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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of November 19, 2019

Title 10Chapter IISubchapter DPart 431Subpart G → Appendix


Title 10: Energy
PART 431—ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT
Subpart G—Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks


Appendix D to Subpart G of Part 431—Uniform Test Method for the Measurement of Standby Loss of Electric Instantaneous Water Heaters (Other Than Storage-Type Instantaneous Water Heaters)

Note: Prior to November 6, 2017, manufacturers must make any representations with respect to the energy use or efficiency of the subject commercial water heating equipment in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this appendix or the procedures in 10 CFR 431.106 that were in place on January 1, 2016. On and after November 6, 2017, manufacturers must make any representations with respect to energy use or efficiency of electric instantaneous water heaters (other than storage-type instantaneous water heaters) in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this appendix to demonstrate compliance with the energy conservation standards at 10 CFR 431.110.

1. General

Determine the standby loss (as applicable) in accordance with the following sections of this appendix.

2. Test Set-Up

2.1. Placement of Water Heater. A water heater for installation on combustible floors must be placed on a 34 -inch plywood platform supported by three 2 × 4-inch runners. If the water heater is for installation on noncombustible floors, suitable noncombustible material must be placed on the platform. When the use of the platform for a large water heater is not practical, the water heater may be placed on any suitable flooring. A wall-mounted water heater must be mounted on a simulated wall section.

2.2. Test Configuration. If the instantaneous water heater is not required to be tested using a recirculating loop, then set up the unit in accordance with Figure 2.1, 2.2, or 2.3 of this appendix (as applicable). If the unit is required to be tested using a recirculating loop, then set up the unit as per Figure 2.4 of this appendix.

eCFR graphic er10no16.026.gif

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eCFR graphic er10no16.027.gif

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2.2.1. If the instantaneous water heater does not have any external piping, install an outlet water valve within 10 inches of the piping length of the water heater jacket or enclosure. If the instantaneous water heater includes external piping assembled at the manufacturer's premises prior to shipment, install water valves in the outlet piping within 5 inches of the end of the piping supplied with the unit.

2.2.2. If the water heater is not able to achieve an outlet water temperature of 70 °F ± 2 °F above the supply water temperature at a constant maximum electricity input rate, a recirculating loop with pump as shown in Figure 2.4 of this appendix must be used.

2.2.2.1. If a recirculating loop with a pump is used, then ensure that the inlet water temperature (labeled as TIWT in Figure 2.4 of this appendix) is greater than or equal to 70 °F and less than or equal to 120 °F at all times during the steady-state verification period.

2.3. Installation of Temperature Sensors

2.3.1. Without Recirculating Loop

2.3.1.1. Vertical Connections. Use Figure 2.1 (for top connections) and 2.2 (for bottom connections) of this appendix.

2.3.1.2. Horizontal Connections. Use Figure 2.3 of this appendix.

2.3.2. With Recirculating Loop. Set up the recirculating loop as shown in Figure 2.4 of this appendix.

2.3.3. For water heaters with multiple outlet water connections leaving the water heater jacket that are required to be operated to achieve the rated input, temperature sensors must be installed for each outlet water connection leaving the water heater jacket or enclosure that is used during testing, in accordance with sections 2.3.1 and 2.3.2 of this appendix.

2.4. Piping Insulation. Insulate all the water piping external to the water heater jacket or enclosure, including piping that is installed by the manufacturer or shipped with the unit, for at least 4 ft of piping length from the connection at the appliance with material having an R-value not less than 4 °F·ft2·h/Btu. Ensure that the insulation does not contact any appliance surface except at the location where the pipe connections penetrate the appliance jacket or enclosure.

2.5. Temperature and Pressure Relief Valve Insulation. If the manufacturer has not provided a temperature and pressure relief valve, one shall be installed and insulated as specified in section 2.4 of this appendix. The temperature and pressure relief valve must be installed in the outlet water piping between the unit being tested and the outlet water valve.

2.6. Energy Consumption. Install equipment that determines, within ± 1 percent, the quantity of electricity consumed by factory-supplied water heater components, and of the test loop recirculating pump, if used.

3. Test Conditions

3.1. Water Supply

3.1.1. Water Supply Pressure. The pressure of the water supply must be maintained between 40 psi and the maximum pressure specified by the manufacturer of the unit being tested. The accuracy of the pressure-measuring devices must be ± 1.0 psi.

3.1.2. Water Supply Temperature. During the steady-state verification period, the temperature of the supply water (TSWT) must be maintained at 70 °F ± 2 °F.

.2. Electrical Supply. Maintain the electrical supply voltage to within ± 5 percent of the voltage specified on the water heater nameplate. If a voltage range is specified on the nameplate, maintain the voltage to within ± 5 percent of the center of the voltage range specified on the nameplate.

3.3. Ambient Room Temperature. Maintain the ambient room temperature at 75 °F ± 10 °F at all times during the steady-state verification period and the standby loss test. Measure the ambient room temperature at 1-minute intervals during these periods. Measure the ambient room temperature at the vertical mid-point of the water heater and approximately 2 feet from the water heater jacket or enclosure. Shield the sensor against radiation. Calculate the average ambient room temperature for the standby loss test. During the standby loss test, the ambient room temperature must not vary more than ± 5.0 °F at any reading from the average ambient room temperature.

3.4. Maximum Air Draft. During the steady-state verification period and the standby loss test, the water heater must be located in an area protected from drafts of more than 50 ft/min. Prior to beginning steady-state verification before the standby loss test, measure the air draft within three feet of the jacket or enclosure of the water heater to ensure this condition is met. Ensure that no other changes that would increase the air draft are made to the test set-up or conditions during the conduct of the test.

3.5. Primary Control

3.5.1. Thermostatically-Activated Water Heaters with an Internal Thermostat. Before starting the steady-state verification prior to the standby loss test, the thermostat setting must be obtained. Set the thermostat to ensure:

3.5.1.1. With supply water temperature as per section 3.1.2 of this appendix (i.e., 70 °F ± 2 °F) the water flow rate can be varied so that the outlet water temperature is constant at 70 °F ± 2 °F above the supply water temperature, while the heating element is operating at the rated input.

3.5.1.2. After the water supply is turned off and the thermostat reduces the electricity supply to the heating element to a minimum, the maximum heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) is 140 °F ± 5 °F.

3.5.1.3. If the water heater includes a built-in safety mechanism that prevents it from achieving a heat exchanger outlet water temperature of 140 °F ± 5 °F, adjust the thermostat to its maximum setting.

3.5.2. Flow-Activated Instantaneous Water Heaters and Thermostatically-Activated Instantaneous Water Heaters with an External Thermostat. Before starting the steady-state verification prior to the standby loss test energize the primary control such that it is always calling for heating and the heating element is operating at the rated input. Maintain the supply water temperature as per section 3.1.2 of this appendix (i.e., 70 °F ± 2 °F). Set the control so that the outlet water temperature (TOWT) is 140 °F ± 5 °F. If the water heater includes a built-in safety mechanism that prevents it from achieving a heat exchanger outlet water temperature of 140 °F ± 5 °F, adjust the control to its maximum setting.

3.6. For Units With Multiple Outlet Water Connections

3.6.1. For each connection leaving the water heater that is required for the unit to achieve the rated input, the outlet water temperature must not differ from that of any other outlet water connection by more than 2 °F during the steady-state verification period prior to the standby loss test.

3.6.2. Determine the outlet water temperature representative for the entire unit at every required measurement interval by calculating the average of the outlet water temperatures measured at each connection leaving the water heater jacket or enclosure that is used during testing. Use the outlet water temperature representative for the entire unit in all calculations for the standby loss test.

3.7. Data Collection Intervals. During the standby loss test, follow the data recording intervals specified in Table 3.1 of this appendix. Also, the electricity consumption over the course of the entire test must be measured and used in calculation of standby loss.

3.7.1. Steady-State Verification Period. Follow the data recording intervals specified in Table 3.1 of this appendix.

Table 3.1—Data to be Recorded Before and During the Steady-State Verification Period

Item recordedBefore
steady-state
verification
period
Every 1
minutea
Every 10
minutes
Air draft, ft/minX
Time, minutes/secondsX
Electricity Consumed, BtuX
Supply water temperature (TSWT), °FX
Inlet water temperature (TIWT), °FXb
Outlet water temperature (TOWT), °FX
Ambient room temperature, °FX
Water flow rate, (gpm)X

Notes:

aThese measurements are to be recorded at the start and end, as well as every minute of the steady-state verification period.

bOnly measured when a recirculating loop is used.

3.7.2. Standby Loss Test. Follow the data recording intervals specified in Table 3.2 of this appendix. Additionally, the electricity consumption over the course of the entire test must be measured and used in calculation of standby loss.

Table 3.2—Data to be Recorded Before and During the Standby Loss Test

Item recordedBefore testEvery 1
minutea
Air draft, ft/minX
Time, minutes/secondsX
Heat exchanger outlet water temperature, °F (TOHX)X
Ambient room temperature, °FX

Note:

aThese measurements are to be recorded at the start and end of the test, as well as every minute during the test.

4. Determination of Storage Volume. Determine the storage volume by subtracting the tare weight—measured while the system is dry and empty—from the weight of the system when filled with water and dividing the resulting net weight of water by the density of water at the measured water temperature. The volume of water contained in the water heater must be computed in gallons.

5. Standby Loss Test. Perform the steady-state verification period in accordance with section 5.1 of this appendix. For thermostatically-activated instantaneous water heaters with an internal thermostat, use section 5.2 of this appendix to conduct the standby loss test, and for flow-activated and/or thermostatically-activated instantaneous water heaters with an external thermostat (including remote thermostatically activated and/or flow-activated instantaneous water heaters), use section 5.3 of this appendix to conduct the standby loss test.

Set the primary control in accordance with section 3.5 of this appendix, such that the primary control is always calling for heat and the water heater is operating at its full rated input. Begin drawing water from the unit by opening the main supply and the outlet water valve, and adjust the water flow rate to achieve an outlet water temperature of 70 °F ± 2 °F above supply water temperature. At this time, begin recording the parameters specified in section 3.7.1 of this appendix. The steady-state verification period is complete when there is a continuous 30-minute period where the steady-state conditions specified in section 5.1 of this appendix are met, as confirmed by consecutive readings of the relevant parameters recorded at 1-minute intervals (except for electric power input rate, which is determined at 10-minute intervals, as specified in section 3.7.1 of this appendix).

5.1. Steady-State Conditions. The following conditions must be met at consecutive readings taken at 1-minute intervals (except for electricity input rate, for which measurements are taken at 10-minute intervals) to verify the water heater has achieved steady-state operation prior to conducting the standby loss test.

5.1.1. The water flow rate must be maintained within ± 0.25 gallons per minute (gpm) of the initial reading at the start of the steady-state verification period;

5.1.2. Electric power input rate must be maintained within 2 percent of the rated input certified by the manufacturer.

5.1.3. The supply water temperature (or inlet water temperature if a recirculating loop is used) must be maintained within ± 0.50 °F of the initial reading at the start of the steady-state verification period; and

5.1.4. The rise between the supply (or inlet if a recirculating loop is used) and outlet water temperatures is maintained within ± 0.50 °F of its initial value taken at the start of the steady-state verification period for units with rated input less than 500,000 Btu/h, and maintained within ± 1.00 °F of its initial value for units with rated input greater than or equal to 500,000 Btu/h.

5.2. Thermostatically-Activated Instantaneous Water Heaters with an Internal Thermostat. For water heaters that will experience cut-in based on a temperature-activated control that is internal to the water heater, use the following steps to conduct the standby loss test.

5.2.1. Immediately after the steady-state verification period, turn off the outlet water valve(s) (installed as per the provisions in section 2.2 of this appendix), and the water pump (if applicable) simultaneously and ensure that there is no flow of water through the water heater.

5.2.2. After the first cut-out following the steady-state verification period, allow the water heater to remain in standby mode. Do not change any settings on the water heater at any point until measurements for the standby loss test are finished. Begin recording the applicable parameters specified in section 3.7.2 of this appendix.

5.2.3. At the second cut-out, record the time and ambient room temperature, and begin measuring the electricity consumption. Record the initial heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) and initial ambient room temperature. For the remainder of the test, continue recording the applicable parameters specified in section 3.7.2 of this appendix.

5.2.4. Stop the test after the first cut-out that occurs after 24 hours, or at 48 hours, whichever comes first.

5.2.5. Immediately after conclusion of the standby loss test, record the total electrical energy consumption, the final ambient room temperature, the duration of the standby loss test, and if the test ends at 48 hours without a cut-out, the final heat exchanger outlet temperature, or if the test ends after a cut-out, the maximum heat exchanger outlet temperature that occurs after the cut-out. Calculate the average of the recorded values of the heat exchanger outlet water temperature and of the ambient air temperatures taken at each measurement interval, including the initial and final values.

5.2.6. Standby Loss Calculation. Calculate the standby loss, expressed as a percentage (per hour) of the heat content of the stored water above room temperature, using the following equation:

eCFR graphic er10no16.028.gif

View or download PDF

Where,

ΔT3 = Average value of the heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) minus the average value of the ambient room temperature, expressed in °F

ΔT4 = Final heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) measured at the end of the test minus the initial heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) measured at the start of the test, expressed in °F

k = 8.25 Btu/gallon· °F, the nominal specific heat of water

Va = Volume of water contained in the water heater in gallons measured in accordance with section 4 of this appendix

Et = Thermal efficiency = 98 percent for electric water heaters with immersed heating elements

Ec = Electrical energy consumed by the water heater during the duration of the test in Btu

t = Total duration of the test in hours

S = Standby loss, the average hourly energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed as a percentage of the initial heat content of the stored water above room temperature

5.3. Flow-Activated and Thermostatically-Activated Instantaneous Water Heaters with an External Thermostat. For water heaters that are either flow-activated or thermostatically-activated with an external thermostat, use the following steps to conduct the standby loss test:

5.3.1. Immediately after the steady-state verification period, de-energize the primary control to end the call for heating. If the heating elements do not cut out, then turn off the electricity supply to the heating elements. After the heating elements have cut-out, or the electricity supply to the heating elements is turned off, begin recording the measurements as per the requirements in section 3.7.2 of this appendix.

5.3.1.1. If the unit does not have an integral pump purge functionality, then turn off the outlet water valve and water pump immediately after the main burners cut-out.

5.3.1.2. If the unit has an integral pump purge functionality, allow the pump purge operation to continue. After the pump purge operation is complete, immediately turn off the outlet water valve and water pump and continue recording the required parameters for the remainder of the test.

5.3.2. Recording Data

5.3.2.1. For units with pump purge functionality, record the initial heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX), and ambient room temperature when the main heating element(s) cut-out or the electricity supply to the heating element(s) is turned off. After the pump purge operation is complete, record the time as t = 0 and the initial electricity meter reading. Continue to monitor and record the heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) and time elapsed from the start of the test as per the requirements in section 3.7.2 of this appendix.

5.3.2.2. For units not equipped with pump purge functionality, begin recording the measurements as per the requirements of section 3.7.2 of this appendix when the main heating element(s) cut-out or the electricity supply to the heating element(s) is turned off. Specifically, record the time as t = 0, and record the initial heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX), ambient room temperature, and electricity meter readings. Continue to monitor and record the heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) and the time elapsed from the start of the test as per the requirements in section 3.7.2 of this appendix.

5.3.3. Stopping Criteria. Stop the test when one of the following occurs:

5.3.3.1. The heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) decreases by 35 °F from its value recorded after the main heating element(s) have cut-out, and the pump purge operation (if applicable) is complete; or

5.3.3.2. 24 hours have elapsed from the start of the test.

5.3.4. At the end of the test, record the final heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX), electricity consumed from time t = 0, and the time elapsed from the start of the test.

5.3.5. Standby Loss Calculation. Calculate the standby loss, expressed as a percentage (per hour) of the heat content of the stored water above room temperature, using the following equation:

eCFR graphic er10no16.029.gif

View or download PDF

Where,

ΔT1 = Heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) measured after the pump purge operation is complete (if the unit is integrated with pump purge functionality); or after the main heating element(s) cut-out (if the unit is not equipped with pump purge functionality) minus heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) measured at the end of the test, expressed in °F

ΔT2 = Heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) minus the ambient room temperature, both measured after the main heating element(s) cut-out at the start of the test, expressed in °F

k = 8.25 Btu/gallon· °F, the nominal specific heat of water

Va = Volume of water contained in the water heater in gallons measured in accordance with section 4 of this appendix

Et = Thermal efficiency = 98 percent for electric water heaters with immersed heating elements

Ec = Electrical energy consumed by the water heater during the duration of the test in Btu

t = Total duration of the test in hours

S = Standby loss, the average hourly energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed as a percentage of the initial heat content of the stored water above room temperature

[81 FR 79340, Nov. 10, 2016]

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