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e-CFR data is current as of May 13, 2021

Title 21Chapter ISubchapter BPart 172Subpart F → §172.510

Title 21: Food and Drugs
Subpart F—Flavoring Agents and Related Substances

§172.510   Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

Natural flavoring substances and natural adjuvants may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions.

(a) They are used in the minimum quantity required to produce their intended physical or technical effect and in accordance with all the principles of good manufacturing practice.

(b) In the appropriate forms (plant parts, fluid and solid extracts, concentrates, absolutes, oils, gums, balsams, resins, oleoresins, waxes, and distillates) they consist of one or more of the following, used alone or in combination with flavoring substances and adjuvants generally recognized as safe in food, previously sanctioned for such use, or regulated in any section of this part.

Common nameScientific nameLimitations
AloeAloe perryi Baker, A. barbadensis Mill., A. ferox Mill., and hybrids of this sp. with A. africana Mill. and A. spicata Baker
Althea root and flowersAlthea officinalis L
Amyris (West Indian sandalwood)Amyris balsamifera L
Angola weedRoccella fuciformis AchIn alcoholic beverages only
Arnica flowersArnica montana L., A. fulgens Pursh, A. sororia Greene, or A. cordifolia Hooker      Do.
Artemisia (wormwood)Artemisia sppFinished food thujone free1
Artichoke leavesCynara scolymus LIn alcoholic beverages only
Benzoin resinStyrax benzoin Dryander, S. paralleloneurus Perkins, S. tonkinensis (Pierre) Craib ex Hartwich, or other spp. of the Section Anthostyrax of the genus Styrax
Blackberry barkRubus, Section Eubatus
Boldus (boldo) leavesPeumus boldus Mol      Do.
Boronia flowersBoronia megastigma Nees
Bryonia rootBryonia alba L., or B. diocia Jacq      Do.
Buchu leavesBarosma betulina Bartl. et Wendl., B. crenulata (L.) Hook. or B. serratifolia Willd
Buckbean leavesMenyanthes trifoliata L      Do.
CajeputMelaleuca leucadendron L. and other Melaleuca spp
Calumba rootJateorhiza palmata (Lam.) Miers      Do.
Camphor treeCinnamomum camphora (L.) Nees et EbermSafrole free
Cascara sagradaRhamnus purshiana DC
Cassie flowersAcacia farnesiana (L.) Willd
Castor oilRicinus communis L
Catechu, blackAcacia catechu Willd
Cedar, white (aborvitae), leaves and twigsThuja occidentalis LFinished food thujone free1
CentuaryCentaurium umbellatum GilibIn alcoholic beverages only
Cherry pitsPrunus avium L. or P. cerasus LNot to exceed 25 p.p.m. prussic acid
Cherry-laurel leavesPrunus laurocerasus L      Do.
Chestnut leavesCastanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh
ChirataSwertia chirata Buch.-HamIn alcoholic beverages only
Cinchona, red, barkCinchona succirubra Pav. or its hybridsIn beverages only; not more than 83 p.p.m. total cinchona alkaloids in finished beverage
Cinchona, yellow, barkCinchona ledgeriana Moens, C. calisaya Wedd., or hybrids of these with other spp. of Cinchona.      Do.
CopaibaSouth American spp. of Copaifera L
Cork, oakQuercus suber L., or Q. occidentalis F. GayIn alcoholic beverages only
CostmaryChrysanthemum balsamita L      Do.
Costus rootSaussurea lappa Clarke
CubebPiper cubeba L. f
Currant, black, buds and leavesRibes nigrum L
Damiana leavesTurnera diffusa Willd
DavanaArtemisia pallens Wall
Dill, IndianAnethum sowa Roxb. (Peucedanum graveolens Benth et Hook., Anethum graveolens L.)
Dittany (fraxinella) rootsDictamnus albus L      Do.
Dittany of CreteOriganum dictamnus L
Dragon's blood (dracorubin)Daemonorops spp
Elder tree leavesSambucus nigra LIn alcoholic beverages only; not to exceed 25 p.p.m. prussic acid in the flavor
Elecampane rhizome and rootsInula helenium LIn alcoholic beverages only
ElemiCanarium commune L. or C. luzonicum Miq
ErigeronErigeron canadensis L
Eucalyptus globulus leavesEucalyptus globulus Labill
Fir (“pine”) needles and twigsAbies sibirica Ledeb., A. alba Mill., A. sachalinesis Masters or A. mayriana Miyabe et Kudo
Fir, balsam, needles and twigsAbies balsamea (L.) Mill
Galanga, greaterAlpinia galanga Willd      Do.
GalbanumFerula galbaniflua Boiss. et Buhse and other Ferula spp
Gambir (catechu, pale)Uncaria gambir Roxb
Genet flowersSpartium junceum L
Gentian rhizome and rootsGentiana lutea L
Gentian, stemlessGentiana acaulis L      Do.
Germander, chamaedrysTeucrium chamaedrys L      Do.
Germander, goldenTeucrium polium L      Do.
GuaiacGuaiacum officinale L., G. santum L., Bulnesia sarmienti Lor
GuaranaPaullinia cupana HBK
Haw, black, barkViburnum prunifolium L
Hemlock needles and twigsTsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. or T. heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg
Hyacinth flowersHyacinthus orientalis L
Iceland mossCetraria islandica Ach      Do.
ImperatoriaPeucedanum ostruthium (L.). Koch (Imperatoria ostruthium L.)
IvaAchillea moschata Jacq      Do.
LabdanumCistus spp
Lemon-verbenaLippia citriodora HBK      Do.
Linaloe woodBursera delpechiana Poiss. and other Bursera spp
Linden leavesTillia spp      Do.
LovageLevisticum officinale Koch
Lungmoss (lungwort)Sticta pulmonacea Ach
Maidenhair fernAdiantum capillus-veneris L      Do.
Maple, mountainAcer spicatum Lam
Mimosa (black wattle) flowersAcacia decurrens Willd. var. dealbata
Mullein flowersVerbascum phlomoides L. or V. thapsiforme Schrad      Do.
MyrrhCommiphora molmol Engl., C. abyssinica (Berg) Engl., or other Commiphora spp
Myrtle leavesMyrtus communis L      Do.
Oak, English, woodQuercus robur L      Do.
Oak, white, chipsQuercus alba L
Oak mossEvernia prunastri (L.) Ach., E. furfuracea (L.) Mann, and other lichensFinished food thujone free1
OlibanumBoswellia carteri Birdw. and other Boswellia spp
Opopanax (bisabolmyrrh)Opopanax chironium Koch (true opopanax) of Commiphora erythraea Engl. var. Llabrescens
Orris rootIris germanica L. (including its variety florentina Dykes) and I. pallida Lam
PansyViola tricolor LIn alcoholic beverages only
Passion flowerPassiflora incarnata L
PatchoulyPogostemon cablin Benth. and P. heyneanus Benth
Peach leavesPrunus persica (L.) BatschIn alcoholic beverages only; not to exceed 25 p.p.m. prussic acid in the flavor
Pennyroyal, AmericanHedeoma pulegioides (L.) Pers
Pennyroyal, EuropeanMentha pulegium L
Pine, dwarf, needles and twigsPinus mugo Turra var. pumilio (Haenke) Zenari
Pine, Scotch, needles and twigsPinus sylvestris L
Pine, white, barkPinus strobus LIn alcoholic beverages only
Pine, white oilPinus palustris Mill., and other Pinus spp
Poplar budsPopulus balsamifera L. (P. tacamahacca Mill.), P. candicans Ait., or P. nigra L      Do.
QuassiaPicrasma excelsa (Sw.) Planch, or Quassia amara L
Quebracho barkAspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schlecht, or (Quebrachia lorentzii (Griseb))Schinopsis lorentzii (Griseb.) Engl.
Quillaia (soapbark)Quillaja saponaria Mol
Red saunders (red sandalwood)Pterocarpus san alinus LIn alcoholic beverages only
Rhatany rootKrameria triandra Ruiz et Pav. or K. argentea Mart
Rhubarb, garden rootRheum rhaponticum L      Do.
Rhubarb rootRheum officinale Baill., R. palmatum L., or other spp. (excepting R. rhaponticum L.) or hybrids of Rheum grown in China
RoselleHibiscus sabdariffa L      Do.
Rosin (colophony)Pinus palustris Mill., and other Pinus spp      Do.
St. Johnswort leaves, flowers, and caulisHypericum perforatum LHypericin-free alcohol distillate form only; in alcoholic beverages only
Sandalwood, white (yellow, or East Indian)Santalum album L
SandaracTetraclinis articulata (Vahl.), MastIn alcoholic beverages only
SarsaparillaSmilax aristolochiaefolia Mill., (Mexican sarsaparilla), S. regelii Killip et Morton (Honduras sarsaparilla), S. febrifuga Kunth (Ecuadorean sarsaparilla), or undetermined Smilax spp. (Ecuadorean or Central American sarsaparilla)
Sassafras leavesSassafras albidum (Nutt.) NeesSafrole free
Senna, AlexandriaCassia acutifolia Delile
Serpentaria (Virginia snakeroot)Aristolochia serpentaria LIn alcoholic beverages only
Simaruba barkSimaruba amara Aubl      Do.
Snakeroot, Canadian (wild ginger)Asarum canadense L
Spruce needles and twigsPicea glauca (Moench) Voss or P. mariana (Mill.) BSP
Storax (styrax)Liquidambar orientalis Mill. or L. styraciflua L
Tagetes (marigold)Tagetes patula L., T. erecta L., or T. minuta L. (T. glandulifera Schrank)As oil only
TansyTanacetum vulgare LIn alcoholic beverages only; finished alcoholic beverage thujone free1
Thistle, blessed (holy thistle)Onicus benedictus LIn alcoholic beverages only
Thymus capitatus (Spanish “origanum”)Thymus capitatus Hoffmg. et Link
ToluMyroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms
TurpentinePinus palustris Mill. and other Pinus spp. which yield terpene oils exclusively
Valerian rhizome and rootsValeriana officinalis L
VeronicaVeronica officinalis L      Do.
Vervain, EuropeanVerbena officinalis L      Do.
VetiverVetiveria zizanioides Stapf      Do.
Violet, SwissViola calcarata L
Walnut husks (hulls), leaves, and green nutsJuglans nigra L. or J. regia L
Woodruff, sweetAsperula odorata LIn alcoholic beverages only
YarrowAchillea millefolium LIn beverages only; finished beverage thujone free1
Yerba santaEriodictyon californicum (Hook, et Arn.) Torr
Yucca, Joshua-treeYucca brevifolia Engelm
Yucca, MohaveYucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies (Y. mohavensis Sarg.)

1As determined by using the method (or, in other than alcoholic beverages, a suitable adaptation thereof) in section 9.129 of the “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,” 13th Ed. (1980), which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL, 481 North Frederick Ave., suite 500, Gaithersburg, MD 20877, or may be examined at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal__register/code__of__federal__regulations/ibr__locations.html.

[42 FR 14491, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 43 FR 14644, Apr. 7, 1978; 49 FR 10104, Mar. 19, 1984; 54 FR 24897, June 12, 1989; 69 FR 24511, May 4, 2004; 72 FR 10357, Mar. 8, 2007]

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