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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of November 19, 2019

Title 10Chapter IISubchapter DPart 431Subpart G → Appendix


Title 10: Energy
PART 431—ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT
Subpart G—Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks


Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 431—Uniform Test Method for the Measurement of Thermal Efficiency and Standby Loss of Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Instantaneous Water Heaters and Hot Water Supply Boilers (Other Than Storage-Type Instantaneous Water Heaters)

Note: Prior to November 6, 2017, manufacturers must make any representations with respect to the energy use or efficiency of the subject commercial water heating equipment in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this appendix or the procedures in 10 CFR 431.106 that were in place on January 1, 2016. On and after November 6, 2017, manufacturers must make any representations with respect to energy use or efficiency of gas-fired and oil-fired instantaneous water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than storage-type instantaneous water heaters) in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this appendix to demonstrate compliance with the energy conservation standards at 10 CFR 431.110.

1. General

Determine the thermal efficiency and standby loss (as applicable) in accordance with the following sections of this appendix. Certain sections reference sections of Annex E.1 of ANSI Z21.10.3-2015 (incorporated by reference; see §431.105). Where the instructions contained in the sections below conflict with instructions in Annex E.1 of ANSI Z21.10.3-2015, the instructions contained in this appendix control.

2. Test Set-Up

2.1. Placement of Water Heater. A water heater for installation on combustible floors must be placed on a 34 -inch plywood platform supported by three 2 x 4-inch runners. If the water heater is for installation on noncombustible floors, suitable noncombustible material must be placed on the platform. When the use of the platform for a large water heater is not practical, the water heater may be placed on any suitable flooring. A wall-mounted water heater must be mounted on a simulated wall section.

2.2. Test Configuration. If the instantaneous water heater or hot water supply boiler is not required to be tested using a recirculating loop, then set up the unit in accordance with Figures 2.1, 2.2, or 2.3 of this appendix (as applicable). If the unit is required to be tested using a recirculating loop, then set up the unit as per Figure 2.4 of this appendix.

eCFR graphic er10no16.020.gif

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eCFR graphic er10no16.021.gif

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2.2.1. If the instantaneous water heater or hot water supply boiler does not have any external piping, install an outlet water valve within 10 inches of piping length of the water heater jacket or enclosure. If the instantaneous water heater or hot water supply boiler includes external piping assembled at the manufacturer's premises prior to shipment, install water valves in the outlet piping within 5 inches of the end of the piping supplied with the unit.

2.2.2. If the water heater is not able to achieve an outlet water temperature of 70 °F ± 2 °F (TOWT) above the supply water temperature at full firing rate, a recirculating loop with pump as shown in Figure 2.4 of this appendix must be used.

2.2.2.1. If a recirculating loop with a pump is used, then ensure that the inlet water temperature labeled as TIWT in Figure 2.4 of this appendix, is greater than or equal to 70 °F and less than or equal to 120 °F at all times during the thermal efficiency test and steady-state verification period (as applicable).

2.3. Installation of Temperature Sensors

2.3.1. Without Recirculating Loop.

2.3.1.1. Vertical Connections. Use Figure 2.1 (for top connections) and 2.2 (for bottom connections) of this appendix.

2.3.1.2. Horizontal Connections. Use Figure 2.3 of this appendix.

2.3.2. With Recirculating Loop. Set up the recirculating loop as shown in Figure 2.4 of this appendix.

2.3.3. For water heaters with multiple outlet water connections leaving the water heater jacket that are required to be operated to achieve the rated input, temperature sensors must be installed for each outlet water connection leaving the water heater jacket or enclosure that is used during testing, in accordance with the provisions in sections 2.3.1 and 2.3.2 of this appendix (as applicable).

2.4. Piping Insulation. Insulate all water piping external to the water heater jacket or enclosure, including piping that is installed by the manufacturer or shipped with the unit, for at least 4 ft of piping length from the connection at the appliance with material having an R-value not less than 4 °F·ft2·h/Btu. Ensure that the insulation does not contact any appliance surface except at the location where the pipe connections penetrate the appliance jacket or enclosure.

2.5. Temperature and Pressure Relief Valve Insulation. If the manufacturer has not provided a temperature and pressure relief valve, one shall be installed and insulated as specified in section 2.4 of this appendix. The temperature and pressure relief valve must be installed in the outlet water piping, between the unit being tested and the outlet water valve.

2.6. Vent Requirements. Follow the requirements for venting arrangements specified in paragraph c of Annex E.1 of ANSI Z21.10.3-2015 (incorporated by reference; see §431.105).

2.7. Energy Consumption. Install equipment that determines, within ± 1 percent:

2.7.1. The quantity and rate of fuel consumed.

2.7.2. The quantity of electricity consumed by factory-supplied water heater components, and of the test loop recirculating pump, if used.

3. Test Conditions

3.1. Water Supply

3.1.1. Water Supply Pressure. The pressure of the water supply must be maintained between 40 psi and the maximum pressure specified by the manufacturer of the unit being tested. The accuracy of the pressure-measuring devices must be within ± 1.0 psi.

3.1.2. Water Supply Temperature. During the thermal efficiency test and steady-state verification period (as applicable), the temperature of the supply water (TSWT) must be maintained at 70 °F ± 2 °F.

3.2. Gas Pressure for Gas-Fired Equipment. The supply gas pressure must be within the range specified by the manufacturer on the nameplate of the unit being tested. The difference between the outlet pressure of the gas appliance pressure regulator and the value specified by the manufacturer on the nameplate of the unit being tested must not exceed the greater of: ± 10 percent of the nameplate value or ± 0.2 inches water column (in. w.c.). Obtain the higher heating value of the gas burned.

3.3. Ambient Room Temperature. Maintain the ambient room temperature at 75 °F ± 10 °F at all times during the steady-state verification period, the thermal efficiency test, and the standby loss test (as applicable). Measure the ambient room temperature at 1-minute intervals during these periods. Measure the ambient room temperature at the vertical mid-point of the water heater and approximately 2 feet from the water heater jacket or enclosure. Shield the sensor against radiation. Calculate the average ambient room temperature separately for the thermal efficiency test and the standby loss test. During the thermal efficiency and standby loss tests, the ambient room temperature must not vary by more than ± 5.0 °F at any reading from the average ambient room temperature.

3.4. Test Air Temperature. During the steady-state verification period, the thermal efficiency test, and the standby loss test (as applicable), the test air temperature must not vary by more than ± 5 °F from the ambient room temperature at any reading. Measure the test air temperature at 1-minute intervals during these periods and at a location within two feet of the air inlet of the water heater or the combustion air intake vent, as applicable. Shield the sensor against radiation. For units with multiple air inlets, measure the test air temperature at each air inlet, and maintain the specified tolerance on deviation from the ambient room temperature at each air inlet. For units without a dedicated air inlet, measure the test air temperature within two feet of any location on the water heater where combustion air is drawn.

3.5. Maximum Air Draft. During the steady-state verification period, the thermal efficiency test, and the standby loss test (as applicable), the water heater must be located in an area protected from drafts of more than 50 ft/min. Prior to beginning the steady-state verification period and the standby loss test, measure the air draft within three feet of the jacket or enclosure of the water heater to ensure this condition is met. Ensure that no other changes that would increase the air draft are made to the test set-up or conditions during the conduct of the tests.

3.6. Primary Control

3.6.1. Thermostatically-Activated Water Heaters With an Internal Thermostat. Before starting the thermal efficiency test and the standby loss test (unless the thermostat is already set before the thermal efficiency test), the thermostat setting must be obtained. Set the thermostat to ensure:

3.6.1.1. With supply water temperature set as per section 3.1.2 of this appendix (i.e., 70 °F ± 2 °F) the water flow rate can be varied so that the outlet water temperature is constant at 70 °F ± 2 °F above the supply water temperature, while the burner is firing at full firing rate; and

3.6.1.2. After the water supply is turned off and the thermostat reduces the fuel supply to a minimum, the maximum heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) is 140 °F ± 5 °F.

3.6.1.3. If the water heater includes a built-in safety mechanism that prevents it from achieving a heat exchanger outlet water temperature of 140 °F ± 5 °F, adjust the thermostat to its maximum setting.

3.6.2. Flow-Activated Instantaneous Water Heaters and Thermostatically-Activated Instantaneous Water Heaters With an External Thermostat. Energize the primary control such that it is always calling for heating and the burner is firing at the full firing rate. Maintain the supply water temperature as per section 3.1.2 of this appendix (i.e., 70 °F ± 2 °F). Set the control so that the outlet water temperature (TOWT) is 140 °F ± 5 °F. If the water heater includes a built-in safety mechanism that prevents it from achieving a heat exchanger outlet water temperature of 140 °F ± 5 °F, adjust the control to its maximum setting.

3.7. Units With Multiple Outlet Water Connections

3.7.1. For each connection leaving the water heater that is required for the unit to achieve the rated input, the outlet water temperature must not differ from that of any other outlet water connection by more than 2 °F during the steady-state verification period and thermal efficiency test.

3.7.2. Determine the outlet water temperature representative for the entire unit at every required measurement interval by calculating the average of the outlet water temperatures measured at each connection leaving the water heater jacket or enclosure that is used during testing. Use the outlet water temperature representative for the entire unit in all calculations for the thermal efficiency and standby loss tests, as applicable.

3.8. Additional Requirements for Oil-Fired Equipment.

3.8.1. Venting Requirements. Connect a vertical length of flue pipe to the flue gas outlet of sufficient height so as to meet the minimum draft specified by the manufacturer.

3.8.2. Oil Supply. Adjust the burner rate so that the following conditions are met:

3.8.2.1. The CO2 reading is within the range specified by the manufacturer;

3.8.2.2. The fuel pump pressure is within ± 10 percent of manufacturer's specifications;

3.8.2.3. If either the fuel pump pressure or range for CO2 reading are not specified by the manufacturer on the nameplate of the unit, in literature shipped with the unit, or in supplemental test report instructions included with a certification report, then a default value of 100 psig is to be used for fuel pump pressure, and a default range of 9-12 percent is to be used for CO2 reading; and

3.8.2.4. Smoke in the flue does not exceed No. 1 smoke as measured by the procedure in ASTM D2156-09 (Reapproved 2013) (incorporated by reference, see §431.105). To determine the smoke spot number, the smoke measuring device shall be connected to an open-ended tube. This tube must project into the flue 14 to 12 of the pipe diameter.

3.8.2.5. If no settings on the water heater have been changed and the water heater has not been turned off since the end of a previously run thermal efficiency (or standby loss test for thermostatically-activated instantaneous water heaters with an internal thermostat), measurement of the CO2 reading and conduct of the smoke spot test are not required prior to beginning a test. Otherwise, measure the CO2 reading and determine the smoke spot number, with the burner firing, before beginning measurements for the steady-state verification period (prior to beginning the thermal efficiency test or standby loss test, as applicable). However, measurement of the CO2 reading and conduct of the smoke spot test are not required for the standby loss test for thermostatically-activated instantaneous water heaters with an external thermostat and flow-activated instantaneous water heaters.

3.9. Data Collection Intervals. Follow the data recording intervals specified in the following sections.

3.9.1. Steady-State Verification Period and Thermal Efficiency Test. For the steady-state verification period and the thermal efficiency test, follow the data recording intervals specified in Table 3.1 of this appendix. These data recording intervals must also be followed if conducting a steady-state verification period prior to conducting the standby loss test.

Table 3.1—Data To Be Recorded Before and During the Steady-State Verification Period and Thermal Efficiency Test

Item recordedBefore
steady-state
verification period
Every 1
minutea
Every 10
minutes
Gas supply pressure, in w.c.X
Gas outlet pressure, in w.c.X
Barometric pressure, in HgX
Fuel higher heating value, Btu/ft3 (gas) or Btu/lb (oil)X
Oil pump pressure, psig (oil only)X
CO2 reading, % (oil only)Xb
Oil smoke spot reading (oil only)Xb
Air draft, ft/minX
Time, minutes/secondsX
Fuel weight or volume, lb (oil) or ft3 (gas)Xc
Supply water temperature (TSWT), °FX
Inlet water temperature (TIWT), °FXd
Outlet water temperature (TOWT), °FX
Ambient room temperature, °FX
Test air temperature, °FX
Water flow rate, gpmX

Notes:

aThese measurements are to be recorded at the start and end of both the steady-state verification period and the thermal efficiency test, as well as every minute during both periods.

bThe smoke spot test and CO2 reading are not required prior to beginning the steady-state verification period if no settings on the water heater have been changed and the water heater has not been turned off since the end of a previously-run efficiency test (i.e., thermal efficiency or standby loss).

cFuel and electricity consumption over the course of the entire thermal efficiency test must be measured and used in calculation of thermal efficiency.

dOnly measured when a recirculating loop is used.

3.9.2. Standby Loss Test. For the standby loss test, follow the data recording intervals specified in Table 3.2 of this appendix. (Follow the data recording intervals specified in Table 3.1 of this appendix of the steady-state verification period, if conducted prior to the standby loss test.) Additionally, the fuel and electricity consumption over the course of the entire test must be measured and used in calculation of standby loss.

Table 3.2—Data To Be Recorded Before and During the Standby Loss Test

Item recordedBefore testEvery 1
minutea
Gas supply pressure, in w.c.X
Gas outlet pressure, in w.c.X
Barometric pressure, in HgX
Fuel higher heating value, Btu/ft3 (gas) or Btu/lb (oil)X
Oil pump pressure, psig (oil only)X
Air draft, ft/minX
Time, minutes/secondsX
Heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX), °FX
Ambient room temperature, °FX
Test air temperature, °FX
Water flow rate, gpmXb
Inlet water temperature (TIWT), °FXb

Notes:

aThese measurements are to be recorded at the start and end of the test, as well as every minute during the test.

bThe water flow rate and supply water temperature and inlet water temperature (if a recirculating loop is used) must be measured during the steady-state verification period at 1-minute intervals. After the steady-state verification period ends, flow rate, supply water temperature, and inlet water temperature (if measured) are not required to be measured during the standby loss test, as there is no flow occurring during the standby loss test.

4. Determination of Storage Volume. Determine the storage volume by subtracting the tare weight, measured while the system is dry and empty, from the weight of the system when filled with water and dividing the resulting net weight of water by the density of water at the measured water temperature. The volume of water contained in the water heater must be computed in gallons.

5. Fuel Input Rate

5.1. Determination of Fuel Input Rate. During the steady-state verification period and thermal efficiency test, as applicable, record the fuel consumption at 10-minute intervals. Calculate the fuel input rate for each 10-minute period using the equations in section 5.2 of this appendix. The measured fuel input rates for these 10-minute periods must not vary by more than ± 2 percent between any two readings. Determine the overall fuel input rate using the fuel consumption for the entire duration of the thermal efficiency test.

5.2. Fuel Input Rate Calculation. To calculate the fuel input rate, use the following equation:

eCFR graphic er10no16.022.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Q = Fuel input rate, expressed in Btu/h

Qs = Total fuel flow as metered, expressed in ft3 for gas-fired equipment and lb for oil-fired equipment

Cs = Correction applied to the heating value of a gas H, when it is metered at temperature and/or pressure conditions other than the standard conditions for which the value of H is based. Cs=1 for oil-fired equipment.

H = Higher heating value of the fuel, expressed as Btu/ft3 for gas-fired equipment and Btu/lb for oil-fired equipment.

t = Duration of measurement of fuel consumption

6. Thermal Efficiency Test. Before beginning the steady-state verification period, record the applicable parameters as specified in section 3.9.1 of this appendix. Begin drawing water from the unit by opening the main supply and outlet water valve, and adjust the water flow rate to achieve an outlet water temperature of 70 °F ± 2 °F above supply water temperature. The thermal efficiency test shall be deemed complete when there is a continuous, one-hour-long period where the steady-state conditions specified in section 6.1 of this appendix have been met, as confirmed by consecutive readings of the relevant parameters at 1-minute intervals (except for fuel input rate, which is determined at 10-minute intervals, as specified in section 5.1 of this appendix). During the one-hour-long period, the water heater must fire continuously at its full firing rate (i.e., no modulation or cut-outs) and no settings can be changed on the unit being tested at any time. The first 30 minutes of the one-hour-period where the steady-state conditions in section 6.1 of this appendix are met is the steady-state verification period. The final 30 minutes of the one-hour-period where the steady-state conditions in section 6.1 of this appendix are met is the thermal efficiency test. The last reading of the steady-state verification period must be the first reading of the thermal efficiency test (i.e., the thermal efficiency test starts immediately once the steady-state verification period ends).

6.1. Steady-State Conditions. The following conditions must be met at consecutive readings taken at 1-minute intervals (except for fuel input rate, for which measurements are taken at 10-minute intervals) to verify the water heater has achieved steady-state operation during the steady-state verification period and the thermal efficiency test.

6.1.1. The water flow rate must be maintained within ± 0.25 gallons per minute (gpm) of the initial reading at the start of the steady-state verification period.

6.1.2. Outlet water temperature must be maintained at 70 °F ± 2 °F above supply water temperature.

6.1.3. Fuel input rate must be maintained within ± 2 percent of the rated input certified by the manufacturer.

6.1.4. The supply water temperature (TSWT) (or inlet water temperature (TIWT) if a recirculating loop is used) must be maintained within ± 0.50 °F of the initial reading at the start of the steady-state verification period.

6.1.5. The rise between supply (or inlet if a recirculating loop is used) and outlet water temperatures must be maintained within ± 0.50 °F of its initial value taken at the start of the steady-state verification period for units with rated input less than 500,000 Btu/h, and maintained within ± 1.00 °F of its initial value for units with rated input greater than or equal to 500,000 Btu/h.

6.2. Water Flow Measurement. Measure the total weight of water heated during the 30-minute thermal efficiency test with either a scale or a water flow meter. With either method, the error of measurement of weight of water heated must not exceed 1 percent of the weight of the total draw.

6.3. Thermal Efficiency Calculation. Thermal efficiency must be calculated using data from the 30-minute thermal efficiency test. Calculate thermal efficiency, Et, using the following equation:

eCFR graphic er10no16.023.gif

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Where:

K = 1.004 Btu/lb· °F, the nominal specific heat of water at 105 °F

W = Total weight of water heated, lb

θ1 = Average supply water temperature, expressed in °F

θ2 = Average outlet water temperature, expressed in °F

Q = Total fuel flow as metered, expressed in ft3 (gas) or lb (oil)

Cs = Correction applied to the heating value of a gas H, when it is metered at temperature and/or pressure conditions other than the standard conditions for which the value of H is based. Cs=1 for oil-fired equipment.

H = Higher heating value of the fuel, expressed in Btu/ft3 (gas) or Btu/lb (oil)

Ec = Electrical consumption of the water heater and, when used, the test set-up recirculating pump, expressed in Btu

7. Standby Loss Test. If the standby loss test is conducted immediately after a thermal efficiency test and no settings or conditions have been changed since the completion of the thermal efficiency test, then skip to section 7.2 or 7.3 of this appendix (as applicable). Otherwise, perform the steady-state verification in section 7.1 of this appendix. For thermostatically-activated instantaneous water heaters with an internal thermostat, use section 7.2 of this appendix to conduct the standby loss test, and for flow-activated and/or thermostatically-activated instantaneous water heaters with an external thermostat use section 7.3 of this appendix to conduct the standby loss test.

7.1. Steady-State Verification Period. For water heaters where the standby loss test is not conducted immediately following the thermal efficiency test, the steady-state verification period must be conducted before starting the standby loss test. Set the primary control in accordance with section 3.6 of this appendix, such that the primary control is always calling for heat and the water heater is firing continuously at the full firing rate (i.e., no modulation or cut-outs). Begin drawing water from the unit by opening the main supply and the outlet water valve, and adjust the water flow rate to achieve an outlet water temperature of 70 °F ± 2 °F above supply water temperature. The steady-state verification period is complete when there is a continuous 30-minute period where the steady-state conditions specified in section 7.1.1 of this appendix are met, as confirmed by consecutive readings of the relevant parameters recorded at 1-minute intervals (except for fuel input rate, which is determined at 10-minute intervals, as specified in section 5.1 of this appendix).

7.1.1. Steady-State Conditions. The following conditions must be met at consecutive readings taken at 1-minute intervals (except for fuel input rate, for which measurements are taken at 10-minute intervals) to verify the water heater has achieved steady-state operation during the steady-state verification period prior to conducting the standby loss test.

7.1.1.1. The water flow rate must be maintained within ± 0.25 gallons per minute (gpm) of the initial reading at the start of the steady-state verification period;

7.1.1.2. Fuel input rate must be maintained within ± 2 percent of the rated input certified by the manufacturer;

7.1.1.3. The supply water temperature (TSWT) (or inlet water temperature (TIWT) if a recirculating loop is used) must be maintained within ± 0.50 °F of the initial reading at the start of the steady-state verification period; and

7.1.1.4. The rise between the supply (or inlet if a recirculating loop is used) and outlet water temperatures must be maintained within ± 0.50 °F of its initial value taken at the start of the steady-state verification period for units with rated input less than 500,000 Btu/h, and maintained within ± 1.00 °F of its initial value for units with rated input greater than or equal to 500,000 Btu/h.

7.2. Thermostatically-Activated Instantaneous Water Heaters with an Internal Thermostat. For water heaters that will experience cut-in based on a temperature-activated control that is internal to the water heater, use the following steps to conduct the standby loss test.

7.2.1. Immediately after the thermal efficiency test or the steady-state verification period (as applicable), turn off the outlet water valve(s) (installed as per the provisions in section 2.2 of this appendix), and the water pump (if applicable) simultaneously and ensure that there is no flow of water through the water heater.

7.2.2. After the first cut-out following the end of the thermal efficiency test or steady-state verification period (as applicable), allow the water heater to remain in standby mode. Do not change any settings on the water heater at any point until measurements for the standby loss test are finished. Begin recording the applicable parameters specified in section 3.9.2 of this appendix.

7.2.3. At the second cut-out, record the time and ambient room temperature, and begin measuring the fuel and electricity consumption. Record the initial heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) and initial ambient room temperature. For the remainder of the test, continue recording the applicable parameters specified in section 3.9.2 of this appendix.

7.2.4. Stop the test after the first cut-out that occurs after 24 hours, or at 48 hours, whichever comes first.

7.2.5. Immediately after conclusion of the standby loss test, record the total fuel flow and electrical energy consumption, the final ambient room temperature, the duration of the standby loss test, and if the test ends at 48 hours without a cut-out, the final heat exchanger outlet temperature, or if the test ends after a cut-out, the maximum heat exchanger outlet temperature that occurs after the cut-out. Calculate the average of the recorded values of the heat exchanger outlet water temperature and the ambient room temperature taken at each measurement interval, including the initial and final values.

7.2.6. Standby Loss Calculation. To calculate the standby loss, follow the steps below:

7.2.6.1. The standby loss expressed as a percentage (per hour) of the heat content of the stored water above room temperature must be calculated using the following equation:

eCFR graphic er10no16.024.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

ΔT3 = Average value of the heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) minus the average value of the ambient room temperature, expressed in °F

ΔT4 = Final heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) measured at the end of the test minus the initial heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) measured at the start of the test, expressed in °F

K = 8.25 Btu/gallon· °F, the nominal specific heat of water

Va = Volume of water contained in the water heater in gallons measured in accordance with section 4 of this appendix

Et = Thermal efficiency of the water heater determined in accordance with section 6 of this appendix, expressed in %

Ec = Electrical energy consumed by the water heater during the duration of the test in Btu

T = Total duration of the test in hours

Cs = Correction applied to the heating value of a gas H, when it is metered at temperature and/or pressure conditions other than the standard conditions for which the value of H is based. Cs=1 for oil-fired equipment.

Qs = Total fuel flow as metered, expressed in ft3 (gas) or lb (oil)

H = Higher heating value of gas or oil, expressed in Btu/ft3 (gas) or Btu/lb (oil)

S = Standby loss, the average hourly energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed as a percentage of the initial heat content of the stored water above room temperature

7.2.6.2. The standby loss expressed in Btu per hour must be calculated as follows:

SL (Btu per hour) = S (% per hour) × 8.25 (Btu/gal- °F) × Measured Volume (gal) × 70 ( °F).

Where, SL refers to the standby loss of the water heater, defined as the amount of energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed in Btu per hour.

7.3. Flow-Activated and Thermostatically-Activated Instantaneous Water Heaters with an External Thermostat. For water heaters that are either flow-activated or thermostatically-activated with an external thermostat, use the following steps to conduct the standby loss test.

7.3.1. Immediately after the thermal efficiency test or the steady-state verification period (as applicable), de-energize the primary control to end the call for heating. If the main burners do not cut out, then turn off the fuel supply.

7.3.1.1. If the unit does not have an integral pump purge functionality, then turn off the outlet water valve and water pump at this time.

7.3.1.2. If the unit has an integral pump purge functionality, allow the pump purge operation to continue. After the pump purge operation is complete, immediately turn off the outlet water valve and water pump and continue recording the required parameters for the remainder of the test.

7.3.2. Recording Data

7.3.2.1. For units with pump purge functionality, record the initial heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX), and ambient room temperature when the main burner(s) cut-out or the fuel supply is turned off. After the pump purge operation is complete, record the time as t = 0 and the initial electricity meter reading. Continue to monitor and record the heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) and time elapsed from the start of the test, and the electricity consumption as per the requirements in section 3.9.2 of this appendix.

7.3.2.2. For units not equipped with pump purge functionality, begin recording the measurements as per the requirements of section 3.9.2 of this appendix when the main burner(s) cut-out or the fuel supply is turned off. Specifically, record the time as t = 0, and record the initial heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX), ambient room temperature, and electricity meter readings. Continue to monitor and record the heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) and the time elapsed from the start of the test as per the requirements in section 3.9.2 of this appendix.

7.3.3. Stopping Criteria. Stop the test when one of the following occurs:

7.3.3.1. The heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) decreases by 35 °F from its value recorded immediately after the main burner(s) has cut-out, and the pump purge operation (if applicable) is complete; or

7.3.3.2. 24 hours have elapsed from the start of the test.

7.3.4. At the end of the test, record the final heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX), fuel consumed, electricity consumed from time t=0, and the time elapsed from the start of the test.

7.3.5. Standby Loss Calculation

7.3.5.1. Once the test is complete, use the following equation to calculate the standby loss as a percentage (per hour) of the heat content of the stored water above room temperature:

eCFR graphic er10no16.025.gif

View or download PDF

Where,

ΔT1 = Heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) measured after the pump purge operation is complete (if the unit is integrated with pump purge functionality); or after the main burner(s) cut-out (if the unit is not equipped with pump purge functionality) minus heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) measured at the end of the test, expressed in °F

ΔT2 = Heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) minus the ambient temperature, both measured after the main burner(s) cut-out, at the start of the test, expressed in °F

K = 8.25 Btu/gallon· °F, the nominal specific heat of water

Va = Volume of water contained in the water heater in gallons measured in accordance with section 4 of this appendix

Et = Thermal efficiency of the water heater determined in accordance with section 6 of this appendix, expressed in %

Ec = Electrical energy consumed by the water heater during the duration of the test in Btu

t = Total duration of the test in hours

S = Standby loss, the average hourly energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed as a percentage of the initial heat content of the stored water above room temperature

7.3.5.2. The standby loss expressed in terms of Btu per hour must be calculated as follows:

SL (Btu per hour) = S (% per hour) × 8.25 (Btu/gal- °F) × Measured Volume (gal) × 70 ( °F)

Where, SL refers to the standby loss of the water heater, defined as the amount of energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed in Btu per hour.

[81 FR 79332, Nov. 10, 2016]

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