Home
gpo.gov
govinfo.gov

e-CFR Navigation Aids

Browse

Simple Search

Advanced Search

 — Boolean

 — Proximity

 

Search History

Search Tips

Corrections

Latest Updates

User Info

FAQs

Agency List

Incorporation By Reference

eCFR logo

Related Resources

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

We invite you to try out our new beta eCFR site at https://ecfr.federalregister.gov. We have made big changes to make the eCFR easier to use. Be sure to leave feedback using the Help button on the bottom right of each page!

e-CFR data is current as of October 22, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter UPart 1066 → Subpart B


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 1066—VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES


Subpart B—Equipment, Measurement Instruments, Fuel, and Analytical Gas Specifications


Contents
§1066.101   Overview.
§1066.105   Ambient controls and vehicle cooling fans.
§1066.110   Equipment specifications for emission sampling systems.
§1066.120   Measurement instruments.
§1066.125   Data updating, recording, and control.
§1066.130   Measurement instrument calibrations and verifications.
§1066.135   Linearity verification.
§1066.140   Diluted exhaust flow calibration.
§1066.145   Test fuel, engine fluids, analytical gases, and other calibration standards.
§1066.150   Analyzer interference and quench verification limit.

return arrow Back to Top

§1066.101   Overview.

(a) This subpart addresses equipment related to emission testing, as well as test fuels and analytical gases.

(b) The provisions of 40 CFR part 1065 specify engine-based procedures for measuring emissions. Except as specified otherwise in this part, the provisions of 40 CFR part 1065 apply for testing required by this part as follows:

(1) The provisions of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart B, describe equipment specifications for exhaust dilution and sampling systems; these specifications apply for testing under this part as described in §1066.110.

(2) The provisions of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart C, describe specifications for measurement instruments; these specifications apply for testing under this part as described in §1066.120.

(3) The provisions of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D, describe specifications for measurement instrument calibrations and verifications; these specifications apply for testing under this part as described in §1066.130.

(4) The provisions of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, describe specifications for fuels, engine fluids, and analytical gases; these specifications apply for testing under this part as described in §1066.145.

(5) The provisions of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart I, describe specifications for testing with oxygenated fuels; these specifications apply for NMOG determination as described in §1066.635.

(c) The provisions of this subpart are intended to specify systems that can very accurately and precisely measure emissions from motor vehicles such as light-duty vehicles. To the extent that this level of accuracy or precision is not necessary for testing highway motorcycles or nonroad vehicles, we may waive or modify the specifications and requirements of this part for testing these other vehicles, consistent with good engineering judgment. For example, it may be appropriate to allow the use of a hydrokinetic dynamometer that is not able to meet all the performance specifications described in this subpart.

return arrow Back to Top

§1066.105   Ambient controls and vehicle cooling fans.

(a) Ambient conditions. Dynamometer testing under this part generally requires that you maintain the test cell within a specified range of ambient temperature and humidity. Use good engineering judgment to maintain relatively uniform temperatures throughout the test cell before testing. You are generally not required to maintain uniform temperatures throughout the test cell while the vehicle is running due to the heat generated by the vehicle. Measured humidity values must represent the conditions to which the vehicle is exposed, which includes intake air; other than the intake air, humidity does not affect emissions, so humidity need not be uniform throughout the test cell.

(b) General requirements for cooling fans. Use good engineering judgment to select and configure fans to cool the test vehicle in a way that meets the specifications of paragraph (c) of this section and simulates in-use operation. If you demonstrate that the specified fan configuration is impractical for special vehicle designs, such as vehicles with rear-mounted engines, or it does not provide adequate cooling to properly represent in-use operation, you may ask us to approve increasing fan capacity or using additional fans.

(c) Allowable cooling fans for vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds GVWR. Cooling fan specifications for vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds GVWR depend on the test cycle. Paragraph (c)(1) of this section summarizes the cooling fan specifications for the different test cycles; the detailed specifications are described in paragraphs (c)(2) through (5) of this section. See §1066.410 for instruction regarding how to use the fans during testing.

(1) Cooling fan specifications for different test cycles are summarized as follows:

(i) For the FTP test cycle, the allowable cooling fan configurations are described in paragraphs (c)(2) and (3) of this section.

(ii) For the HFET test cycle, the allowable cooling fan configurations are described in paragraphs (c)(2) and (3) of this section.

(iii) For the US06 test cycle, the allowable cooling fan configurations are described in paragraphs (c)(2) and (4) of this section.

(iv) For the LA-92 test cycle, the allowable cooling fan configurations are described in paragraphs (c)(2) and (4) of this section.

(v) For SC03 and AC17 test cycles, the allowable cooling fan configuration is described in paragraph (c)(5) of this section.

(2) You may use a road-speed modulated fan system meeting the specifications of this paragraph (c)(2) for anything other than SC03 and AC17 testing. Use a road-speed modulated fan that achieves a linear speed of cooling air at the blower outlet that is within ±3.0 mi/hr (±1.3 m/s) of the corresponding roll speed when vehicle speeds are between 5 and 30 mi/hr, and within ±6.5 mi/hr (±2.9 m/s) of the corresponding roll speed at higher vehicle speeds; however you may limit the fan's maximum linear speed to 70 mi/hr. We recommend that the cooling fan have a minimum opening of 0.2 m2 and a minimum width of 0.8 m.

(i) Verify the air flow velocity for fan speeds corresponding to vehicle speeds of 20 and 40 mi/hr using an instrument that has an accuracy of ±2% of the measured air flow speed.

(ii) For fans with rectangular outlets, divide the fan outlet into sections as shown in Figure 1 of this section. As illustrated by the “ + ” in the following figure, measure flow from the center of each section; do not measure the flow from the center section.

eCFR graphic er28ap14.059.gif

View or download PDF

(iii) For fans with circular outlets, divide the fan outlet into 8 equal sections as shown in Figure 2 of this section. As illustrated by the “ + ” in the following figure, measure flow on the radial centerline of each section, at a radius of two-thirds of the fan's total radius.

eCFR graphic er28ap14.060.gif

View or download PDF

(iv) Verify that the uniformity of the fan's axial flow is constant across the discharge area within a tolerance of ±4.0 mi/hr of the vehicle's speed at fan speeds corresponding to 20 mi/hr, and within ±8.0 mi/hr at fan speeds corresponding to 40 mi/hr. For example, at a vehicle speed of 20.2 mi/hr, axial flow at all locations denoted by the “+” across the discharge nozzle must be between 16.2 and 24.2 mi/hr. When measuring the axial air flow velocity, use good engineering judgment to determine the distance from the nozzle outlet at each point of the fan outlet grid. Use these values to calculate a mean air flow velocity across the discharge area at each speed setting. The instrument used to verify the air velocity must have an accuracy of ±2% of the measured air flow velocity.

(v) Use a multi-axis flow meter or another method to verify that the fan's air flow perpendicular to the axial air flow is less than 15% of the axial air flow, consistent with good engineering judgment. Demonstrate this by comparing the perpendicular air flow velocity to the mean air flow velocities determined in paragraph (c)(2)(iv) of this section at vehicle speeds of 20 and 40 mi/hr.

(3) You may use a fixed-speed fan with a maximum capacity up to 2.50 m3/s for FTP and HFET testing.

(4) You may use a fixed-speed fan with a maximum capacity up to 7.10 m3/s for US06 and LA-92 testing.

(5) For SC03 and AC17 testing, use a road-speed modulated fan with a minimum discharge area that is equal to or exceeds the vehicle's frontal inlet area. We recommend using a fan with a discharge area of 1.7 m2.

(i) Air flow volumes must be proportional to vehicle speed. Select a fan size that will produce a flow volume of approximately 45 m3/s at 60 mi/hr. If this fan is also the only source of test cell air circulation or if fan operational mechanics make the 0 mi/hr air flow requirement impractical, air flow of 2 mi/hr or less at 0 mi/hr vehicle speed is allowed.

(ii) Verify the uniformity of the fan's axial flow as described in paragraph (c)(2)(iv) of this section, except that you must measure the axial air flow velocity 60 cm from the nozzle outlet at each point of the discharge area grid.

(iii) Use a multi-axis flow meter or another method to verify that the fan's air flow perpendicular to the axial air flow is less than 10% of the axial air flow, consistent with good engineering judgment. Demonstrate this by comparing the perpendicular air flow velocity to the mean air flow velocities determined in paragraph (c)(2)(iv) of this section at vehicle speeds of 20 and 40 mi/hr.

(iv) In addition to the road-speed modulated fan, we may approve the use of one or more fixed-speed fans to provide proper cooling to represent in-use operation, but only up to a total of 2.50 m3/s for all additional fans.

(d) Allowable cooling fans for vehicles above 14,000 pounds GVWR. For all testing, use a road-speed modulated fan system that achieves a linear speed of cooling air at the blower outlet that is within ±3.0 mi/hr (±1.3 m/s) of the corresponding roll speed when vehicle speeds are between 5 and 30 mi/hr, and within ±10 mi/hr (±4.5 m/s) of the corresponding roll speed at higher vehicle speeds. For vehicles above 19,500 pounds GVWR, we recommend that the cooling fan have a minimum opening of 2.75 m2, a minimum flow rate of 60 m3/s at a fan speed of 50 mi/hr, and a minimum speed profile in the free stream flow, across the duct that is ±15% of the target flow rate.

[79 FR 23823, Apr. 28, 2014, as amended at 81 FR 74195, Oct. 25, 2016]

return arrow Back to Top

§1066.110   Equipment specifications for emission sampling systems.

(a) This section specifies equipment related to emission testing, other than measurement instruments. This equipment includes dynamometers (described further in subpart C of this part) and various emission-sampling hardware.

(b) The following equipment specifications apply for testing under this part:

(1) Connect a vehicle's exhaust system to any dilution stage as follows:

(i) Minimize lengths of laboratory exhaust tubing. You may use a total length of laboratory exhaust tubing up to 4 m without needing to heat or insulate the tubing. However, you may use a total length of laboratory exhaust tubing up to 10 m, or up to 15 m for samples not involving PM measurement, if you insulate and/or heat the tubing to minimize the temperature difference between the exhaust gas and the whole tubing wall over the course of the emission test. The laboratory exhaust tubing starts at the end of the vehicle's tailpipe and ends at the first sample point or the first dilution point. The laboratory exhaust tubing may include flexible sections, but we recommend that you limit the amount of flexible tubing to the extent practicable. For multiple-tailpipe configurations where the tailpipes combine into a single flow path for emission sampling, the start of the laboratory exhaust tubing may be taken at the last joint where the exhaust flow first becomes a single, combined flow.

(ii) For vehicles above 14,000 pounds GVWR, you may shorten the tailpipe up to the outlet of the last aftertreatment device or silencer, whichever is furthest downstream.

(iii) You may insulate or heat any laboratory exhaust tubing.

(iv) Use laboratory exhaust tubing materials that are smooth-walled and not chemically reactive with exhaust constituents. (For purposes of this paragraph (b)(1), nominally smooth spiral-style and accordion-style flexible tubing are considered to be smooth-walled.) For measurements involving PM, tubing materials must also be electrically conductive. Stainless steel is an acceptable material for any testing. You may use short sections of nonconductive flexible tubing to connect a PM sampling system to the vehicle's tailpipe; use good engineering judgment to limit the amount of nonconductive surface area exposed to the vehicle's exhaust.

(v) We recommend that you use laboratory exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize temperature differences between the wall and the exhaust.

(vi) You must seal your system to the extent necessary to ensure that any remaining leaks do not affect your ability to demonstrate compliance with the applicable standards. We recommend that you seal all known leaks.

(vii) Electrically ground the entire exhaust system, with the exception of nonconductive flexible tubing, as allowed under paragraph (b)(1)(iv) of this section.

(viii) For vehicles with multiple tailpipes, route the exhaust into a single flow. To ensure mixing of the multiple exhaust streams before emission sampling, we recommend a minimum Reynolds number, Re#, of 4000 for the combined exhaust stream, where Re# is based on the inside diameter of the combined flow at the first sampling point. You may configure the exhaust system with turbulence generators, such as orifice plates or fins, to achieve good mixing; this may be necessary for good mixing if Re# is less than 4000. Re# is defined in 40 CFR 1065.640.

(2) Use equipment specifications in 40 CFR 1065.140 through 40 CFR 1065.190, except as follows:

(i) For PM background measurement, the following provisions apply instead of the analogous provisions in 40 CFR 1065.140(b):

(A) You need not measure PM background for every test. You may apply PM background correction for a single site or multiple sites using a moving-average background value as long as your background PM sample media (e.g., filters) were all made by the same manufacturer from the same material. Use good engineering judgment to determine how many background samples make up the moving average and how frequently to update those values. For example, you might take one background sample per week and average that sample into previous background values, maintaining five observations for each calculated average value. Background sampling time should be representative of the duration of the test interval to which the background correction is applied.

(B) You may sample background PM from the dilution tunnel at any time before or after an emission test using the same sampling system used during the emission test. For this background sampling, the dilution tunnel blower must be turned on, the vehicle must be disconnected from the laboratory exhaust tubing, and the laboratory exhaust tubing must be capped. You may run this PM blank test in combination with the dilute exhaust flow verification (propane check) in 40 CFR 1065.341, as long as the exhaust tubing inlet to the CVS has a filter meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 1065.140(b)(3).

(C) The duration of your background sample may be different than that of the test cycle in which you are applying the background correction, consistent with good engineering judgment.

(D) Your PM background correction may not exceed 5 µg or 5% of the net PM mass expected at the standard, whichever is greater.

(ii) The provisions of 40 CFR 1065.140(d)(2)(iv) do not apply.

(iii) For PM samples, configure dilution systems using the following limits:

(A) Control the dilution air temperature as described in 40 CFR 1065.140(e)(1), except that the temperature may be set to (15 to 52) °C. Use good engineering judgment to control PM sample temperature as required under 40 CFR 1065.140(e)(4).

(B) Apply the provisions of this paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(B) instead of 40 CFR 1065.140(e)(2). Add dilution air to the raw exhaust such that the overall dilution factor of diluted exhaust to raw exhaust, as shown in Eq. 1066.610-2 or 1066.610-3, is within the range of (7:1 to 20:1). Compliance with this dilution factor range may be determined for an individual test interval or as a time-weighted average over the entire duty cycle as determined in Eq. 1066.610-4. The maximum dilution factor limit of 20:1 does not apply for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), since the dilution factor is infinite when the engine is off; however we strongly recommend that you stay under the specified maximum dilution factor limit when the engine is running. For partial-flow sampling systems, determine dilution factor using Eq. 1066.610-3. To determine the overall dilution factor for PM samples utilizing secondary dilution air, multiply the dilution factor from the CVS by the dilution ratio of secondary dilution air to primary diluted exhaust.

(C) You may use a higher target filter face velocity as specified in 40 CFR 1065.170(c)(1)(vi), up to 140 cm/s, if you need to increase filter loading for PM measurement.

(iv) In addition to the allowances in 40 CFR 1065.140(c)(6), you may heat the dilution air as described in paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(A) of this section to prevent or limit aqueous condensation.

(v) If you choose to dilute the exhaust by using a remote mix tee, which dilutes the exhaust at the tailpipe, you may use the following provisions consistent with good engineering judgment, as long as they do not affect your ability to demonstrate compliance with the applicable standards:

(A) You may use smooth-walled flexible tubing (including accordion-style) in the dilution tunnel upstream of locations for flow measurement or gaseous emission measurement.

(B) You may use smooth-walled electrically conductive flexible tubing in the dilution tunnel upstream of the location for PM emission measurements.

(C) All inside surfaces upstream of emission sampling must be made of 300 series stainless steel or polymer-based materials.

(D) Use good engineering judgment to ensure that the materials you choose do not cause significant loss of PM from your sample.

(vi) Paragraph (b)(1)(vi) of this section applies instead of 40 CFR 1065.145(b).

(vii) Vehicles other than HEVs that apply technology involving engine shutdown during idle may apply the sampling provisions of §1066.501(c).

(c) The following table summarizes the requirements of paragraph (b)(2) of this section:

Table 1 of §1066.110—Summary of Equipment Specifications From 40 CFR Part 1065, Subpart B, That Apply for Chassis Testing

40 CFR part 1065
references
Applicability for chassis testing under this part
40 CFR 1065.140Use all except as noted:
40 CFR 1065.140(b) applies as described in this section.
Use 40 CFR 1065.140(c)(6), with the additional allowance described in this section.
Do not use 40 CFR 1065.140(d)(2)(iv).
Use 40 CFR 1065.140(e)(1) as described in this section.
Do not use 40 CFR 1065.140(e)(2).
40 CFR 1065.145Use all except 40 CFR 1065.145(b).
40 CFR 1065.150Use all.
40 CFR 1065.170Use all except as noted:
Use 40 CFR 1065.170(c)(1)(vi) as described in this section.
40 CFR 1065.190Use all.

[79 FR 23823, Apr. 28, 2014, as amended at 81 FR 74196, Oct. 25, 2016]

return arrow Back to Top

§1066.120   Measurement instruments.

The measurement instrument requirements in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart C, apply with the following exceptions:

(a) The provisions of §1066.125 apply instead of 40 CFR 1065.202.

(b) The provisions of 40 CFR 1065.210 and 1065.295 do not apply.

return arrow Back to Top

§1066.125   Data updating, recording, and control.

This section specifies criteria that your test system must meet for updating and recording data. It also specifies criteria for controlling the systems related to driver demand, the dynamometer, sampling equipment, and measurement instruments.

(a) Read and record values and calculate mean values relative to a specified frequency as follows:

(1) This paragraph (a)(1) applies where we specify a minimum command and control frequency that is greater than the minimum recording frequency, such as for sample flow rates from a CVS that does not have a heat exchanger. For these measurements, the rate at which you read and interpret the signal must be at least as frequent as the minimum command and control frequency. You may record values at the same frequency, or you may record them as mean values, as long as the frequency of the mean values meets the minimum recording frequency. You must use all read values, either by recording them or using them to calculate mean values. For example, if your system reads and controls the sample flow rate at 10 Hz, you may record these values at 10 Hz, record them at 5 Hz by averaging pairs of consecutive points together, or record them at 1 Hz by averaging ten consecutive points together.

(2) For all other measured values covered by this section, you may record the values instantaneously or as mean values, consistent with good engineering judgment.

(3) You may not use rolling averages of measured values where a given measured value is included in more than one recorded mean value.

(b) Use data acquisition and control systems that can command, control, and record at the following minimum frequencies:

Table 1 of §1066.125—Data Recording and Control Minimum Frequencies

Applicable sectionMeasured valuesMinimum command and control frequencyaMinimum recording frequencyb c
§1066.310
§1066.315
Vehicle speed10 Hz.
§1066.425Continuous concentrations of raw or dilute analyzers1 Hz.
§1066.425
§1066.501
Power analyzer1 Hz.
§1066.425Bag concentrations of raw or dilute analyzers1 mean value per test interval.
40 CFR 1065.545
§1066.425
Diluted exhaust flow rate from a CVS with a heat exchanger upstream of the flow measurement1 Hz.
40 CFR 1065.545
§1066.425
Diluted exhaust flow rate from a CVS without a heat exchanger upstream of the flow measurement5 Hz1 Hz means.
40 CFR 1065.545
§1066.425
Dilution air flow if actively controlled (for example, a partial-flow PM sampling system)d5 Hz1 Hz means.
40 CFR 1065.545
§1066.425
Sample flow from a CVS that has a heat exchanger1 Hz1 Hz.
40 CFR 1065.545
§1066.425
Sample flow from a CVS that does not have a heat exchanger5 Hz1 Hz means.
§1066.420Ambient temperature1 Hz.e
§1066.420Ambient humidity1 Hz.e
§1066.420Heated sample system temperatures, including PM filter face1 Hz.

aCFVs that are not using active control are exempt from meeting this requirement due to their operating principle.

b1 Hz means are data reported from the instrument at a higher frequency, but recorded as a series of 1 s mean values at a rate of 1 Hz.

cFor CFVs in a CVS, the minimum recording frequency is 1 Hz. For CFVs used to control sampling from a CFV CVS, the minimum recording frequency is not applicable.

dThis is not applicable to CVS dilution air.

eUnless specified elsewhere in this part or the standard-setting part. Note that this provision does not apply to soak periods where recording frequencies are not specified. For these instances, we recommend a recording frequency of ≥0.016 Hz.

[79 FR 23823, Apr. 28, 2014, as amended at 80 FR 9120, Feb. 19, 2015]

return arrow Back to Top

§1066.130   Measurement instrument calibrations and verifications.

The measurement instrument calibration and verification requirements in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D, apply with the following exceptions:

(a) The calibration and verification provisions of 40 CFR 1065.303 do not apply for engine speed, torque, fuel rate, or intake air flow.

(b) The linearity verification provisions of 40 CFR 1065.307 do not apply for engine speed, torque, fuel rate, or intake air flow. Section 1066.135 specifies additional linearity verification provisions that apply specifically for chassis testing.

(c) The provisions of §1066.220 apply instead 40 CFR 1065.310.

(d) The provisions of 40 CFR 1065.320, 1065.325, and 1065.395 do not apply.

(e) If you are measuring flow volumetrically (rather than measuring based on molar values), the provisions of §1066.140 apply instead of 40 CFR 1065.340.

(f) The provisions of §1066.150 apply instead 40 CFR 1065.350(c), 1065.355(c), 1065.370(c), and 1065.375(c).

(g) Table 1 of this section summarizes the required and recommended calibrations and verifications that are unique to testing under this part and indicates when these must be performed. Perform other required or recommended calibrations and verifications as described in 40 CFR 1065.303, with the exceptions noted in this section. Table 1 follows:

Table 1 of §1066.130—Summary of Required Calibrations and Verifications

Type of calibration or verificationMinimum frequencya
40 CFR 1065.307: Linearity verificationThe linearity verifications from 40 CFR part 1065 do not apply under this part for engine speed, torque, fuel rate, or intake air flow; the linearity verification described in §1066.135 applies for the following measurements:
Dynamometer speed: See §1066.220.
Dynamometer torque: See §1066.220.
40 CFR 1065.310: TorqueThis calibration does not apply for testing under this part; see §1066.220.
40 CFR 1065.320: Fuel flowThis calibration does not apply for testing under this part.
40 CFR 1065.325: Intake flowThis calibration does not apply for testing under this part.
40 CFR 1065.340: CVS calibrationThis calibration does not apply for CVS flow meters calibrated volumetrically as described in §1066.140.
40 CFR 1065.345: Vacuum leakRequired upon initial installation of the sampling system; recommended within 35 days before the start of an emissions test and after maintenance such as pre-filter changes.
40 CFR 1065.350(c), 1065.355(c), 1065.370(c), and 1065.375(c)These provisions do not apply for testing under this part; see §1066.150.
40 CFR 1065.395: Inertial PM balance and weighingThese verifications do not apply for testing under this part.

aPerform calibrations and verifications more frequently if needed to conform to the measurement system manufacturer's instructions and good engineering judgment.

return arrow Back to Top

§1066.135   Linearity verification.

This section describes requirements for linearity verification that are unique to testing under this part. (Note: See the definition of “linearity” in 40 CFR 1065.1001, where we explain that linearity means the degree to which measured values agree with respective reference values and that the term “linearity” is not used to refer to the shape of a measurement instrument's unprocessed response curve.) Perform other required or recommended calibrations and verifications as described in 40 CFR 1065.307, with the exceptions noted in this section.

(a) For gas analyzer linearity, use one of the following options:

(1) Use instrument manufacturer recommendations and good engineering judgment to select at least ten reference values, yrefi, that cover the range of values that you expect during testing (to prevent extrapolation beyond the verified range during emission testing). We recommend selecting zero as one of your reference values. For each range calibrated, if the deviation from a least-squares best-fit straight line is 2% or less of the value at each data point, concentration values may be calculated by use of a straight-line curve fit for that range. If the deviation exceeds 2% at any point, use the best-fit nonlinear equation that represents the data to within 2% of each test point to determine concentration. If you use a gas divider to blend calibration gases, verify that the calibration curve produced names a calibration gas within 2% of its certified concentration. Perform this verification between 15 and 50% of the full-scale analyzer range.

(2) Use the linearity requirements of 40 CFR 1065.307, except for CO2 measurements used for determining fuel economy and GHG emissions for motor vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds GVWR. If you choose this linearity option, you must use the provisions of 40 CFR 1065.672 to check for drift and make appropriate drift corrections.

(b) For dilution air, diluted exhaust, and raw exhaust sample flow, use a reference flow meter with a blower or pump to simulate flow rates. Use a restrictor, diverter valve, variable-speed blower, or variable-speed pump to control the range of flow rates. Use the reference meter's response for the reference values.

(1) Reference flow meters. Because of the large range in flow requirements, we allow a variety of reference meters. For example, for diluted exhaust flow for a full-flow dilution system, we recommend a reference subsonic venturi flow meter with a restrictor valve and a blower to simulate flow rates. For dilution air, diluted exhaust for partial-flow dilution, and raw exhaust, we allow reference meters such as critical flow orifices, critical flow venturis, laminar flow elements, master mass flow standards, or Roots meters. Make sure the reference meter is calibrated and its calibration is NIST-traceable. If you use the difference of two flow measurements to determine a net flow rate, you may use one of the measurements as a reference for the other.

(2) Reference flow values. Because the reference flow is not absolutely constant, sample and record values of refi for 30 seconds and use the arithmetic mean of the values, Q̇̅ref, as the reference value. Refer to 40 CFR 1065.602 for an example of calculating an arithmetic mean.

(3) Linearity criteria. The values measured during linearity verification for flow meters must meet the following criteria: | xmin(a1−1) + a0 | ≤ 1% · max; a1 = 0.98−1.02; SEE = ≤ 2% · max; and r2 ≥0.990.

(c) Perform linearity verifications for the following temperature measurements instead of those specified at 40 CFR 1065.307(e)(7):

(1) Test cell ambient air.

(2) Dilution air for PM sampling, including CVS, double-dilution, and partial-flow systems.

(3) PM sample.

(4) Chiller sample, for gaseous sampling systems that use thermal chillers to dry samples, and that use chiller temperature to calculate dewpoint at the chiller outlet. For testing, if you choose to use the high alarm temperature setpoint for the chiller temperature as a constant value in determining the amount of water removed from the emission sample, you may verify the accuracy of the high alarm temperature setpoint using good engineering judgment without following the linearity verification for chiller temperature. We recommend that you input a simulated reference temperature signal below the alarm setpoint, increase this signal until the high alarm trips, and verify that the alarm setpoint value is no less than 2 °C below the reference value at the trip point.

(5) CVS flow meter inlet temperature.

(d) Perform linearity verifications for the following pressure measurements instead of those specified at 40 CFR 1065.307(e)(8):

(1) Raw exhaust static pressure control.

(2) Barometric pressure.

(3) CVS flow meter inlet pressure.

(4) Sample dryer, for gaseous sampling systems that use either osmotic-membrane dryers or thermal chillers to dry samples. For your testing, if you choose to use a low alarm pressure setpoint for the sample dryer pressure as a constant value in determining the amount of water removed from the emission sample, you may verify the accuracy of the low alarm pressure setpoint using good engineering judgment without following the linearity verification for sample dryer pressure. We recommend that you input a reference pressure signal above the alarm setpoint, decrease this signal until the low alarm trips, and verify that the alarm setpoint value is no more than 4 kPa above the reference value at the trip point.

(e) When following procedures or practices that we incorporate by reference in §1066.1010, you must meet the linearity requirements given by the procedure or practice for any analytical instruments not covered under 40 CFR 1065.307, such as GC-FID or HPLC.

[79 FR 23823, Apr. 28, 2014, as amended at 81 FR 74197, Oct. 25, 2016]

return arrow Back to Top

§1066.140   Diluted exhaust flow calibration.

(a) Overview. This section describes how to calibrate flow meters for diluted exhaust constant-volume sampling (CVS) systems. We recommend that you also use this section to calibrate flow meters that use a subsonic venturi or ultrasonic flow to measure raw exhaust flow. You may follow the molar flow calibration procedures in 40 CFR 1065.340 instead of the procedures in this section.

(b) Scope and frequency. Perform this calibration while the flow meter is installed in its permanent position, except as allowed in paragraph (c) of this section. Perform this calibration after you change any part of the flow configuration upstream or downstream of the flow meter that may affect the flow-meter calibration. Perform this calibration upon initial CVS installation and whenever corrective action does not resolve a failure to meet the diluted exhaust flow verification (i.e., propane check) in 40 CFR 1065.341.

(c) Ex-situ CFV and SSV calibration. You may remove a CFV or SSV from its permanent position for calibration as long as the flow meter meets the requirements in 40 CFR 1065.340(c).

(d) Reference flow meter. Calibrate each CVS flow meter using a reference flow meter such as a subsonic venturi flow meter, a long-radius ASME/NIST flow nozzle, a smooth approach orifice, a laminar flow element, or an ultrasonic flow meter. Use a reference flow meter that reports quantities that are NIST-traceable within ±1% uncertainty. Use this reference flow meter's response to flow as the reference value for CVS flow-meter calibration.

(e) Configuration. Calibrate the system with any upstream screens or other restrictions that will be used during testing and that could affect the flow ahead of the flow meter. You may not use any upstream screen or other restriction that could affect the flow ahead of the reference flow meter, unless the flow meter has been calibrated with such a restriction.

(f) PDP calibration. Calibrate each positive-displacement pump (PDP) to determine a flow-versus-PDP speed equation that accounts for flow leakage across sealing surfaces in the PDP as a function of PDP inlet pressure. Determine unique equation coefficients for each speed at which you operate the PDP. Calibrate a PDP flow meter as follows:

(1) Connect the system as shown in Figure 1 of this section.

(2) Leaks between the calibration flow meter and the PDP must be less than 0.3% of the total flow at the lowest calibrated flow point; for example, at the highest restriction and lowest PDP-speed point.

(3) While the PDP operates, maintain a constant temperature at the PDP inlet within ±2% of the mean absolute inlet temperature, in.

(4) Set the PDP speed to the first speed point at which you intend to calibrate.

(5) Set the variable restrictor to its wide-open position.

(6) Operate the PDP for at least 3 min to stabilize the system. Continue operating the PDP and record the mean values of at least 30 seconds of sampled data of each of the following quantities:

(i) The mean flow rate of the reference flow meter, V̇̅ref. This may include several measurements of different quantities, such as reference meter pressures and temperatures, for calculating V̇̅ref.

(ii) The mean temperature at the PDP inlet, in.

(iii) The mean static absolute pressure at the PDP inlet, in.

(iv) The mean static absolute pressure at the PDP outlet, out.

(v) The mean PDP speed, nPDP.

(7) Incrementally close the restrictor valve to decrease the absolute pressure at the inlet to the PDP, Pin.

(8) Repeat the steps in paragraphs (f)(6) and (7) of this section to record data at a minimum of six restrictor positions ranging from the wide-open restrictor position to the minimum expected pressure at the PDP inlet or the maximum expected differential (outlet minus inlet) pressure across the PDP during testing.

(9) Calibrate the PDP by using the collected data and the equations in §1066.625(a).

(10) Repeat the steps in paragraphs (f)(6) through (9) of this section for each speed at which you operate the PDP.

(11) Use the equations in §1066.630(a) to determine the PDP flow equation for emission testing.

(12) Verify the calibration by performing a CVS verification (i.e., propane check) as described in 40 CFR 1065.341.

(13) During emission testing ensure that the PDP is not operated either below the lowest inlet pressure point or above the highest differential pressure point in the calibration data.

(g) SSV calibration. Calibrate each subsonic venturi (SSV) to determine its discharge coefficient, Cd, for the expected range of inlet pressures. Calibrate an SSV flow meter as follows:

(1) Configure your calibration system as shown in Figure 1 of this section.

(2) Verify that any leaks between the calibration flow meter and the SSV are less than 0.3% of the total flow at the highest restriction.

(3) Start the blower downstream of the SSV.

(4) While the SSV operates, maintain a constant temperature at the SSV inlet within ±2% of the mean absolute inlet temperature, in.

(5) Set the variable restrictor or variable-speed blower to a flow rate greater than the greatest flow rate expected during testing. You may not extrapolate flow rates beyond calibrated values, so we recommend that you make sure the Reynolds number, Re#, at the SSV throat at the greatest calibrated flow rate is greater than the maximum Re# expected during testing.

(6) Operate the SSV for at least 3 min to stabilize the system. Continue operating the SSV and record the mean of at least 30 seconds of sampled data of each of the following quantities:

(i) The mean flow rate of the reference flow meter, V̇̅ref. This may include several measurements of different quantities for calculating V̇̅ref, such as reference meter pressures and temperatures.

(ii) The mean temperature at the venturi inlet, in.

(iii) The mean static absolute pressure at the venturi inlet, in.

(iv) Mean static differential pressure between the static pressure at the venturi inlet and the static pressure at the venturi throat, Δssv.

(7) Incrementally close the restrictor valve or decrease the blower speed to decrease the flow rate.

(8) Repeat the steps in paragraphs (g)(6) and (7) of this section to record data at a minimum of ten flow rates.

(9) Determine an equation to quantify Cd as a function of Re# by using the collected data and the equations in §1066.625(b). Section 1066.625 also includes statistical criteria for validating the Cd versus Re# equation.

(10) Verify the calibration by performing a CVS verification (i.e., propane check) as described in 40 CFR 1065.341 using the new Cd versus Re# equation.

(11) Use the SSV only between the minimum and maximum calibrated Re#. If you want to use the SSV at a lower or higher Re#, you must recalibrate the SSV.

(12) Use the equations in §1066.630(b) to determine SSV flow during a test.

(h) CFV calibration. The calibration procedure described in this paragraph (h) establishes the value of the calibration coefficient, Kv, at measured values of pressure, temperature and air flow. Calibrate the CFV up to the highest expected pressure ratio, r, according to §1066.625. Calibrate the CFV as follows:

(1) Configure your calibration system as shown in Figure 1 of this section.

(2) Verify that any leaks between the calibration flow meter and the CFV are less than 0.3% of the total flow at the highest restriction.

(3) Start the blower downstream of the CFV.

(4) While the CFV operates, maintain a constant temperature at the CFV inlet within ±2% of the mean absolute inlet temperature, in.

(5) Set the variable restrictor to its wide-open position. Instead of a variable restrictor, you may alternately vary the pressure downstream of the CFV by varying blower speed or by introducing a controlled leak. Note that some blowers have limitations on nonloaded conditions.

(6) Operate the CFV for at least 3 min to stabilize the system. Continue operating the CFV and record the mean values of at least 30 seconds of sampled data of each of the following quantities:

(i) The mean flow rate of the reference flow meter, V̇̅ref. This may include several measurements of different quantities, such as reference meter pressures and temperatures, for calculating V̇̅ref.

(ii) The mean temperature at the venturi inlet, in.

(iii) The mean static absolute pressure at the venturi inlet, in.

(iv) The mean static differential pressure between the CFV inlet and the CFV outlet, ΔCFV.

(7) Incrementally close the restrictor valve or decrease the downstream pressure to decrease the differential pressure across the CFV, ΔpCFV.

(8) Repeat the steps in paragraphs (h)(6) and (7) of this section to record mean data at a minimum of ten restrictor positions, such that you test the fullest practical range of ΔCFV expected during testing. We do not require that you remove calibration components or CVS components to calibrate at the lowest possible restriction.

(9) Determine Kv and the highest allowable pressure ratio, r, according to §1066.625.

(10) Use Kv to determine CFV flow during an emission test. Do not use the CFV above the highest allowed r, as determined in §1066.625.

(11) Verify the calibration by performing a CVS verification (i.e., propane check) as described in 40 CFR 1065.341.

(12) If your CVS is configured to operate multiple CFVs in parallel, calibrate your CVS using one of the following methods:

(i) Calibrate every combination of CFVs according to this section and §1066.625(c). Refer to §1066.630(c) for instructions on calculating flow rates for this option.

(ii) Calibrate each CFV according to this section and §1066.625. Refer to §1066.630 for instructions on calculating flow rates for this option.

(i) Ultrasonic flow meter calibration. [Reserved]

eCFR graphic er25oc16.234.gif

View or download PDF

[79 FR 23823, Apr. 28, 2014, as amended at 81 FR 74197, Oct. 25, 2016]

return arrow Back to Top

§1066.145   Test fuel, engine fluids, analytical gases, and other calibration standards.

(a) Test fuel. Use test fuel as specified in the standard-setting part, or as specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, if it is not specified in the standard-setting part.

(b) Lubricating oil. Use lubricating oil as specified in 40 CFR 1065.740. For two-stroke engines that involve a specified mixture of fuel and lubricating oil, mix the lubricating oil with the fuel according to the manufacturer's specifications.

(c) Coolant. For liquid-cooled engines, use coolant as specified in 40 CFR 1065.745.

(d) Analytical gases. Use analytical gases that meet the requirements of 40 CFR 1065.750.

(e) Mass standards. Use mass standards that meet the requirements of 40 CFR 1065.790.

return arrow Back to Top

§1066.150   Analyzer interference and quench verification limit.

Analyzers must meet the interference and quench verification limits in the following table on the lowest, or most representative, instrument range that will be used during emission testing, instead of those specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D:

Table 1 of §1066.150—Analyzer Interference and Quench Verification Limits

VerificationLimit
40 CFR 1065.350±2% of full scale.
40 CFR 1065.355±2% of full scale.
40 CFR 1065.370±2% of full scale.
40 CFR 1065.375±2% of the flow-weighted mean concentration of N2O expected at the standard.

return arrow Back to Top

Need assistance?