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Title 15Subtitle BChapter VIISubchapter C → Part 770

Title 15: Commerce and Foreign Trade


§770.1   Introduction.
§770.2   Item interpretations.
§770.3   Interpretations related to exports of technology and software to destinations in Country Group D:1.

Authority: 50 U.S.C. 4601 et seq.; 50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.; E.O. 13222, 66 FR 44025, 3 CFR, 2001 Comp., p. 783; Notice of August 15, 2017, 82 FR 39005 (August 16, 2017).

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§770.1   Introduction.

In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. This part provides commodity, technology, and software interpretations. These interpretations clarify the scope of controls where such scope is not readily apparent from the Commerce Control List (CCL) (see supplement no. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) and other provisions of the Export Administration Regulations.

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§770.2   Item interpretations.

(a) Interpretation 1: Anti-friction bearing or bearing systems and specially designed parts. (1) Anti-friction bearings or bearing systems shipped as spares or replacements are classified under Export Control Classification Number (ECCN) 2A001 (ball, roller, or needle-roller bearings and parts). This applies to separate shipments of anti-friction bearings or bearing systems and anti-friction bearings or bearing systems shipped with machinery or equipment for which they are intended to be used as spares or replacement parts.

(2) An anti-friction bearing or bearing system physically incorporated in a segment of a machine or in a complete machine prior to shipment loses its identity as a bearing. In this scenario, the machine or segment of machinery containing the bearing is the item subject to export control requirements.

(3) An anti-friction bearing or bearing system not incorporated in a segment of a machine prior to shipment, but shipped as a component of a complete unassembled (knocked-down) machine, is considered a component of a machine. In this scenario, the complete machine is the item subject to export license requirements.

(b) Interpretation 2: Classification of “parts” of machinery, equipment, or other items—(1) An assembled machine or unit of equipment is being exported. In instances where one or more assembled machines or units of equipment are being exported, the individual component parts that are physically incorporated into the machine or equipment do not require a license. The license or general exception under which the complete machine or unit of equipment is exported will also cover its component parts, provided that the parts are normal and usual components of the machine or equipment being exported, or that the physical incorporation is not used as a device to evade the requirement for a license.

(2) Parts are exported as spares, replacements, for resale, or for stock. In instances where parts are exported as spares, replacements, for resale, or for stock, a license is required only if the appropriate entry for the part specifies that a license is required for the intended destination.

(c) [Reserved]

(d) Interpretation 4: Telecommunications equipment and systems. Control equipment for paging systems (broadcast radio or selectively signalled receiving systems) is defined as circuit switching equipment in Category 5 of the CCL.

(e) Interpretation 5: Numerical control systems—(1) Classification of “Numerical Control” Units. “Numerical control” units for machine tools, regardless of their configurations or architectures, are controlled by their functional characteristics as described in ECCN 2B001.a. “Numerical control” units include computers with add-on “motion control boards”. A computer with add-on “motion control boards” for machine tools may be controlled under ECCN 2B001.a even when the computer alone without “motion control boards” is not subject to licensing requirements under Category 4 and the “motion control boards” are not controlled under ECCN 2B001.b.

(2) Export documentation requirement. (i) When preparing a license application for a numerical control system, the machine tool and the control unit are classified separately. If either the machine tool or the control unit requires a license, then the entire unit requires a license. If either a machine tool or a control unit is exported separately from the system, the exported component is classified on the license application without regard to the other parts of a possible system.

(ii) When preparing the Electronic Export Information (EEI) on the Automated Export System (AES), a system being shipped complete (i.e., machine and control unit), should be reported under the Schedule B number for each machine. When either a control unit or a machine is shipped separately, it should be reported under the Schedule B number appropriate for the individual item being exported.

(f) Interpretation 6: “Parts,” “accessories,” and equipment exported as scrap. “Parts,” “accessories,” or equipment that are being shipped as scrap should be described on the EEI filing to the AES in sufficient detail to be identified under the proper ECCN. When commodities declared as “parts,” “accessories,” or equipment are shipped in bulk, or are otherwise not packaged, packed, or sorted in accordance with normal trade practices, the Customs Officer may require evidence that the shipment is not scrap. Such evidence may include, but is not limited to, bills of sale, orders and correspondence indicating whether the commodities are scrap or are being exported for use as “parts,” “accessories,” or equipment.

(g) Interpretation 7: Scrap arms, ammunition, and implements of war. Arms, ammunition, and implements of war, as defined in the U.S. Munitions List, and are under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of State (22 CFR parts 120 through 130), except for the following, which are under the jurisdiction of the Department of Commerce:

(1) Cartridge and shell cases that have been rendered useless beyond the possibility of restoration to their original identity by means of excessive heating, flame treatment, mangling, crushing, cutting, or by any other method are “scrap”.

(2) Cartridge and shell cases that have been sold by the armed services as “scrap”, whether or not they have been heated, flame-treated, mangled, crushed, cut, or reduced to scrap by any other method.

(3) Other commodities that may have been on the U.S. Munitions List are “scrap”, and therefore under the jurisdiction of the Department of Commerce, if they have been rendered useless beyond the possibility of restoration to their original identity only by means of mangling, crushing, or cutting. When in doubt as to whether a commodity covered by the Munitions List has been rendered useless, exporters should consult the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, or the Exporter Counseling Division, Office of Exporter Services, Room 1099A, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC 20230, before reporting a shipment as metal scrap.

(h)-(j) [Reserved]

(k) Interpretation 11: Precursor chemicals. The following chemicals are controlled by ECCN 1C350. The appropriate Chemical Abstract Service Registry (C.A.S.) number and synonyms (i.e., alternative names) are included to help you determine whether or not your chemicals are controlled by this entry.

(1) (C.A.S. #1341-49-7) Ammonium hydrogen bifluoride

Acid ammonium fluoride

Ammonium bifluoride

Ammonium difluoride

Ammonium hydrofluoride

Ammonium hydrogen bifluoride

Ammonium hydrogen difluoride

Ammonium monohydrogen difluoride

(2) (C.A.S. #7784-34-1) Arsenic trichloride

Arsenic (III) chloride

Arsenous chloride

Fuming liquid arsenic


(3) (C.A.S. #76-93-7) Benzilic acid

.alpha.,.alpha.-Diphenyl-.alpha.-hydroxyacetic acid

Diphenylglycolic acid

.alpha.,.alpha.-Diphenylglycolic acid

Diphenylhydroxyacetic acid

.alpha.-Hydroxy-2,2-diphenylacetic acid

2-Hydroxy-2,2-diphenylacetic acid

.alpha.-Hydroxy-.alpha.-phenylbenzeneacetic acid

Hydroxydiphenylacetic acid

(4) (C.A.S. #107-07-3) 2-Chloroethanol



2-Chloroethyl alcohol

Ethene chlorohydrin


Ethylene chlorhydrin

Ethylene chlorohydrin

Glycol chlorohydrin

Glycol monochlorohydrin

2-Hydroxyethyl chloride

(5) (C.A.S. #78-38-6) Diethyl ethylphosphonate Ethylphosphonic acid diethyl ester

(6) (C.A.S. #15715-41-0) Diethyl methylphosphonite


Diethyl methanephosphonite

0,0-Diethyl methylphosphonite


Methylphosphonous acid diethyl ester

(7) (C.A.S. #2404-03-7) Diethyl-N, N-dimethylphosphoro-amidate

N,N-Dimethyl-O,O′-diethyl phosphoramidate

Diethyl dimethylphosphoramidate

Dimethylphosphoramidic acid diethyl ester

(8) (C.A.S. #762-04-9) Diethyl phosphite

Diethoxyphosphine oxide

Diethyl acid phosphite

Diethyl hydrogen phosphite

Diethyo phosphonate

Hydrogen diethyl phosphite

(9) (C.A.S. #100-37-8) N, N-Diethylethanolamine


Diethyl (2-hydroxyethyl) amine

N,N-Diethyl-N-(.beta.-hydroxyethyl) amine



2-(Diethylamino) ethanol

2-(Diethylamino)ethyl alcohol


(2-Hydroxyethyl) diethylamine


(10) (C.A.S. #5842-07-9) N,N-Diisopropyl-.beta.-aminoethane thiol

2-(Diisopropylamino) ethanethiol



2-(bis(1-Methylethyl)amino) ethanethiol

(11) (C.A.S. #4261-68-1) N, N-Diisopropyl-.2-aminoethyl chloride hydrochloride

(12) (C.A.S. #96-80-0) N,N-Diisopropyl-.beta.-aminoethanol


2-(Diisopropylamino) ethanol

(N,N-Diisopropylamino) ethanol

2-(Diisopropylamino) ethyl alcohol


(13) (C.A.S. #96-79-7) N,N-Diisopropyl-.beta.-aminoethyl chloride





N-(2-Chloroethyl) diisopropylamine



2-(Diisopropylamino)ethyl chloride

Diisopropylaminoethyl chloride

.beta.-Diisopropylaminoethyl chloride

(14) (C.A.S. #108-18-9) Diisopropylamine



(15) (C.A.S. #6163-75-3) Dimethyl ethylphosphonate

Dimethyl ethanephosphonate

Ethylphosphonic acid dimethyl ester

(16) (C.A.S. #756-79-6) Dimethyl methylphosphonate

Dimethoxymethyl phosphine oxide

Dimethyl methanephosphonate

Methanephosphonic acid dimethyl ester

Methylphosphonic acid dimethyl ester

(17) (C.A.S. #868-85-9) Dimethyl phosphite

Dimethoxyphosphine oxide

Dimethyl acid phosphite

Dimethyl hydrogen phosphite

Dimethyl phosphonate

Hydrogen dimethyl phosphite

Methyl phosphate

(18) (C.A.S. #124-40-3) Dimethylamine

N-Methyl methanamine

(19) (C.A.S. #506-59-2) Dimethylamine hydrochloride

Dimethylammonium chloride

N-Methyl methanamine hydrochloride

(20) [Reserved]

(21) (C.A.S. #1498-40-4) Ethylphosphonous dichloride


Ethyl phosphonous dichloride


(22) (C.A.S. #430-78-4) Ethylphosphonus difluoride


(23) (C.A.S. #1066-50-8) Ethylphosphonyl dichloride

Dichloroethylphosphine oxide

Ethanephosphonyl chloride

Ethylphosphinic dichloride

Ethylphosphonic acid dichloride

Ethylphosphonic dichloride

(24) [Reserved]

(25) (C.A.S. #7664-39-3) Hydrogen fluoride

Anhydrous hydrofluoric acid

Fluorhydric acid

Fluorine monohydride

Hydrofluoric acid gas

(26) (C.A.S. #3554-74-3) 3-Hydroxyl-1-methylpiperidine






(27) (C.A.S. #76-89-1) Methyl benzilate

Benzilic acid methyl ester

.alpha.-Hydroxy-.alpha.-phenylbenzeneacetic acid methyl ester

Methyl .alpha.-phenylmandelate

Methyl diphenylglycolate

(28)-(31) [Reserved]

(32) (C.A.S. #10025-87-3) Phosphorus oxychloride

Phosphonyl trichloride

Phosphoric chloride

Phosphoric trichloride



Phosphorus chloride oxide

Phosphorus monoxide trichloride

Phosphorus oxide trichloride

Phosphorus oxytrichloride

Phosphorus trichloride oxide

Phosphoryl trichloride

Trichlorophosphine oxide

Trichlorophosphorus oxide

(33) (C.A.S. #10026-13-8) Phosphorus pentachloride



Phosphoric chloride

Phosphorus(V) chloride

Phosphorus perchloride

(34) (C.A.S. #1314-80-3) Phosphorus pentasulfide

Diphosphorus pentasulfide

Phosphoric sulfide

Phosphorus persulfide

Phosphorus sulfide

(35) (C.A.S. #7719-12-2) Phosphorus trichloride

Phosphorus chloride


(36) C.A.S. #75-97-8) Pinacolone

tert-Butyl methyl ketone





1,1-Dimethylethyl methyl ketone

Methyl tert-butyl ketone




(37) (C.A.S. #464-07-3) Pinacolyl alcohol

tert-Butyl methyl carbinol




(38) (C.A.S. #151-50-8) Potassium cyanide

(39) (C.A.S. #7789-23-3) Potassium fluoride

Potassium monofluoride

(40) (C.A.S. #7789-29-9) Potassium hydrogen fluoride

Hydrogen potassium difluoride

Hydrogen potassium fluoride

Potassium acid fluoride

Potassium bifluoride

Potassium hydrogen difluoride

Potassium monohydrogen difluoride

(41) (C.A.S. #1619-34-7) 3-Quinuclidinol



(42) (C.A.S. #3731-38-2) 3-Quinuclidinone




(43) (C.A.S.) #1333-83-1) Sodium bifluoride

Sodium hydrogen difluoride

Sodium hydrogen fluoride

(44) (C.A.S. #143-33-9) Sodium cyanide

(45) (C.A.S. #7681-49-4) Sodium fluoride

Sodium monofluoride

(46) (C.A.S. #1313-82-2) Sodium sulfide

Disodium monosulfide

Disodium sulfide

Sodium monosulfide

Sodium sulfide

(47) (C.A.S. #10025-67-9) Sulfur Monochloride

(48) (C.A.S. #10545-99-0) Sulfur dicholoride

(49) (C.A.S. #111-48-8) Thiodiglycol

Bis(2-hydroxyethyl) sulfide

Bis(2-hydroxyethyl) thioether

Di(2-hydroxyethyl) sulfide

Diethanol sulfide





Thiodiethylene glycol


(50) C.A.S. #7719-09-7) Thionyl chloride

Sulfinyl chloride

Sulfinyl dichloride

Sulfur chloride oxide

Sulfur oxychloride

Sulfurous dichloride

Sulfurous oxychloride

Thionyl dichloride

(51) (C.A.S. #102-71-6) Triethanolamine

Alkanolamine 244





TEA (amino alcohol)

Tri (2-hydroxyethyl) amine


Tris (.beta.-hydroxyethyl) amine

Tris (2-hydroxyethyl) amine


(52) (C.A.S. #637-39-8) Triethanolamine hydrochloride

(53) (C.A.S. #122-52-1) Triethyl phosphite

Phosphorous acid triethyl ester



(54) (C.A.S. #121-45-9) Trimethyl phosphite

Phosphorus acid trimethyl ester


(l) Interpretation 12: Computers. (1) Digital computers or computer systems classified under ECCN 4A003.b or .c, that qualify for “No License Required” (NLR) must be evaluated on the basis of Adjusted Peak Performance (APP) alone, to the exclusion of all other technical parameters. Digital computers or computer systems classified under ECCN 4A003.b or .c that qualify for License Exception APP must be evaluated on the basis of APP, to the exclusion of all other technical parameters. Assemblies performing analog-to-digital conversions are evaluated under Category 3—Electronics, ECCN 3A002.h.

(2) Related equipment classified under ECCN 4A003.g may be exported or reexported under License Exceptions GBS or CIV. When related equipment is exported or reexported as part of a computer system, NLR or License Exception APP is available for the computer system and the related equipment, as appropriate.

(m) Interpretation 13: Encryption commodities and software controlled for EI reasons. Encryption commodities and software controlled for EI reasons under ECCNs 5A002, 5A004 and 5D002 may be pre-loaded on a laptop, handheld device or other computer or equipment and exported under the tools of trade provision of License Exception TMP or the personal use exemption under License Exception BAG, subject to the terms and conditions of such License Exceptions. Neither License Exception TMP nor License Exception BAG contains a reporting requirement. Like other “information security” “software,” components, “electronic assemblies” or modules, the control status of encryption commodities and software is determined in Category 5—Part 2 even if they are bundled, commingled or incorporated in a computer or other equipment. However, commodities and software specially designed for medical end use that incorporate an item in Category 5—Part 2 are not controlled in Category 5—Part 2. See paragraph (a) of supplement no. 3 to part 774 (Statements of Understanding) of the EAR.

(n) Interpretation 14: Unfinished “600 series” commodities. Forgings, castings, and other unfinished products, such as extrusions and machined bodies, that have reached a stage in manufacturing where they are clearly identifiable by mechanical properties, material composition, geometry, or function as commodities controlled by any Product Group A (“End Items,” “Equipment,” “Accessories,” “Attachments,” “Parts,” “Components” and “Systems”) “600 series” ECCN are controlled in that “600 series” ECCN.

[61 FR 12920, Mar. 25, 1996]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §770.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

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§770.3   Interpretations related to exports of technology and software to destinations in Country Group D:1.

(a) Introduction. This section is intended to provide you additional guidance on how to determine whether your technology or software would be eligible for a License Exception, may be exported under NLR, or require a license, for export to Country Group D:1.

(b) Scope of licenses. The export of technology and software under a license is authorized only to the extent specifically indicated on the face of the license. The only technology and software related to equipment exports that may be exported without a license is technology described in §§734.7 through 734.11 of the EAR; operating technology and software described in §740.13(a) of the EAR; sales technology described in §740.13(b) of the EAR; and software updates described in §740.13(c) of the EAR.

(c) Commingled technology and software. (1) U.S.-origin technology does not lose its U.S.-origin when it is redrawn, used, consulted, or otherwise commingled abroad in any respect with other technology of any other origin. Therefore, any subsequent or similar technical data prepared or engineered abroad for the design, construction, operation, or maintenance of any plant or equipment, or part thereof, which is based on or utilizes any U.S.-origin technology, is subject to the EAR in the same manner as the original U.S.-origin technology, including license requirements, unless the commingled technology is not subject to the EAR by reason of the de minimis exclusions described in §734.4 of the EAR.

(2) U.S.-origin software that is incorporated into or commingled with foreign-origin software does not lose its U.S.-origin. Such commingled software is subject to the EAR is the same manner as the original U.S.-origin software, including license requirements, unless the commingled software is not subject to the EAR by reason of the de minimis exclusions described in §734.4 of the EAR.

(d) Certain License Exception. The following questions and answers are intended to further clarify the scope of technology and software eligible for a License Exception.

(1)(i) Question 1. (A) Our engineers, in installing or repairing equipment, use techniques (experience as well as proprietary knowledge of the internal componentry or specifications of the equipment) that exceed what is provided in the standard manuals or instructions (including training) given to the customer. In some cases, it is also a condition of the license that such information provided to the customer be constrained to the minimum necessary for normal installation, maintenance and operation situations.

(B) Can we send an engineer (with knowledge and experience) to the customer site to perform the installation or repair, under the provisions of License Exception TSU for operation technology and software described in §740.13(a) of the EAR, if it is understood that he is restricted by our normal business practices to performing the work without imparting the knowledge or technology to the customer personnel?

(ii) Answer 1. Export of technology includes release of U.S.-origin data in a foreign country, and “release” includes “application to situations abroad of personal knowledge or technical experience acquired in the United States.” As the release of technology in the circumstances described here would exceed that permitted under the License Exception TSU for operation technology and software described in §740.13(a) of the EAR, a license would be required even though the technician could apply the data without disclosing it to the customer.

(2)(i) Question 2. We plan, according to our normal business practices, to train customer engineers to maintain equipment that we have exported under a license, License Exception, or NLR. The training is contractual in nature, provided for a fee, and is scheduled to take place in part in the customer's facility and in part in the U.S. Can we now proceed with this training at both locations under a License Exception?

(ii) Answer 2. (A) Provided that this is your normal training, and involves technology contained in your manuals and standard instructions for the exported equipment, and meets the other requirements of License Exception TSU for operation technology and software described in §740.13(a), the training may be provided within the limits of those provisions of License Exception TSU. The location of the training is not significant, as the export occurs at the time and place of the actual transfer or imparting of the technology to the customer's engineers.

(B) Any training beyond that covered under the provisions of License Exception TSU for operation technology and software described in §740.13(a), but specifically represented in your license application as required for this customer installation, and in fact authorized on the face of the license or a separate technology license, may not be undertaken while the license is suspended or revoked.

[61 FR 12920, Mar. 25, 1996, as amended at 61 FR 64286, Dec. 4, 1996; 62 FR 25470, May 9, 1997; 65 FR 14860, Mar. 20, 2000]

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