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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 9, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 63Subpart UUUUU → Appendix


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 63—NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)
Subpart UUUUU—National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units


Appendix A to Subpart UUUUU of Part 63—Hg Monitoring Provisions

1. General Provisions

1.1   Applicability. These monitoring provisions apply to the measurement of total vapor phase mercury (Hg) in emissions from electric utility steam generating units, using either a mercury continuous emission monitoring system (Hg CEMS) or a sorbent trap monitoring system. The Hg CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring system must be capable of measuring the total vapor phase mercury in units of the applicable emissions standard (e.g., lb/TBtu or lb/GWh), regardless of speciation.

1.2   Initial Certification and Recertification Procedures. The owner or operator of an affected unit that uses a Hg CEMS or a sorbent trap monitoring system together with other necessary monitoring components to account for Hg emissions in units of the applicable emissions standard shall comply with the initial certification and recertification procedures in section 4 of this appendix.

1.3   Quality Assurance and Quality Control Requirements. The owner or operator of an affected unit that uses a Hg CEMS or a sorbent trap monitoring system together with other necessary monitoring components to account for Hg emissions in units of the applicable emissions standard shall meet the applicable quality assurance requirements in section 5 of this appendix.

1.4   Missing Data Procedures. The owner or operator of an affected unit is not required to substitute for missing data from Hg CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring systems. Any process operating hour for which quality-assured Hg concentration data are not obtained is counted as an hour of monitoring system downtime.

2. Monitoring of Hg Emissions

2.1   Monitoring System Installation Requirements. Flue gases from the affected units under this subpart vent to the atmosphere through a variety of exhaust configurations including single stacks, common stack configurations, and multiple stack configurations. For each of these configurations, §63.10010(a) specifies the appropriate location(s) at which to install continuous monitoring systems (CMS). These CMS installation provisions apply to the Hg CEMS, sorbent trap monitoring systems, and other continuous monitoring systems that provide data for the Hg emissions calculations in section 6.2 of this appendix.

2.2   Primary and Backup Monitoring Systems. In the electronic monitoring plan described in section 7.1.1.2.1 of this appendix, you must designate a primary Hg CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring system. The primary system must be used to report hourly Hg concentration values when the system is able to provide quality-assured data, i.e., when the system is “in control”. However, to increase data availability in the event of a primary monitoring system outage, you may install, operate, maintain, and calibrate backup monitoring systems, as follows:

2.2.1   Redundant Backup Systems. A redundant backup monitoring system may be either a separate Hg CEMS with its own probe, sample interface, and analyzer, or a separate sorbent trap monitoring system. A redundant backup system is one that is permanently installed at the unit or stack location, and is kept on “hot standby” in case the primary monitoring system is unable to provide quality-assured data. A redundant backup system must be represented as a unique monitoring system in the electronic monitoring plan. Each redundant backup monitoring system must be certified according to the applicable provisions in section 4 of this appendix and must meet the applicable on-going QA requirements in section 5 of this appendix.

2.2.2   Non-redundant Backup Monitoring Systems. A non-redundant backup monitoring system is a separate Hg CEMS or sorbent trap system that has been certified at a particular unit or stack location, but is not permanently installed at that location. Rather, the system is kept on “cold standby” and may be reinstalled in the event of a primary monitoring system outage. A non-redundant backup monitoring system must be represented as a unique monitoring system in the electronic monitoring plan. Non-redundant backup Hg CEMS must complete the same certification tests as the primary monitoring system, with one exception. The 7-day calibration error test is not required for a non-redundant backup Hg CEMS. Except as otherwise provided in section 2.2.4.5 of this appendix, a non-redundant backup monitoring system may only be used for 720 hours per year at a particular unit or stack location.

2.2.3   Temporary Like-kind Replacement Analyzers. When a primary Hg analyzer needs repair or maintenance, you may temporarily install a like-kind replacement analyzer, to minimize data loss. Except as otherwise provided in section 2.2.4.5 of this appendix, a temporary like-kind replacement analyzer may only be used for 720 hours per year at a particular unit or stack location. The analyzer must be represented as a component of the primary Hg CEMS, and must be assigned a 3-character component ID number, beginning with the prefix “LK”.

2.2.4   Quality Assurance Requirements for Non-redundant Backup Monitoring Systems and Temporary Like-kind Replacement Analyzers. To quality-assure the data from non-redundant backup Hg monitoring systems and temporary like-kind replacement Hg analyzers, the following provisions apply:

2.2.4.1   When a certified non-redundant backup sorbent trap monitoring system is brought into service, you must follow the procedures for routine day-to-day operation of the system, in accordance with Performance Specification (PS) 12B in appendix B to part 60 of this chapter.

2.2.4.2   When a certified non-redundant backup Hg CEMS or a temporary like-kind replacement Hg analyzer is brought into service, a calibration error test and a linearity check must be performed and passed. A single point system integrity check is also required, unless a NIST-traceable source of oxidized Hg was used for the calibration error test.

2.2.4.3   Each non-redundant backup Hg CEMS or temporary like-kind replacement Hg analyzer shall comply with all required daily, weekly, and quarterly quality-assurance test requirements in section 5 of this appendix, for as long as the system or analyzer remains in service.

2.2.4.4   For the routine, on-going quality-assurance of a non-redundant backup Hg monitoring system, a relative accuracy test audit (RATA) must be performed and passed at least once every 8 calendar quarters at the unit or stack location(s) where the system will be used.

2.2.4.5   To use a non-redundant backup Hg monitoring system or a temporary like-kind replacement analyzer for more than 720 hours per year at a particular unit or stack location, a RATA must first be performed and passed at that location.

3. Mercury Emissions Measurement Methods

The following definitions, equipment specifications, procedures, and performance criteria are applicable to the measurement of vapor-phase Hg emissions from electric utility steam generating units, under relatively low-dust conditions (i.e., sampling in the stack or duct after all pollution control devices). The analyte measured by these procedures and specifications is total vapor-phase Hg in the flue gas, which represents the sum of elemental Hg (Hg0, CAS Number 7439-97-6) and oxidized forms of Hg.

3.1   Definitions.

3.1.1   Mercury Continuous Emission Monitoring System or Hg CEMS means all of the equipment used to continuously determine the total vapor phase Hg concentration. The measurement system may include the following major subsystems: sample acquisition, Hg + 2 to Hg0 converter, sample transport, sample conditioning, flow control/gas manifold, gas analyzer, and data acquisition and handling system (DAHS). Hg CEMS may be nominally real-time or time-integrated, batch sampling systems that sample the gas on an intermittent basis and concentrate on a collection medium before intermittent analysis and reporting.

3.1.2   Sorbent Trap Monitoring System means the equipment required to monitor Hg emissions continuously by using paired sorbent traps containing iodated charcoal (IC) or other suitable sorbent medium. The monitoring system consists of a probe, paired sorbent traps, an umbilical line, moisture removal components, an airtight sample pump, a gas flow meter, and an automated data acquisition and handling system. The system samples the stack gas at a constant proportional rate relative to the stack gas volumetric flow rate. The sampling is a batch process. The average Hg concentration in the stack gas for the sampling period is determined, in units of micrograms per dry standard cubic meter (µg/dscm), based on the sample volume measured by the gas flow meter and the mass of Hg collected in the sorbent traps.

3.1.3   NIST means the National Institute of Standards and Technology, located in Gaithersburg, Maryland.

3.1.4   NIST-Traceable Elemental Hg Standards means either: compressed gas cylinders having known concentrations of elemental Hg, which have been prepared according to the “EPA Traceability Protocol for Assay and Certification of Gaseous Calibration Standards”; or calibration gases having known concentrations of elemental Hg, produced by a generator that meets the performance requirements of the “EPA Traceability Protocol for Qualification and Certification of Elemental Mercury Gas Generators” or an interim version of that protocol.

3.1.5   NIST-Traceable Source of Oxidized Hg means a generator that is capable of providing known concentrations of vapor phase mercuric chloride (HgCl2), and that meets the performance requirements of the “EPA Traceability Protocol for Qualification and Certification of Mercuric Chloride Gas Generators” or an interim version of that protocol.

3.1.6   Calibration Gas means a NIST-traceable gas standard containing a known concentration of elemental or oxidized Hg that is produced and certified in accordance with an EPA traceability protocol.

3.1.7   Span Value means a conservatively high estimate of the Hg concentrations to be measured by a CEMS. The span value of a Hg CEMS should be set to approximately twice the concentration corresponding to the emission standard, rounded off as appropriate (see section 3.2.1.4.2 of this appendix).

3.1.8   Zero-Level Gas means calibration gas containing a Hg concentration that is below the level detectable by the Hg gas analyzer in use.

3.1.9   Low-Level Gas means calibration gas with a concentration that is 20 to 30 percent of the span value.

3.1.10   Mid-Level Gas means calibration gas with a concentration that is 50 to 60 percent of the span value.

3.1.11   High-Level Gas means calibration gas with a concentration that is 80 to 100 percent of the span value.

3.1.12   Calibration Error Test means a test designed to assess the ability of a Hg CEMS to measure the concentrations of calibration gases accurately. A zero-level gas and an upscale gas are required for this test. For the upscale gas, either a mid-level gas or a high-level gas may be used, and the gas may either be an elemental or oxidized Hg standard.

3.1.13   Linearity Check means a test designed to determine whether the response of a Hg analyzer is linear across its measurement range. Three elemental Hg calibration gas standards (i.e., low, mid, and high-level gases) are required for this test.

3.1.14   System Integrity Check means a test designed to assess the transport and measurement of oxidized Hg by a Hg CEMS. Oxidized Hg standards are used for this test. For a three-level system integrity check, low, mid, and high-level calibration gases are required. For a single-level check, either a mid-level gas or a high-level gas may be used.

3.1.15   Cycle Time Test means a test designed to measure the amount of time it takes for a Hg CEMS, while operating normally, to respond to a known step change in gas concentration. For this test, a zero gas and a high-level gas are required. The high-level gas may be either an elemental or an oxidized Hg standard.

3.1.16   Relative Accuracy Test Audit or RATA means a series of nine or more test runs, directly comparing readings from a Hg CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring system to measurements made with a reference stack test method. The relative accuracy (RA) of the monitoring system is expressed as the absolute mean difference between the monitoring system and reference method measurements plus the absolute value of the 2.5 percent error confidence coefficient, divided by the mean value of the reference method measurements.

3.1.17   Unit Operating Hour means a clock hour in which a unit combusts any fuel, either for part of the hour or for the entire hour.

3.1.18   Stack Operating Hour means a clock hour in which gases flow through a particular monitored stack or duct (either for part of the hour or for the entire hour), while the associated unit(s) are combusting fuel.

3.1.19   Operating Day means a calendar day in which a source combusts any fuel.

3.1.20   Quality Assurance (QA) Operating Quarter means a calendar quarter in which there are at least 168 unit or stack operating hours (as defined in this section).

3.1.21   Grace Period means a specified number of unit or stack operating hours after the deadline for a required quality-assurance test of a continuous monitor has passed, in which the test may be performed and passed without loss of data.

3.2   Continuous Monitoring Methods.

3.2.1   Hg CEMS. A typical Hg CEMS is shown in Figure A-1. The CEMS in Figure A-1 is a dilution extractive system, which measures Hg concentration on a wet basis, and is the most commonly-used type of Hg CEMS. Other system designs may be used, provided that the CEMS meets the performance specifications in section 4.1.1 of this appendix.

eCFR graphic er16fe12.012.gif

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3.2.1.1   Equipment Specifications.

3.2.1.1.1   Materials of Construction. All wetted sampling system components, including probe components prior to the point at which the calibration gas is introduced, must be chemically inert to all Hg species. Materials such as perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) TeflonTM, quartz, and treated stainless steel (SS) are examples of such materials.

3.2.1.1.2   Temperature Considerations. All system components prior to the Hg+2 to Hg0 converter must be maintained at a sample temperature above the acid gas dew point.

3.2.1.1.3   Measurement System Components.

3.2.1.1.3.1   Sample Probe. The probe must be made of the appropriate materials as noted in paragraph 3.2.1.1.1 of this section, heated when necessary, as described in paragraph 3.2.1.1.3.4 of this section, and configured with ports for introduction of calibration gases.

3.2.1.1.3.2   Filter or Other Particulate Removal Device. The filter or other particulate removal device is part of the measurement system, must be made of appropriate materials, as noted in paragraph 3.2.1.1.1 of this section, and must be included in all system tests.

3.2.1.1.3.3   Sample Line. The sample line that connects the probe to the converter, conditioning system, and analyzer must be made of appropriate materials, as noted in paragraph 3.2.1.1.1 of this section.

3.2.1.1.3.4   Conditioning Equipment. For wet basis systems, such as the one shown in Figure A-1, the sample must be kept above its dew point either by: heating the sample line and all sample transport components up to the inlet of the analyzer (and, for hot-wet extractive systems, also heating the analyzer); or diluting the sample prior to analysis using a dilution probe system. The components required for these operations are considered to be conditioning equipment. For dry basis measurements, a condenser, dryer or other suitable device is required to remove moisture continuously from the sample gas, and any equipment needed to heat the probe or sample line to avoid condensation prior to the moisture removal component is also required.

3.2.1.1.3.5   Sampling Pump. A pump is needed to push or pull the sample gas through the system at a flow rate sufficient to minimize the response time of the measurement system. If a mechanical sample pump is used and its surfaces are in contact with the sample gas prior to detection, the pump must be leak free and must be constructed of a material that is non-reactive to the gas being sampled (see paragraph 3.2.1.1.1 of this section). For dilution-type measurement systems, such as the system shown in Figure A-1, an ejector pump (eductor) may be used to create a sufficient vacuum that sample gas will be drawn through a critical orifice at a constant rate. The ejector pump must be constructed of any material that is non-reactive to the gas being sampled.

3.2.1.1.3.6   Calibration Gas System(s). Design and equip each Hg CEMS to permit the introduction of known concentrations of elemental Hg and HgCl2 separately, at a point preceding the sample extraction filtration system, such that the entire measurement system can be checked. The calibration gas system(s) must be designed so that the flow rate exceeds the sampling system flow requirements and that the gas is delivered to the CEMS at atmospheric pressure.

3.2.1.1.3.7   Sample Gas Delivery. The sample line may feed directly to either a converter, a by-pass valve (for Hg speciating systems), or a sample manifold. All valve and/or manifold components must be made of material that is non-reactive to the gas sampled and the calibration gas, and must be configured to safely discharge any excess gas.

3.2.1.1.3.8   Hg Analyzer. An instrument is required that continuously measures the total vapor phase Hg concentration in the gas stream. The analyzer may also be capable of measuring elemental and oxidized Hg separately.

3.2.1.1.3.9   Data Recorder. A recorder, such as a computerized data acquisition and handling system (DAHS), digital recorder, or data logger, is required for recording measurement data.

3.2.1.2   Reagents and Standards.

3.2.1.2.1   NIST Traceability. Only NIST-certified or NIST-traceable calibration gas standards and reagents (as defined in paragraphs 3.1.4 and 3.1.5 of this appendix), and including, but not limited to, Hg gas generators and Hg gas cylinders, shall be used for the tests and procedures required under this subpart. Calibration gases with known concentrations of Hg0 and HgCl2 are required. Special reagents and equipment may be needed to prepare the Hg0 and HgCl2 gas standards (e.g., NIST-traceable solutions of HgCl2 and gas generators equipped with mass flow controllers).

3.2.1.2.2   Required Calibration Gas Concentrations.

3.2.1.2.2.1   Zero-Level Gas. A zero-level calibration gas with a Hg concentration below the level detectable by the Hg analyzer is required for calibration error tests and cycle time tests of the CEMS.

3.2.1.2.2.2   Low-Level Gas. A low-level calibration gas with a Hg concentration of 20 to 30 percent of the span value is required for linearity checks and 3-level system integrity checks of the CEMS. Elemental Hg standards are required for the linearity checks and oxidized Hg standards are required for the system integrity checks.

3.2.1.2.2.3   Mid-Level Gas. A mid-level calibration gas with a Hg concentration of 50 to 60 percent of the span value is required for linearity checks and for 3-level system integrity checks of the CEMS, and is optional for calibration error tests and single-level system integrity checks. Elemental Hg standards are required for the linearity checks, oxidized Hg standards are required for the system integrity checks, and either elemental or oxidized Hg standards may be used for the calibration error tests.

3.2.1.2.2.4   High-Level Gas. A high-level calibration gas with a Hg concentration of 80 to 100 percent of the span value is required for linearity checks, 3-level system integrity checks, and cycle time tests of the CEMS, and is optional for calibration error tests and single-level system integrity checks. Elemental Hg standards are required for the linearity checks, oxidized Hg standards are required for the system integrity checks, and either elemental or oxidized Hg standards may be used for the calibration error and cycle time tests.

3.2.1.3   Installation and Measurement Location. For the Hg CEMS and any additional monitoring system(s) needed to convert Hg concentrations to the desired units of measure (i.e., a flow monitor, CO2 or O2 monitor, and/or moisture monitor, as applicable), install each monitoring system at a location: that is consistent with 63.10010(a); that represents the emissions exiting to the atmosphere; and where it is likely that the CEMS can pass the relative accuracy test.

3.2.1.4   Monitor Span and Range Requirements. Determine the appropriate span and range value(s) for the Hg CEMS as described in paragraphs 3.2.1.4.1 through 3.2.1.4.3 of this section.

3.2.1.4.1   Maximum Potential Concentration. There are three options for determining the maximum potential Hg concentration (MPC). Option 1 applies to coal combustion. You may use a default value of 10 µg/scm for all coal ranks (including coal refuse) except for lignite; for lignite, use 16 µg/scm. If different coals are blended as part of normal operation, use the highest MPC for any fuel in the blend. Option 2 is to base the MPC on the results of site-specific Hg emission testing. This option may be used only if the unit does not have add-on Hg emission controls or a flue gas desulfurization system, or if testing is performed upstream of all emission control devices. If Option 2 is selected, perform at least three test runs at the normal operating load, and the highest Hg concentration obtained in any of the tests shall be the MPC. Option 3 is to use fuel sampling and analysis to estimate the MPC. To make this estimate, use the average Hg content (i.e., the weight percentage) from at least three representative fuel samples, together with other available information, including, but not limited to the maximum fuel feed rate, the heating value of the fuel, and an appropriate F-factor. Assume that all of the Hg in the fuel is emitted to the atmosphere as vapor-phase Hg.

3.2.1.4.2   Span Value. To determine the span value of the Hg CEMS, multiply the Hg concentration corresponding to the applicable emissions standard by two. If the result of this calculation is an exact multiple of 10 µg/scm, use the result as the span value. Otherwise, round off the result to either: the next highest integer; the next highest multiple of 5 µg/scm; or the next highest multiple of 10 µg/scm.

3.2.1.4.3   Analyzer Range. The Hg analyzer must be capable of reading Hg concentration as high as the MPC.

3.2.2   Sorbent Trap Monitoring System. A sorbent trap monitoring system (as defined in paragraph 3.1.2 of this section) may be used as an alternative to a Hg CEMS. If this option is selected, the monitoring system shall be installed, maintained, and operated in accordance with Performance Specification (PS) 12B in Appendix B to part 60 of this chapter. The system shall be certified in accordance with the provisions of section 4.1.2 of this appendix.

3.2.3   Other Necessary Data Collection. To convert measured hourly Hg concentrations to the units of the applicable emissions standard (i.e., lb/TBtu or lb/GWh), additional data must be collected, as described in paragraphs 3.2.3.1 through 3.2.3.3 of this section. Any additional monitoring systems needed for this purpose must be certified, operated, maintained, and quality-assured according to the applicable provisions of part 75 of this chapter (see §§63.10010(b) through (d)). The calculation methods for the types of emission limits described in paragraphs 3.2.3.1 and 3.2.3.2 of this section are presented in section 6.2 of this appendix.

3.2.3.1   Heat Input-Based Emission Limits. For a heat input-based Hg emission limit (i.e., in lb/TBtu), data from a certified CO2 or O2 monitor are needed, along with a fuel-specific F-factor and a conversion constant to convert measured Hg concentration values to the units of the standard. In some cases, the stack gas moisture content must also be considered in making these conversions.

3.2.3.2   Electrical Output-Based Emission Rates. If the applicable Hg limit is electrical output-based (i.e., lb/GWh), hourly electrical load data and unit operating times are required in addition to hourly data from a certified stack gas flow rate monitor and (if applicable) moisture data.

3.2.3.3   Sorbent Trap Monitoring System Operation. Routine operation of a sorbent trap monitoring system requires the use of a certified stack gas flow rate monitor, to maintain an established ratio of stack gas flow rate to sample flow rate.

4. Certification and Recertification Requirements

4.1 Certification Requirements. All Hg CEMS and sorbent trap monitoring systems and the additional monitoring systems used to continuously measure Hg emissions in units of the applicable emissions standard in accordance with this appendix must be certified in a timely manner, such that the initial compliance demonstration is completed no later than the applicable date in §63.9984(f).

4.1.1   Hg CEMS. Table A-1, below, summarizes the certification test requirements and performance specifications for a Hg CEMS. The CEMS may not be used to report quality-assured data until these performance criteria are met. Paragraphs 4.1.1.1 through 4.1.1.5 of this section provide specific instructions for the required tests. All tests must be performed with the affected unit(s) operating (i.e., combusting fuel). Except for the RATA, which must be performed at normal load, no particular load level is required for the certification tests.

4.1.1.1   7-Day Calibration Error Test. Perform the 7-day calibration error test on 7 consecutive source operating days, using a zero-level gas and either a high-level or a mid-level calibration gas standard (as defined in paragraphs 3.1.8, 3.1.10, and 3.1.11 of this appendix). Use a NIST-traceable elemental Hg gas standard (as defined in paragraphs 3.1.4 of this appendix) for the test. If your Hg CEMS lacks an integrated elemental Hg gas generator, you may continue to use NIST-traceable oxidized Hg gases for the 7-day calibration error test (or the daily calibration error check) until such time as NIST-traceable compressed elemental Hg gas standards, at appropriate concentration levels, are available from gas vendors. If moisture is added to the calibration gas, the dilution effect of the moisture and/or chlorine addition on the calibration gas concentration must be accounted for in an appropriate manner. Operate the Hg CEMS in its normal sampling mode during the test. The calibrations should be approximately 24 hours apart, unless the 7-day test is performed over non-consecutive calendar days. On each day of the test, inject the zero-level and upscale gases in sequence and record the analyzer responses. Pass the calibration gas through all filters, scrubbers, conditioners, and other monitor components used during normal sampling, and through as much of the sampling probe as is practical. Do not make any manual adjustments to the monitor (i.e., resetting the calibration) until after taking measurements at both the zero and upscale concentration levels. If automatic adjustments are made following both injections, conduct the calibration error test such that the magnitude of the adjustments can be determined, and use only the unadjusted analyzer responses in the calculations. Calculate the calibration error (CE) on each day of the test, as described in Table A-1 of this appendix. The CE on each day of the test must either meet the main performance specification or the alternative specification in Table A-1 of this appendix.

4.1.1.2   Linearity Check. Perform the linearity check using low, mid, and high-level concentrations of NIST-traceable elemental Hg standards. Three gas injections at each concentration level are required, with no two successive injections at the same concentration level. Introduce the calibration gas at the gas injection port, as specified in section 3.2.1.1.3.6 of this appendix. Operate the CEMS at its normal operating temperature and conditions. Pass the calibration gas through all filters, scrubbers, conditioners, and other components used during normal sampling, and through as much of the sampling probe as is practical. If moisture and/or chlorine is added to the calibration gas, the dilution effect of the moisture and/or chlorine addition on the calibration gas concentration must be accounted for in an appropriate manner. Record the monitor response from the data acquisition and handling system for each gas injection. At each concentration level, use the average analyzer response to calculate the linearity error (LE), as described in Table A-1. The LE must either meet the main performance specification or the alternative specification in Table A-1.

4.1.1.3   Three-Level System Integrity Check. Perform the 3-level system integrity check using low, mid, and high-level calibration gas concentrations generated by a NIST-traceable source of oxidized Hg. If your Hg CEMS lacks an integrated elemental Hg gas generator, you may continue to use NIST-traceable oxidized Hg gases for the 7-day calibration error test (or the daily calibration error check) until such time as NIST-traceable compressed elemental Hg gas standards, at appropriate concentration levels, are available from gas vendors. Follow the same basic procedure as for the linearity check. If moisture and/or chlorine is added to the calibration gas, the dilution effect of the moisture and/or chlorine addition on the calibration gas concentration must be accounted for in an appropriate manner. Calculate the system integrity error (SIE), as described in Table A-1 of this appendix. The SIE must either meet the main performance specification or the alternative specification in Table A-1 of this appendix.

Table A-1—Required Certification Tests and Performance Specifications for Hg CEMS

For this required certification test .  .  .The main performance specification1 is .  .  .The alternate performance specification1 is .  .  .And the conditions of the alternate specification are .  .  .
7-day calibration error test2 6|R − A| ≤ 5.0% of span value, for both the zero and upscale gases, on each of the 7 days.|R − A| ≤ 1.0 µg/scmThe alternate specification may be used on any day of the test.
Linearity check3 6|R − Aavg | ≤ 10.0% of the reference gas concentration at each calibration gas level (low, mid, or high).|R − Aavg | ≤ 0.8 µg/scmThe alternate specification may be used at any gas level.
3-level system integrity check4|R − Aavg | ≤ 10.0% of the reference gas concentration at each calibration gas level.|R − Aavg | ≤ 0.8 µg/scmThe alternate specification may be used at any gas level.
RATA20.0% RA|RMavg − Cavg| + |CC| ≤ 0.5 µg/scm7RMavg < 2.5µg/scm
Cycle time test515 minutes where the stability criteria are readings change by < 2.0% of span or by ≤ 0.5 µg/scm, for 2 minutes.

1Note that |R − A| is the absolute value of the difference between the reference gas value and the analyzer reading. |R − Aavg| is the absolute value of the difference between the reference gas concentration and the average of the analyzer responses, at a particular gas level.

2Use elemental Hg standards; a mid-level or high-level upscale gas may be used.

3Use elemental Hg standards.

4Use oxidized Hg standards.

5Use elemental Hg standards; a high-level upscale gas must be used. The cycle time test is not required for Hg CEMS that use integrated batch sampling; however, those monitoring systems must be capable of recording at least one Hg concentration reading every 15 minutes.

6If your Hg CEMS lacks an integrated elemental Hg gas generator, you may continue to use NIST-traceable oxidized Hg gases until such time as NIST-traceable compressed elemental Hg gas standards, at appropriate concentration levels, are available from gas vendors.

7Note that |RMavg − Cavg| is the absolute difference between the mean reference method value and the mean CEMS value from the RATA; CC is the confidence coefficient from Equation 2-5 of Performance Specification 2 in appendix B to part 60 of this chapter.

4.1.1.4   Cycle Time Test. Perform the cycle time test, using a zero-level gas and a high-level calibration gas.

Either an elemental or oxidized NIST-traceable Hg standard may be used as the high-level gas. Perform the test in two stages—upscale and downscale. The slower of the upscale and downscale response times is the cycle time for the CEMS. Begin each stage of the test by injecting calibration gas after achieving a stable reading of the stack emissions. The cycle time is the amount of time it takes for the analyzer to register a reading that is 95 percent of the way between the stable stack emissions reading and the final, stable reading of the calibration gas concentration. Use the following criterion to determine when a stable reading of stack emissions or calibration gas has been attained—the reading is stable if it changes by no more than 2.0 percent of the span value or 0.5 µg/scm (whichever is less restrictive) for two minutes, or a reading with a change of less than 6.0 percent from the measured average concentration over 6 minutes. Integrated batch sampling type Hg CEMS are exempted from this test; however, these systems must be capable of delivering a measured Hg concentration reading at least once every 15 minutes. If necessary to increase measurement sensitivity of a batch sampling type Hg CEMS for a specific application, you may petition the Administrator for approval of a time longer than 15 minutes between readings.

4.1.1.5   Relative Accuracy Test Audit (RATA). Perform the RATA of the Hg CEMS at normal load. Acceptable Hg reference methods for the RATA include ASTM D6784-02 (Reapproved 2008), “Standard Test Method for Elemental, Oxidized, Particle-Bound and Total Mercury in Flue Gas Generated from Coal-Fired Stationary Sources (Ontario Hydro Method)” (incorporated by reference, see §63.14) and Methods 29, 30A, and 30B in appendix A-8 to part 60 of this chapter. When Method 29 or ASTM D6784-02 is used, paired sampling trains are required and the filterable portion of the sample need not be included when making comparisons to the Hg CEMS results for purposes of a RATA. To validate a Method 29 or ASTM D6784-02 test run, calculate the relative deviation (RD) using Equation A-1 of this section, and assess the results as follows to validate the run. The RD must not exceed 10 percent, when the average Hg concentration is greater than 1.0 µg/dscm. If the RD specification is met, the results of the two samples shall be averaged arithmetically.

eCFR graphic er06ap16.008.gif

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Where:

RD = Relative Deviation between the Hg concentrations of samples “a” and “b” (percent),

Ca = Hg concentration of Hg sample “a” (µg/dscm), and

Cb = Hg concentration of Hg sample “b” (µg/dscm).

4.1.1.5.1   Special Considerations. A minimum of nine valid test runs must be performed, directly comparing the CEMS measurements to the reference method. More than nine test runs may be performed. If this option is chosen, the results from a maximum of three test runs may be rejected so long as the total number of test results used to determine the relative accuracy is greater than or equal to nine; however, all data must be reported including the rejected data. The minimum time per run is 21 minutes if Method 30A is used. If Method 29, Method 30B, or ASTM D6784-02 (Reapproved 2008), “Standard Test Method for Elemental, Oxidized, Particle-Bound and Total Mercury in Flue Gas Generated from Coal-Fired Stationary Sources (Ontario Hydro Method)” (incorporated by reference, see §63.14) is used, the time per run must be long enough to collect a sufficient mass of Hg to analyze. Complete the RATA within 168 unit operating hours, except when Method 29 or ASTM D6784-02 is used, in which case up to 336 operating hours may be taken to finish the test.

4.1.1.5.2   Calculation of RATA Results. Calculate the relative accuracy (RA) of the monitoring system, on a µg/scm basis, as described in section 12 of Performance Specification (PS) 2 in appendix B to part 60 of this chapter (see Equations 2—3 through 2-6 of PS 2). For purposes of calculating the relative accuracy, ensure that the reference method and monitoring system data are on a consistent basis, either wet or dry. The CEMS must either meet the main performance specification or the alternative specification in Table A-1 of this appendix.

4.1.1.5.3   Bias Adjustment. Measurement or adjustment of Hg CEMS data for bias is not required.

4.1.2   Sorbent Trap Monitoring Systems. For the initial certification of a sorbent trap monitoring system, only a RATA is required.

4.1.2.1   Reference Methods. The acceptable reference methods for the RATA of a sorbent trap monitoring system are the same as those listed in paragraph 4.1.1.5 of this section.

4.1.2.2   “The special considerations specified in paragraph 4.1.1.5.1 of this section apply to the RATA of a sorbent trap monitoring system. During the RATA, the monitoring system must be operated and quality-assured in accordance with Performance Specification (PS) 12B in Appendix B to part 60 of this chapter with the following exceptions for sorbent trap section 2 breakthrough:

4.1.2.2.1   For stack Hg concentrations >1 µg/dscm, ≤10% of section 1 Hg mass;

4.1.2.2.2   For stack Hg concentrations ≤1 µg/dscm and >0.5 µg/dscm, ≤20% of section 1 Hg mass;

4.1.2.2.3   For stack Hg concentrations ≤0.5 µg/dscm and >0.1 µg/dscm, ≤50% of section 1 Hg mass; and

4.1.2.2.4   For stack Hg concentrations ≤0.1µg/dscm, no breakthrough criterion assuming all other QA/QC specifications are met.

4.1.2.3   The type of sorbent material used by the traps during the RATA must be the same as for daily operation of the monitoring system; however, the size of the traps used for the RATA may be smaller than the traps used for daily operation of the system.

4.1.2.4   Calculation of RATA Results. Calculate the relative accuracy (RA) of the sorbent trap monitoring system, on a µg/scm basis, as described in section 12 of Performance Specification (PS) 2 in appendix B to part 60 of this chapter (see Equations 2-3 through 2-6 of PS2). For purposes of calculating the relative accuracy, ensure that the reference method and monitoring system data are on a consistent moisture basis, either wet or dry.The main and alternative RATA performance specifications in Table A-1 for Hg CEMS also apply to the sorbent trap monitoring system.

4.1.2.5   Bias Adjustment. Measurement or adjustment of sorbent trap monitoring system data for bias is not required.

4.1.3   Diluent Gas, Flow Rate, and/or Moisture Monitoring Systems. Monitoring systems that are used to measure stack gas volumetric flow rate, diluent gas concentration, or stack gas moisture content, either for routine operation of a sorbent trap monitoring system or to convert Hg concentration data to units of the applicable emission limit, must be certified in accordance with the applicable provisions of part 75 of this chapter.

4.2   Recertification. Whenever the owner or operator makes a replacement, modification, or change to a certified CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring system that may significantly affect the ability of the system to accurately measure or record pollutant or diluent gas concentrations, stack gas flow rates, or stack gas moisture content, the owner or operator shall recertify the monitoring system. Furthermore, whenever the owner or operator makes a replacement, modification, or change to the flue gas handling system or the unit operation that may significantly change the concentration or flow profile, the owner or operator shall recertify the monitoring system. The same tests performed for the initial certification of the monitoring system shall be repeated for recertification, unless otherwise specified by the Administrator. Examples of changes that require recertification include: replacement of a gas analyzer; complete monitoring system replacement, and changing the location or orientation of the sampling probe.

5. Ongoing Quality Assurance (QA) and Data Validation

5.1   Hg CEMS.

5.1.1   Required QA Tests. Periodic QA testing of each Hg CEMS is required following initial certification. The required QA tests, the test frequencies, and the performance specifications that must be met are summarized in Table A-2, below. All tests must be performed with the affected unit(s) operating (i.e., combusting fuel). Except for the RATA, which must be performed at normal load, no particular load level is required for the tests. For each test, follow the same basic procedures in section 4.1.1 of this appendix that were used for initial certification.

5.1.2   Test Frequency. The frequency for the required QA tests of the Hg CEMS shall be as follows:

5.1.2.1   Calibration error tests of the Hg CEMS are required daily, except during unit outages. Use a NIST-traceable elemental Hg gas standard for these calibrations. If your Hg CEMS lacks an integrated elemental Hg gas generator, you may continue to use NIST-traceable oxidized Hg gases for the 7-day calibration error test (or the daily calibration error check) until such time as NIST-traceable compressed elemental Hg gas standards, at appropriate concentration levels, are available from gas vendors. Both a zero-level gas and either a mid-level or high-level gas are required for these calibrations.

5.1.2.2   Perform a linearity check of the Hg CEMS in each QA operating quarter, using low-level, mid-level, and high-level NIST-traceable elemental Hg standards. For units that operate infrequently, limited exemptions from this test are allowed for “non-QA operating quarters”. A maximum of three consecutive exemptions for this reason are permitted, following the quarter of the last test. After the third consecutive exemption, a linearity check must be performed in the next calendar quarter or within a grace period of 168 unit or stack operating hours after the end of that quarter. The test frequency for 3-level system integrity checks (if performed in lieu of linearity checks) is the same as for the linearity checks. Use low-level, mid-level, and high-level NIST-traceable oxidized Hg standards for the system integrity checks.

5.1.2.3   Perform a single-level system integrity check weekly, i.e., once every 7 operating days (see the third column in Table A-2 of this appendix).

5.1.2.4   The test frequency for the RATAs of the Hg CEMS shall be annual, i.e., once every four QA operating quarters. For units that operate infrequently, extensions of RATA deadlines are allowed for non-QA operating quarters. Following a RATA, if there is a subsequent non-QA quarter, it extends the deadline for the next test by one calendar quarter. However, there is a limit to these extensions; the deadline may not be extended beyond the end of the eighth calendar quarter after the quarter of the last test. At that point, a RATA must either be performed within the eighth calendar quarter or in a 720 hour unit or stack operating hour grace period following that quarter. When a required annual RATA is done within a grace period, the deadline for the next RATA is three QA operating quarters after the quarter in which the grace period test is performed.

5.1.3   Grace Periods.

5.1.3.1   A 168 unit or stack operating hour grace period is available for quarterly linearity checks and 3-level system integrity checks of the Hg CEMS.

5.1.3.2   A 720 unit or stack operating hour grace period is available for RATAs of the Hg CEMS.

5.1.3.3   There is no grace period for weekly system integrity checks. The test must be completed once every 7 operating days.

5.1.4   Data Validation. The Hg CEMS is considered to be out-of-control, and data from the CEMS may not be reported as quality-assured, when any one of the acceptance criteria for the required QA tests in Table A-2 is not met. The CEMS is also considered to be out-of-control when a required QA test is not performed on schedule or within an allotted grace period. To end an out-of-control period, the QA test that was either failed or not done on time must be performed and passed. Out-of-control periods are counted as hours of monitoring system downtime.

5.1.5   Conditional Data Validation. For certification, recertification, and diagnostic testing of Hg monitoring systems, and for the required QA tests when non-redundant backup Hg monitoring systems or temporary like-kind Hg analyzers are brought into service, the conditional data validation provisions in §§75.20(b)(3)(ii) through (b)(3)(ix) of this chapter may be used to avoid or minimize data loss. The allotted window of time to complete 7-day calibration error tests, linearity checks, cycle time tests, and RATAs shall be as specified in §75.20(b)(3)(iv) of this chapter. Required system integrity checks must be completed within 168 unit or stack operating hours after the probationary calibration error test.

Table A-2—On-Going QA Test Requirements for Hg CEMS

Perform this type of QA test .  .  .At this frequency .  .  .With these qualifications and exceptions .  .  .Acceptance criteria .  .  .
Calibration error test5Daily  Use either a mid- or high-level gas
  Use elemental Hg
  Calibrations are not required when the unit is not in operation.
|R − A| ≤ 5.0% of span value
or
|R − A| ≤ 1.0 µg/scm.
Single-level system integrity checkWeekly1  Use oxidized Hg—either mid- or high-level|R − Aavg| ≤ 10.0% of the reference gas value
or
|R − Aavg| ≤ 0.8 µg/scm.
Linearity check or 3-level system integrity checkQuarterly3  Required in each “QA operating quarter”2 and no less than once every 4 calendar quarters
  168 operating hour grace period available
  Use elemental Hg for linearity check
  Use oxidized Hg for system integrity check
|R − Aavg | ≤ 10.0% of the reference gas value, at each calibration gas level
or
|R − Aavg| ≤ 0.8 µg/scm.
RATAAnnual4  Test deadline may be extended for “non-QA operating quarters,” up to a maximum of 8 quarters from the quarter of the previous test
  720 operating hour grace period available
≤20.0% RA or
|RMavgCavg| + |CC| ≤ 0.5 µg/scm, if RMavg < 2.5 µg/scm.

1“Weekly” means once every 7 operating days.

2A “QA operating quarter” is a calendar quarter with at least 168 unit or stack operating hours.

3“Quarterly” means once every QA operating quarter.

4“Annual” means once every four QA operating quarters.

5If your Hg CEMS lacks an integrated elemental Hg gas generator, you may continue to use NIST-traceable oxidized Hg gases until such time as NIST-traceable compressed elemental Hg gas standards, at appropriate concentration levels, are available from gas vendors.

5.1.6   Adjustment of Span. If you discover that a span adjustment is needed (e.g., if the Hg concentration readings exceed the span value for a significant percentage of the unit operating hours in a calendar quarter), you must implement the span adjustment within 90 days after the end of the calendar quarter in which you identify the need for the adjustment. A diagnostic linearity check is required within 168 unit or stack operating hours after changing the span value.

5.2   Sorbent Trap Monitoring Systems.

5.2.1   Each sorbent trap monitoring system shall be continuously operated and maintained in accordance with Performance Specification (PS) 12B in appendix B to part 60 of this chapter. The QA/QC criteria for routine operation of the system are summarized in Table 12B-1 of PS 12B. Each pair of sorbent traps may be used to sample the stack gas for up to 15 operating days.

5.2.2   For ongoing QA, periodic RATAs of the system are required.

5.2.2.1   The RATA frequency shall be annual, i.e., once every four QA operating quarters. The provisions in section 5.1.2.4 of this appendix pertaining to RATA deadline extensions also apply to sorbent trap monitoring systems.

5.2.2.2 The same RATA performance criteria specified in Table A-2 for Hg CEMS also apply to the annual RATAs of the sorbent trap monitoring system.

5.2.2.3   A 720 unit or stack operating hour grace period is available for RATAs of the monitoring system.

5.2.3   Data validation for sorbent trap monitoring systems shall be done in accordance with Table 12B-1 in Performance Specification (PS) 12B in appendix B to part 60 of this chapter. All periods of invalid data shall be counted as hours of monitoring system downtime.

5.3   Flow Rate, Diluent Gas, and Moisture Monitoring Systems. The on-going QA test requirements for these monitoring systems are specified in part 75 of this chapter (see §§63.10010(b) through (d)).

5.4   QA/QC Program Requirements. The owner or operator shall develop and implement a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program for the Hg CEMS and/or sorbent trap monitoring systems that are used to provide data under this subpart. At a minimum, the program shall include a written plan that describes in detail (or that refers to separate documents containing) complete, step-by-step procedures and operations for the most important QA/QC activities. Electronic storage of the QA/QC plan is permissible, provided that the information can be made available in hard copy to auditors and inspectors. The QA/QC program requirements for the diluent gas, flow rate, and moisture monitoring systems described in section 3.2.1.3 of this appendix are specified in section 1 of appendix B to part 75 of this chapter.

5.4.1   General Requirements.

5.4.1.1   Preventive Maintenance. Keep a written record of procedures needed to maintain the Hg CEMS and/or sorbent trap monitoring system(s) in proper operating condition and a schedule for those procedures. Include, at a minimum, all procedures specified by the manufacturers of the equipment and, if applicable, additional or alternate procedures developed for the equipment.

5.4.1.2   Recordkeeping and Reporting. Keep a written record describing procedures that will be used to implement the recordkeeping and reporting requirements of this appendix.

5.4.1.3   Maintenance Records. Keep a record of all testing, maintenance, or repair activities performed on any Hg CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring system in a location and format suitable for inspection. A maintenance log may be used for this purpose. The following records should be maintained: date, time, and description of any testing, adjustment, repair, replacement, or preventive maintenance action performed on any monitoring system and records of any corrective actions associated with a monitor outage period. Additionally, any adjustment that may significantly affect a system's ability to accurately measure emissions data must be recorded (e.g., changing the dilution ratio of a CEMS), and a written explanation of the procedures used to make the adjustment(s) shall be kept.

5.4.2   Specific Requirements for Hg CEMS.

5.4.2.1   Daily Calibrations, Linearity Checks and System Integrity Checks. Keep a written record of the procedures used for daily calibrations of the Hg CEMS. If moisture and/or chlorine is added to the Hg calibration gas, document how the dilution effect of the moisture and/or chlorine addition on the calibration gas concentration is accounted for in an appropriate manner. Also keep records of the procedures used to perform linearity checks of the Hg CEMS and the procedures for system integrity checks of the Hg CEMS. Document how the test results are calculated and evaluated.

5.4.2.2   Monitoring System Adjustments. Document how each component of the Hg CEMS will be adjusted to provide correct responses to calibration gases after routine maintenance, repairs, or corrective actions.

5.4.2.3   Relative Accuracy Test Audits. Keep a written record of procedures used for RATAs of the Hg CEMS. Indicate the reference methods used and document how the test results are calculated and evaluated.

5.4.3   Specific Requirements for Sorbent Trap Monitoring Systems.

5.4.3.1   Sorbent Trap Identification and Tracking. Include procedures for inscribing or otherwise permanently marking a unique identification number on each sorbent trap, for chain of custody purposes. Keep records of the ID of the monitoring system in which each sorbent trap is used, and the dates and hours of each Hg collection period.

5.4.3.2   Monitoring System Integrity and Data Quality. Document the procedures used to perform the leak checks when a sorbent trap is placed in service and removed from service. Also Document the other QA procedures used to ensure system integrity and data quality, including, but not limited to, gas flow meter calibrations, verification of moisture removal, and ensuring air-tight pump operation. In addition, the QA plan must include the data acceptance and quality control criteria in Table 12B-1 in section 9.0 of Performance Specification (PS) 12B in Appendix B to part 60 of this chapter. All reference meters used to calibrate the gas flow meters (e.g., wet test meters) shall be periodically recalibrated. Annual, or more frequent, recalibration is recommended. If a NIST-traceable calibration device is used as a reference flow meter, the QA plan must include a protocol for ongoing maintenance and periodic recalibration to maintain the accuracy and NIST-traceability of the calibrator.

5.4.3.3   Hg Analysis. Explain the chain of custody employed in packing, transporting, and analyzing the sorbent traps. Keep records of all Hg analyses. The analyses shall be performed in accordance with the procedures described in section 11.0 of Performance Specification (PS) 12B in Appendix B to part 60 of this chapter.

5.4.3.4   Data Collection Period. State, and provide the rationale for, the minimum acceptable data collection period (e.g., one day, one week, etc.) for the size of sorbent trap selected for the monitoring. Address such factors as the Hg concentration in the stack gas, the capacity of the sorbent trap, and the minimum mass of Hg required for the analysis. Each pair of sorbent traps may be used to sample the stack gas for up to 14 operating days.

5.4.3.5   Relative Accuracy Test Audit Procedures. Keep records of the procedures and details peculiar to the sorbent trap monitoring systems that are to be followed for relative accuracy test audits, such as sampling and analysis methods.

6. Data Reduction and Calculations

6.1   Data Reduction.

6.1.1   Reduce the data from Hg CEMS to hourly averages, in accordance with §60.13(h)(2) of this chapter.

6.1.2   For sorbent trap monitoring systems, determine the Hg concentration for each data collection period and assign this concentration value to each operating hour in the data collection period.

6.1.3   For any operating hour in which valid data are not obtained, either for Hg concentration or for a parameter used in the emissions calculations (i.e., flow rate, diluent gas concentration, or moisture, as applicable), do not calculate the Hg emission rate for that hour. For the purposes of this appendix, part 75 substitute data values are not considered to be valid data.

6.1.4   Operating hours in which valid data are not obtained for Hg concentration are considered to be hours of monitor downtime. The use of substitute data for Hg concentration is not required.

6.2   Calculation of Hg Emission Rates. Use the applicable calculation methods in paragraphs 6.2.1 and 6.2.2 of this section to convert Hg concentration values to the appropriate units of the emission standard.

6.2.1   Heat Input-Based Hg Emission Rates. Calculate hourly heat input-based Hg emission rates, in units of lb/TBtu, according to sections 6.2.1.1 through 6.2.1.4 of this appendix.

6.2.1.1   Select an appropriate emission rate equation from among Equations 19-1 through 19-9 in EPA Method 19 in appendix A-7 to part 60 of this chapter.

6.2.1.2   Calculate the Hg emission rate in lb/MMBtu, using the equation selected from Method 19. Multiply the Hg concentration value by 6.24 × 10−11 to convert it from µg/scm to lb/scf. In cases where an appropriate F-factor is not listed in Table 19-2 of Method 19, you may use F-factors from Table 1 in section 3.3.5 of appendix F to part 75 of this chapter, or F-factors derived using the procedures in section 3.3.6 of appendix to part 75 of this chapter. Also, for startup and shutdown hours, you may calculate the Hg emission rate using the applicable diluent cap value specified in section 3.3.4.1 of appendix F to part 75 of this chapter, provided that the diluent gas monitor is not out-of-control and the hourly average O2 concentration is above 14.0% O2 (19.0% for an IGCC) or the hourly average CO2 concentration is below 5.0% CO2 (1.0% for an IGCC), as applicable.

6.2.1.3   Multiply the lb/MMBtu value obtained in section 6.2.1.2 of this appendix by 106 to convert it to lb/TBtu.

6.2.1.4   The heat input-based Hg emission rate limit in Table 2 to this subpart must be met on a 30 boiler operating day rolling average basis, except as otherwise provided in §63.10009(a)(2). Use Equation 19-19 in EPA Method 19 to calculate the Hg emission rate for each averaging period. The term Ehj in Equation 19-19 must be in the units of the applicable emission limit. Do not include non-operating hours with zero emissions in the average.

6.2.2   Electrical Output-Based Hg Emission Rates. Calculate electrical output-based Hg emission limits in units of lb/GWh, according to sections 6.2.2.1 through 6.2.2.3 of this appendix.

6.2.2.1   Calculate the Hg mass emissions for each operating hour in which valid data are obtained for all parameters, using Equation A-2 of this section (for wet-basis measurements of Hg concentration) or Equation A-3 of this section (for dry-basis measurements), as applicable:

eCFR graphic er16fe12.014.gif

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Where:

Mh = Hg mass emission rate for the hour (lb/h)

K = Units conversion constant, 6.24 × 10−11 lb-scm/µg-scf,

Ch = Hourly average Hg concentration, wet basis (µg/scm)

Qh = Stack gas volumetric flow rate for the hour (scfh).

(Note: Use unadjusted flow rate values; bias adjustment is not required)

eCFR graphic er16fe12.015.gif

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Where:

Mh = Hg mass emission rate for the hour (lb/h)

K = Units conversion constant, 6.24 × 10−11 lb-scm/µg-scf.

Ch = Hourly average Hg concentration, dry basis (µg/dscm).

Qh = Stack gas volumetric flow rate for the hour (scfh)

(Note: Use unadjusted flow rate values; bias adjustment is not required).

Bws = Moisture fraction of the stack gas, expressed as a decimal (equal to % H2O/100)

6.2.2.2   Use Equation A-4 of this section to calculate the emission rate for each unit or stack operating hour in which valid data are obtained for all parameters.

eCFR graphic er16fe12.016.gif

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Where:

Eho = Electrical output-based Hg emission rate (lb/GWh).

Mh = Hg mass emission rate for the hour, from Equation A-2 or A-3 of this section, as applicable (lb/h).

(MW)h = Gross electrical load for the hour, in megawatts (MW).

103 = Conversion factor from megawatts to gigawatts.

6.2.2.3   The applicable gross output-based Hg emission rate limit in Table 1 or 2 to this subpart must be met on a 30- (or 90-) boiler operating day rolling average basis, except as otherwise provided in §63.10009(a)(2). Use Equation A-5 of this appendix to calculate the Hg emission rate for each averaging period.

eCFR graphic er06ap16.009.gif

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Where:

Eo = Hg emission rate for the averaging period (lb/GWh),

Eho = Gross output-based hourly Hg emission rate for unit or stack sampling hour “h” in the averaging period, from Equation A-4 of this appendix (lb/GWh), and

n = Number of unit or stack operating hours in the averaging period in which valid data were obtained for all parameters. (Note: Do not include non-operating hours with zero emission rates in the average).

7. Recordkeeping and Reporting

7.1   Recordkeeping Provisions. For the Hg CEMS and/or sorbent trap monitoring systems and any other necessary monitoring systems installed at each affected unit, the owner or operator must maintain a file of all measurements, data, reports, and other information required by this appendix in a form suitable for inspection, for 5 years from the date of each record, in accordance with §63.10033. The file shall contain the information in paragraphs 7.1.1 through 7.1.10 of this section.

7.1.1   Monitoring Plan Records. For each affected unit or group of units monitored at a common stack, the owner or operator shall prepare and maintain a monitoring plan for the Hg CEMS and/or sorbent trap monitoring system(s) and any other monitoring system(s) (i.e., flow rate, diluent gas, or moisture systems) needed for routine operation of a sorbent trap monitoring system or to convert Hg concentrations to units of the applicable emission standard. The monitoring plan shall contain essential information on the continuous monitoring systems and shall Document how the data derived from these systems ensure that all Hg emissions from the unit or stack are monitored and reported.

7.1.1.1   Updates. Whenever the owner or operator makes a replacement, modification, or change in a certified continuous monitoring system that is used to provide data under this subpart (including a change in the automated data acquisition and handling system or the flue gas handling system) which affects information reported in the monitoring plan (e.g., a change to a serial number for a component of a monitoring system), the owner or operator shall update the monitoring plan.

7.1.1.2   Contents of the Monitoring Plan. For Hg CEMS and sorbent trap monitoring systems, the monitoring plan shall contain the information in sections 7.1.1.2.1 and 7.1.1.2.2 of this appendix, as applicable. For stack gas flow rate, diluent gas, and moisture monitoring systems, the monitoring plan shall include the information required for those systems under §75.53 (g) of this chapter.

7.1.1.2.1   Electronic. The electronic monitoring plan records must include the following: unit or stack ID number(s); monitoring location(s); the Hg monitoring methodologies used; Hg monitoring system information, including, but not limited to: Unique system and component ID numbers; the make, model, and serial number of the monitoring equipment; the sample acquisition method; formulas used to calculate Hg emissions; Hg monitor span and range information The electronic monitoring plan shall be evaluated and submitted using the Emissions Collection and Monitoring Plan System (ECMPS) Client Tool provided by the Clean Air Markets Division in the Office of Atmospheric Programs of the EPA.

7.1.1.2.2   Hard Copy. Keep records of the following: schematics and/or blueprints showing the location of the Hg monitoring system(s) and test ports; data flow diagrams; test protocols; monitor span and range calculations; miscellaneous technical justifications.

7.1.2   Operating Parameter Records. The owner or operator shall record the following information for each operating hour of each affected unit and also for each group of units utilizing a common stack, to the extent that these data are needed to convert Hg concentration data to the units of the emission standard. For non-operating hours, record only the items in paragraphs 7.1.2.1 and 7.1.2.2 of this section. If there is heat input to the unit(s), but no electrical load, record only the items in paragraphs 7.1.2.1, 7.1.2.2, and (if applicable) 7.1.2.4 of this section.

7.1.2.1   The date and hour;

7.1.2.2   The unit or stack operating time (rounded up to the nearest fraction of an hour (in equal increments that can range from one hundredth to one quarter of an hour, at the option of the owner or operator);

7.1.2.3   The hourly gross unit load (rounded to nearest MWe); and

7.1.2.4   If applicable, the F-factor used to calculate the heat input-based Hg emission rate.

7.1.2.5   If applicable, a flag to indicate that the hour is a startup or shutdown hour (as defined in §63.10042).

7.1.2.6   The EGUs that constitute an emissions averaging group.

7.1.3   Hg Emissions Records (Hg CEMS). For each affected unit or common stack using a Hg CEMS, the owner or operator shall record the following information for each unit or stack operating hour:

7.1.3.1   The date and hour;

7.1.3.2   Monitoring system and component identification codes, as provided in the monitoring plan, if the CEMS provides a quality-assured value of Hg concentration for the hour;

7.1.3.3   The hourly Hg concentration, if a quality-assured value is obtained for the hour (µg/scm, rounded to three significant figures);

7.1.3.4   A special code, indicating whether or not a quality-assured Hg concentration is obtained for the hour. This code may be entered manually when a temporary like-kind replacement Hg analyzer is used for reporting; and

7.1.3.5   Monitor data availability, as a percentage of unit or stack operating hours, calculated according to §75.32 of this chapter.

7.1.4   Hg Emissions Records (Sorbent Trap Monitoring Systems). For each affected unit or common stack using a sorbent trap monitoring system, each owner or operator shall record the following information for the unit or stack operating hour in each data collection period:

7.1.4.1   The date and hour;

7.1.4.2   Monitoring system and component identification codes, as provided in the monitoring plan, if the sorbent trap system provides a quality-assured value of Hg concentration for the hour;

7.1.4.3   The hourly Hg concentration, if a quality-assured value is obtained for the hour (µg/scm, rounded to three significant figures). Note that when a quality-assured Hg concentration value is obtained for a particular data collection period, that single concentration value is applied to each operating hour of the data collection period.

7.1.4.4   A special code, indicating whether or not a quality-assured Hg concentration is obtained for the hour;

7.1.4.5   The average flow rate of stack gas through each sorbent trap (in appropriate units, e.g., liters/min, cc/min, dscm/min);

7.1.4.6   The gas flow meter reading (in dscm, rounded to the nearest hundredth), at the beginning and end of the collection period and at least once in each unit operating hour during the collection period;

7.1.4.7   The ratio of the stack gas flow rate to the sample flow rate, as described in section 12.2 of Performance Specification (PS) 12B in Appendix B to part 60 of this chapter; and

7.1.4.8   Monitor data availability, as a percentage of unit or stack operating hours, calculated according to §75.32 of this chapter.

7.1.5   Stack Gas Volumetric Flow Rate Records.

7.1.5.1   Hourly measurements of stack gas volumetric flow rate during unit operation are required for routine operation of sorbent trap monitoring systems, to maintain the required ratio of stack gas flow rate to sample flow rate (see section 8.2.2 of Performance Specification (PS) 12B in Appendix B to part 60 of this chapter). Hourly stack gas flow rate data are also needed in order to demonstrate compliance with electrical output-based Hg emissions limits, as provided in section 6.2.2 of this appendix.

7.1.5.2   For each affected unit or common stack, if hourly measurements of stack gas flow rate are needed for sorbent trap monitoring system operation or to convert Hg concentrations to the units of the emission standard, use a flow rate monitor that meets the requirements of part 75 of this chapter to record the required data. You must keep hourly flow rate records, as specified in §75.57(c)(2) of this chapter.

7.1.6   Records of Stack Gas Moisture Content.

7.1.6.1   Correction of hourly Hg concentration data for moisture is sometimes required when converting Hg concentrations to the units of the applicable Hg emissions limit. In particular, these corrections are required:

7.1.6.1.1   For sorbent trap monitoring systems;

7.1.6.1.2   For Hg CEMS that measure Hg concentration on a dry basis, when you must calculate electrical output-based Hg emission rates; and

7.1.6.1.3   When using certain equations from EPA Method 19 in appendix A-7 to part 60 of this chapter to calculate heat input-based Hg emission rates.

7.1.6.2   If hourly moisture corrections are required, either use a fuel-specific default moisture percentage from §75.11(b)(1) of this chapter or a certified moisture monitoring system that meets the requirements of part 75 of this chapter, to record the required data. If you use a moisture monitoring system, you must keep hourly records of the stack gas moisture content, as specified in §75.57(c)(3) of this chapter.

7.1.7   Records of Diluent Gas (CO2 or O2) Concentration.

7.1.7.1   When a heat input-based Hg mass emissions limit must be met, in units of lb/TBtu, hourly measurements of CO2 or O2 concentration are required to convert Hg concentrations to units of the standard.

7.1.7.2   If hourly measurements of diluent gas concentration are needed, use a certified CO2 or O2 monitor that meets the requirements of part 75 of this chapter to record the required data. You must keep hourly CO2 or O2 concentration records, as specified in §75.57(g) of this chapter.

7.1.8   Hg Emission Rate Records. For applicable Hg emission limits in units of lb/TBtu or lb/GWh, record the following information for each affected unit or common stack:

7.1.8.1   The date and hour;

7.1.8.2   The hourly Hg emissions rate (lb/TBtu or lb/GWh, as applicable, calculated according to section 6.2.1 or 6.2.2 of this appendix, rounded to three significant figures), if valid values of Hg concentration and all other required parameters (stack gas volumetric flow rate, diluent gas concentration, electrical load, and moisture data, as applicable) are obtained for the hour;

7.1.8.3   An identification code for the formula (either the selected equation from Method 19 in section 6.2.1 of this appendix or Equation A-4 in section 6.2.2 of this appendix) used to derive the hourly Hg emission rate from Hg concentration, flow rate, electrical load, diluent gas concentration, and moisture data (as applicable); and

7.1.8.4   A code indicating that the Hg emission rate was not calculated for the hour, if valid data for Hg concentration and/or any of the other necessary parameters are not obtained for the hour. For the purposes of this appendix, the substitute data values required under part 75 of this chapter for diluent gas concentration, stack gas flow rate and moisture content are not considered to be valid data.

7.1.8.5   If applicable, a code to indicate that the default gross output (as defined in §63.10042) was used to calculate the Hg emission rate.

7.1.8.6 If applicable, a code to indicate that the diluent cap (as defined in §63.10042) was used to calculate the Hg emission rate.

7.1.9   Certification and Quality Assurance Test Records. For any Hg CEMS and sorbent trap monitoring systems used to provide data under this subpart, record the following certification and quality-assurance information:

7.1.9.1   The reference values, monitor responses, and calculated calibration error (CE) values, and a flag to indicate whether the test was done using elemental or oxidized Hg, for all required 7-day calibration error tests and daily calibration error tests of the Hg CEMS;

7.1.9.2   The reference values, monitor responses, and calculated linearity error (LE) or system integrity error (SIE) values for all linearity checks of the Hg CEMS, and for all single-level and 3-level system integrity checks of the Hg CEMS;

7.1.9.3   The CEMS and reference method readings for each test run and the calculated relative accuracy results for all RATAs of the Hg CEMS and/or sorbent trap monitoring systems;

7.1.9.4   The stable stack gas and calibration gas readings and the calculated results for the upscale and downscale stages of all required cycle time tests of the Hg CEMS or, for a batch sampling Hg CEMS, the interval between measured Hg concentration readings;

7.1.9.5   Supporting information for all required RATAs of the Hg monitoring systems, including records of the test dates, the raw reference method and monitoring system data, the results of sample analyses to substantiate the reported test results, and records of sampling equipment calibrations;

7.1.9.6   For sorbent trap monitoring systems, also keep records of the results of all analyses of the sorbent traps used for routine daily operation of the system, and information documenting the results of all leak checks and the other applicable quality control procedures described in Table 12B-1 of Performance Specification (PS) 12B in appendix B to part 60 of this chapter.

7.1.9.7   For stack gas flow rate, diluent gas, and (if applicable) moisture monitoring systems, you must keep records of all certification, recertification, diagnostic, and on-going quality-assurance tests of these systems, as specified in §75.59 of this chapter.

7.2   Reporting Requirements.

7.2.1   General Reporting Provisions. The owner or operator shall comply with the following requirements for reporting Hg emissions from each affected unit (or group of units monitored at a common stack) under this subpart:

7.2.1.1   Notifications, in accordance with paragraph 7.2.2 of this section;

7.2.1.2   Monitoring plan reporting, in accordance with paragraph 7.2.3 of this section;

7.2.1.3   Certification, recertification, and QA test submittals, in accordance with paragraph 7.2.4 of this section; and

7.2.1.4   Electronic quarterly report submittals, in accordance with paragraph 7.2.5 of this section.

7.2.2   Notifications. The owner or operator shall provide notifications for each affected unit (or group of units monitored at a common stack) under this subpart in accordance with §63.10030.

7.2.3   Monitoring Plan Reporting. For each affected unit (or group of units monitored at a common stack) under this subpart using Hg CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring system to measure Hg emissions, the owner or operator shall make electronic and hard copy monitoring plan submittals as follows:

7.2.3.1   Submit the electronic and hard copy information in section 7.1.1.2 of this appendix pertaining to the Hg monitoring systems at least 21 days prior to the applicable date in §63.9984. Also submit the monitoring plan information in §75.53.(g) pertaining to the flow rate, diluent gas, and moisture monitoring systems within that same time frame, if the required records are not already in place.

7.2.3.2   Whenever an update of the monitoring plan is required, as provided in paragraph 7.1.1.1 of this section. An electronic monitoring plan information update must be submitted either prior to or concurrent with the quarterly report for the calendar quarter in which the update is required.

7.2.3.3   All electronic monitoring plan submittals and updates shall be made to the Administrator using the ECMPS Client Tool. Hard copy portions of the monitoring plan shall be kept on record according to section 7.1 of this appendix.

7.2.4   Certification, Recertification, and Quality-Assurance Test Reporting. Except for daily QA tests of the required monitoring systems (i.e., calibration error tests and flow monitor interference checks), the results of all required certification, recertification, and quality-assurance tests described in paragraphs 7.1.9.1 through 7.1.9.7 of this section (except for test results previously submitted, e.g., under the ARP) shall be submitted electronically, using the ECMPS Client Tool, either prior to or concurrent with the relevant quarterly electronic emissions report.

7.2.5   Quarterly Reports.

7.2.5.1   Beginning with the report for the calendar quarter in which the initial compliance demonstration is completed or the calendar quarter containing the applicable date in §63.9984, the owner or operator of any affected unit shall use the ECMPS Client Tool to submit electronic quarterly reports to the Administrator, in an XML format specified by the Administrator, for each affected unit (or group of units monitored at a common stack) under this subpart.

7.2.5.2   The electronic reports must be submitted within 30 days following the end of each calendar quarter, except for units that have been placed in long-term cold storage.

7.2.5.3   Each electronic quarterly report shall include the following information:

7.2.5.3.1   The date of report generation;

7.2.5.3.2   Facility identification information;

7.2.5.3.3   The information in paragraphs 7.1.2 through 7.1.8 of this section, as applicable to the Hg emission measurement methodology (or methodologies) used and the units of the Hg emission standard(s); and

7.2.5.3.4   The results of all daily calibration error tests of the Hg CEMS, as described in paragraph 7.1.9.1 of this section and (if applicable) the results of all daily flow monitor interference checks.

7.2.5.4   Compliance Certification. Based on reasonable inquiry of those persons with primary responsibility for ensuring that all Hg emissions from the affected unit(s) under this subpart have been correctly and fully monitored, the owner or operator shall submit a compliance certification in support of each electronic quarterly emissions monitoring report. The compliance certification shall include a statement by a responsible official with that official's name, title, and signature, certifying that, to the best of his or her knowledge, the report is true, accurate, and complete.

[77 FR 9464, Feb. 16, 2012, as amended at 77 FR 23408, Apr. 19, 2012; 78 FR 24093, Apr. 24, 2013; 79 FR 68795, Nov. 19, 2014; 81 FR 20203 Apr. 6, 2016; 82 FR 16740, Apr. 6, 2017]

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