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e-CFR data is current as of March 5, 2021

Title 34Subtitle BChapter VIPart 685Subpart A → §685.102


Title 34: Education
PART 685—WILLIAM D. FORD FEDERAL DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM
Subpart A—Purpose and Scope


§685.102   Definitions.

(a)(1) The definitions of the following terms used in this part are set forth in the Student Assistance General Provisions, 34 CFR part 668:

Academic year

Campus-based programs

Dependent student

Disbursement

Eligible program

Eligible student

Enrolled

Expected family contribution (EFC)

Federal Consolidation Loan Program

Federal Pell Grant Program

Federal Perkins Loan Program

Federal PLUS Program

Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Program

Federal Work-Study Program

Full-time student

Graduate or professional student

Half-time student

Independent student

One-third of an academic year

Parent

Payment period

Teacher Education Assistance for College and Higher Education (TEACH) Grant Program

TEACH Grant

Two-thirds of an academic year

Undergraduate student

U.S. citizen or national

William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) Program

(2) The following definitions are set forth in the regulations for Institutional Eligibility under the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, 34 CFR part 600:

Accredited

Clock hour

Correspondence course

Credit hour

Educational program

Eligible institution

Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program

Foreign institution

Institution of higher education

Nationally recognized accrediting agency or association

Preaccredited

Secretary

State

(b) The following definitions also apply to this part:

Act: The Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, 20 U.S.C. 1071 et seq.

Default: The failure of a borrower and endorser, if any, to make an installment payment when due, or to meet other terms of the promissory note, if the Secretary finds it reasonable to conclude that the borrower and endorser, if any, no longer intend to honor the obligation to repay, provided that this failure persists for 270 days.

Endorser: An individual who signs a promissory note and agrees to repay the loan in the event that the borrower does not.

Estimated financial assistance. (1) The estimated amount of assistance for a period of enrollment that a student (or a parent on behalf of a student) will receive from Federal, State, institutional, or other sources, such as scholarships, grants, net earnings from need-based employment, or loans, including but not limited to—

(i) Except as provided in paragraph (2)(iii) of this definition, national service education awards or post-service benefits under title I of the National and Community Service Act of 1990 (AmeriCorps).

(ii) Except as provided in paragraph (2)(vii) of this definition, veterans' education benefits;

(iii) Any educational benefits paid because of enrollment in a postsecondary education institution, or to cover postsecondary education expenses;

(iv) Fellowships or assistantships, except non-need-based employment portions of such awards;

(v) Insurance programs for the student's education; and

(vi) The estimated amount of other Federal student financial aid, including but not limited to a Federal Pell Grant, campus-based aid, and the gross amount (including fees) of subsidized and unsubsidized Federal Stafford Loans, Direct Subsidized and Unsubsidized Loans, and Federal PLUS or Direct PLUS Loans.

(2) Estimated financial assistance does not include—

(i) Those amounts used to replace the expected family contribution (EFC), including the amounts of any TEACH Grants, unsubsidized Federal Stafford Loans or Direct Unsubsidized Loans, Federal PLUS or Direct PLUS Loans, and non-federal non-need-based loans, including private, state-sponsored, and institutional loans. However, if the sum of the amounts received that are being used to replace the student's EFC exceed the EFC, the excess amount must be treated as estimated financial assistance;

(ii) Federal Perkins loan and Federal Work-Study funds that the student has declined;

(iii) For the purpose of determining eligibility for a Direct Subsidized Loan, national service education awards or post-service benefits under title I of the National and Community Service Act of 1990 (AmeriCorps);

(iv) Any portion of the estimated financial assistance described in paragraph (1) of this definition that is included in the calculation of the student's EFC;

(v) Non-need-based employment earnings;

(vi) Assistance not received under a title IV, HEA program, if that assistance is designated to offset all or a portion of a specific amount of the cost of attendance and that component is excluded from the cost of attendance as well. If that assistance is excluded from either estimated financial assistance or cost of attendance, it must be excluded from both;

(vii) Federal veterans' education benefits paid under—

(A) Chapter 103 of title 10, United States Code (Senior Reserve Officers' Training Corps);

(B) Chapter 106A of title 10, United States Code (Educational Assistance for Persons Enlisting for Active Duty);

(C) Chapter 1606 of title 10, United States Code (Selected Reserve Educational Assistance Program);

(D) Chapter 1607 of title 10, United States Code (Educational Assistance Program for Reserve Component Members Supporting Contingency Operations and Certain Other Operations);

(E) Chapter 30 of title 38, United States Code (All-Volunteer Force Educational Assistance Program, also known as the “Montgomery GI Bill—active duty”);

(F) Chapter 31 of title 38, United States Code (Training and Rehabilitation for Veterans with Service-Connected Disabilities);

(G) Chapter 32 of title 38, United States Code (Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Program);

(H) Chapter 33 of title 38, United States Code (Post 9/11 Educational Assistance);

(I) Chapter 35 of title 38, United States Code (Survivors' and Dependents' Educational Assistance Program);

(J) Section 903 of the Department of Defense Authorization Act, 1981 (10 U.S.C. 2141 note) (Educational Assistance Pilot Program);

(K) Section 156(b) of the “Joint Resolution making further continuing appropriations and providing for productive employment for the fiscal year 1983, and for other purposes” (42 U.S.C. 402 note) (Restored Entitlement Program for Survivors, also known as “Quayle benefits”);

(L) The provisions of chapter 3 of title 37, United States Code, related to subsistence allowances for members of the Reserve Officers Training Corps; and

(M) Any program that the Secretary may determine is covered by section 480(c)(2) of the HEA; and

(viii) Iraq and Afghanistan Service Grants made under section 420R of the HEA.

Federal Direct Consolidation Loan Program (Direct Consolidation Loan Program): (1) A loan program authorized by title IV, part D of the Act that provides loans to borrowers who consolidate certain Federal educational loan(s), and one of the components of the Direct Loan Program. Loans made under this program are referred to as Direct Consolidation Loans.

(2) The term “Direct Subsidized Consolidation Loan” refers to the portion of a Direct Consolidation Loan attributable to certain subsidized title IV education loans that were repaid by the consolidation loan. Interest is not charged to the borrower during deferment periods, or, for a borrower whose consolidation application was received before July 1, 2006, during in-school and grace periods.

(3) The term “Direct Unsubsidized Consolidation Loan” refers to the portion of a Direct Consolidation Loan attributable to unsubsidized title IV education loans, certain subsidized title IV education loans, and certain other Federal education loans that were repaid by the consolidation loan. The borrower is responsible for the interest that accrues during any period.

(4) In the case of a Direct Consolidation Loan that entered repayment prior to July 1, 2006, the term “Direct PLUS Consolidation Loan” refers to the portion of a Direct Consolidation Loan attributable to Direct PLUS Loans, Direct PLUS Consolidation Loans, Federal PLUS Loans, and Parent Loans for Undergraduate Students that were repaid by the consolidation loan. The borrower is responsible for the interest that accrues during any period.

Federal Direct PLUS Program (Direct PLUS Loan Program): A loan program authorized by title IV, Part D of the Act that is one of the components of the Federal Direct Loan Program. The Federal Direct PLUS Program provides loans to parents of dependent students attending schools that participate in the Direct Loan Program. The Federal Direct PLUS Program also provides loans to graduate or professional students attending schools that participate in the Direct Loan Program. The borrower is responsible for the interest that accrues during any period. Loans made under this program are referred to as Direct PLUS Loans.

Federal Direct Stafford/Ford Loan Program (Direct Subsidized Loan Program): A loan program authorized by title IV, part D of the Act that provides loans to undergraduate, graduate, and professional students attending Direct Loan Program schools, and one of the components of the Direct Loan Program. The Secretary subsidizes the interest while the borrower is in an in-school, grace, or deferment period, except that the Secretary does not subsidize the interest that accrues during the grace period on a loan for which the first disbursement is made on or after July 1, 2012 and before July 1, 2014. Loans made under this program are referred to as Direct Subsidized Loans. Graduate and professional students are not eligible to receive Direct Subsidized Loans for any period of enrollment beginning on or after July 1, 2012.

Federal Direct Unsubsidized Stafford/Ford Loan Program (Direct Unsubsidized Loan Program): A loan program authorized by title IV, part D of the Act that provides loans to undergraduate, graduate, and professional students attending Direct Loan Program schools, and one of the components of the Direct Loan Program. The borrower is responsible for the interest that accrues during any period. Loans made under this program are referred to as Direct Unsubsidized Loans.

Federal Insured Student Loan Program: The loan program authorized by title IV, part B of the Act under which the Secretary directly insures lenders against losses.

Federal Stafford Loan Program: The loan program authorized by title IV, part B of the Act which encouraged the making of subsidized and unsubsidized loans to undergraduate, graduate, and professional students and is one of the Federal Family Education Loan programs.

Grace period: A six-month period that begins on the day after a Direct Subsidized Loan borrower, a Direct Unsubsidized Loan borrower, or, in some cases, a Direct Consolidation Loan borrower whose consolidation application was received before July 1, 2006, ceases to be enrolled as at least a half-time student at an eligible institution and ends on the day before the repayment period begins.

Guaranty agency: A State or private nonprofit organization that has an agreement with the Secretary under which it will administer a loan guarantee program under the Act.

Holder: The entity that owns a loan. For a FFEL Program loan, the term “holder” refers to an eligible lender owning a FFEL Program loan, including a Federal or State agency or an organization or corporation acting on behalf of such an agency and acting as a conservator, liquidator, or receiver of an eligible lender.

Interest rate: The annual interest rate that is charged on a loan, under title IV, part D of the Act.

Lender: As used in this part, the term “lender” has the meaning specified in section 435(d) of the Act for purposes of the FFEL Program.

Loan fee: A fee, payable by the borrower, that is used to help defray the costs of the Direct Loan Program.

Master Promissory Note (MPN): (1) A promissory note under which the borrower may receive loans for a single academic year or multiple academic years.

(2) For MPNs processed by the Secretary before July 1, 2003, loans may no longer be made under an MPN after the earliest of—

(i) The date the Secretary or the school receives the borrower's written notice that no further loans may be disbursed;

(ii) One year after the date of the borrower's first anticipated disbursement if no disbursement is made during that twelve-month period; or

(iii) Ten years after the date of the first anticipated disbursement, except that a remaining portion of a loan may be disbursed after this date.

(3) For MPNs processed by the Secretary on or after July 1, 2003, loans may no longer be made under an MPN after the earliest of—

(i) The date the Secretary or the school receives the borrower's written notice that no further loans may be made;

(ii) One year after the date the borrower signed the MPN or the date the Secretary receives the MPN, if no disbursements are made under that MPN; or

(iii) Ten years after the date the borrower signed the MPN or the date the Secretary receives the MPN, except that a remaining portion of a loan may be disbursed after this date.

(4) Unless the Secretary determines otherwise, a school may use a single MPN as the basis for all loans borrowed by a student or parent borrower for attendance at that school. If a school is not authorized by the Secretary for multi-year use of the MPN, a student or parent borrower must sign a new MPN for each academic year.

Nationwide consumer reporting agency: A consumer reporting agency as defined in 15 U.S.C. 1681a(p).

Payment data: An electronic record that is provided to the Secretary by an institution showing student disbursement information.

Period of enrollment: The period for which a Direct Subsidized, Direct Unsubsidized, or Direct PLUS Loan is intended. The period of enrollment must coincide with one or more bona fide academic terms established by the school for which institutional charges are generally assessed (e.g., a semester, trimester, or quarter in weeks of instructional time; an academic year; or the length of the program of study in weeks of instructional time). The period of enrollment is also referred to as the loan period.

Satisfactory repayment arrangement: (1) For the purpose of regaining eligibility under section 428F(b) of the HEA, the making of six consecutive, voluntary, on-time, full monthly payments on a defaulted loan. A borrower may only obtain the benefit of this paragraph with respect to renewed eligibility once.

(2) For the purpose of consolidating a defaulted loan under §685.220(d)(1)(ii)(A)(3)—

(i) The making of three consecutive, voluntary, on-time, full monthly payments on a defaulted loan prior to consolidation; or

(ii) Agreeing to repay the Direct Consolidation Loan under one of the income-contingent repayment plans described in §685.209 or the income-based repayment plan described in §685.221.

(3) For the purpose of paragraph (2)(i) of this definition, the required monthly payment amount may not be more than is reasonable and affordable based on the borrower's total financial circumstances. “On-time” means a payment made within 20 days of the scheduled due date, and voluntary payments are payments made directly by the borrower and do not include payments obtained by Federal offset, garnishment, or income or asset execution.

(4) A borrower has not used the one opportunity to renew eligibility for title IV assistance if the borrower makes six consecutive, on-time, voluntary, full monthly payments under an agreement to rehabilitate a defaulted loan, but does not receive additional title IV assistance prior to defaulting on that loan again.

Substantial gainful activity: A level of work performed for pay or profit that involves doing significant physical or mental activities, or a combination of both.

Totally and permanently disabled: The condition of an individual who—

(1) Is unable to engage in any substantial gainful activity by reason of any medically determinable physical or mental impairment that—

(i) Can be expected to result in death;

(ii) Has lasted for a continuous period of not less than 60 months; or

(iii) Can be expected to last for a continuous period of not less than 60 months; or

(2) Has been determined by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs to be unemployable due to a service-connected disability.

(Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1070g, 1087a, et seq.)

[59 FR 61690, Dec. 1, 1994]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §685.102, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

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