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e-CFR data is current as of October 22, 2020

Title 12Chapter VIISubchapter A → Part 722


Title 12: Banks and Banking


PART 722—APPRAISALS


Contents
§722.1   Authority, purpose, and scope.
§722.2   Definitions.
§722.3   Appraisals and written estimates of market value requirements for real estate-related financial transactions.
§722.4   Minimum appraisal standards.
§722.5   Appraiser independence.
§722.6   Professional association membership; competency.
§722.7   Enforcement.

Authority: 12 U.S.C. 1766, 1789, and 3331 et seq. Section 722.3(a) is also issued under 15 U.S.C. 1639h.

Source: 55 FR 30207, July 25, 1990, unless otherwise noted.

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§722.1   Authority, purpose, and scope.

(a) Authority. Part 722 is issued by the National Credit Union Administration (“NCUA”) under title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989 (“FIRREA”) (Pub. L. 101-73, 103 Stat. 183, 1989) and 12 U.S.C. 1757 and 1766.

(b) Purpose and scope. (1) Title XI provides protection for federal financial and public policy interests in real estate-related transactions by requiring real estate appraisals used in connection with federally related transactions to be performed in writing, in accordance with uniform standards, by appraisers whose competency has been demonstrated and whose professional conduct will be subject to effective supervision. This part implements the requirements of title XI and applies to all federally related transactions entered into by the National Credit Union Administration or by federally insured credit unions (“regulated institutions”).

(2) This part: (i) Identifies which real estate-related financial transactions require the services of an appraiser;

(ii) Prescribes which categories of federally related transactions shall be appraised by a state-certified appraiser and which by a state-licensed appraiser; and

(iii) Prescribes minimum standards for the performance of real estate appraisals in connection with federally related transactions under the jurisdiction of the National Credit Union Administration.

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§722.2   Definitions.

Appraisal means a written statement independently and impartially prepared by a qualified appraiser setting forth an opinion as to the market value of an adequately-described property as of a specific date(s), supported by the presentation and analysis of relevant market information.

Appraisal Foundation means the Appraisal Foundation established on November 30, 1987, as a not-for-profit corporation under the laws of Illinois.

Appraisal Subcommittee means the Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council.

Complex means a transaction in which the property to be appraised, the form of ownership, or market conditions are atypical. A credit union may presume that appraisals of 1-to-4 family residential properties are not complex unless the institution has readily available information that a given appraisal will be complex.

Federal financial institutions regulatory agency means the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System; the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC); the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Treasury (OCC); the NCUA, and, formerly, the Office of Thrift Supervision.

Federally related transaction means any real estate-related financial transaction entered into on or after August 9, 1990 that:

(1) The National Credit Union Administration, or any federally insured credit union, engages in or contracts for; and

(2) Requires the services of an appraiser.

Market value means the most probable price which a property should bring in a competitive and open market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, the buyer and seller each acting prudently and knowledgeably and assuming the price is not affected by undue stimulus. Implicit in this definition is the consummation of a sale as of a specified date and the passing of title from seller to buyer under conditions whereby:

(1) Buyer and seller are typically motivated;

(2) Both parties are well informed or well advised, and acting in what they consider their own best interests;

(3) A reasonable time is allowed for exposure in the open market;

(4) Payment is made in terms of cash in U.S. dollars or in terms of financial arrangements comparable thereto; and

(5) The price represents the normal consideration for the property sold unaffected by special or creative financing or sales concessions granted by anyone associated with the sale.

Real estate (or real property) means an identified parcel or tract of land, including easements, rights of way, undivided or future interests and similar rights in a parcel or tract of land, but does not include mineral rights, timber rights, and growing crops, water rights and similar interests severable from the land when the transaction does not involve the associated parcel or tract of land.

Real estate-related financial transaction means any transaction involving:

(1) The sale, lease, purchase, investment in or exchange of real estate, including interests in property, or the financing thereof; or

(2) The refinancing of real estate or interests in real estate; or

(3) The use of real estate or interests in property as security for a loan or investment, including mortgage-backed securities.

Residential real estate transaction means a real estate-related financial transaction that is secured by a single 1-to-4 family residential property.

Staff appraiser means a State-certified or a State-licensed appraiser that is an employee of the credit union.

State-certified appraiser means any individual who has satisfied the requirements for certification in a state or territory whose criteria for certification as a real estate appraiser currently meet the minimum criteria for certification issued by the Appraiser Qualification Board of the Appraisal Foundation. No individual shall be a state-certified appraiser unless such individual has achieved a passing grade upon a suitable examination administered by a state or territory that is consistent with and equivalent to the Uniform State Certification Examination issued or endorsed by the Appraiser Qualification Board. In addition, the Appraisal Subcommittee must not have issued a finding that the policies, practices, or procedures of a state or territory are inconsistent with title XI of FIRREA. The National Credit Union Administration may, from time to time, impose additional qualification criteria for certified appraisers performing appraisals in connection with federally related transactions within its jurisdiction.

State-licensed appraiser means any individual who has satisfied the requirements for licensing in a state or territory where the licensing procedures comply with title XI of FIRREA and where the Appraisal Subcommittee has not issued a finding that the policies, practices, or procedures of the State or territory are inconsistent with title XI. The NCUA may, from time to time, impose additional qualification criteria for licensed appraisers performing appraisals in connection with federally related transactions within its jurisdiction.

Tract development means a project of five units or more that is constructed or is to be constructed as a single development.

Transaction value means:

(1) For loans or other extensions of credit, the amount of the loan or extension of credit; and

(2) For sales, leases, purchases, and investments in or exchanges of real estate, the market value of the real estate interest involved; and

(3) For the pooling of loans or interests in real estate for resale or purchase, the amount of the loan or market value of the real estate calculated with respect to each such loan or interest in real estate.

[84 FR 35536, July 24, 2019]

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§722.3   Appraisals and written estimates of market value requirements for real estate-related financial transactions.

(a) Real estate-related financial transactions not requiring an appraisal under this part. Provided the transaction is not a “higher-priced mortgage loan” under 12 CFR 1026.35, which must meet separate appraisal requirements under section 129H of the Truth in Lending Act, 15 U.S.C. 1639h, an appraisal is not required for a real estate-related financial transaction in which:

(1) The transaction involves an existing extension of credit at the lending credit union, provided that:

(i) There is no advancement of new monies, other than funds necessary to cover reasonable closing costs; or

(ii) There has been no obvious and material change in market conditions or physical aspects of the property that threatens the adequacy of the credit union's real estate collateral protection after the transaction, even with the advancement of new monies;

(2) A lien on real estate has been taken as collateral through an abundance of caution and where the terms of the transaction as a consequence have not been made more favorable than they would have been in the absence of a lien;

(3) A lien on real estate has been taken for purposes other than the real estate's value;

(4) A lease of real estate is entered into, unless the lease is the economic equivalent of a purchase or sale of the leased real estate;

(5) The transaction involves the purchase, sale, investment in, exchange of, or extension of credit secured by, a loan or interest in a loan, pooled loans, or interests in real estate, including mortgage-backed securities, and each loan or interest in a loan, pooled loan, or real estate interest met the requirements of this regulation, if applicable, at the time of origination; or

(6) The transaction either qualifies for sale to a United States government agency or United States government-sponsored agency, or involves a residential real estate transaction in which the appraisal conforms to the Federal National Mortgage Association or Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation appraisal standards applicable to that category of real estate.

(b) Real estate-related financial transactions requiring an appraisal by a state-certified appraiser. An appraisal performed by a state-certified appraiser is required for any real estate-related financial transaction not exempt under paragraph (a) of this section in which:

(1) The transaction value is $1,000,000 or more; or

(2) The transaction is complex, involves a residential real estate transaction, and $400,000 or more of the transaction value is not insured or guaranteed by a United States government agency or United States government sponsored agency.

(c) Real estate-related financial transactions requiring an appraisal by either a state-certified or state-licensed appraiser. (1) An appraisal performed by a state-certified appraiser or a state-licensed appraiser is required for any real estate-related financial transaction not exempt under paragraph (a) of this section in which the transaction is not complex, involves a residential real estate transaction, and $400,000 or more of the transaction value is not insured or guaranteed by a United States government agency or United States government sponsored agency.

(2) If, during the course of an appraisal of a residential real estate transaction performed by a state-licensed appraiser, factors are identified that result in the transaction meeting the definition of complex, then the credit union may either:

(i) Ask the state-licensed appraiser to complete the appraisal and have a state-certified appraiser approve and cosign the appraisal; or

(ii) Engage a state-certified appraiser to complete the appraisal.

(d) Real estate-related financial transactions requiring a written estimate of market value—(1) Applicability. Any real estate-related financial transaction must be supported by a written estimate of market value, unless:

(i) An appraisal performed by a state-certified or state-licensed appraiser was obtained;

(ii) An appraisal is not required under paragraphs (a)(2) through (6) of this section; or

(iii) The transaction is fully insured or guaranteed by a United States government agency or United States government-sponsored agency.

(2) Requirements. All written estimates of market value required under this paragraph must be performed by an individual:

(i) Independent of the loan production and collection processes (if independence cannot be achieved, the credit union must be able to demonstrate clearly that it has prudent safeguards to isolate its collateral valuation program from influence or interference from the loan production process and collection process);

(ii) Having no direct, indirect, or prospective interest, financial or otherwise, in the property or the transaction; and

(iii) Qualified and experienced to perform such estimates of value for the type and amount of credit being considered.

(e) Appraisals to address safety and soundness concerns. The NCUA reserves the right to require an appraisal under this subpart whenever the agency believes it is necessary to address safety and soundness concerns.

(f) [Reserved]

(g) Deferrals of appraisals and written estimates of market value for certain residential and commercial transactions—(1) 120-day grace period. The completion of appraisals and written estimate of market value required under paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section may be deferred up to 120 days from the date of closing.

(2) Covered transactions. The deferrals authorized under paragraph (g)(1) of this section apply to all residential and commercial real estate-secured transactions, excluding transactions for acquisition, development, and construction of real estate.

(3) Sunset. The appraisal and written estimate of market value deferrals authorized by this paragraph (g) will expire for transactions closing after December 31, 2020.

[84 FR 35537, July 24, 2019, as amended at 85 FR 22017, Apr. 21, 2020; 85 FR 23917, Apr. 30, 2020]

Effective Date Note: At 85 FR 22017, Apr. 21, 2020, §722.3 was amended by adding paragraph (g), effective until Dec. 31, 2020.

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§722.4   Minimum appraisal standards.

For federally related transactions, all appraisals shall, at a minimum:

(a) Conform to generally accepted appraisal standards as evidenced by the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP) promulgated by the Appraisal Standards Board of the Appraisal Foundation, 1029 Vermont Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20005;

(b) Be written and contain sufficient information and analysis to support the institution's decision to engage in the transaction;

(c) Be subject to appropriate review for compliance with the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice.

(d) Analyze and report appropriate deductions and discounts for proposed construction or renovation, partially leased buildings, non-market lease terms, and tract developments with unsold units;

(e) Be based upon the definition of market value as set forth in §722.2; and

(f) Be performed by State licensed or certified appraisers in accordance with requirements set forth in this subpart.

[60 FR 51894, Oct. 4, 1995, as amended at 85 FR 23917, Apr. 30, 2020]

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§722.5   Appraiser independence.

(a) Staff appraiser. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be independent of the lending, investment, and collection functions and not involved, except as an appraiser, in the federally related transaction, and have no direct or indirect interest, financial or otherwise, in the property. If the only qualified persons available to perform an appraisal are involved in the lending, investment, or collection functions of the credit union, the credit union shall take appropriate steps to ensure that the appraisers exercise independent judgment. Such steps include, but are not limited to, prohibiting an individual from performing an appraisal in connection with federally related transactions in which the appraiser is otherwise involved.

(b) Fee appraisers. (1) If an appraisal is prepared by a fee appraiser, the appraiser shall be engaged directly by the credit union or its agent and have no direct or indirect interest, financial or otherwise, in the property or the transaction.

(2) A credit union also may accept an appraisal that was prepared by an appraiser engaged directly by another financial services institution; if:

(i) The appraiser has no direct or indirect interest, financial or otherwise, in the property or transaction; and

(ii) The credit union determines that the appraisal conforms to the requirement of this regulation and is otherwise acceptable.

[55 FR 30207, July 25, 1990, as amended at 60 FR 51895, Oct. 4, 1995]

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§722.6   Professional association membership; competency.

(a) Membership in appraisal organization. A state-certified appraiser or a state-licensed appraiser may not be excluded from consideration for an assignment for a federally related transaction solely by virtue of membership or lack of membership in any particular appraisal organization.

(b) Competency. All staff and fee appraisers performing appraisals in connection with federally related transactions must be state-certified or -licensed as appropriate. However, a state-certified or -licensed appraiser may not be considered competent solely by virtue of being certified or licensed. Any determination of competency shall be based upon the individual's experience and educational background as they relate to the particular appraisal assignment for which he or she is being considered.

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§722.7   Enforcement.

Credit unions and institution-affiliated parties, including staff appraisers and fee appraisers, may be subject to removal and/or prohibition orders, cease-and-desist orders, and the imposition of civil money penalties pursuant to section 1786 of the Federal Credit Union Act, or any other applicable law.

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