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e-CFR data is current as of November 30, 2020

Title 14Chapter ISubchapter GPart 121 → Appendix


Title 14: Aeronautics and Space
PART 121—OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS


Appendix E to Part 121—Flight Training Requirements

(a) The maneuvers and procedures required by §121.424 for pilot initial, transition, and conversion flight training are set forth in the certificate holder's approved low-altitude windshear flight training program, §121.423 extended envelope training, and in this appendix. The maneuvers and procedures required for upgrade training in accordance with §121.424 are set forth in this appendix and in the certificate holder's approved low-altitude windshear flight training program and §121.423 extended envelope training. For the maneuvers and procedures required for upgrade training in accordance with §121.426, this appendix designates the airplane or FSTD, as appropriate, that may be used.

(b) All required maneuvers and procedures must be performed inflight except that windshear and extended envelope training maneuvers and procedures must be performed in a full flight simulator (FFS) in which the maneuvers and procedures are specifically authorized to be accomplished. Certain other maneuvers and procedures may be performed in an FFS, an FTD, or a static airplane as indicated by the appropriate symbol in the respective column opposite the maneuver or procedure.

(c) Whenever a maneuver or procedure is authorized to be performed in an FTD, it may be performed in an FFS, and in some cases, a static airplane. Whenever the requirement may be performed in either an FTD or a static airplane, the appropriate symbols are entered in the respective columns.

(d) A Level B or higher FFS may be used instead of the airplane to satisfy the inflight requirements if the FFS is approved under §121.407 and is used as part of an approved program that meets the requirements for an Advanced Simulation Training Program in Appendix H of this part.

(e) For the purpose of this appendix, the following symbols mean—

I = Pilot in Command (PIC) and Second in Command (SIC) initial training

T = PIC and SIC transition training

U = SIC to PIC upgrade training

C = Flight engineer (FE) to SIC conversion training

Maneuvers/proceduresInflightStatic
airplane
FFSFTD
As appropriate to the airplane and the operation involved, flight training for pilots must include the following maneuvers and procedures
I. Preflight:
(a) Visual inspection of the exterior and interior of the airplane, the location of each item to be inspected, and the purpose for inspecting it. The visual inspection may be conducted using an approved pictorial means that realistically portrays the location and detail of visual inspection items and provides for the portrayal of normal and abnormal conditionsI, T, U, C
(b) Use of the prestart checklist, appropriate control system checks, starting procedures, radio and electronic equipment checks, and the selection of proper navigation and communications radio facilities and frequencies prior to flightI, T, U, C
(c)(1) Before March 12, 2019, taxiing, sailing, and docking procedures in compliance with instructions issued by ATC or by the person conducting the trainingI, T, U, C
(2) Taxiing. Beginning March 12, 2019, this maneuver includes the following:
(i) Taxiing, sailing, and docking procedures in compliance with instructions issued by ATC or by the person conducting the trainingI, T, U, C
(ii) Use of airport diagram (surface movement chart)I, T, U, C
(iii) Obtaining appropriate clearance before crossing or entering active runwaysI, T, U, C
(iv) Observation of all surface movement guidance control markings and lightingI, T, U, C
(d)(1) Before March 12, 2019, pre-takeoff checks that include powerplant checksI, T, U, C
(2) Beginning March 12, 2019, pre-takeoff procedures that include powerplant checks, receipt of takeoff clearance and confirmation of aircraft location, and FMS entry (if appropriate) for departure runway prior to crossing hold short line for takeoffI, T, U, C
II. Takeoffs:
Training in takeoffs must include the types and conditions listed below but more than one type may be combined where appropriate:
(a) Normal takeoffs which, for the purpose of this maneuver, begin when the airplane is taxied into position on the runway to be usedI, T, U, C
(b) Takeoffs with instrument conditions simulated at or before reaching an altitude of 100 above the airport elevationI, T, U, C
(c)(1) Crosswind takeoffsI, T, U, C
(2) Beginning March 12, 2019, crosswind takeoffs including crosswind takeoffs with gusts if practicable under the existing meteorological, airport, and traffic conditionsI, T, U, C
(d) Takeoffs with a simulated failure of the most critical powerplant—I, T, U, C
(1) At a point after V1 and before V2 that in the judgment of the person conducting the training is appropriate to the airplane type under the prevailing conditions; orI, T, U, C
(2) At a point as close as possible after V1 when V1 and V2 or V1 and VR are identical; orI, T, U, C
(3) At the appropriate speed for nontransport category airplanesI, T, U, C
(e) Rejected takeoffs accomplished during a normal takeoff run after reaching a reasonable speed determined by giving due consideration to aircraft characteristics, runway length, surface conditions, wind direction and velocity, brake heat energy, and any other pertinent factors that may adversely affect safety or the airplaneI, T, U, C
(f) Night takeoffs. For pilots in transition training, this requirement may be met during the operating experience required under §121.434 by performing a normal takeoff at night when a check airman serving as PIC is occupying a pilot stationI, T, U, C
III. Flight Maneuvers and Procedures:
(a) Turns with and without spoilersI, T, U, C
(b) Tuck and Mach buffetI, T, U, C
(c) Maximum endurance and maximum range proceduresI, T, U, C
(d) Operation of systems and controls at the flight engineer stationI, T, U
(e) Runaway and jammed stabilizerI, T, U, C
(f) Normal and abnormal or alternate operation of the following systems and procedures:
(1) PressurizationI, T, U, C.
(2) PneumaticI, T, U, C.
(3) Air conditioningI, T, U, C.
(4) Fuel and oilI, T, U, CI, T, U, C.
(5) ElectricalI, T, U, CI, T, U, C.
(6) HydraulicI, T, U, CI, T, U, C.
(7) Flight controlI, T, U, CI, T, U, C.
(8) Anti-icing and deicingI, T, U, C
(9) AutopilotI, T, U, C
(10) Automatic or other approach aidsI, T, U, C
(11) Stall warning devices, stall avoidance devices, and stability augmentation devicesI, T, U, C
(12) Airborne radar devicesI, T, U, C
(13) Any other systems, devices, or aids availableI, T, U, C
(14) Electrical, hydraulic, flight control, and flight instrument system malfunctioning or failureI, T, U, CI, T, U, C.
(15) Landing gear and flap systems failure or malfunctionI, T, U, CI, T, U, C.
(16) Failure of navigation or communications equipmentI, T, U, C
(g) Flight emergency procedures that include at least the following:
(1) Powerplant, heater, cargo compartment, cabin, flight deck, wing, and electrical firesI, T, U, CI, T, U, C.
(2) Smoke controlI, T, U, CI, T, U, C.
(3) Powerplant failuresI, TU, C.
(4) Fuel jettisoningI, T, U, CI, T, U, C.
(5) Any other emergency procedures outlined in the appropriate flight manualI, T, U, C
(h) Steep turns in each direction. Each steep turn must involve a bank angle of 45° with a heading change of at least 180° but not more than 360°. This maneuver is not required for Group I transition trainingI, T, U, C
(i) Stall Prevention. For the purpose of this training the approved recovery procedure must be initiated at the first indication of an impending stall (buffet, stick shaker, aural warning). Stall prevention training must be conducted in at least the following configurations:I, T, U, C
(1) Takeoff configuration (except where the airplane uses only a zero-flap takeoff configuration)I, T, U, C
(2) Clean configurationI, T, U, C
(3) Landing configurationI, T, U, C
(j) Recovery from specific flight characteristics that are peculiar to the airplane typeI, T, U, C
(k) Instrument procedures that include the following:
(1) Area departure and arrivalI, T, U, C
(2) Use of navigation systems including adherence to assigned radialsI, T, U, C
(3) HoldingI, T, U, C
(l) ILS instrument approaches that include the following:
(1) Normal ILS approachesI, T, U, C
(2) Manually controlled ILS approaches with a simulated failure of one powerplant which occurs before initiating the final approach course and continues to touchdown or through the missed approach procedureIT, U, C
(m) Instrument approaches and missed approaches other than ILS which include the following:
(1) Nonprecision approaches that the pilot is likely to useU, CI, T.
(2) In addition to subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, at least one other nonprecision approach and missed approach procedure that the pilot is likely to useI, T, U, C
In connection with paragraphs III(l) and III(m), each instrument approach must be performed according to any procedures and limitations approved for the approach facility used. The instrument approach begins when the airplane is over the initial approach fix for the approach procedure being used (or turned over to the final approach controller in the case of GCA approach) and ends when the airplane touches down on the runway or when transition to a missed approach configuration is completed
(n) Circling approaches which include the following:I, T, U, C
(1) That portion of the circling approach to the authorized minimum altitude for the procedure being used must be made under simulated instrument conditionsI, T, U, C
(2) The circling approach must be made to the authorized minimum circling approach altitude followed by a change in heading and the necessary maneuvering (by visual reference) to maintain a flight path that permits a normal landing on a runway at least 90° from the final approach course of the simulated instrument portion of the approachI, T, U, C
(3) The circling approach must be performed without excessive maneuvering, and without exceeding the normal operating limits of the airplane. The angle of bank should not exceed 30°I, T, U, C
Training in the circling approach maneuver is not required if the certificate holder's manual prohibits a circling approach in weather conditions below 1000-3 (ceiling and visibility)
(o) Zero-flap approaches. Training in this maneuver is not required for a particular airplane type if the Administrator has determined that the probability of flap extension failure on that type airplane is extremely remote due to system design. In making this determination, the Administrator determines whether training on slats only and partial flap approaches is necessaryI, CT, U
(p) Missed approaches which include the following:
(1) Missed approaches from ILS approachesI, T, U, C
(2) Other missed approachesI, T, U, C.
(3) Missed approaches that include a complete approved missed approach procedureI, T, U, C.
(4) Missed approaches that include a powerplant failureI, T, U, C
IV. Landings and Approaches to Landings:
Training in landings and approaches to landings must include the types and conditions listed below but more than one type may be combined where appropriate:
(a) Normal landingsI, T, U, C
(b) Landing and go around with the horizontal stabilizer out of trimI, CTU.
(c) Landing in sequence from an ILS instrument approachIT, U, C
(d)(1) Crosswind landingI, T, U, C
(2) Beginning March 12, 2019, crosswind landing, including crosswind landings with gusts if practicable under the existing meteorological, airport, and traffic conditionsI, T, U, C
(e) Maneuvering to a landing with simulated powerplant failure, as follows:
(1) For 3-engine airplanes, maneuvering to a landing with an approved procedure that approximates the loss of two powerplants (center and one outboard engine)I, CT, U
(2) For other multiengine airplanes, maneuvering to a landing with a simulated failure of 50 percent of available powerplants with the simulated loss of power on one side of the airplaneI, CT, U
(f) Landing under simulated circling approach conditions (exceptions under III(n) applicable to this requirement)IT, U, C
(g) Rejected landings that include a normal missed approach procedure after the landing is rejected. For the purpose of this maneuver the landing should be rejected at approximately 50 feet and approximately over the runway thresholdIT, U, C
(h) Zero-flap landings if the Administrator finds that maneuver appropriate for training in the airplaneI, CT, U
(i) Manual reversionI, T, U, C
(j) Night landings. For pilots in transition training, this requirement may be met during the operating experience required under §121.434 by performing a normal landing at night when a check airman serving as PIC is occupying a pilot stationI, T, U, C

[Amdt. 121-382, 85 FR 10926, Feb. 25, 2020]

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