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Title 40Chapter ISubchapter UPart 1068 → Subpart B


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 1068—GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR HIGHWAY, STATIONARY, AND NONROAD PROGRAMS


Subpart B—Prohibited Actions and Related Requirements


Contents
§1068.101   What general actions does this regulation prohibit?
§1068.103   Provisions related to the duration and applicability of certificates of conformity.
§1068.105   What other provisions apply to me specifically if I manufacture equipment needing certified engines?
§1068.110   Other provisions for engines/equipment in service.
§1068.115   What are manufacturers' emission-related warranty requirements?
§1068.120   Requirements for rebuilding engines.
§1068.125   What happens if I violate the regulations?

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§1068.101   What general actions does this regulation prohibit?

This section specifies actions that are prohibited and the maximum civil penalties that we can assess for each violation in accordance with 42 U.S.C. 7522 and 7524. The maximum penalty values listed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section and in §1068.125 apply as of August 1, 2016. As described in paragraph (h) of this section, these maximum penalty limits are different for earlier violations and they may be adjusted as set forth in 40 CFR part 19.

(a) The following prohibitions and requirements apply to manufacturers of new engines, manufacturers of equipment containing these engines, and manufacturers of new equipment, except as described in subparts C and D of this part:

(1) Introduction into commerce. You may not sell, offer for sale, or introduce or deliver into commerce in the United States or import into the United States any new engine/equipment after emission standards take effect for the engine/equipment, unless it is covered by a valid certificate of conformity for its model year and has the required label or tag. You also may not take any of the actions listed in the previous sentence with respect to any equipment containing an engine subject to this part's provisions unless the engine is covered by a valid certificate of conformity for its model year and has the required engine label or tag. We may assess a civil penalty up to $44,539 for each engine or piece of equipment in violation.

(i) For purposes of this paragraph (a)(1), a valid certificate of conformity is one that applies for the same model year as the model year of the equipment (except as allowed by §1068.105(a)), covers the appropriate category or subcategory of engines/equipment (such as locomotive or sterndrive/inboard Marine SI or nonhandheld Small SI), and conforms to all requirements specified for equipment in the standard-setting part. Engines/equipment are considered not covered by a certificate unless they are in a configuration described in the application for certification.

(ii) The prohibitions of this paragraph (a)(1) also apply for new engines you produce to replace an older engine in a piece of equipment, except that the engines may qualify for the replacement-engine exemption in §1068.240.

(iii) The prohibitions of this paragraph (a)(1) also apply for new engines that will be installed in equipment subject to equipment-based standards, except that the engines may qualify for an exemption under §1068.260(c) or §1068.262.

(iv) Where the regulations specify that you are allowed to introduce engines/equipment into U.S. commerce without a certificate of conformity, you may take any of the otherwise prohibited actions specified in this paragraph (a)(1) with respect to those engines/equipment.

(2) Reporting and recordkeeping. This chapter requires you to record certain types of information to show that you meet our standards. You must comply with these requirements to make and maintain required records (including those described in §1068.501). You may not deny us access to your records or the ability to copy your records if we have the authority to see or copy them. Also, you must give us complete and accurate reports and information without delay as required under this chapter. Failure to comply with the requirements of this paragraph is prohibited. We may assess a civil penalty up to $44,539 for each day you are in violation. In addition, knowingly submitting false information is a violation of 18 U.S.C. 1001, which may involve criminal penalties and up to five years imprisonment.

(3) Testing and access to facilities. You may not keep us from entering your facility to test engines/equipment or inspect if we are authorized to do so. Also, you must perform the tests we require (or have the tests done for you). Failure to perform this testing is prohibited. We may assess a civil penalty up to $44,539 for each day you are in violation.

(b) The following prohibitions apply to everyone with respect to the engines and equipment to which this part applies:

(1) Tampering. You may not remove or render inoperative any device or element of design installed on or in engines/equipment in compliance with the regulations prior to its sale and delivery to the ultimate purchaser. You also may not knowingly remove or render inoperative any such device or element of design after such sale and delivery to the ultimate purchaser. This includes, for example, operating an engine without a supply of appropriate quality urea if the emission control system relies on urea to reduce NOX emissions or the use of incorrect fuel or engine oil that renders the emission control system inoperative. Section 1068.120 describes how this applies to rebuilding engines. See the standard-setting part, which may include additional provisions regarding actions prohibited by this requirement. For a manufacturer or dealer, we may assess a civil penalty up to $44,539 for each engine or piece of equipment in violation. For anyone else, we may assess a civil penalty up to $4,454 for each engine or piece of equipment in violation. This prohibition does not apply in any of the following situations:

(i) You need to repair the engine/equipment and you restore it to proper functioning when the repair is complete.

(ii) You need to modify the engine/equipment to respond to a temporary emergency and you restore it to proper functioning as soon as possible.

(iii) You modify new engines/equipment that another manufacturer has already certified to meet emission standards and recertify them under your own family. In this case you must tell the original manufacturer not to include the modified engines/equipment in the original family.

(2) Defeat devices. You may not knowingly manufacture, sell, offer to sell, or install, any component that bypasses, impairs, defeats, or disables the control of emissions of any regulated pollutant, except as explicitly allowed by the standard-setting part. We may assess a civil penalty up to $4,454 for each component in violation.

(3) Stationary engines. For an engine that is excluded from any requirements of this chapter because it is a stationary engine, you may not move it or install it in any mobile equipment except as allowed by the provisions of this chapter. You may not circumvent or attempt to circumvent the residence-time requirements of paragraph (2)(iii) of the nonroad engine definition in §1068.30. Anyone violating this paragraph (b)(3) is deemed to be a manufacturer in violation of paragraph (a)(1) of this section. We may assess a civil penalty up to $44,539 for each engine or piece of equipment in violation.

(4) Competition engines/equipment. (i) For uncertified engines/equipment that are excluded or exempted as new engines/equipment from any requirements of this chapter because they are to be used solely for competition, you may not use any of them in a manner that is inconsistent with use solely for competition. Anyone violating this paragraph (b)(4)(i) is deemed to be a manufacturer in violation of paragraph (a)(1) of this section. We may assess a civil penalty up to $44,539 for each engine or piece of equipment in violation. (ii) For certified nonroad engines/equipment that qualify for exemption from the tampering prohibition as described in §1068.235 because they are to be used solely for competition, you may not use any of them in a manner that is inconsistent with use solely for competition. Anyone violating this paragraph (b)(4)(ii) is in violation of paragraph (b)(1) or (2) of this section.

(5) Importation. You may not import an uncertified engine or piece of equipment if it is defined to be new in the standard-setting part with a model year for which emission standards applied. Anyone violating this paragraph (b)(5) is deemed to be a manufacturer in violation of paragraph (a)(1) of this section. We may assess a civil penalty up to $44,539 for each engine or piece of equipment in violation. Note the following:is excluded

(i) The definition of new is broad for imported engines/equipment; uncertified engines and equipment (including used engines and equipment) are generally considered to be new when imported.

(ii) Used engines/equipment that were originally manufactured before applicable EPA standards were in effect are generally not subject to emission standards.

(6) Warranty, recall, and maintenance instructions. You must meet your obligation to honor your emission-related warranty under §1068.115, including any commitments you identify in your application for certification. You must also fulfill all applicable requirements under subpart F of this part related to emission-related defects and recalls. You must also provide emission-related installation and maintenance instructions as described in the standard-setting part. Failure to meet these obligations is prohibited. Also, except as specifically provided by regulation, you are prohibited from directly or indirectly communicating to the ultimate purchaser or a later purchaser that the emission-related warranty is valid only if the owner has service performed at authorized facilities or only if the owner uses authorized parts, components, or systems. We may assess a civil penalty up to $44,539 for each engine or piece of equipment in violation.

(7) Labeling. (i) You may not remove or alter an emission control information label or other required permanent label except as specified in this paragraph (b)(7) or otherwise allowed by this chapter. Removing or altering an emission control information label is a violation of paragraph (b)(1) of this section. However, it is not a violation to remove a label in the following circumstances:

(A) The engine is destroyed, is permanently disassembled, or otherwise loses its identity such that the original title to the engine is no longer valid.

(B) The regulations specifically direct you to remove the label. For example, see §1068.235.

(C) The part on which the label is mounted needs to be replaced. In this case, you must have a replacement part with a duplicate of the original label installed by the certifying manufacturer or an authorized agent, except that the replacement label may omit the date of manufacture if applicable. We generally require labels to be permanently attached to parts that will not normally be replaced, but this provision allows for replacements in unusual circumstances, such as damage in a collision or other accident.

(D) The original label is incorrect, provided that it is replaced with the correct label from the certifying manufacturer or an authorized agent. This allowance to replace incorrect labels does not affect whether the application of an incorrect original label is a violation.

(ii) Removing or altering a temporary or removable label contrary to the provisions of this paragraph (b)(7)(ii) is a violation of paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(A) For labels identifying temporary exemptions, you may not remove or alter the label while the engine/equipment is in an exempt status. The exemption is automatically revoked for each engine/equipment for which the label has been removed.

(B) For temporary or removable consumer information labels, only the ultimate purchaser may remove the label.

(iii) You may not apply a false emission control information label. You also may not manufacture, sell, or offer to sell false labels. The application, manufacture, sale, or offer for sale of false labels is a violation of this section (such as paragraph (a)(1) or (b)(2) of this section). Note that applying an otherwise valid emission control information label to the wrong engine is considered to be applying a false label.

(c) If you cause someone to commit a prohibited act in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, you are in violation of that prohibition.

(d) Exemptions from these prohibitions are described in subparts C and D of this part and in the standard-setting part.

(e) The standard-setting parts describe more requirements and prohibitions that apply to manufacturers (including importers) and others under this chapter.

(f) The specification of prohibitions and penalties in this part does not limit the prohibitions and penalties described in the Clean Air Act. Additionally, a single act may trigger multiple violations under this section and the Act. We may pursue all available administrative, civil, or criminal remedies for those violations even if the regulation references only a single prohibited act in this section.

(g) [Reserved]

(h) The maximum penalty values listed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section and in §1068.125 apply as of August 1, 2016. Maximum penalty values for earlier violations are published in 40 CFR part 19. Maximum penalty limits may be adjusted after August 1, 2016 based on the Consumer Price Index. The specific regulatory provisions for changing the maximum penalties, published in 40 CFR part 19, reference the applicable U.S. Code citation on which the prohibited action is based. The following table is shown here for informational purposes:

Table 1 of §1068.101—Legal Citation for Specific Prohibitions for Determining Maximum Penalty Amounts

Part 1068 regulatory citation of prohibited actionGeneral description of prohibitionU.S. Code citation for Clean Air Act authority
§1068.101(a)(1)Introduction into U.S. commerce of an uncertified source42 U.S.C. 7522(a)(1) and (a)(4).
§1068.101(a)(2)Failure to provide information42 U.S.C. 7522(a)(2).
§1068.101(a)(3)Denying access to facilities42 U.S.C. 7522(a)(2).
§1068.101(b)(1)Tampering with emission controls by a manufacturer or dealer42 U.S.C. 7522(a)(3).
   Tampering with emission controls by someone other than a manufacturer or dealer
§1068.101(b)(2)Sale or use of a defeat device42 U.S.C. 7522(a)(3).
§1068.101(b)(3)Mobile use of a stationary engine42 U.S.C. 7522(a)(1) and (a)(4).
§1068.101(b)(4)Noncompetitive use of uncertified engines/equipment that is exempted for competition42 U.S.C. 7522(a)(1) and (a)(4).
§1068.101(b)(5)Importation of an uncertified source42 U.S.C. 7522(a)(1) and (a)(4).
§1068.101(b)(6)Recall and warranty42 U.S.C. 7522(a)(4).
§1068.101(b)(7)Removing labels42 U.S.C. 7522(a)(3).

[75 FR 23059, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74222, Oct. 25, 2016]

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§1068.103   Provisions related to the duration and applicability of certificates of conformity.

(a) Engines/equipment covered by a certificate of conformity are limited to those that are produced during the period specified in the certificate and conform to the specifications described in the certificate and the associated application for certification. For the purposes of this paragraph (a), “specifications” includes the emission control information label and any conditions or limitations identified by the manufacturer or EPA. For example, if the application for certification specifies certain engine configurations, the certificate does not cover any configurations that are not specified. We may ignore any information provided in the application that we determine is not relevant to a demonstration of compliance with applicable regulations, such as your projected production volumes in many cases.

(b) Unless the standard-setting part specifies otherwise, determine the production period corresponding to each certificate of conformity as specified in this paragraph (b). In general, the production period is the manufacturer's annual production period identified as a model year.

(1) For engines/equipment subject to emission standards based on model years, the first day of the annual production period can be no earlier than January 2 of the calendar year preceding the year for which the model year is named, or the earliest date of manufacture for any engine/equipment in the engine family, whichever is later. The last day of the annual production period can be no later than December 31 of the calendar year for which the model year is named or the latest date of manufacture for any engine/equipment in the engine family, whichever is sooner. Note that this approach limits how you can designate a model year for your engines/equipment; however, it does not limit your ability to meet more stringent emission standards early where this is permitted in the regulation.

(2) For fuel-system components certified to evaporative emission standards based on production periods rather than model years, the production period is either the calendar year or a longer period we specify consistent with the manufacturer's normal production practices.

(c) A certificate of conformity will not cover engines/equipment you produce with a date of manufacture earlier than the date you submit the application for certification for the family. You may start to produce engines/equipment after you submit an application for certification and before the effective date of a certificate of conformity, subject to the following conditions:

(1) The engines/equipment must conform in all material respects to the engines/equipment described in your application. Note that if we require you to modify your application, you must ensure that all engines/equipment conform to the specifications of the modified application.

(2) The engines/equipment may not be sold, offered for sale, introduced into U.S. commerce, or delivered for introduction into U.S. commerce before the effective date of the certificate of conformity.

(3) You must notify us in your application for certification that you plan to use the provisions of this paragraph (c) and when you intend to start production. If the standard-setting part specifies mandatory testing for production-line engines, you must start testing as directed in the standard-setting part based on your actual start of production, even if that occurs before we approve your certification. You must also agree to give us full opportunity to inspect and/or test the engines/equipment during and after production. For example, we must have the opportunity to specify selective enforcement audits as allowed by the standard-setting part and the Clean Air Act as if the engines/equipment were produced after the effective date of the certificate.

(4) See §1068.262 for special provisions that apply for secondary engine manufacturers receiving shipment of partially complete engines before the effective date of a certificate.

(d) The prohibition in §1068.101(a)(1) against offering to sell engines/equipment without a valid certificate of conformity generally does not apply for engines/equipment that have not yet been produced. You may contractually agree to produce engines/equipment before obtaining the required certificate of conformity. This is intended to allow manufacturers of low-volume products to establish a sufficient market for engines/equipment before going through the effort to certify.

(e) Engines/equipment with a date of manufacture after December 31 of the calendar year for which a model year is named are not covered by the certificate of conformity for that model year. You must submit an application for a new certificate of conformity demonstrating compliance with applicable standards even if the engines/equipment are identical to those with a date of manufacture before December 31.

(f) The flexible approach to naming the annual production period described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section is intended to allow you to introduce new products at any point during the year. This is based on the expectation that production periods generally run on consistent schedules from year to year. You may not use this flexibility to arrange your production periods such that you can avoid annual certification.

(g) An engine is generally assigned a model year based on its date of manufacture, which is typically based on the date the crankshaft is installed in the engine (see §1068.30). You may not circumvent the provisions of §1068.101(a)(1) by stockpiling engines with a date of manufacture before new or changed emission standards take effect by deviating from your normal production and inventory practices. (For purposes of this paragraph (g), normal production and inventory practices means those practices you typically use for similar families in years in which emission standards do not change. We may require you to provide us routine production and inventory records that document your normal practices for the preceding eight years.) For most engines you should plan to complete the assembly of an engine of a given model year into its certified configuration within the first week after the end of the model year if new emission standards start to apply in that model year. For special circumstances it may be appropriate for your normal business practice to involve more time. For engines with per-cylinder displacement below 2.5 liters, if new emission standards start to apply in a given year, we would consider an engine not to be covered by a certificate of conformity for the preceding model year if the engine is not assembled in a compliant configuration within 30 days after the end of the model year for that engine family. (Note: an engine is considered “in a compliant configuration” without being fully assembled if §1068.260(a) or (b) authorizes shipment of the engine without certain components.) For example, in the case where new standards apply in the 2010 model year, and your normal production period is based on the calendar year, you must complete the assembly of all your 2009 model year engines before January 31, 2010, or an earlier date consistent with your normal production and inventory practices. For engines with per-cylinder displacement at or above 2.5 liters, this time may not exceed 60 days. Note that for the purposes of this paragraph (g), an engine shipped under §1068.261 is deemed to be a complete engine. Note also that §1068.245 allows flexibility for additional time in unusual circumstances. Note finally that disassembly of complete engines and reassembly (such as for shipment) does not affect the determination of model year; the provisions of this paragraph (g) apply based on the date on which initial assembly is complete.

(h) This paragraph (h) describes the effect of suspending, revoking, or voiding a certificate of conformity. See the definitions of “suspend,” “revoke,” and “void” in §1068.30. Engines/equipment produced at a time when the otherwise applicable certificate of conformity has been suspended or revoked are not covered by a certificate of conformity. Where a certificate of conformity is void, all engines/equipment produced under that certificate of conformity are not and were not covered by a certificate of conformity. In cases of suspension, engines/equipment will be covered by a certificate only if they are produced after the certificate is reinstated or a new certificate is issued. In cases of revocation and voiding, engines/equipment will be covered by a certificate only if they are produced after we issue a new certificate. 42 U.S.C. 7522(a)(1) and §1068.101(a)(1) prohibit selling, offering for sale, introducing into commerce, delivering for introduction into commerce, and importing engines/equipment that are not covered by a certificate of conformity, and they prohibit anyone from causing another to violate these prohibitions.

(i) You may transfer a certificate to another entity only in the following cases:

(1) You may transfer a certificate to a parent company, including a parent company that purchases your company after we have issued your certificate.

(2) You may transfer a certificate to a subsidiary including a subsidiary you purchase after we have issued your certificate.

(3) You may transfer a certificate to a subsidiary of your parent company.

[81 FR 74224, Oct. 25, 2016]

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§1068.105   What other provisions apply to me specifically if I manufacture equipment needing certified engines?

This section describes general provisions that apply to equipment manufacturers for sources subject to engine-based standards. See the standard-setting part for any requirements that apply for certain applications. See §1068.101 for penalties associated with violations under this section and for other prohibitions related to your equipment.

(a) Transitioning to new engine-based standards. If new engine-based emission standards apply in a given model year, your equipment produced in that calendar year (or later) must have engines that are certified to the new standards, except that you may continue to use up normal inventories of engines that were built before the date of the new or changed standards. For purposes of this paragraph (a), normal inventory applies for engines you possess and engines from your engine supplier's normal inventory. (Note: this paragraph (a) does not apply in the case of new remanufacturing standards.) We may require you and your engine suppliers to provide us routine production and/or inventory records that document your normal practices for the preceding eight years. For example, if you have records documenting that your normal inventory practice is to keep on hand a one-month supply of engines based on your upcoming production schedules, and a new tier of standards starts to apply for the 2015 model year, you may order engines consistent with your normal inventory requirements late in the engine manufacturer's 2014 model year and install those engines in your equipment consistent with your normal production schedule. Also, if your model year starts before the end of the calendar year preceding new standards, you may use engines from the previous model year for those units you completely assemble before January 1 of the year that new standards apply. If emission standards for the engine do not change in a given model year, you may continue to install engines from the previous model year without restriction (or any earlier model year for which the same standards apply). You may not circumvent the provisions of §1068.101(a)(1) by stockpiling engines that were built before new or changed standards take effect. Similarly, you may not circumvent the provisions of §1068.101(a)(1) by knowingly installing engines that were stockpiled by engine suppliers in violation of §1068.103(f). Note that this allowance does not apply for equipment subject to equipment-based standards. See 40 CFR 1060.601 for similar provisions that apply for equipment subject to evaporative emission standards. Note that the standard-setting part may impose further restrictions on using up inventories of engines from an earlier model year under this paragraph (a).

(b) Installing engines or certified components. The provisions in §1068.101(a)(1) generally prohibit you from introducing into U.S. commerce any new equipment that includes engines not covered by a certificate of conformity. In addition, you must follow the engine manufacturer's emission-related installation instructions. For example, you may need to constrain where you place an exhaust aftertreatment device or integrate into your equipment models a device for sending visual or audible signals to the operator. Similarly, you must follow the emission-related installation instructions from the manufacturer of a component that has been certified for controlling evaporative emissions under 40 CFR part 1060. Not meeting the manufacturer's emission-related installation instructions is a violation of one or more of the prohibitions of §1068.101. See §1068.261 for special provisions that apply when the engine manufacturer delegates final assembly of emission controls to you.

(c) Attaching a duplicate label. If you obscure the engine's label, you must do four things to avoid violating §1068.101(a)(1):

(1) Send a request for duplicate labels in writing on your company's letterhead to the engine manufacturer. Include the following information in your request:

(i) Identify the type of equipment and the specific engine and equipment models needing duplicate labels.

(ii) Identify the family (from the original engine label).

(iii) State the reason that you need a duplicate label for each equipment model.

(iv) Identify the number of duplicate labels you will need.

(2) Permanently attach the duplicate label to your equipment by securing it to a part needed for normal operation and not normally requiring replacement. Make sure an average person can easily read it. Note that attaching an inaccurate duplicate label may be a violation of §1068.101(b)(7).

(3) Destroy any unused duplicate labels if you find that you will not need them.

(4) Keep the following records for at least eight years after the end of the model year identified on the engine label:

(i) Keep a copy of your written request.

(ii) Keep drawings or descriptions that show how you apply the duplicate labels to your equipment.

(iii) Maintain a count of those duplicate labels you use and those you destroy.

[73 FR 59344, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23062, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74225, Oct. 25, 2016]

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§1068.110   Other provisions for engines/equipment in service.

(a) Aftermarket parts and service. As the certifying manufacturer, you may not require anyone to use your parts or service to maintain or repair an engine or piece of equipment, unless we approve this in your application for certification. It is a violation of the Clean Air Act for anyone to manufacture any part if one of its main effects is to reduce the effectiveness of the emission controls. See §1068.101(b)(2).

(b) Certifying aftermarket parts. As the manufacturer or rebuilder of an aftermarket engine or equipment part, you may—but are not required to—certify according to 40 CFR part 85, subpart V, that using the part will not cause engines/equipment to fail to meet emission standards. Whether you certify or not, you must keep any information showing how your parts or service affect emissions.

(c) Compliance with standards. We may test engines and equipment to investigate compliance with emission standards and other requirements. We may also require the manufacturer to do this testing.

(d) Defeat devices. We may test components, engines, and equipment to investigate potential defeat devices. We may also require the manufacturer to do this testing. If we choose to investigate one of your designs, we may require you to show us that a component is not a defeat device, and that an engine/equipment does not have a defeat device. To do this, you may have to share with us information regarding test programs, engineering evaluations, design specifications, calibrations, on-board computer algorithms, and design strategies. It is a violation of the Clean Air Act for anyone to make, install or use defeat devices as described in §1068.101(b)(2) and the standard-setting part.

(e) Warranty and maintenance. Owners are responsible for properly maintaining their engines/equipment; however, owners may make warranty claims against the manufacturer for all expenses related to diagnosing and repairing or replacing emission-related parts, as described in §1068.115. Manufacturers may ask to limit diagnosis and repair to authorized service facilities, provided this does not limit their ability to meet their warranty obligations under §1068.115. The warranty period begins when the equipment is first placed into service. See the standard-setting part for specific requirements. It is a violation of the Clean Air Act for anyone to disable emission controls; see §1068.101(b)(1) and the standard-setting part.

[73 FR 59344, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 81 FR 74225, Oct. 25, 2016]

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§1068.115   What are manufacturers' emission-related warranty requirements?

Section 207(a) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7541(a)) requires certifying manufacturers to warrant to purchasers that their engines/equipment are designed, built, and equipped to conform at the time of sale to the applicable regulations for their full useful life, including a warranty that the engines/equipment are free from defects in materials and workmanship that would cause any engine/equipment to fail to conform to the applicable regulations during the specified warranty period. This section codifies the warranty requirements of section 207(a) without intending to limit these requirements.

(a) As a certifying manufacturer, you may deny warranty claims only for failures that have been caused by the owner's or operator's improper maintenance or use, by accidents for which you have no responsibility, or by acts of God. For example, you would not need to honor warranty claims for failures that have been directly caused by the operator's abuse of the engine/equipment or the operator's use of the engine/equipment in a manner for which it was not designed and are not attributable to you in any way.

(b) As a certifying manufacturer, you may not deny emission-related warranty claims based on any of the following:

(1) Maintenance or other service you or your authorized facilities performed.

(2) Engine/equipment repair work that an operator performed to correct an unsafe, emergency condition attributable to you as long as the operator tries to restore the engine/equipment to its proper configuration as soon as possible.

(3) Any action or inaction by the operator unrelated to the warranty claim.

(4) Maintenance that was performed more frequently than you specify.

(5) Anything that is your fault or responsibility.

(6) The use of any fuel that is commonly available where the equipment operates unless your written maintenance instructions state that this fuel would harm the equipment's emission control system and operators can readily find the proper fuel.

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§1068.120   Requirements for rebuilding engines.

(a) This section describes the steps to take when rebuilding engines to avoid violating the tampering prohibition in §1068.101(b)(1). These requirements apply to anyone rebuilding an engine subject to this part, but the recordkeeping requirements in paragraphs (j) and (k) of this section apply only to businesses. For maintenance or service that is not rebuilding, including any maintenance related to evaporative emission controls, you may not make changes that might increase emissions of any regulated pollutant, but you do not need to keep any records.

(b) The term “rebuilding” refers to a rebuild of an engine or engine system, including a major overhaul in which you replace the engine's pistons or power assemblies or make other changes that significantly increase the service life of the engine. It also includes replacing or rebuilding an engine's turbocharger or aftercooler or the engine's systems for fuel metering or electronic control so that it significantly increases the service life of the engine. For these provisions, rebuilding may or may not involve removing the engine from the equipment. Rebuilding does not normally include the following:

(1) Scheduled emission-related maintenance that the standard-setting part allows during the useful life period (such as replacing fuel injectors).

(2) Unscheduled maintenance that occurs commonly within the useful life period. For example, replacing a water pump is not rebuilding an engine.

(c) [Reserved]

(d) If you rebuild an engine or engine system, you must have a reasonable technical basis for knowing that the rebuilt engine's emission control system performs as well as, or better than, it performs in its certified configuration. Identify the model year of the resulting engine configuration. You have a reasonable basis if you meet two main conditions:

(1) Install parts—new, used, or rebuilt—so a person familiar with engine design and function would reasonably believe that the engine with those parts will control emissions of all pollutants at least to the same degree as with the original parts. For example, it would be reasonable to believe that parts performing the same function as the original parts (and to the same degree) would control emissions to the same degree as the original parts.

(2) Adjust parameters or change design elements only according to the original engine manufacturer's instructions. Or, if you differ from these instructions, you must have data or some other technical basis to show you should not expect in-use emissions to increase.

(e) If the rebuilt engine remains installed or is reinstalled in the same piece of equipment, you must rebuild it to the original configuration, except as allowed by this paragraph (e). You may rebuild it to a different certified configuration of the same or later model year. You may also rebuild it to a certified configuration from an earlier model year as long as the earlier configuration is as clean or cleaner than the original configuration. For purposes of this paragraph (e), “as clean or cleaner” means one of the following:

(1) For engines not certified with a Family Emission Limit for calculating credits for a particular pollutant, this means that the same emission standard applied for both model years. This includes supplemental standards such as Not-to-Exceed standards.

(2) For engines certified with a Family Emission Limit for a particular pollutant, this means that the configuration to which the engine is being rebuilt has a Family Emission Limit for that pollutant that is at or below the standard that applied to the engine originally, and is at or below the original Family Emission Limit.

(f) A rebuilt engine or other used engine may replace a certified engine in a piece of equipment only if the engine was built and/or rebuilt to a certified configuration meeting equivalent or more stringent emission standards. Note that a certified configuration would generally include more than one model year. A rebuilt engine being installed that is from the same model year or a newer model year than the engine being replaced meets this requirement. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (f):

(1) In most cases, you may use a rebuilt Tier 2 engine to replace a Tier 1 engine or another Tier 2 engine.

(2) You may use a rebuilt Tier 1 engine to replace a Tier 2 engine if the two engines differ only with respect to model year or other characteristics unrelated to emissions since such engines would be considered to be in the same configuration. This may occur if the Tier 1 engine had emission levels below the Tier 2 standards or if the Tier 2 engine was certified with a Family Emission Limit for calculating emission credits.

(3) You may use a rebuilt engine that originally met the Tier 1 standards without certification, as provided under §1068.265, to replace a certified Tier 1 engine. This may occur for engines produced under a Transition Program for Equipment Manufacturers such as that described in 40 CFR 1039.625.

(4) You may never replace a certified engine with an engine rebuilt to a configuration that does not meet EPA emission standards. Note that, for purposes of this paragraph (f)(4), a configuration is considered to meet EPA emission standards if it was previously certified or was otherwise shown to meet emission standards (see §1068.265).

(5) The standard-setting part may apply further restrictions to situations involving installation of used engines to repower equipment. For example, see 40 CFR part 1037 for provisions that apply for glider vehicles.

(g) Do not erase or reset emission-related codes or signals from onboard monitoring systems without diagnosing and responding appropriately to any diagnostic codes. This requirement applies regardless of the manufacturer's reason for installing the monitoring system and regardless of its form or interface. Clear any codes from diagnostic systems when you return the rebuilt engine to service. Do not disable a diagnostic signal without addressing its cause.

(h) When you rebuild an engine, check, clean, adjust, repair, or replace all emission-related components (listed in Appendix I of this part) as needed according to the original manufacturer's recommended practice. In particular, replace oxygen sensors, replace the catalyst if there is evidence of malfunction, clean gaseous fuel-system components, and replace fuel injectors (if applicable), unless you have a reasonable technical basis for believing any of these components do not need replacement.

(i) If you are installing an engine that someone else has rebuilt, check all emission-related components listed in Appendix I of this part as needed according to the original manufacturer's recommended practice.

(j) Keep at least the following records for all engines except spark-ignition engines with total displacement below 225 cc:

(1) Identify the hours of operation (or mileage, as appropriate) at the time of rebuild. These may be noted as approximate values if the engine has no hour meter (or odometer).

(2) Identify the work done on the engine or any emission-related control components, including a listing of parts and components you used.

(3) Describe any engine parameter adjustments.

(4) Identify any emission-related codes or signals you responded to and reset.

(k) You must show us or send us your records if we ask for them. Keep records for at least two years after rebuilding an engine. Keep them in any format that allows us to readily review them.

(1) You do not need to keep information that is not reasonably available through normal business practices. We do not expect you to have information that you cannot reasonably access.

(2) You do not need to keep records of what other companies do.

(3) You may keep records based on families rather than individual engines if that is the way you normally do business.

[73 FR 59344, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23062, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74225, Oct. 25, 2016]

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§1068.125   What happens if I violate the regulations?

(a) Civil penalties and injunctions. We may bring a civil action to assess and recover civil penalties and/or enjoin and restrain violations in the United States District Court for the district where you allegedly violated a requirement, or the district where you live or have your main place of business. Actions to assess civil penalties or restrain violations of §1068.101 must be brought by and in the name of the United States. The selected court has jurisdiction to restrain violations and assess civil penalties.

(1) To determine the amount of a civil penalty and reach a just conclusion, the court considers these factors:

(i) The seriousness of your violation.

(ii) How much you benefited or saved because of the violation.

(iii) The size of your business.

(iv) Your history of compliance with Title II of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401-7590).

(v) What you did to remedy the violation.

(vi) How the penalty will affect your ability to continue in business.

(vii) Such other matters as justice may require.

(2) Subpoenas for witnesses who must attend a district court in any district may apply to any other district.

(b) Administrative penalties. Instead of bringing a civil action, we may assess administrative penalties if the total is less than $356,312 against you individually. This maximum penalty may be greater if the Administrator and the Attorney General jointly determine that a greater administrative penalty assessment is appropriate, or if the limit is adjusted under 40 CFR part 19. No court may review this determination. Before we assess an administrative penalty, you may ask for a hearing as described in subpart G of this part. The Administrator may compromise or remit, with or without conditions, any administrative penalty that may be imposed under this section.

(1) To determine the amount of an administrative penalty, we will consider the factors described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(2) An administrative order we issue under this paragraph (b) becomes final 30 days after we issue it unless you ask for judicial review by that time (see paragraph (c) of this section). You may ask for review by any of the district courts listed in paragraph (a) of this section. Send the Administrator a copy of the filing by certified mail.

(3) We will not pursue an administrative penalty for a particular violation if either of the following two conditions is true:

(i) We are separately prosecuting the violation under this subpart.

(ii) We have issued a final order for a violation, no longer subject to judicial review, for which you have already paid a penalty.

(c) Judicial review. If you ask a court to review a civil or administrative penalty, we will file in the appropriate court within 30 days of your request a certified copy or certified index of the record on which the court or the Administrator issued the order.

(1) The judge may set aside or remand any order issued under this section only if one of the following is true:

(i) Substantial evidence does not exist in the record, taken as a whole, to support finding a violation.

(ii) The Administrator's assessment of the penalty is an abuse of discretion.

(2) The judge may not add civil penalties unless our penalty is an abuse of discretion that favors you.

(d) Effect of enforcement actions on other requirements. Our pursuit of civil or administrative penalties does not affect or limit our authority to enforce any provisions of this chapter.

(e) Penalties. In any proceedings, the United States government may seek to collect civil penalties assessed under this section.

(1) Once a penalty assessment is final, if you do not pay it, the Administrator will ask the Attorney General to bring a civil action in an appropriate district court to recover the money. We may collect interest from the date of the final order or final judgment at rates established by the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 6621(a)(2)). In this action to collect overdue penalties, the court will not review the validity, amount, and appropriateness of the penalty.

(2) In addition, if you do not pay the full amount of a penalty on time, you must then pay more to cover interest, enforcement expenses (including attorney's fees and costs for collection), and a quarterly nonpayment penalty for each quarter you do not pay. The quarterly nonpayment penalty is 10 percent of your total penalties plus any unpaid nonpayment penalties from previous quarters.

[73 FR 59344, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23062, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74226, Oct. 25, 2016]

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