Home
gpo.gov
govinfo.gov

e-CFR Navigation Aids

Browse

Simple Search

Advanced Search

 — Boolean

 — Proximity

 

Search History

Search Tips

Corrections

Latest Updates

User Info

FAQs

Agency List

Incorporation By Reference

eCFR logo

Related Resources

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

We invite you to try out our new beta eCFR site at https://ecfr.federalregister.gov. We have made big changes to make the eCFR easier to use. Be sure to leave feedback using the Help button on the bottom right of each page!

e-CFR data is current as of October 29, 2020

Title 46Chapter ISubchapter EPart 45 → Subpart D


Title 46: Shipping
PART 45—GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES


Subpart D—Conditions of Assignment


Contents
§45.101   Purpose.
§45.103   Structural stress and stability.
§45.105   Information supplied to the master.
§45.107   Strength of hull.
§45.109   Strength of superstructures and deckhouses.
§45.111   Strength of bulkheads at ends of superstructures.
§45.113   Access openings in bulkheads at ends of enclosed superstructures.
§45.115   Bulwarks and guardrails.
§45.117   Freeing port area: General.
§45.119   Freeing port area: Changes from standard sheer.
§45.121   Freeing port area: Changes for trunks and side coamings.
§45.123   Freeing port area: Changes for bulwark height.
§45.125   Crew passageways.
§45.127   Position of structures, openings, and fittings.
§45.129   Hull fittings: General.
§45.131   Ventilators.
§45.133   Air pipes.
§45.135   Hull openings at or below freeboard deck.
§45.137   Cargo ports.
§45.139   Side scuttles.
§45.141   Manholes and flush scuttles.
§45.143   Hull openings above freeboard deck.
§45.145   Hatchway covers.
§45.147   Hatchway coamings.
§45.149   Machinery space openings.
§45.151   Other openings.
§45.153   Through-hull piping: General.
§45.155   Inlets and discharge piping: Valves.
§45.157   Scuppers and gravity drains.
§45.159   Special conditions of assignment for type A vessels.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.101   Purpose.

This subpart prescribes conditions that a vessel must meet to be eligible for assignment of a loadline under this part.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.103   Structural stress and stability.

(a) The nature and stowage of the cargo, ballast, and other variable weights must be such as to make the vessel stable and avoid unacceptable structural stress.

(b) The vessel must meet all applicable stability and subdivision requirements of this chapter.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.105   Information supplied to the master.

Unless otherwise authorized by the Commandant, the vessel must have onboard, in a form approved by the Commandant, sufficient information.

(a) To enable the master to load and ballast the vessel in a manner that avoids unacceptable stresses in the vessel's structure; and

(b) To guide the master as to the stability of the ship under varying conditions of service.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.107   Strength of hull.

The general structural strength of the hull must be sufficient for the draught corresponding to the freeboard assigned and must be approved by the Commandant. Ships built and maintained in conformity with the requirements of a classification society may be recognized by the Commandant as possessing adequate strength.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.109   Strength of superstructures and deckhouses.

Each superstructure or deckhouse used for accommodations of the crew must be approved by the Commandant or the approved assigning authority with regard to general strength and weathertightness. The Commandant may use the requirements of the assigning authority as a guide.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.111   Strength of bulkheads at ends of superstructures.

Bulkheads at ends of enclosed superstructures must have sufficient strength to withstand impact of boarding seas.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.113   Access openings in bulkheads at ends of enclosed superstructures.

(a) Access openings in bulkheads at ends of enclosed superstructures must have doors of steel or material as strong as steel that are permanently attached to the bulkhead and framed, stiffened, and fitted so that the bulkhead and door are as strong as the bulkhead and weather tight when closed.

(b) The means for securing the doors weathertight must be permanently attached to the doors or bulkheads and arranged so that the doors can be secured weathertight from both sides of the bulkhead.

(c) Access openings in bulkheads at ends of enclosed superstructures must have sills that are at least 12 inches above the deck.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.115   Bulwarks and guardrails.

(a) The exposed parts of freeboard and superstructures decks and deckhouses on the freeboard deck must have guardrails or bulwarks that are at least 36 inches high above the deck.

(b) Guardrails must have at least three courses with no more than a 9-inch opening below the lowest course and no more than 15 inches between other courses. If the sheer strake projection is at least 8 inches above the deck, a guardrail may have two courses with no more than 15 inches between courses.

(c) In way of trunks at least half the protection required by paragraph (a) of this section must be in the form of open rails.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.117   Freeing port area: General.

(a) Where bulwarks on the weather portions of freeboard or superstructure decks form wells, the bulwarks must have the area prescribed in this section and §§45.119 and 45.121 for rapidly freeing and draining the decks of water.

(b) Except as required in §§45.119 and 45.121 the minimum freeing port area in square feet on each side of the ship for each well on the freeboard deck and on the raised quarterdeck must be at least as great as A in the following formulas:

(1) Where the length of bulwark (l) in the well is 66 feet or less, A = 7.6 + 0.115 (l)

(2) Where (l) exceeds 66 feet, A = 0.23 (l)

but (l) need in no case be taken as greater than 0.7L.

(c) In ships having erections on deck that are open at either or both ends, provision for freeing the space within such erections must be approved by the Commandant or the assigning authority.

(d) The lower edges of the freeing ports must be as near the deck as practicable. Two-thirds of the freeing port area required must be provided in the half of the well nearest the lowest point of the sheer curve.

(e) All freeing port openings in the bulwarks must be protected by rails or bars spaced approximately 9 inches. If shutters are fitted to freeing ports, ample clearance must be provided to prevent jamming. Hinges must have pins or bearings of noncorrodible material. If shutters are fitted with securing appliances, these appliances must be of approved construction.

(f) The minimum freeing port area for each well on superstructure decks must be one-half of the area required by paragraph (b) of this section.

[CGD 73-49R, 38 FR 12290, May 10, 1973, as amended by USCG-2014-0688, 79 FR 58280, Sept. 29, 2014]

return arrow Back to Top

§45.119   Freeing port area: Changes from standard sheer.

The freeing port area required by §45.117(b) must be multiplied by the factor in the following table 5 if the sheer differs from the standard sheer defined in §45.63. table 4.

Table 5

Freeing port area: Sheer correction.

Ratio of sums of actual sheer ord./std. sheer ord. Greater than:Multiplier for area required by §45.117(b)
1.01.0
1.01.00
0.91.05
0.81.10
0.71.15
0.61.20
0.51.25
0.41.30
0.31.35
0.21.40
0.11.45
No sheer1.50

return arrow Back to Top

§45.121   Freeing port area: Changes for trunks and side coamings.

If a vessel has a trunk and does not meet the requirements of §45.61 or has continuous or substantially continuous hatchway side coamings between detached superstructures, the minimum area of the freeing port openings must be obtained from the following table:

Breadth of hatchway or trunk in relation to the breadth of shipArea of freeing ports in relation to the total area of the bulwarks (percent)
40 percent or less20
75 percent or more10

The area of freeing ports at intermediate breadths must be obtained by linear interpolation.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.123   Freeing port area: Changes for bulwark height.

(a) For the purposes of freeing port area only, bulwark height is considered standard at 24 in for ships 240 ft in length and less; and 48 in for ships 480 ft in length or greater. The standard bulwark height for ships of intermediate length is obtained by direct interpolation.

(b) If the bulwark is more than standard height, the area required by §45.117 must be increased by 0.04 square feet per foot (ft2/ft) of length of well for each foot difference in height.

(c) For ships greater than 480 ft in length that have an average bulwark height less than 3 ft, the area required by §45.117 may be decreased by 0.04 ft2/ft of length for each foot difference in height.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.125   Crew passageways.

The vessel must have means for protection of the crew from boarding seas such as life lines, gangways, and underdeck passages to facilitate passing between their quarters and machinery spaces and other spaces essential to the operation of the ship.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.127   Position of structures, openings, and fittings.

For the purposes of this part—

(a) Position 1 means in an exposed position on—

(1) The freeboard deck or a raised quarter deck;

(2) A superstructure deck or a trunk deck and forward of a point 14 L from the forward perpendicular; or

(3) A trunk deck whose height is less than Hs.

(b) Position 2 means—

(1) On a superstructure deck aft of a point 14 L abaft the forward perpendicular; or

(2) On a superstructure and trunk combination, that is Hs or more n height, aft or a point 14 L abaft the forward perpendicular.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.129   Hull fittings: General.

Hull fittings must be securely mounted in the hull so as to avoid increases in hull stresses and must be protected from local damage caused by movement of equipment or cargo.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.131   Ventilators.

(a) Ventilators passing through superstructures other than enclosed superstructures must have coamings of steel or equivalent material at the freeboard deck.

(b) Ventilators in position 1 must have coamings at least 30 in. above the deck and ventilators in position 2 must have coamings at least 24 in. above the deck. The Commandant or the assigning authority may also require coamings in other exposed positions.

(c) Ventilators in position 1 or 2 to spaces below freeboard decks or decks of enclosed superstructures or trunks must have coamings of steel permanently connected to the deck and any ventilator coaming that is more than 36 in. high must be specially supported.

(d) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section ventilator openings must have weathertight closing appliances that are permanently attached or, where approved by the Commandant or the assigning authority conveniently stowed near the ventilators to which they are to be fitted.

(e) Ventilators in position 1, the coamings of which extend to more than 12.5 ft above the deck, and in position 2, the coamings of which extend to more than 6 ft above the deck, need not have closing appliances unless specifically required by the Commandant.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.133   Air pipes.

(a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck—

(1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to avoid breaking from impact of boarding seas.

(2) The air pipe must have a permanently attached means of closing its opening; and

(3) The height from the deck to any point where water may obtain access below deck must be at least 30 in above the freeboard deck, 24 in above raised quarter decks, and 12 in above other superstructure decks.

(b) If the height required in paragraph (a) of this section interferes with working the ship, the Commandant may approve a lower height after considering the closing arrangements.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.135   Hull openings at or below freeboard deck.

Closures for hull openings at or below the freeboard deck must be as strong as the structure to which they are attached and must be watertight.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.137   Cargo ports.

(a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Commandant, the lower edge of any opening for cargo, personnel, machinery access, or similar opening in the side of a ship must be above a line that is drawn parallel to the freeboard deck at side and has as its lowest point the upper edge of the uppermost loadline.

(b) The number of cargo ports in the sides of a ship must be—

(1) No more than the minimum necessary for working the ship; and

(2) Approved by the Commandant.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.139   Side scuttles.

(a) The sill of each side scuttle must be above a line that is drawn parallel to the freeboard deck at side having its lowest point 2.5 percent of the breadth or 20 in above the summer load waterline, whichever is higher.

(b) Except as provided for in paragraph (c) of this section, each side scuttle to a space below the freeboard deck, or to a space within an enclosed superstructure, must have a hinged inside deadlight which is designed so that it can be secured watertight over the side scuttle.

(c) A side scuttle of a superstructure end bulkhead door, companionway door, or deckhouse door may have a portable inside deadlight which is designed so that it can be:

(1) Secured watertight over the side scuttle; and

(2) Stowed inside the superstructure, companionway, or deckhouse when not in use, in a readily accessible location on or adjacent to the door.

[CGD 73-49R, 38 FR 12290, May 10, 1973, as amended by CCGD 80-116, 46 FR 56788, Nov. 19, 1981]

return arrow Back to Top

§45.141   Manholes and flush scuttles.

Manholes and flush scuttles in position 1 or 2 or within any superstructure other than an enclosed superstructure must have permanently attached covers, unless the cover is secured by closely spaced bolts around its entire perimeter.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.143   Hull openings above freeboard deck.

Closures for openings above the freeboard deck must be as strong as the structure to which they are attached and must be weathertight.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.145   Hatchway covers.

(a) Hatchways in position 1 and 2 must have weathertight hatch covers with gaskets and clamping devices.

(b) The maximum ultimate strength of the hatchway cover material must be at least 4.25 times the maximum stress in the structure calculated with the following assumed loads:

(1) For ships 350 ft or more in length, at least 250 lb/ft2 in position 1 and 200 lb/ft2 in position 2.

(2) For ships less than 350 ft in length, at least AL in the following formula:

(i) Position 1:

AL = 200 + C

where C = 50(L−79)/271

(ii) Position 2:

Al = 150 + C

(c) Hatchway covers must be so designed as to limit the deflection to not more than 0.0028 times the span under the loads described in paragraph (b) of this section and the thickness of mild steel plating forming the tops of covers must be at least 1 percent of the spacing of stiffeners or 0.24 in, whichever is greater.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.147   Hatchway coamings.

(a) Except where the Commandant determines that the safety of the vessel will not be impaired in any sea condition, each hatchway must have a coaming that is at least—

(1) 18 inches in position 1; and

(2) 12 inches in position 2.

(b) Each hatchway coaming required by this section must be made of steel or equivalent material.

(c) The height of these coamings may be reduced or omitted if the Commandant is satisfied that safety of the ship is not thereby impaired in any sea conditions.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.149   Machinery space openings.

(a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed and enclosed by steel casings, and where the casings are not protected by other structures that meet the requirements of §45.109, their strength must be approved by the Commandant or the assigning authority.

(b) Access openings in casings required by paragraph (a) of this section must have doors complying with the requirements of §45.113. Other openings in such casings shall be fitted with equivalent covers, permanently attached.

(c) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, coamings of any funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship must—

(1) In position 1, extend at least 12.5 ft above the deck; and

(2) In position 2, extend at least 6 ft above the deck.

(d) The Commandant may approve a lesser height for protected coamings.

(e) Coamings of any fiddley or skylight over a machinery space opening in the freeboard or superstructure deck or the top of a deckhouse on the freeboard deck, must have covers of steel permanently attached and capable of being secured weathertight.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.151   Other openings.

Each opening other than hatchways, machinery space openings, manholes, or flush scuttles—

(a) In freeboard decks, must be protected by an enclosed superstructure or by a deckhouse or companionway that is equal in strength and weathertightness to an enclosed superstructure; or

(b) In exposed superstructure decks or in the top of a deckhouse on freeboard decks that gives access to a space below the freeboard deck or a space within an enclosed superstructure, must be protected by a deckhouse or companionway.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.153   Through-hull piping: General.

(a) All through-hull pipes required by this subpart must be made of steel or material equivalent to the hull in strength and fatigue resistance.

(b) All valves used as shell fittings and all shell fittings on which such valves are mounted must be made of steel, or bronze or other ductile material approved by the Commandant.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.155   Inlets and discharge piping: Valves.

(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section each pipe that discharges overboard through the hull of the ship must have—

(1) An automatic nonreturn valve with a positive means for closing; or

(2) Two automatic nonreturn valves with the inboard valve accessible for examination in service.

(b) The means for operating a valve described by paragraph (a)(1) of this section must be readily accessible and have indicators that show when the valve is not closed.

(c) If the pipe discharges from a space that is not manned or does not have continuous bilge water monitoring, a valve described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section must be operable above the freeboard deck.

(d) Each pipe that discharges from a space within an enclosed superstructure or deckhouse may have at least one accessible automatic nonreturn valve if the space is regularly visited by the crew.

(e) Through-hull piping systems in machinery spaces may have valves with positive means for closing at the shell if the controls are readily accessible and have indicators showing when the valves are not closed (nonreturn valves are not required).

return arrow Back to Top

§45.157   Scuppers and gravity drains.

Scuppers and gravity deck drains from spaces above the freeboard deck that penetrate the shell below a line 24 or .05B above the summer loadline, whichever is greater, must have an automatic nonreturn valve. This valve may be omitted if the piping is of thickness not less than extra heavy pipe.

return arrow Back to Top

§45.159   Special conditions of assignment for type A vessels.

The lower freeboards allowed for type A vessels allow water on deck for greater percentages of time. Therefore the following additional requirements must be met to qualify for type A freeboards:

(a) Machinery casings must be protected by an enclosed superstructure or deckhouse unless intact bulkheads are used on all sides on the freeboard deck.

(b) Exposed machinery casings may be fitted with weathertight doors providing they lead to a space or passageway as strong as an enclosed superstructure from which a second interior weathertight door is provided for access to the engine room.

(c) Hatchways on the exposed freeboard or forecastle decks must be provided with watertight covers of steel.

(d) Unless a separate fore and aft access is provided below the freeboard deck, a permanent fore and aft gangway must be fitted at the superstructure deck level between poop and all other deckhouses used in the essential operation of the vessel.

(e) Type “A” vessels must be fitted with open rails for at least half the length of the exposed parts of the weather deck. Where superstructures are connected by trunks, open rails must be fitted for the whole length of the exposed parts of the freeboard deck.

return arrow Back to Top

Need assistance?