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e-CFR data is current as of October 19, 2020

Title 38Chapter IPart 36 → Subpart D


Title 38: Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief
PART 36—LOAN GUARANTY


Subpart D—Direct Loans


Contents
§36.4500   Applicability and qualified mortgage status.
§36.4501   Definitions.
§36.4502   Use of guaranty entitlement.
§36.4503   Amount and amortization.
§36.4504   Loan closing expenses.
§36.4505   Maturity of loan.
§36.4506   Recasting.
§36.4507   Refinancing of mortgage or other lien indebtedness.
§36.4508   Transfer of property by borrower.
§36.4509   Joint loans.
§36.4510   Prepayment, acceleration, and liquidation.
§36.4511   Advances after loan closing.
§36.4512   Taxes and insurance.
§36.4513   Foreclosure and liquidation.
§36.4514   Eligibility requirements.
§36.4515   Estate of veteran in real property.
§36.4516   Lien requirements.
§36.4517   Incorporation by reference.
§36.4518   Supplementary administrative action.
§36.4519   Eligible purposes and reasonable value requirements.
§36.4520   Delegation of authority.
§36.4521   Minimum property and construction requirements.
§36.4522   Waivers, consents, and approvals.
§36.4523   Geographical limits.
§36.4524   Sale of loans.
§36.4525   Requirement of a construction warranty.
§36.4526   Issuance of fund reservation commitments.
§36.4527   Direct housing loans to Native American veterans on trust lands.
§36.4528   Vendee loan origination fee.
§36.4529   Vendee loan post-origination fees.
§36.4530   Vendee loan other fees.

Note: Those requirements, conditions, or limitations which are expressly set forth in 38 U.S.C. chapter 37 are not restated herein and must be taken into consideration in the interpretation or application of the regulations concerning direct loans to veterans.

[24 FR 2658, Apr. 7, 1959]

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§36.4500   Applicability and qualified mortgage status.

(a) Applicability to direct loans. The regulations concerning direct loans to veterans shall be applicable to loans made by Department of Veterans Affairs pursuant to 38 U.S.C. 3711.

(b) Applicability to direct loans to Native Americans. Sections 36.4501, 36.4512, and 36.4527, which concern direct loans to Native American veterans shall be applicable to loans made by the Secretary pursuant to 38 U.S.C. 3761 through 3764.

(Authority: 42 U.S.C. 4012a)

(c) Safe harbor qualified mortgage—(1) Defined. A safe harbor qualified mortgage meets the Ability-to-Repay requirements of sections 129B and 129C of the Truth-in-Lending Act (TILA) regardless of whether the loan might be considered a high cost mortgage transaction as defined by section 103bb of TILA (15 U.S.C. 1602bb).

(2) Applicability of safe harbor qualified mortgage. Any VA direct loan made by the Secretary pursuant to chapter 20 or 37 of title 38, U.S.C., is a safe harbor qualified mortgage.

(d) Restatement. Title 38, U.S.C. chapter 37 is a continuation and restatement of the provisions of title III of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, and may be considered to be an amendment to such title III. References in the regulations concerning direct loans to veterans to the sections or chapters of title 38, United States Code, shall, where applicable, be deemed to refer to the prior corresponding provisions of the law.

(e) Sections 36.4528, 36.4529, and 36.4530, which concern vendee loans, shall be applicable to all vendee loans.

(Authority: 15 U.S.C. 1639C(b)(3)(B)(ii), 38 U.S.C. 2041, 3710, 3711, 3720, 3733, and 3761)

[24 FR 2658, Apr. 7, 1959, as amended at 58 FR 59660, Nov. 10, 1993; 62 FR 5531, Feb. 6, 1997; 79 FR 26628, May 9, 2014; 82 FR 35904, Aug. 2, 2017]

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§36.4501   Definitions.

Wherever used in 38 U.S.C. 3711, 3762 or the regulations concerning direct loans to veterans, unless the context otherwise requires, the terms defined in this section shall have the meaning herein stated, namely:

Cost means the entire consideration paid or payable for or on account of the application of materials and labor to tangible property.

Default means failure of a borrower to comply with the terms of a loan agreement.

Department of Veterans Affairs means the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, or any employee of the Department of Veterans Affairs authorized to act in the Secretary's stead.

Dwelling means a building designed primarily for use as a home, consisting of one residential unit only and not containing any business unit.

Energy conservation improvement. An improvement to an existing dwelling'or farm residence through the installation of a solar heating system, a solar heating and cooling system, or a combined solar heating and cooling system, or through application of a residential energy conservation measure as prescribed in 38 U.S.C. 3710(d) or by the Secretary.

Farm residence means a dwelling located on a farm which is to be occupied by the veteran as the veteran's home.

Guaranty means the obligation of the United States, incurred pursuant to 38 U.S.C. chapter 37, to repay a specified percentage of a loan upon the default of the primary debtor.

Home means a place of residence.

Improvement means any addition or alteration which enhances the utility of the property for residential purposes.

Indebtedness means the unpaid principal and interest plus any other sums a borrower is obligated to pay Department of Veterans Affairs under the terms of the loan instruments or of the regulations concerning direct loans to veterans.

Loan means a loan made to a veteran by Department of Veterans Affairs pursuant to the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 3711 or 3762 and the regulations concerning direct loans to veterans.

Meaningful interest means a leasehold estate or other interest in trust land and any improvements thereon which permits the use, occupancy and enjoyment of that land and any improvements by the grantee. This interest must be capable of being conveyed (1) as security for a loan made under 38 CFR 36.4527, (2) by the grantee to a third party subject to the approval of the tribal organization and the Secretary or designee, and (3) by the Secretary or other foreclosing mortgagee, subject to the provisions of a memorandum of understanding entered into by the Secretary or designee, the tribal organization, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Native American means:

(1) An Indian, as defined in section 4(d) of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450b(d));

(2) A native Hawaiian, as defined in section 201(a)(7) of the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act of 1920, (Public Law 67-34, 42 Stat. 108);

(3) An Alaska Native within the meaning provided for the term 'Native' in section 3(b) of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1602(b)); and

(4) A Pacific Islander, within the meaning of the Native American Programs Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 2991 et seq.)

Native American veteran means any veteran who is a Native American.

Period of more than 180 days means 181 or more calendar days of continuous active duty.

Purchase price means the entire legal consideration paid or payable upon or on account of the sale of property, exclusive of acquisition costs, or for the cost of materials and labor to be applied thereto.

Reasonable value means that figure which represents the amount a reputable and qualified appraiser, unaffected by personal interest, bias, or prejudice, would recommend to a prospective purchaser as proper price or cost in the light of prevailing conditions.

Repairs means any alteration of existing realty which is necessary or advisable for protective, safety, or restorative purposes.

Safe harbor qualified mortgage means a mortgage that meets the Ability-to-Repay requirements of sections 129B and 129C of the Truth-in-Lending Act (TILA) regardless of whether the loan might be considered a high cost mortgage transaction as defined by section 103bb of TILA (15 U.S.C. 1602bb).

Secretary means the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, or any employee of the Department of Veterans Affairs authorized to act in the Secretary's stead.

Tribal organization has the same meaning given in section 4(l) of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450b(1)) and includes the Department of Hawaiian Homelands, in the case of native Hawaiians, and such other organizations as the Secretary may prescribe.

Trust land means any land that:

(1) Is held in trust by the United States for Native Americans;

(2) Is subject to restrictions on alienation imposed by the United States on Indian lands (including native Hawaiian homelands);

(3) Is owned by a Regional Corporation or a Village Corporation, as such terms are defined in section 3(g) and 3(j) of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, respectively (43 U.S.C. 1602(g), (j)); or

(4) Is on any island in the Pacific Ocean if such land is, by cultural tradition, communally-owned land, as determined by the Secretary.

Vendee loan means a loan made by the Secretary for the purpose of financing the purchase of a property acquired pursuant to chapter 37 of title 38, United States Code. The terms of a vendee loan (e.g., amount of down payment; amortization term; whether to escrow taxes, insurance premiums, or homeowners' association dues; fees, etc.) are negotiated between the Secretary and the borrower on a case-by-case basis, subject to the requirements of 38 U.S.C. 2041 or 3733. Terms related to allowable fees are also subject to §§36.4528 through 36.4530.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3761-3764)

[24 FR 2658, Apr. 7, 1959, as amended at 31 FR 16713, Dec. 30, 1966; 35 FR 17180, Nov. 7, 1970; 40 FR 4143, Jan. 28, 1975; 41 FR 32218, Aug. 2, 1976; 41 FR 44859, Oct. 13, 1976; 45 FR 20472, Mar. 28, 1980; 46 FR 43674, Aug. 31, 1981; 58 FR 59660, Nov. 10, 1993; 79 FR 26628, May 9, 2014; 82 FR 35904, Aug. 2, 2017]

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§36.4502   Use of guaranty entitlement.

The guaranty entitlement of the veteran obtaining a direct loan which is closed on or after February 1, 1988, shall be charged with the lessor of the loan amount or an amount which bears the same ratio to $36,000 as the amount of the loan bears to $33,000. The charge against entitlement of a veteran who obtained a direct loan which was closed prior to the aforesaid date, shall be the amount which would have been charged had the loan been closed subsequent to such date.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3711(d)(2)(A))

[55 FR 40657, Oct. 4, 1990]

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§36.4503   Amount and amortization.

(a) The original principal amount of any loan made on or after February 1, 1988, shall not exceed an amount which bears the same ratio to $33,000 as the amount of the guaranty to which the veterans is entitled under 38 U.S.C. 3710 at the time the loan is made bears to $36,000. This limitation shall not preclude the making of advances, otherwise proper, subsequent to the making of the loan pursuant to the provisions of §36.4511. Except as to home improvement loans, loans made by VA shall near interest at the rate of 712 percent per annum. Loans solely for the purposes of energy conservation improvements or other alterations, improvements, or repairs shall bear interest at the rate of 9 percent per annum.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3711(d)(2)(A))

(b) Each loan shall be repayable on the basis of approximately equal monthly installments; except that in the case of loans made for any of the purposes described in clause (2), (3), or (4) of subsection (a) of 38 U.S.C. 3710, such loans may provide for repayment in quarterly, semiannual, or annual installments, provided that such plan of repayment corresponds to the present and anticipated income of the veteran.

(c) The first installment payment on a loan to construct, alter or improve a farm residence or other dwelling may be postponed for a period not exceeding 12 months from the date of the loan instruments. The first installment payment for a loan for the purchase of a dwelling or farm on which there is a farm residence may not be postponed more than 60 days from the date of loan closing: Provided, That if the loan is repayable in quarterly, semi-annual or annual installments, the first installment payment date may be postponed for not more than 12 months from the date of the loan instruments.

(d) The final installment on any loan shall not be in excess of two times the average of the preceding installments, except that on a construction loan the final installment may be for an amount not in excess of 5 percent of the original principal amount of the loan. The limitations imposed by this paragraph on the amount of the final installment shall not apply in the case of any loan extended or recast pursuant to §36.4505 or 36.4506.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501, 3703(c)(1), 3711(d)(1), 3712 (f) and (g))

[15 FR 6288, Sept. 20, 1950, as amended at 24 FR 2658, Apr. 7, 1959; 52 FR 12382, Apr. 16, 1987; 52 FR 18357, May 15, 1987; 53 FR 18983, May 26, 1988; 53 FR 44401, Nov. 3, 1988; 53 FR 51551, Dec. 22, 1988; 54 FR 24557, June 8, 1989; 54 FR 30384, July 20, 1989; 55 FR 6983, Feb. 28, 1990; 55 FR 40657, Oct. 4, 1990; 57 FR 37713, Aug. 20, 1992]

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§36.4504   Loan closing expenses.

(a) Department of Veterans Affairs will designate a loan closer to represent the Department of Veterans Affairs at the closing and in advance thereof will agree with the loan closer upon the fee to be paid by the Department of Veterans Affairs for preparing the loan closing instruments and attending at the closing of the loan. The loan closer as such is neither an agent nor employee of the Department of Veterans Affairs.

(b) With respect to a loan made to a veteran-borrower pursuant to an application (VA Form 26-1802a, received by the Department of Veterans Affairs on or after March 3, 1966, the borrower shall pay the Department of Veterans Affairs the following:

(1) $50, or one percent (1%) of the loan amount, whichever is greater, which charge shall be in lieu of the loan closer's fee, credit report, and cost of appraisal: Provided, That if the loan is to finance the cost of construction, repairs, alterations, or improvements necessitating disbursements of the loan proceeds as the construction or other work progresses, the charge to the veteran-borrower shall be two percent (2%) of the loan amount, but not less than $50 in any event.

(2)(i) A loan fee of one percent of the total loan amount. All or part of such fee may be paid in cash at loan closing or all or part of the fee may be included in the loan without regard to the reasonable value of the property. In computing the fee, the Department of Veterans Affairs will disregard any amount included in the loan to enable the borrower to pay such fee. If all or part of the fee is included in the loan, the amount of the loan as increased may not exceed $33,000.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3729(a))

(ii) The fee described in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section shall not be collected from a veteran who is receiving compensation (or who but for the receipt of retirement pay would be entitled to receive compensation) or from a surviving spouse described in section 3701(b)(2) of title 38 U.S.C.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3729(b))

(iii) Collection of the loan fee described in this paragraph (b)(2) of this section shall not apply to loans closed prior to August 17, 1984, or to loans closed after September 30, 1987.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3729(d))

(3) Costs or expenses normally paid by a purchaser or lienor incident to loan closing including but not limited to the following:

(i) Fee of Department of Veterans Affairs designated compliance inspector;

(ii) Recording fees and recording taxes or other charges incident to recordation;

(iii) That portion of taxes, assessments, and other similar items for the current year chargeable to the borrower and the initial deposit (lump-sum payment) for the tax and insurance account;

(iv) Hazard insurance as required by §36.4512,

(v) Survey, if any;

(vi) Title examination and title evidence.

Charges or costs payable by the veteran-borrower, except as to the payment of the loan fee described in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section, shall be paid in cash and may not be paid out of the proceeds of the loan. No service or brokerage fee shall be charged against the veteran-borrower by any third party for procuring a direct loan or in connection therewith.

(c) With respect to a loan to construct, repair, alter, or improve a farm residence or other dwelling, the Department of Veterans Affairs may require the veteran to deposit with the Department of Veterans Affairs, or in an escrow satisfactory to the Department of Veterans Affairs, 10 percent of the estimated cost thereof or such alternative sum, in cash or its equivalent, as the Department of Veterans Affairs may determine to be necessary in order to afford adequate assurance that sufficient funds will be available, from the proceeds of the loan or from other sources, to assure completion of the construction, repair, alteration, or improvement in accordance with the plans and specifications upon which the Department of Veterans Affairs based its loan commitment.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501, 3724, and 3729)

[15 FR 6288, Sept. 20, 1950, as amended at 23 FR 2339, Apr. 10, 1958; 33 FR 6976, May 9, 1968; 35 FR 17180, Nov. 7, 1970; 41 FR 32218, Aug. 2, 1976; 47 FR 46700, Oct. 20, 1982; 50 FR 5755, Feb. 12, 1985]

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§36.4505   Maturity of loan.

(a) The maturity of a loan shall not exceed 25 years and 32 days. If the Department of Veterans Affairs determines the income and expenses of a veteran-applicant under customary credit standards would prevent the veteran from making the required loan payments for a loan which matures in 25 years and 32 days, but the veteran would be able to make the loan payments over a longer period of time, the loan may be made with a maturity not in excess of 30 years and 32 days.

(b) Every loan shall be repayable within the estimated economic life of the property securing the loan.

(c) Nothing in this section shall preclude extension of the loan pursuant to the provisions of §36.4506.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3703 (c)(1), (d)(1))

[46 FR 43675, Aug. 31, 1981]

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§36.4506   Recasting.

In the event of default or to avoid imminent default, the Department of Veterans Affairs may at any time enter into an agreement with the borrower which will permit the latter temporarily to repay the obligation on a basis appropriate to the borrower's apparent current ability to pay or may enter into an appropriate recasting or extension agreement: Provided, That no such agreement shall extend the ultimate repayment of a loan beyond the expiration of 30 years and 32 days from the date of the loan. Provided further, That nothing in this section shall be deemed to limit the forbearance or indulgence which the Secretary may extend in an individual case pursuant to the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 3720(f).

[46 FR 43675, Aug. 31, 1981]

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§36.4507   Refinancing of mortgage or other lien indebtedness.

(a) Loans may be made for the purpose of refinancing (38 U.S.C. 3710(a)(5)) an existing mortgage loan or other indebtedness secured by a lien of record on a dwelling or farm residence owned and occupied by an eligible veteran as the veteran's home, provided that:

(1) The amount of the loan does not exceed the sum due the holder of the mortgage or other lien indebtedness on such dwelling or farm residence, and also is not more than the reasonable value of the dwelling or farm residence, and

(2) The loan is otherwise eligible.

(b) A refinancing loan for an amount which exceeds the sum due the holder of the mortgage or other lien indebtedness (the excess proceeds to be paid to the veteran) may also be made, Provided, That:

(1) The loan is otherwise eligible, and

(2) The issuance of a commitment to make any such loan for an amount which exceeds eighty (80) percent of the reasonable value of the veteran's dwelling or farm residence shall require, unless the Under Secretary for Benefits otherwise directs, the approval of the Director, Loan Guaranty Service.

(c) Nothing shall preclude making a loan pursuant to the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 3710(a)(5) to an eligible veteran having home loan guaranty entitlement to refinance a loan previously guaranteed insured or made by the Secretary which is outstanding on the dwelling or farm residence owned and occupied or to be reoccupied after the completion of major alterations, repairs, or improvements to the property, by the veteran as the veteran's home.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3711)

(d) A refinancing loan may include contractual prepayment penalties, if any, due the holder of the mortgage or other lien indebtedness to be refinanced.

(e) Nothing in this section shall preclude the refinancing of the balance due for the purchase of land on which new construction is to be financed through the proceeds of the loan, or the refinancing of the balance due on an existing land sale contract relating to a veteran's dwelling or farm residence.

[35 FR 18872, Dec. 11, 1970, as amended at 46 FR 43675, Aug. 31, 1981; 49 FR 42571, Oct. 23, 1984; 61 FR 28059, June 4, 1996]

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§36.4508   Transfer of property by borrower.

(a) Direct loans for which commitments are made on or after March 1, 1988, are not assumable without the prior approval of the Department of Veterans Affairs or its authorized agent. The following shall apply:

(1) The Department of Veterans Affairs shall include in the mortgage or deed of trust and the promissory note or bond on any loan for which a commitment was made on or after March 1, 1988, the following warning in a conspicuous position in capital letters on the first page of the document in type at least 212 times larger than the regular type on such page: “THIS LOAN IS NOT ASSUMABLE WITHOUT THE APPROVAL OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS OR ITS AUTHORIZED AGENT”. Due to the difficulty in obtaining some commercial type sizes which are exactly 212 times larger in height than other sizes, minor deviations in size will be permitted based on commercially available type sizes nearest to 212 times the size of the print on the document.

(2) The instrument securing a direct loan for which a commitment is made on or after March 1, 1988, shall include:

(i) A provision that the Department of Veterans Affairs or other holder may declare the loan immediately due and payable upon transfer of the property securing such loan to any transferee unless the acceptability of the assumption of the loan is established pursuant to section 3714. This option may not be exercised if the transfer is the result of:

(A) The creation of a lien or other encumbrance subordinate to the lender's security instrument which does not relate to a transfer of rights of occupancy in the property;

(B) The creation of a purchase money security interest for household appliances;

(C) A transfer by devise, descent, or operation of law on the death of a joint tenant or tenant by the entirety;

(D) The granting of a leasehold interest of three years or less not containing an option to purchase;

(E) A transfer to a relative resulting from the death of a borrower;

(F) A transfer where the spouse or children of the borrower become a joint owner of the property with the borrower;

(G) A transfer resulting from a decree of a dissolution of marriage, legal separation agreement, or from an incidental property settlement agreement by which the spouse of the borrower becomes the sole owner of the property. In such a case the borrower shall have the option of applying directly to the Department of Veterans Affairs regional office of jurisdiction for a release of liability under 1813(a); or

(H) A transfer into an inter vivos trust in which the borrower is and remains a beneficiary and which does not relate to a transfer of rights of occupancy in the property.

(ii) A provision that a funding fee equal to one-half of one percent of the loan balance as of the date of transfer shall be payable to the Department of Veterans Affairs or its authorized agent. Furthermore, this provision shall provide that if this fee is not paid it shall constitute an additional debt to that already secured by the instrument; and,

(iii) A provision authorizing an assumption processing charge, not to exceed the lesser of $300 and the actual cost of a credit report or any maximum prescribed by applicable State law.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3714)

(b) Whenever any veteran disposes of residential property securing a direct loan obtained under 38 U.S.C. chapter 37, the Department of Veterans Affairs, upon application made by such borrower, shall issue to the borrower a release relieving the borrower of all further liability to the Department of Veterans Affairs on account of such loan (including liability for any loss resulting from any default of the transferee or any subsequent purchaser of such property) if the Department of Veterans Affairs has determined, after such investigation as it deems appropriate, that there has been compliance with the conditions prescribed in 38 U.S.C. 3713(a) or 1814, as appropriate. The assumption of full liability for repayment of the loan by the transferee of the property must be evidenced by an agreement in writing in such form as the Department of Veterans Affairs may require. Any release of liability granted to a veteran by the Department of Veterans Affairs shall inure to the spouse of such veteran.

(c) If, on or after July 1, 1972, any veteran disposes of the property securing a direct loan obtained under 38 U.S.C. chapter 37, without receiving a release from liability with respect to such loan under 38 U.S.C. 3713(a) and a default subsequently occurs which results in liability of the veteran to the Secretary on account of the loan, the Secretary may relieve the veteran of such liability if the Secretary determines that:

(1) A transferee either immediate or remote is legally liable to the Secretary for the debt of the original veteran-borrower established after the termination of the loan, and

(2) The original loan was current at the time such transferee acquired the property, and

(3) The transferee who is liable to the Secretary is found to have been a satisfactory credit risk at the time the transferee acquired the property.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2900-0516)

[15 FR 6289, Sept. 29, 1950, as amended at 33 FR 5362, Apr. 4, 1968; 37 FR 24034, Nov. 11, 1972; 46 FR 43675, Aug. 31, 1981; 55 FR 37477, Sept. 12, 1990]

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§36.4509   Joint loans.

(a) No loan will be made unless an eligible veteran is the sole principal obligor, or such veteran and spouse or eligible veteran co-applicant are the principal obligors thereon, nor unless such veteran alone, or together with a spouse or eligible veteran co-applicant, acquire the entire fee simple or other permissible estate in the realty for the acquisition of which the loan was obtained. Nothing in this section shall preclude other parties from becoming liable as comaker, endorser, guarantor, or surety.

(b) Notwithstanding that an applicant and spouse or other co-applicant are both eligible veterans and will be jointly and severally liable as borrowers, the original principal amount of the loan may not exceed the maximum permissible under §36.4503(a). In any event the loan may not exceed $33,000.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3711(d)(2)(A) and (3))

[43 FR 60460, Dec. 28, 1978]

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§36.4510   Prepayment, acceleration, and liquidation.

(a) Any credit on the loan not previously applied in satisfaction of matured installments, other than the gratuity credit required by prior provisions of law to be credited to principal, may be reapplied by the Department of Veterans Affairs at the request of the borrower for the purpose of curing or preventing a default.

(b) The Department of Veterans Affairs shall include in the instruments evidencing or securing the indebtedness provisions relating to the following:

(1) The right of the borrower to prepay at any time without premium or fee, the entire indebtedness or any part thereof: Provided, That any such prepayment, other than payment in full, may not be made in any amount less than the amount of one installment, or $100, whichever is less: And provided further, That any prepayment made on other than an installment due date will not be credited until the next following installment due date, but not later than 30 days after such prepayment.

(2) The right of the Department of Veterans Affairs to accelerate the maturity of the entire indebtedness in the event of default.

(3) The right of the Department of Veterans Affairs to foreclose or otherwise proceed toliquidate or acquire property which is the security for the loan in the event of the borrower's delinquency in the repayment of the obligation or in the event of default in any other provisions of the loan contract.

(c) The Department of Veterans Affairs shall have the right to accelerate the entire indebtedness and to foreclose or otherwise proceed to liquidate, or acquire the security for the loan, in the event the veteran is adjudged a bankrupt, or if the property has been abandoned by the borrower or subjected to waste or hazard, or in the event conditions exist which warrant the appointment of a receiver by court.

[15 FR 6289, Sept. 20, 1950, as amended at 20 FR 6260, Aug. 26, 1955; 24 FR 2658, Apr. 7, 1959; 41 FR 44859, Oct. 13, 1976; 61 FR 28059, June 4, 1996]

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§36.4511   Advances after loan closing.

(a) The Department of Veterans Affairs may at any time advance any sum or sums as are reasonably necessary and proper for the maintenance, repair, alteration, or improvement of the security for a loan or for the payment of taxes, assessments, ground or water rights, or casualty insurance thereon: Provided, That no advance shall be made for alterations or improvements which are not necessary for the maintenance or repair of the security if such advance will increase the indebtedness to an amount in excess of $33,000.

(b) All sums disbursed incident to the making of advances under this section shall be added to the indebtedness. Department of Veterans Affairs may require any such advances to be secured ratably and on a parity with the principal indebtedness, or otherwise secured. The sum so advanced shall be evidenced by a supplemental note or otherwise as may be required by Department of Veterans Affairs.

(c) Department of Veterans Affairs may pay and charge against the indebtedness, or against the proceeds of the sale of any security therefor, any expense which is reasonably necessary for collection of the debt, protection, repossession, preservation, or liquidation of the security or of the lien thereon, including a reasonable amount for trustees' and legal fees.

(d) The Department of Veterans Affairs may treat as an advance and add to the mortgage balance the one-half of one percent funding fee due on a transfer under 38 U.S.C. 3714 when this is not paid at the time of transfer.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3714)

[15 FR 6289, Sept. 20, 1950, as amended at 38 FR 33772, Dec. 7, 1973; 41 FR 44859, Oct. 13, 1976; 55 FR 37478, Sept. 12, 1990]

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§36.4512   Taxes and insurance.

(a) In addition to the monthly installment payments of principal and interest payable under the terms of the loan agreement, the borrower will be required to make payments monthly to the Secretary in such amounts as may be determined by the Secretary from time to time to be necessary for the purpose of accumulating funds sufficient for the payment of taxes and assessments, ground rents, insurance premiums, and similar levies or charges on the security property. The borrower at loan closing shall pay in cash to the Secretary such sum as it estimates may be necessary as the initial deposit to the borrower's tax and insurance reserve account.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3720)

(b) The borrower shall procure and maintain insurance of a type or types and in such amounts as may be required by the Secretary to protect the security against fire and other hazards. The Secretary cannot make a loan for the acquisition or construction of property located in an area identified by the Federal Emergency Management Agency as having special flood hazards unless the community in which such area is situated is then participating in the National Flood Insurance Program. The Secretary shall not make, increase, extend, or renew a loan secured by a building or manufactured home that is located or to be located in an area identified by the Federal Emergency Management Agency as having special flood hazards and in which flood insurance has been made available under the National Flood Insurance Act, as amended, unless the building or manufactured home and any personal property securing the loan is covered by flood insurance for the term of the loan. The amount of flood insurance must be at least equal to the lesser of the outstanding principal balance of the loan or the maximum limit of coverage available for the particular type of property under the National Flood Insurance Act, as amended. The requirements of 38 CFR 36.4700 through 36.4709 shall apply to direct loans made pursuant to 38 U.S.C. 3711 and 3761 through 3764. All hazard and flood insurance shall be carried with a company or companies satisfactory to the Secretary and the policies and renewals thereof shall be held in the possession of the Secretary and contain a mortgagee loss payable clause in favor of and in a form satisfactory to the Secretary.

(Authority: 42 U.S.C. 4012a, 4106(a))

[62 FR 5531, Feb. 6, 1997]

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§36.4513   Foreclosure and liquidation.

In the event of a foreclosure sale or other liquidation of the security for a loan, the Department of Veterans Affairs shall credit upon the indebtedness the greater of:

(a) The net proceeds of the sale, or

(b) The current market value of the property as determined by the Department of Veterans Affairs, less the costs and expenses of liquidation.

In no event shall the credit pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section exceed the amount of the gross indebtedness, nor shall such credit be less than the amount legally required to be credited to the indebtedness under local law. If a deed in lieu of foreclosure is accepted, the consideration will be a full and complete release of liability of the obligors, or such lesser amount as may be agreed upon between the obligors and the Department of Veterans Affairs.

[23 FR 2340, Apr. 10, 1958]

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§36.4514   Eligibility requirements.

Prior to making a loan, or a commitment therefor, the Department of Veterans Affairs shall determine that:

(a) The applicant is an eligible veteran.

(b) The applicant has full capacity under local law to enter into binding contracts.

(c) The applicant is a satisfactory credit risk and has the ability to repay the obligation proposed to be incurred and that the proposed payments on such obligation bear a proper relationship to present and anticipated income and expenses as determined by use of the credit standards in §36.4337 of this part.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501)

(d) Private capital is not available in the area at an interest rate not in excess of the rate authorized for guaranteed home loans for a loan for which the veteran is qualified under 38 U.S.C. 3710.

(e) The applicant is unable to obtain a loan for such purpose from the Secretary of Agriculture, under the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act, as amended, or under the Housing Act of 1949.

(f) In respect to a loan application received on or after September 15, 1956, there has been compliance by the applicant with the certification requirements prescribed in 38 U.S.C. 3704(c).

(g) The applicant has certified, in such form as the Secretary shall prescribe, that

(1) Neither the applicant nor anyone authorized to act for the applicant, will refuse to sell or rent, after the making of a bonafide offer, or refuse to negotiate for the sale or rental of, or otherwise make unavailable or deny the dwelling or property covered by this loan to any person because of race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, or national origin;

(2) The applicant recognizes that any restrictive convenant on the property relating to race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, or national origin is illegal and void and any such covenant is specifically disclaimed; and

(3) The applicant understands that civil action for preventive relief may be brought by the Attorney General of the United States in any appropriate U.S. District Court against any person responsible for a violation of the applicable law.

[15 FR 6290, Sept. 20, 1950, as amended at 20 FR 6260, Aug. 26, 1955; 24 FR 2658, Apr. 7, 1959; 36 FR 13032, July 13, 1971; 56 FR 9862, Mar. 8, 1991]

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§36.4515   Estate of veteran in real property.

(a) The estate in the realty acquired by the veteran, wholly or partly with the proceeds of a loan hereunder, or owned by the veteran and on which improvements on a farmhouse are to be financed by such loan, shall be not less than:

(1) A fee simple estate therein, legal or equitable; or

(2) A leasehold estate running or renewable at the option of the lessee for a period of not less than 14 years from the maturity of the loan, or to any earlier date at which the fee simple title will vest in the lessee, which is assignable or transferable, if the same be subjected to the lien; however, a leasehold estate which is not freely assignable and transferable will be considered an acceptable estate if it is determined by the Under Secretary for Benefits, or the Director, Loan Guaranty Service, (i) that such type of leasehold is customary in the area where the property is located; (ii) that a veteran or veterans will be prejudiced if the requirement for free assignability is adhered to and (iii) that the assignability and other provisions applicable to the leasehold estate are sufficient to protect the interests of the veteran and the Government and are otherwise acceptable; or

(3) A life estate, provided that the remainder and reversionary interests are subjected to the lien. The title to such estate shall be such as is acceptable to informed buyers, title companies, and attorneys, generally, in the community in which the property is situated, except as modified by paragraph (b) of this section; or

(4) A beneficial interest in a revocable Family Living Trust that ensures that the veteran, or veteran and spouse, have an equitable life estate, provided the lien attaches to any remainder interest and the trust arrangement is valid under State law.

(b) Any such property or estate will not fail to comply with the requirements in paragraph (a) of this section by reason of the following:

(1) Encroachments;

(2) Easements;

(3) Servitudes;

(4) Reservations for water, timber, or subsurface rights;

(5) Right in any grantor or cotenant in the chain of title, or a successor of either, to purchase for cash, which right by the terms thereof is exercisable only if:

(i) An owner elects to sell,

(ii) The option price is not less than the price at which the then owner is willing to sell to another, and

(iii) Exercised within 30 days after notice is mailed by registered mail to the address of optionee last known to the then owner, of the then owner's election to sell, stating the price and the identity of the proposed vendee;

(6) Building and use restrictions whether or not enforceable by a reverter clause if there has been no breach of the conditions affording a right to an exercise of the reverter;

(7) Any other covenant, condition, restriction, or limitation approved by the Department of Veterans Affairs in the particular case.

The limitations on the quantum or quality of the estate or property that are indicated in this paragraph, insofar as they may materially affect the value of the property for the purpose for which it is used, shall be taken into account in the appraisal of reasonable value.

[15 FR 6290, Sept. 20, 1950, as amended at 24 FR 2658, Apr. 7, 1959; 28 FR 11506, Oct. 29, 1963; 33 FR 18027, Dec. 4, 1968; 34 FR 11095, July 1, 1969; 45 FR 20472, Mar. 28, 1980; 56 FR 9862, Mar. 8, 1991; 61 FR 28059, June 4, 1996]

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§36.4516   Lien requirements.

(a) Loans for the purchase of a dwelling or for the purchase of a farm on which there is a farm residence shall be secured by a first lien on the property or estate. Loans for the construction of a farm residence or other dwelling shall also be secured by a first lien.

(b) Loans solely for the purpose of energy conservation improvements or other alterations, improvements, or repairs shall be secured in the following manner:

(1) Loans for $1,500 or less need not be secured, and in lieu of the title examination a statement may be accepted from the borrower that he or she has an interest in the property not less than that prescribed in §36.4515(a).

(2) Loans for more than $1,500 but 40 percent or less of the prior to the improved reasonable value of the property shall be secured by a lien reasonable and customary in the community for the type of alteration, improvement, or repair financed.

(3) Loans for more than $1,500 and for more than 40 percent of the prior to the improved reasonable value of such property shall be secured by a first lien on the property or estate. However, such a home improvement loan may be secured by a lien immediately subordinate to the lien securing the previous loan extended by the Secretary, if the Department of Veterans Affairs is the holder of all liens of superior priority on the property.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3711(d)(1))

(c) Tax liens, special assessment liens, and ground rent shall be disregarded with respect to any requirement that loans shall be secured by a lien of specified dignity. With the prior approval of the Secretary, Under Secretary for Benefits, or Director, Loan Guaranty Service, liens retained by nongovernmental entities to secure assessments or charges for municipal type services and facilities clearly within the public purpose doctrine may be disregarded. In determining whether a loan for the purchase or construction of a home is secured by a first lien the Secretary may also disregard a superior lien created by a duly recorded covenant running with the realty in favor of a private entity to secure an obligation to such entity for the homeowner's share of the costs of the management, operation, or maintenance of property, services or programs within and for the benefit of the development or community in which the veteran's realty is located, if the Secretary determines that the interests of the veteran-borrower and of the Government will not be prejudiced by the operation of such covenant. In respect to any such superior lien to be created after June 6, 1969, the Secretary's determination must have been made prior to the recordation of the covenant.

[20 FR 6261, Aug. 26, 1955, as amended at 20 FR 9180, Dec. 10, 1955; 23 FR 2340, Apr. 10, 1958; 34 FR 9561, June 18, 1969; 45 FR 20472, Mar. 28, 1980; 61 FR 28059, June 4, 1996]

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§36.4517   Incorporation by reference.

The regulations concerning direct loans to veterans in effect on the date a loan is closed shall govern the rights, duties, and liabilities of the parties to such loan during the period the Department of Veterans Affairs is the holder thereof, and any provisions of the loan instruments inconsistent with such regulations are hereby amended and supplemented to conform thereto.

[15 FR 6290, Sept. 20, 1950]

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§36.4518   Supplementary administrative action.

Notwithstanding any requirement condition, or limitation stated in or imposed by the regulations in this part concerning direct loans to veterans, the Under Secretary for Benefits, or the Director, Loan Guaranty Service, within the limitations and conditions prescribed by the Secretary, may take such action as may be necessary or appropriate to relieve any undue prejudice to a debtor, or other person, which might otherwise result, provided such action shall not impair the vested rights of any person affected thereby. If such requirement, condition, or limitation is of an administrative or procedural nature, such action may be taken by any employee authorized to act under §36.4520.

[23 FR 2340, Apr. 10, 1958, as amended at 61 FR 28059, June 4, 1996]

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§36.4519   Eligible purposes and reasonable value requirements.

(a) A loan may be made only for the purpose hereinafter set forth in this paragraph, and the loan may not exceed the reasonable value of the property as established by the Department of Veterans Affairs:

(1) To purchase or construct a dwelling to be owned and occupied by the veteran as a home;

(2) To purchase a farm on which there is a farm residence to be occupied by the veteran as a home;

(3) To construct on land owned by the veteran a farm residence to be occupied by the veteran as a home;

(4) To repair, alter, or improve a farm residence or other dwelling owned and occupied or to be reoccupied after the completion of major alterations, repairs, or improvements to the property, by the veteran as his or her home;

(5) To make energy conservation improvements to a dwelling owned and occupied or to be occupied after the completion of major alterations, repairs, or improvements to the property, by the veteran as his or her home;

(6) To refinance (38 U.S.C. 3710(a)(5)) existing mortgage loans or other lines which are secured of record on a dwelling or farm residence owned and occupied or to be reoccupied after the completion of major alterations, repairs or improvements to the property, by the veteran as the veteran's home;

Provided, The veteran certifies, in such form as the Secretary may prescribe, that he or she has paid in cash from his or her own resources on account of such purchase, construction, alteration, repair, or improvement a sum equal to the difference, if any, between the purchase price or cost of the property and its reasonable value.

(b) In the case of a loan for the construction of a farm residence or other dwelling on land owned by the veteran, a portion of the loan proceeds may be expended to liquidate an indebtedness secured by a lien against such land, but only if the reasonable value of the land is equal to or in excess of the amount of the indebtedness secured by such lien and if the liquidation of such indebtedness will permit the loan to be secured by a first lien. Except as provided in §36.4507, no portion of the proceeds of a loan for repairs, alterations or improvements to a farm residence or other dwelling may be expended to liquidate a prior lien against the property.

(c) No direct loan may be made for the purpose of an interest rate reduction refinancing loan pursuant to 38 U.S.C. 3710(a)(8).

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3711(b))

[20 FR 6261, Aug. 26, 1955, as amended at 43 FR 60461, Dec. 28, 1978; 46 FR 43675, Aug. 31, 1981; 49 FR 42571, Oct. 23, 1984]

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§36.4520   Delegation of authority.

(a) Except as hereinafter provided, each employee of the Department of Veterans Affairs heretofore or hereafter appointed to, or otherwise lawfully filling, any position designated in paragraph (b) of this section is hereby delegated authority, within the limitations and conditions prescribed by law, to exercise the powers and functions of the Secretary with respect to the making of loans and the rights and liabilities arising therefrom, including but not limited to the collection or compromise of amounts due, in money or other property, the extension, rearrangement, or sale of loans, the management and disposition of secured or unsecured notes and other property. In connection with direct loans made and held by the Department of Veterans Affairs, such designated employees may take any action which they are authorized to consent to or approve in respect to guaranteed or insured loans under the regulations prescribed therefor by the Secretary. Incidental to the exercise and performance of the powers and functions hereby delegated, each such employee is authorized to execute and deliver (with or without acknowledgment) for, and on behalf of, the Secretary evidence of guaranty and such certificates, forms, conveyances, and other instruments as may be appropriate in connection with the acquisition, ownership, management, sale, transfer, assignment, encumbrance, rental, or other disposition of real or personal property or of any right, title, or interest therein, including, but not limited to, contracts of sale, installment contracts, deeds, leases, bills of sale, assignments, and releases; and to approve disbursements to be made for any purpose authorized by 38 U.S.C. chapter 37.

(b) Designated positions:

Under Secretary for Benefits

Director, Loan Guaranty Service

Director, Medical and Regional Office Center

Director, VA Regional Office and Insurance Center

Director, Regional Office

Loan Guaranty Officer

Assistant Loan Guaranty Officer

The authority hereby delegated to employees of the positions designated in this paragraph may, with the approval of the Under Secretary for Benefits, be redelegated.

(c) Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize any such employee to exercise the authority vested in the Secretary under 38 U.S.C. 501 or 3703(a)(2) or to sue or enter appearance for and on behalf of the Secretary or confess judgment against the Secretary in any court without the Secretary's prior authorization.

(d) Each Regional Office, regional office and insurance center, and Medical and Regional Office Center shall maintain and keep current a cumulative list of all employees of that Office or Center who, since May 1, 1980, have occupied the positions of Director, Loan Guaranty Officer, and Assistant Loan Guaranty Officer. This list will include each employee's name, title, date the employee assumed the position, and the termination date, if applicable, of the employee's tenure in such position. The list shall be available for public inspection and copying at the Regional Office, or Center, during normal business hours.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501, 3720(a)(5))

[23 FR 2340, Apr. 10, 1958, as amended at 43 FR 60461, Dec. 28, 1978; 45 FR 21243, Mar. 1, 1980; 46 FR 43675, Aug. 31, 1981; 54 FR 34988, Aug. 23, 1989; 61 FR 28059, June 4, 1996]

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§36.4521   Minimum property and construction requirements.

No loan for the purchase or construction of residential property shall be made unless such property complies or conforms with those standards of planning, construction, and general acceptability applicable thereto which have been prescribed by the Secretary.

[23 FR 2340, Apr. 10, 1958]

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§36.4522   Waivers, consents, and approvals.

No waiver, consent, or approval required or authorized by the regulations concerning direct loans to veterans shall be valid unless in writing signed by Department of Veterans Affairs.

[15 FR 6291, Sept. 20, 1950]

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§36.4523   Geographical limits.

Any real property purchased, constructed, or improved with the proceeds of a loan under 38 U.S.C. 3711 shall be situated in the United States, which for purposes of 38 U.S.C. Chapter 37 is here defined as the several States, Territories, and possessions, and the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands: Provided. That no loan shall be made pursuant to 38 U.S.C. 3711 unless the real property is located in one of the areas designated from time to time by the Department of Veterans Affairs as an area in which private capital is not available under 38 U.S.C. chapter 37 to eligible veterans for financing of the purchase, construction, repairs, alterations, or improvement of a farm residence or other dwelling, as the case may be.

[46 FR 43675, Aug. 31, 1981]

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§36.4524   Sale of loans.

In the event a direct loan is purchased from the Department of Veterans Affairs at any time pursuant to the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 3711(g), the Department of Veterans Affairs may issue a guaranty in connection therewith within the maximums applicable to loans guaranteed under 38 U.S.C. 3710 and such loans shall thereafter be subject to the applicable provisions of the regulations governing the guaranty or insurance of loans to veterans, and such part of the regulations concerning direct loans to veterans as may be inconsistent therewith or variant therefrom shall no longer govern the subsequent disposition of the rights and liabilities of any interested parties.

[24 FR 2659, Apr. 7, 1959]

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§36.4525   Requirement of a construction warranty.

Any commitment to make a direct loan and any approval of a direct loan application issued or made on or after May 2, 1955, shall, if the purpose of the loan is to finance the construction of a dwelling or farmhouse or to finance the purchase of a newly constructed dwelling, be subject to the express condition that the builder, seller, or the real party in interest in the transaction shall deliver to the veteran constructing or purchasing such dwelling with the aid of a direct loan a warranty, in the form prescribed by the Secretary, that the property has been completed in substantial conformity with the plans and specifications upon which the Secretary based the valuation of the property, including any modifications thereof, or changes or variations therein, approved in writing by the Secretary, and no direct loan shall be disbursed in full unless a copy of such warranty duly receipted by the purchaser is submitted to the Department of Veterans Affairs.

[20 FR 2463, Apr. 14, 1955, as amended at 46 FR 43676, Aug. 31, 1981]

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§36.4526   Issuance of fund reservation commitments.

(a) Any builder or sponsor proposing to construct one or more dwellings in an area designated as eligible for direct loans may apply for a commitment for the reservation of direct loan funds to be used for the making of loans to eligible veterans for the purchase or construction of such dwellings. Such commitment may be issued on such conditions as the Department of Veterans Affairs determines to be proper in the particular case and will be valid for a period of 3 months;

Provided, That the Department of Veterans Affairs may, for good and sufficient reasons, extend the period of the commitment. No commitment shall be issued unless the builder or sponsor shall have paid an amount equivalent to 2 percent of the funds being reserved, which amount shall be nonrefundable. The commitment shall be nontransferable except with the written approval of the Department of Veterans Affairs.

(b) Notwithstanding that direct loan funds may be available for reservation when issuance of a reservation commitment is requested by a builder or sponsor, the Department of Veterans Affairs may withhold issuance of such commitment in any case in which it determines that the experience or technical qualifications of the builder in respect to home construction are not acceptable, or that other factors bearing on the likelihood of the success of the proposed project are such as to justify withholding issuance of a fund reservation commitment.

[23 FR 2340, Apr. 10, 1958]

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§36.4527   Direct housing loans to Native American veterans on trust lands.

(a) The Secretary may make a direct housing loan to a Native American veteran if:

(1) The Secretary has entered into a memorandum of understanding with respect to such loans with the tribal organization that has jurisdiction over the veteran; or

(2) The tribal organization that has jurisdiction over the veteran has entered into a memorandum of understanding with any department or agency of the United States with respect to such loans and the memorandum complies with the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3762(a))

(3) The memorandum is in effect when the loan is made and will remain in effect until the maturity of the subject loan.

(b)(1) Subject to paragraph (b)(2) of this section, each memorandum of understanding entered into by the Secretary with a tribal organization shall provide for the following:

(i) That each Native American veteran who is under the jurisdiction of the tribal organization and to whom the Secretary makes a direct loan under this section

(A) Holds, possesses, or acquires using the proceeds of the loan a meaningful interest in a lot and/or dwelling that is located on trust land; and

(B) Will purchase, construct, or improve a dwelling on the lot using the proceeds of the loan.

(ii) That each Native American veteran obtaining a direct loan under this section will convey to the Secretary by an appropriate instrument the interest referred to in paragraph (A) as security for the direct loan or, if the laws of the tribal organization do not allow the veteran to convey the meaningful interest to the Secretary, the memorandum of understanding may authorize the tribe to serve as Trustee for the Secretary for purposes of protecting the interest of the Secretary as lender.

(iii) That the tribal organization and each Native American veteran obtaining a direct loan under this section will permit the Secretary or his or her designee to enter upon the trust land of that organization or veteran for the purposes of carrying out such actions as the Secretary or his or her designee determines may be necessary:

(A) To evaluate the advisability of the loan; and

(B) To monitor any purchase, construction, or improvements carried out using the proceeds of the loan.

(C) To protect the improvements from vandalism and the elements,

(D) To make property inspections in conjunction with loan servicing, financial counseling, foreclosure, acquisition, management, repair, and resale of the secured interest.

(iv) That the tribal organization has established standards and procedures that authorize the grantee to legally establish the interest conveyed by a Native American veteran pursuant to subsection (B) and terminate all interest of the veteran in the land and improvements, including:

(A) Procedures for foreclosing the loan in the event of a default;

(B) Procedures for acquiring possession of the veteran's interest in the property; and

(C) Procedures for the resale of the property interest and/or the dwelling purchased, constructed, or improved using the proceeds of the loan.

(v) That the tribal organization agrees to such other terms and conditions with respect to the making of direct loans to Native American veterans under the jurisdiction of the tribal organization as the Secretary and the tribal organization may negotiate in order to ensure that direct loans made under this section are made in a responsible and prudent manner.

(2) The Secretary, or his or her designee, may only enter into a memorandum of understanding with a tribal organization under this section if the Secretary, or designee, determines that the memorandum provides for standards and procedures necessary to reasonably protect the financial interests of the United States.

(c)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, and notwithstanding the provisions of section 36.4503 of this title, the principal amount of any loan made under this section may not exceed $80,000. The original principal amount of any loan made under this section shall not exceed an amount which bears the same ratio to $80,000 as the amount of the guaranty to which the veteran would be entitled under 38 U.S.C. 3710 at the time the loan is made bears to $36,000.

(2) The Secretary may make loans which exceed the amount specified in paragraph (c)(1) of this section in geographic areas in which the Secretary has determined that housing costs are significantly higher than average housing costs nationwide. The Secretary shall determine the maximum loan amounts in such areas. The original principal amount of any such loan shall not exceed an amount which bears the same ratio to the maximum loan amount established by the Secretary as the amount of the guaranty to which the veteran would be entitled under 38 U.S.C. 3710 at the time the loan is made bears to $36,000.

(3) Loans made under this section shall bear interest at a rate determined by the Secretary after considering yields on comparable mortgages in the secondary market, including bid and ask prices on mortgage-backed securities guaranteed by the Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA).

(4) The minimum requirements for planning, construction, improvement, and general acceptability relating to any direct loan made under this section shall be consistent with the administrative property standards established for loans made or guaranteed under title 38, U.S.C., chapter 37.

(d) Notwithstanding the provisions of §36.4504(b), for loans made under this section, the Native American veteran-borrower shall pay the following loan closing costs to the parties indicated:

(1) A loan fee of 1.25 percent of the total loan amount (2 percent for Reservists who qualify under the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 3701(b)(5)) to the Department of Veterans Affairs. All or part of such fee may be paid in cash at loan closing or all or part of the fee may be included in the loan without regard to the reasonable value of the property or the maximum loan amount. In computing the fee, the Department of Veterans Affairs will disregard any amount included in the loan to enable the borrower to pay such fee.

(2) The fee described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall not be collected from a veteran who is receiving compensation (or who but for the receipt of retirement pay would be entitled to receive compensation) or from a surviving spouse described in §3701(b)(2) of title 38 U.S.C.

(3) If the Secretary designates a third party to process the loan package on VA's behalf, a processing fee to that third party not to exceed $300 plus the actual cost of any credit report required.

(4) Costs or expenses normally paid by a purchaser or mortgagee incident to loan closing including but not limited to the following:

(i) Fees of the Department of Veterans Affairs designated appraisers and compliance inspectors;

(ii) Recording fees or other charges incident to recordation;

(iii) That portion of assessments and other similar items for the current year chargeable to the borrower; and

(iv) Hazard insurance premiums, if such insurance is available.

(5) Charges or costs payable by the Native American veteran-borrower, except for the loan fee described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section, shall be paid in cash and may not be paid out of the proceeds of the loan. No service or brokerage fee shall be charged against the Native American veteran-borrower by any third party for procuring a direct loan.

(e)(1) The credit underwriting standards of 38 CFR 36.4337 shall apply to loans made under this section except to the extent the Secretary determines that they should be modified on account of the purpose of the program to make available housing to Native American veterans living on trust lands.

(2) The Secretary shall determine the reasonable value of the leasehold or other property interest that will serve as security for a loan made under this section in accordance with §37.4519, of this chapter, unless the Secretary determines that such requirements are impractical to implement in a geographic area, on particular trust lands, or under circumstances specified by the Secretary.

(f) In connection with the origination of any loan under this section, the Secretary may make advances in cash to provide for repairs, alterations, and improvements and to meet incidental expenses of the loan transaction.

(g) Loans made under this section shall be amortized under a generally recognized plan which provides for equal monthly installments consisting of principal and interest, except for the final installment, which may not be in excess of two times the regular monthly installment. The limitation on the amount of the final installment shall not apply in the case of any loan extended, ballooned and/or reamortized.

(h) The Secretary may:

(1) Take any action that the Secretary determines to be necessary for the custody, management, and protection of properties and the realization or sale of investments under the VA Native American Direct Loan Program;

(2) Determine any necessary expenses and expenditures and the manner in which such expenses and expenditures shall be incurred, allowed, and paid;

(3) Employ, utilize, and compensate persons, organizations, or departments or agencies (including departments and agencies of the United States) designated by the Secretary to carry out necessary functions, including but not limited to loan processing and servicing activities, appraisals, and property inspections.

(i) Notwithstanding any requirement, condition, or limitation stated in or imposed by any provision of this regulation, the Under Secretary for Benefits, or the Director, Loan Guaranty Service, within the limitations and conditions prescribed by the Secretary, may execute memoranda of understanding, make determinations concerning the maximum direct loan amount as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, and take such supplementary administrative action as may be necessary or appropriate to relieve any undue prejudice to a debtor, or other person, which might otherwise result, provided such action shall not impair the vested rights of any person affected thereby. If such a requirement, condition, or limitation is of an administrative or procedural nature, such action may be taken by any employee authorized to act under paragraph (j) of this section.

(j)(1) Except as hereinafter provided, each employee of the Department of Veterans Affairs appointed to, or otherwise lawfully filling, any position designated in paragraph (j)(2) of this section is hereby delegated authority, within the limitations and conditions prescribed by law, to exercise the powers and functions of the Secretary with respect to the making of loans and the rights and liabilities arising therefrom, including, but not limited to the collection or compromise of amounts due, in money or other property, the extension, rearrangement, or sale of loans, and the management and disposition of secured or unsecured notes and other property. In connection with direct loans made and held by the Department of Veterans Affairs, such designated employees may take any action which they are authorized to consent to or approve in respect to guaranteed loans under §36.4342. Incidental to the exercise and performance of the powers and functions hereby delegated, each such employee is authorized to execute and deliver (with or without acknowledgment) for, and on behalf of, the Secretary such certificates, forms, conveyances, and other instruments as may be appropriate in connection with the acquisition, ownership, management, sale, transfer, assignment, encumbrance, rental, or other disposition of real or personal property or of any right, title, or interest therein, including, but not limited to, contracts of sale, installment contracts, deeds, leases, bills of sale, assignments, and releases; and to approve disbursements to be made for any purpose authorized by 38 U.S.C. chapter 37.

(2) Designated positions:

Under Secretary for Benefits

Deputy Under Secretary for Benefits

Director, Loan Guaranty Service

Director, Medical and Regional Office Center

Director, VA Regional Office and Insurance Center

Director, Regional Office

Loan Guaranty Officer

Assistant Loan Guaranty Officer

The authority hereby delegated to employees of the positions designated in this paragraph may, with the approval of the Under Secretary for Benefits, be redelegated.

(3) Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize any such employee to exercise the authority vested in the Secretary under 38 U.S.C. 501(a) or 3703(a)(2) or to sue or enter appearance for and on behalf of the Secretary or confess judgment against the Secretary in any court without the Secretary's prior authorization.

(4) Each Regional Office, Regional Office and Insurance Center, and Medical and Regional Office Center shall maintain and keep current a cumulative list of all employees of that Office or Center who, since May 1, 1980, have occupied the positions of Director, Loan Guaranty Officer, and Assistant Loan Guaranty Officer. This list will include each employee's name, title, date the employee assumed the position, and the termination date, if applicable, of the employee's tenure in such position. The list shall be available for public inspection and copying at the Regional Office, or Center, during normal business hours.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3761-3764)

[58 FR 59660, Nov. 10, 1993, as amended at 68 FR 6627, Feb. 10, 2003]

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§36.4528   Vendee loan origination fee.

(a) In addition to the loan fee required pursuant to 38 U.S.C. 3729, if any, the Secretary may, in connection with the origination of a vendee loan, charge a borrower a loan origination fee not to exceed one-and-a-half percent of the loan amount.

(b) All or part of such fee may be paid in cash at loan closing or all or part may be included in the loan. The Secretary will not increase the loan origination fee because the borrower chooses to include such fee in the loan amount financed.

(c) In no event may the total fee agreed upon between the Secretary and the borrower result in an amount that will cause the loan to be designated as a high-cost mortgage as defined in 15 U.S.C. 1602(bb) and 12 CFR part 1026.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 2041, 3720, 3733)

[82 FR 35904, Aug. 2, 2017]

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§36.4529   Vendee loan post-origination fees.

(a) The Secretary may charge a borrower the following reasonable fees, per use, following origination, in connection with the servicing of any vendee loan:

(1) Processing assumption fee for the transfer of legal liability of repaying the mortgage when the individual assuming the loan is approved. Such fee will not exceed $300, plus the actual cost of the credit report. If the assumption is denied, the fee will not exceed the actual cost of the credit report;

(2) Processing subordination fee, not to exceed $350, to ensure that a modified vendee loan retains its first lien position;

(3) Processing partial release fee, not to exceed $350, to exclude collateral from the mortgage contract once a certain amount of the mortgage loan has been paid;

(4) Processing release of lien fee, not to exceed $15, for the release of an obligor from a mortgage loan in connection with a division of real property;

(5) Processing payoff statement fee, not to exceed $30, for a payoff statement showing the itemized amount due to satisfy a mortgage loan as of a specific date;

(6) Processing payment by phone fee, not to exceed $12, when a payment is made by phone and handled by a servicing representative; and

(7) Processing payment by phone fee, not to exceed $10, when a payment is made by phone and handled through an interactive voice response system, without contacting a servicing representative.

(b) The specific fees to be charged on each account may be negotiated between the Secretary and the borrower. The Secretary will review the maximum fees under paragraph (a) of this section bi-annually to determine that they remain reasonable.

(c) The Secretary may charge a borrower reasonable fees established in the loan instrument, including but not limited to the following:

(1) Property inspection fees;

(2) Property preservation fees;

(3) Appraisal fees;

(4) Attorneys' fees;

(5) Returned-check fees;

(6) Late fees; and

(7) Any other fee the Secretary determines reasonably necessary for the protection of the Secretary's investment.

(d) Any fee included in the loan instrument and permitted under paragraph (c) of this section would be based on the amount customarily charged in the industry for the performance of the service in the particular area, the status of the loan, and the characteristics of the affected property.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 2041, 3720, 3733)

[82 FR 35904, Aug. 2, 2017]

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§36.4530   Vendee loan other fees.

(a) In addition to the fees that may be charged pursuant to §§36.4528 and 36.4529 and the statutory loan fee charged pursuant to 38 U.S.C. 3729, the borrower may be required to pay third-party fees for services performed in connection with a vendee loan.

(b) Examples of the third party fees that may be charged in connection with a vendee loan include, but are not limited to:

(1) Termite inspections;

(2) Hazard insurance premiums;

(3) Force-placed insurance premiums;

(4) Courier fees;

(5) Tax certificates; and

(6) Recorder's fees.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 2041, 3720, 3733)

[82 FR 35904, Aug. 2, 2017]

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