Dec. 20, 2016]

§162.75   Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.

(a) When authorized. Merchandise may be seized for violation of section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1592) only if the port director has reasonable cause to believe that a person has violated the statute and that

(1) The person is insolvent,

(2) The person is beyond the jurisdiction of the United States,

(3) Seizure otherwise is essential to protect the revenue, or

(4) Seizure is essential to prevent the introduction of prohibited or restricted merchandise into the Customs territory of the United States.

(b) No seizure if prior disclosure. Under no circumstances shall merchandise be seized under the authority of 19 U.S.C. 1592 if there has been a prior disclosure of the violation. This paragraph does not limit seizures under the authority of any other applicable law or regulation.

(c) Seizure notice. If merchandise is seized, the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer shall promptly issue a written notice of seizure to the person concerned and to any other person the facts of record indicate has an interest in the merchandise. The seizure notice shall contain the information required by §162.31 and shall state why the seizure was necessary.

(d) Release of seized merchandise—(1) To person from whom seized. The Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer shall return seized mechandise to the person from whom seized upon the deposit of security, in a form acceptable to the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer, equal to the maximum penalty which may be assessed, if the entry of the merchandise into the commerce of the United States is not prohibited or restricted.

(2) To others. The Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer may release seized merchandise to any other person upon the deposit of adequate security, in a form acceptable to the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer, if the entry of the merchandise into the commerce of the United States is not prohibited or restricted, and if:

(i) The Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer is satisfied that the person has a substantial interest in the merchandise, and

(ii) The person submits either an agreement to hold the United States and its officers and employees harmless, or a release from the owner and/or the person from whom the merchandise was seized.

(3) Forfeiture. If neither a petition for relief is filed in accordance with part 171 of this chapter, nor compliance made with the decision within the time provided by law, the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer immediately shall report the facts and refer the case to the Department of Justice for the institution of court proceedings.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 84-18, 49 FR 1679, Jan. 13, 1984; T.D. 85-90, 50 FR 21431, May 24, 1985; T.D. 86-118, 51 FR 22516, June 20, 1986; T.D. 88-43, 53 FR 28195, July 27, 1988; T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999]

§162.76   Prepenalty notice for violations of sections 466 or 584(a)(1), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.

(a) When required. If the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer has reasonable cause to believe that a violation of section 466 or 584(a)(1), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1466, 1584(a)(1)), has occurred and determines that further proceedings are warranted, he shall issue to the person concerned a written notice of his intent to issue a penalty claim or a claim of forfeiture, as appropriate.

(b) Contents—(1) Facts of violation. The prepenalty notice shall:

(i) Describe the merchandise, if applicable,

(ii) Set forth the details of the error in the manifest, if applicable,

(iii) Specify all laws and regulations allegedly violated,

(iv) Describe all material facts and circumstances which establish the alleged violation, and

(v) State the estimated loss of duties, if any, and, taking into account all circumstances, the amount of the proposed penalty claim or claim of forfeiture, as appropriate.

(2) Right to make presentation. The prepenalty notice also shall inform the person of his right to make a written and an oral presentation within 30 days of the mailing of the notice (or such shorter period as may be prescribed under §162.78) as to why a penalty claim or claim of forfeiture should not be issued or, if issued and it involves a monetary amount, why it should be in a lesser amount than proposed.

(c) Exception. No prepenalty notice shall be issued if the proposed penalty for an alleged violation of 19 U.S.C. 1584(a)(1) is $1,000 or less.

[T.D. 79-160, 44 FR 31958, June 4, 1979, as amended by T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999; CBP Dec. 04-28, 69 FR 52600, Aug. 27, 2004]

§162.77   Prepenalty notice for violations of section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.

(a) When required. If the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer has reasonable cause to believe that a violation of section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1592), has occurred, and determines that further proceedings are warranted, he shall issue to the person concerned a notice of his intent to issue a claim for a monetary penalty. The prepenalty notice shall be issued whether or not a seizure has been made.

(b) Contents—(1) Facts of violation. The prepenalty notice shall:

(i) Describe the merchandise,

(ii) Set forth the details of the entry or introduction, the attempted entry or introduction, or the aiding or abetting of the entry, introduction, or attempt,

(iii) Specify all laws and regulations allegedly violated,

(iv) Disclose all material facts which establish the alleged violation,

(v) State whether the alleged violation occured as the result of fraud, gross negligence, or negligence, and

(vi) State the estimated loss of duties, if any, and, taking into account all circumstances, the amount of the proposed monetary penalty.

(2) Right to make presentations. The prepenalty notice also shall inform the person of his right to make an oral and a written presentation within 30 days of the mailing of the notice (or such shorter period as may be prescribed under §162.78) as to why a claim for a monetary penalty should not be issued or, if issued, why it should be in a lesser amount than proposed.

(c) Exceptions. A prepenalty notice shall not be issued if:

(1) The claim is for $1,000 or less, or

(2) The violation occurred with respect to a noncommercial importation.

[T.D. 79-160, 44 FR 31958, June 4, 1979, as amended by T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999]

§162.77a   Prepenalty notice for violation of section 593A, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.

(a) When required. If the appropriate Customs field officer has reasonable cause to believe that a violation of section 593A, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1593a) has occurred, and determines that further proceedings are warranted, the officer will issue to the person concerned a notice of intent to issue a claim for a monetary penalty.

(b) Contents—(1) Facts of violation. The prepenalty notice will:

(i) Identify the drawback claim;

(ii) Set forth the details relating to the seeking, inducing, or affecting, or the attempted seeking, inducing, or affecting, or the aiding or procuring of, the drawback claim;

(iii) Specify all laws and regulations allegedly violated;

(iv) Disclose all the material facts which establish the alleged violation;

(v) State whether the alleged violation occurred as a result of fraud or negligence; and

(vi) State the estimated actual or potential loss of revenue due to the drawback claim and, taking into account all circumstances, the amount of the proposed monetary penalty.

(2) Right to make presentations. The prepenalty notice also will inform the person of his right to make an oral and a written presentation within 30 days of mailing of the notice (or such shorter period as may be prescribed under §162.78) as to why a claim for a monetary penalty should not be issued or, if issued, why it should be in a lesser amount than proposed.

(c) Exceptions. A prepenalty notice will not be issued for a violation of 19 U.S.C. 1593a if the amount of the proposed monetary penalty is $1,000 or less.

(d) Prior approval. If an alleged violation of 19 U.S.C. 1593a occurred as a result of fraud, a prepenalty notice will not be issued without prior approval by Customs Headquarters.

[T.D. 00-5; 65 FR 3809, Jan. 25, 2000]

§162.78   Presentations responding to prepenalty notice.

(a) Time within which to respond. Unless a shorter period is specified in the prepenalty notice or an extension is given in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section, the named person shall have 30 days from the date of mailing of the prepenalty notice to make a written and an oral presentation. The Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer may specify a shorter reasonable period of time, but not less than 7 days, if less than 1 year remains before the statute of limitations may be asserted as a defense. If a period of fewer than 30 days is specified, the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer, if possible, shall inform the named person of the prepenalty notice and its contents by telephone at or about the time of issuance.

(b) Extensions. If at least 1 year remains before the statute of limitations may be asserted as a defense, the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer, upon written request, may extend the time for filing a written presentation, or making an oral presentation, or both, for any of the reasons given in part 171 of this chapter (except for the reason described in §171.15(a)(4)), relating to extensions of time for filing petitions for relief. In addition, an extension may be granted if, upon the request of the alleged violator, the Commissioner of Customs determines that the case involves an issue which is a proper matter for submission to Customs Headquarters under the internal advice procedures of §177.11(b)(2) of this chapter. Other extensions may be authorized only by Headquarters.

(c) Form and contents of written presentation. The written presentation need not be in any particular form, but shall contain information sufficient to indicate that it is the written presentation in response to the prepenalty notice. It should contain answers to the allegations in the prepenalty notice and set forth the reasons why the person believes the claim should not be issued or, if issued, why it should be in a lesser amount than proposed.

(d) Additional presentations. In addition to one written and one oral presentation, the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer, in his discretion, may allow further presentations.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 85-195, 50 FR 50290, Dec. 10, 1985; T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999]

§162.79   Determination as to violation.

(a) No violation. If, after considering any presentations made in response to the prepenalty notice, the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer determines that there was no violation by the person named in the prepenalty notice, he promptly shall notify the person in writing of that determination and that no claim for a monetary penalty will be issued.

(b) Violation—(1) Written notice of claim. If, after considering any presentations made in response to the prepenalty notice, the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer determines that there was a violation by the person named in the prepenalty notice, he promptly shall issue a written notice of a claim for a monetary penalty to that person.

(2) Contents. The notice of a claim for a monetary penalty shall contain any changes in the information provided in the prepenalty notice, and shall inform the person of his right to apply for relief under section 618, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1618), in accordance with part 171 of this chapter. If the person to whom the notice is issued is liable for any actual loss of duties recoverable under section 592(d), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1592(d)), the notice shall identify the entries involved, state the amount of duties payable and how it was calculated, and require the person to deposit or arrange for payment of the duties within 30 days of the date of the notice.

[T.D. 72-211, 37 FR 16488, Aug. 15, 1972, as amended by T.D. 84-18, 49 FR 1680, Jan. 13, 1984; T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999]

§162.79a   Other notice.

If no prepenalty notice is issued, a written notice of any monetary penalty incurred shall contain the information required under §162.76(b)(1), §162.77(b)(1) or §162.77a(b)(1) and (b)(2), except that the notice shall state the amount of the claim for a monetary penalty. The notice also shall inform the person of his right to apply for relief under section 618, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1618), in accordance with part 171 of this chapter.

[T.D. 79-160, 44 FR 31958, June 4, 1979, as amended by T.D. 00-5, 65 FR 3809, Jan. 25, 2000]

§162.79b   Recovery of actual loss of duties, taxes and fees or actual loss of revenue.

Whether or not a monetary penalty is assessed under this subpart, the appropriate Customs field officer will require the deposit of any actual loss of duties, taxes and fees resulting from a violation of section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1592) or any actual loss of revenue resulting from a violation of section 593A, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1593a), notwithstanding that the liquidation of the entry to which the loss is attributable has become final. If a person is liable for the payment of actual loss of duties, taxes and fees or actual loss of revenue in any case in which a monetary penalty is not assessed or a written notification of claim of monetary penalty is not issued, the port director will issue a written notice to the person of the liability for the actual loss of duties, taxes and fees or actual loss of revenue. The notice will identify the merchandise and entries involved, state the loss of duties, taxes and fees or loss of revenue and how it was calculated, and require the person to deposit or arrange for payment of the duties, taxes and fees or revenue within 30 days from the date of the notice. Any determination of actual loss of duties, taxes and fees or actual loss of revenue under this section is subject to review upon written application to the Commissioner of Customs.

[T.D. 00-5, 65 FR 3809, Jan. 25, 2000]

§162.80   Liability for duties; liquidation of entries.

(a)(1) When an entry is the subject of an investigation for possible violation of section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1592), or of a penalty action established under that section, the Center director, subject to the provisions of paragraph (a)(2) of this section, may liquidate the entry and CBP, either at the port of entry or electronically, may collect duties before the conclusion of the investigation or final disposition of the penalty action if the Center director determines that liquidation would be in the interest of the Government.

(2)(i) An entry not liquidated within 1 year from the date of entry or final withdrawal of all merchandise covered by a warehouse entry shall be deemed liquidated at the rate of duty, value, quantity, and amount of duties asserted at the time of entry by the importer, his consignee, or agent unless the time for liquidation is extended by the Center director because—

(A) Information needed by Customs for the proper appraisement or classification of the merchandise is not available.

(B) The importer, his consignee, or agent requests an extension and demonstrates good cause why the extention should be granted, or

(C) The 1-year liquidation period is suspended as required by statute or court order.

(ii) An entry not liquidated within 4 years from the date of entry or final withdrawal of all merchandise covered by a warehouse entry shall be deemed liquidated at the rate of duty, value, quantity, and amount of duties asserted at the time of entry by the importer, his consignee, or agent unless liquidation continues to be suspended by statute or court order. In that event, the entry shall be liquidated within 90 days after removal of the suspension.

(iii) The Center director promptly shall notify the importer or consignee concerned and any authorized agent and surety of the importer or consignee in writing of any extension or suspension of the liquidation period.

(b) When merchandise not covered by an entry is subject to section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1592), a demand shall be made on the importer for payment of the duty estimated to be due on such merchandise.

(c) Any applicable internal revenue tax shall also be demanded unless the merchandise is to be, or has been, forfeited.

[T.D. 84-18, 49 FR 1680, Jan. 13, 1984, as amended by CBP Dec. No. 16-26, 81 FR 93024, Dec. 20, 2016]

Subpart H—Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act

Source: T.D. 00-88, 65 FR 78091, Dec. 14, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

§162.91   Exemptions.

The provisions of this subpart will apply to all seizures of property for civil forfeiture made by Customs and Border Protection or Immigration and Customs Enforcement officers except for those seizures of property to be forfeited under the following statutes: The Tariff Act of 1930 or any other provision of law codified in title19, United States Code; the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 1 et seq.); the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.); the Trading with the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 1 et seq.); the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA) (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.); and section 1 of title VI of the Act of June 15, 1917 (40 Stat. 233; 22 U.S.C. 401).

[T.D. 02-08, 67 FR 9191, Feb. 28, 2002, as amended by USCBP-2006-0122, 73 FR 9012, Feb. 19, 2007]

§162.92   Notice of seizure.

(a) Generally. Customs will send written notice of seizure as provided in this section to all known interested parties as soon as practicable. Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) of this section, in no case may notice be sent more than 60 calendar days after the date of seizure. Any notice issued under this section will include all information that is required by §162.31(a) and (b) of this part.

(b) Seizure by state or local authorities. In a case in which property is seized by a state or local law enforcement agency and turned over to Customs for the purpose of forfeiture under Federal law, notice will be sent not more than 90 calendar days after the date of seizure by the State or local law enforcement agency.

(c) Identity or interest of party not determined. If the identity or interest of a party is not determined until after the seizure or turnover, but it is determined before a declaration of forfeiture, notice will be sent to such interested party not later than 60 calendar days after the determination by Customs of the identity of the party or the party's interest.

(d) Extensions. (1) The Assistant Secretary, Immigration and Customs Enforcement or the Commissioner of Customs and Border Protection for cases within their respective agencies, or their successors or designees, may extend the period for sending notice under this section for a period not to exceed 30 calendar days, if it is determined that issuance of the notice within 60 calendar days of seizure may have an adverse result, including:

(i) Endangering the life or physical safety of an individual;

(ii) Flight from prosecution;

(iii) Destruction of or tampering with evidence;

(iv) Intimidation of potential witnesses; or

(v) Otherwise seriously jeopardizing an investigation or unduly delaying a trial.

(2) The period for sending notice of seizure as provided in paragraph (d)(1) of this section may not be further extended except by order of a court of competent jurisdiction as prescribed in paragraph (e) of this section.

(e) Extensions by a court. Upon motion by the Government, a court of competent jurisdiction may extend the period for sending notice for a period not to exceed 60 calendar days. This period may be further extended by the court for additional 60 calendar-day periods, as necessary, if the court determines, based on a written certification of the Assistant Commissioner, Investigations, or designee, that the conditions set forth in paragraph (d) of this section are present.

[T.D. 00-88, 65 FR 78091, Dec. 14, 2000, as amended by USCBP-2006-0122, 73 FR 9012, Feb. 19, 2007]

§162.93   Failure to issue notice of seizure.

If Customs does not send notice of a seizure of property in accordance with §162.92 to the person from whom the property was seized, and no extension of time is granted, Customs will return the property to that person without prejudice to the right of the Government to commence a forfeiture proceeding at a later time. Customs is not, however, required to return contraband or other property that the person may not legally possess.

§162.94   Filing of a claim for seized property.

(a) Generally. In lieu of filing a petition for relief in accordance with part 171 of this chapter, any person claiming property seized by Customs in a non-judicial civil forfeiture proceeding may file a claim with the appropriate Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer.

(b) When filed. Unless the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer provides additional time to the person filing a claim for seized property pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section, the claim must be filed within 35 calendar days after the date the notice of seizure is mailed. If the notice of seizure is not received, a claim may be filed not later than 30 calendar days after the date of final publication of notice of seizure and intent to forfeit the property.

(c) Form of claim. The claim must be in writing but need not be made in any particular form. Claim forms will be made generally available upon request.

(d) Content of claim. The claim must:

(1) Identify the specific property being claimed;

(2) State the claimant's interest in the property; and

(3) Be made under oath, subject to penalty of perjury.

(e) No bond required. Any person may make a claim under this section without posting a bond.

(f) Effect of claim. Not later than 90 calendar days after a claim has been filed, the Government will file an appropriate complaint for forfeiture, except that a court in the district in which the complaint will be filed may extend the period for filing a complaint for good cause shown or upon agreement of the parties.

[T.D. 00-88, 65 FR 78091, Dec. 14, 2000, as amended by T.D. 02-08, 67 FR 9191, Feb. 28, 2002]

§162.95   Release of seized property.

(a) Generally. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a claimant to seized property under 18 U.S.C. 983(a) is entitled to immediate release of the property if:

(1) The claimant has a possessory interest in the property;

(2) The claimant has sufficient ties to the community to provide assurance that the property will be available at the time of trial;

(3) The continued possession of the property by Customs pending the final disposition of forfeiture proceedings will cause substantial hardship to the claimant, such as preventing an individual from working, or leaving an individual homeless; and

(4) The claimant's likely hardship from the continued possession by Customs of the seized property outweighs the risk that the property will be destroyed, damaged, lost, concealed, or transferred if it is returned to the claimant during the pendency of the proceedings.

(b) Exceptions. Immediate release of seized property under paragraph (a) of this section will not apply if the seized property:

(1) Is contraband, currency or other monetary instrument, or electronic funds, unless, in the case of currency, other monetary instrument or electronic funds, such property comprises the assets of a legitimate business which has been seized;

(2) Is to be used as evidence of a violation of the law;

(3) By reason of design or other characteristic, is particularly suited for use in illegal activities; or

(4) Is likely to be used to commit additional criminal acts if returned to the claimant.

(c) Request for release. A claimant seeking release of property under this section must request possession of the property from the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer who issued the notice of seizure. The request need not be made in any particular form, but must be in writing and set forth the basis on which the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section have been met. The request may be filed at any time during which the property remains under seizure.

(d) Granting request for release. The Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer may release the property if it is determined to be appropriate under paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section.

(e) Denial of or failure to act on request for release. If the Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer denies the request for release or fails to make a decision on the request by the 15th calendar day after the date the request is received by Customs, the claimant may file a petition in the district court in which the complaint has been filed, or, if no complaint has been filed, in the U.S. district court in which the seizure warrant was issued or in the U.S. district court for the district in which the property was seized.

[T.D. 00-88, 65 FR 78091, Dec. 14, 2000, as amended by T.D. 02-08, 67 FR 9191, Feb. 28, 2002]

§162.96   Remission of forfeitures and payment of fees, costs or interest.

When a person elects to petition for relief before, or in lieu of, filing a claim under §162.94, any seizure subject to forfeiture under this subpart may be remitted or mitigated pursuant to the provisions of 19 U.S.C. 1618 or 31 U.S.C. 5321(c), as applicable. Any person who accepts a remission or mitigation decision will not be considered to have substantially prevailed in a civil forfeiture proceeding for purposes of collection of any fees, costs or interest from the Government.

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