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e-CFR data is current as of February 26, 2021

Title 29Subtitle BChapter XVIIPart 1915 → Subpart I


Title 29: Labor
PART 1915—OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT


Subpart I—Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)


Contents
§1915.151   Scope, application and definitions.
§1915.152   General requirements.
§1915.153   Eye and face protection.
§1915.154   Respiratory protection.
§1915.155   Head protection.
§1915.156   Foot protection.
§1915.157   Hand and body protection.
§1915.158   Lifesaving equipment.
§1915.159   Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS).
§1915.160   Positioning device systems.
Appendix A to Subpart I of Part 1915—Non-Mandatory Guidelines for Hazard Assessment, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Selection, and PPE Training Program
Appendix B to Subpart I of Part 1915—General Testing Conditions and Additional Guidelines for Personal Fall Protection Systems (Non-Mandatory)

Source: 61 FR 26352, May 24, 1996, unless otherwise noted.

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§1915.151   Scope, application and definitions.

(a) Scope and application. This subpart applies to all work in shipyard employment regardless of geographic location.

(b) Definitions applicable to this subpart. Anchorage means a secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards, or deceleration devices.

Body belt means a strap with means for both securing it about the waist and attaching it to a lanyard, lifeline, or deceleration device.

Body harness means straps which may be secured about the employee in a manner that will distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, shoulders, chest and pelvis with means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system.

Connector means a device which is used to couple (connect) parts of a personal fall arrest system or parts of a positioning device system together. It may be an independent component of the system, such as a carabiner, or it may be an integral component of part of the system (such as a buckle or D-ring sewn into a body belt or body harness or a snaphook spliced or sewn to a lanyard or self-retracting lanyard).

Deceleration device means any mechanism, such as a rope grab, ripstitch lanyard, specially woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyard, or automatic self-retracting lifeline/lanyard, which serves to dissipate a substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest, or otherwise limit the energy imposed on an employee during fall arrest.

Deceleration distance means the additional vertical distance a falling employee travels, excluding lifeline elongation and free fall distance, before stopping, from the point at which the deceleration device begins to operate. It is measured as the distance between the location of an employee's body belt or body harness attachment point at the moment of activation (at the onset of fall arrest forces) of the deceleration device during a fall, and the location of that attachment point after the employee comes to a full stop.

Equivalent means alternative designs, materials, or methods to protect against a hazard which the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than the method or item specified in the standard.

Free fall means the act of falling before a personal fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest the fall.

Free fall distance means the vertical displacement of the fall arrest attachment point on the employee's body belt or body harness between onset of the fall and just before the system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. This distance excludes deceleration distance, and lifeline/lanyard elongation, but includes any deceleration device slide distance or self-retracting lifeline/lanyard extension before the device operates and fall arrest forces occur.

Lanyard means a flexible line of rope, wire rope, or strap which generally has a connector at each end for connecting the body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline, or anchorage.

Lifeline means a component consisting of a flexible line for connection to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical lifeline), or for connection to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline), and which serves as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage.

Lower levels means those areas or surfaces to which an employee can fall. Such areas or surfaces include but are not limited to ground levels, floors, ramps, tanks, materials, water, excavations, pits, vessels, structures, or portions thereof.

Personal fall arrest system means a system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. It consists of an anchorage, connectors, body belt or body harness and may include a lanyard, a deceleration device, a lifeline, or a suitable combination of these. As of January 1, 1998, the use of a body belt for fall arrest is prohibited.

Positioning device system means a body belt or body harness system rigged to allow an employee to be supported at an elevated vertical surface, such as a wall or window, and to be able to work with both hands free while leaning.

Qualified person means a person who by possession of a recognized degree or certificate of professional standing, or who, by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems related to the subject matter and work.

Restraint (tether) line means a line from an anchorage, or between anchorages, to which the employee is secured in such a way as to prevent the employee from walking or falling off an elevated work surface. Note: A restraint line is not necessarily designed to withstand forces resulting from a fall.

Rope grab means a deceleration device which travels on a lifeline and automatically, by friction, engages the lifeline and locks so as to arrest the fall of an employee. A rope grab usually employs the principle of inertial locking, cam/level locking or both.

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§1915.152   General requirements.

(a) Provision and use of equipment. The employer shall provide and shall ensure that each affected employee uses the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) for the eyes, face, head, extremities, torso, and respiratory system, including protective clothing, protective shields, protective barriers, personal fall protection equipment, and life saving equipment, meeting the applicable provisions of this subpart, wherever employees are exposed to work activity hazards that require the use of PPE.

(b) Hazard assessment and equipment. The employer shall assess its work activity to determine whether there are hazards present, or likely to be present, which necessitate the employee's use of PPE. If such hazards are present, or likely to be present, the employer shall:

(1) Select the type of PPE that will protect the affected employee from the hazards identified in the occupational hazard assessment;

(2) Communicate selection decisions to affected employees;

(3) Select PPE that properly fits each affected employee; and

(4) Verify that the required occupational hazard assessment has been performed through a document that contains the following information: occupation, the date(s) of the hazard assessment, and the name of the person performing the hazard assessment.

Note 1 to paragraph (b): A hazard assessment conducted according to the trade or occupation of affected employees will be considered to comply with paragraph (b) of this section, if the assessment addresses any PPE-related hazards to which employees are exposed in the course of their work activities.

Note 2 to paragraph (b): Non-mandatory appendix A to this subpart contains examples of procedures that will comply with the requirement for an occupational hazard assessment.

(c) Defective and damaged equipment. Defective or damaged PPE shall not be used.

(d) Reissued equipment. The employer shall ensure that all unsanitary PPE, including that which has been used by employees, be cleaned and disinfected before it is reissued.

(e) Training. (1) The employer shall provide training to each employee who is required, by this section, to use PPE (exception: training in the use of personal fall arrest systems and positioning device systems training is covered in §§1915.159 and 1915.160). Each employee shall be trained to understand at least the following:

(i) When PPE is necessary;

(ii) What PPE is necessary;

(iii) How to properly don, doff, adjust, and wear PPE;

(iv) The limitations of the PPE; and,

(v) The proper care, maintenance, useful life and disposal of the PPE.

(2) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee demonstrates the ability to use PPE properly before being allowed to perform work requiring the use of PPE.

(3) The employer shall retrain any employee who does not understand or display the skills required by paragraph (e)(2) of this section. Circumstances where retraining is required include, but are not limited to, situations where:

(i) Changes in occupation or work render previous training obsolete; or

(ii) Changes in the types of PPE to be used render previous training obsolete; or

(iii) Inadequacies in an affected employee's knowledge or use of assigned PPE indicate that the employee has not retained the requisite understanding or skill.

(f) Payment for protective equipment. (1) Except as provided by paragraphs (f)(2) through (f)(6) of this section, the protective equipment, including personal protective equipment (PPE), used to comply with this part, shall be provided by the employer at no cost to employees.

(2) The employer is not required to pay for non-specialty safety-toe protective footwear (including steel-toe shoes or steel-toe boots) and non-specialty prescription safety eyewear, provided that the employer permits such items to be worn off the job-site.

(3) When the employer provides metatarsal guards and allows the employee, at his or her request, to use shoes or boots with built-in metatarsal protection, the employer is not required to reimburse the employee for the shoes or boots.

(4) The employer is not required to pay for:

(i) Everyday clothing, such as long-sleeve shirts, long pants, street shoes, and normal work boots; or

(ii) Ordinary clothing, skin creams, or other items, used solely for protection from weather, such as winter coats, jackets, gloves, parkas, rubber boots, hats, raincoats, ordinary sunglasses, and sunscreen.

(5) The employer must pay for replacement PPE, except when the employee has lost or intentionally damaged the PPE.

(6) Where an employee provides appropriate protective equipment he or she owns, the employer may allow the employee to use it and is not required to reimburse the employee for that equipment. The employer shall not require an employee to provide or pay for his or her own PPE, unless the PPE is excepted by paragraphs (f)(2) through (f)(5) of this section.

(7) This paragraph (f) shall become effective on February 13, 2008. Employers must implement the PPE payment requirements no later than May 15, 2008.

Note to §1915.152(f): When the provisions of another OSHA standard specify whether or not the employer must pay for specific equipment, the payment provisions of that standard shall prevail.

[61 FR 26352, May 24, 1996; 61 FR 29957, June 13, 1996, as amended at 67 FR 44543, July 3, 2002; 72 FR 64428, Nov. 15, 2007; 76 FR 33610, June 8, 2011]

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§1915.153   Eye and face protection.

(a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate eye or face protection where there are exposures to eye or face hazards caused by flying particles, molten metal, liquid chemicals, acid or caustic liquids, chemical gases or vapors, or potentially injurious light radiation.

(2) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses eye or face protection that provides side protection when there is a hazard from flying objects. Detachable side protectors (e.g., a clip-on or slide-on side shield) meeting the pertinent requirements of this section are acceptable.

(3) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee who wears prescription lenses while engaged in operations that involve eye hazards wears eye protection that incorporates the prescription in its design, unless the employee is protected by eye protection that can be worn over prescription lenses without disturbing the proper position of either the PPE or the prescription lenses.

(4) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses equipment with filter lenses that have a shade number that provides appropriate protection from injurious light radiation. Table I-1 is a listing of appropriate shade numbers for various operations. If filter lenses are used in goggles worn under a helmet which has a lens, the shade number of the lens in the helmet may be reduced so that the shade numbers of the two lenses will equal the value as shown in Table I-1, §1915.153.

Table I-1—Filter Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy

OperationsElectrode size 1/32 inArc currentMinimum*
protective
shade
Shielded metal arc weldingLess than 3
3-5
5-8
More than 8
Less than 60
60-160
160-250
250-550
7
8
10
11
Gas metal arc welding and flux cored arc weldingLess than 60
60-160
160-250
250-500
7
10
10
10
Gas Tungsten arc weldingLess than 50
50-150
150-500
8
8
10
Air carbon(Light)Less than 50010
Arc cutting(Heavy)500-100011
Plasma arc weldingLess than 20
20-100
100-400
400-800
6
8
10
11
Plasma arc cutting(light)**
(medium)**
(heavy)**
Less than 300
300-400
400-800
8
9
10
Torch brazing3
Torch soldering2
Carbon arc welding14

**These values apply where the actual arc is clearly seen. Lighter filters may be used when the arc is hidden by the workpiece.

Filter Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy

OperationsPlate thickness—inchesPlate thickness—mmMinimum*
protective
shade
Gas Welding:
LightUnder 1/8Under 3.24
Medium1/8 to 1/23.2 to 12.75
HeavyOver 1/2Over 12.76
Oxygen cutting:
LightUnder 1Under 253
Medium1 to 625 to 1504
HeavyOver 6Over 1505

*As a rule of thumb, start with a shade that is too dark to see the weld zone. Then go to a lighter shade which gives sufficient view of the weld zone without going below the minimum. In oxyfuel gas welding or cutting where the torch produces a high yellow light, it is desirable to use a filter lens that absorbs the yellow or sodium line in the visible light of the (spectrum) operation.

(b) Criteria for protective eye and face devices. (1) Protective eye and face protection devices must comply with any of the following consensus standards:

(i) ANSI/ISEA Z87.1-2010, Occupational and Educational Personal Eye and Face Protection Devices, incorporated by reference in §1915.5;

(ii) ANSI Z87.1-2003, Occupational and Educational Personal Eye and Face Protection Devices, incorporated by reference in §1915.5; or

(iii) ANSI Z87.1-1989 (R-1998), Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection, incorporated by reference in §1915.5;

(2) Eye and face protection devices that the employer demonstrates are at least as effective as protective as eye and face protection devices that are constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of this section.

[61 FR 26352, May 24, 1996,, as amended at 74 FR 46358, Sept. 9, 2009; 81 FR 16091, Mar. 25, 2016; 85 FR 8732, Feb. 18, 2020]

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§1915.154   Respiratory protection.

Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered by 29 CFR 1910.134.

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§1915.155   Head protection.

(a) Use. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears a protective helmet when working in areas where there is a potential for injury to the head from falling objects.

(2) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears a protective helmet designed to reduce electrical shock hazards where there is potential for electric shock or burns due to contact with exposed electrical conductors which could contact the head.

(b) Criteria for protective helmets. (1) Head protection must comply with any of the following consensus standards:

(i) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z89.1-2009, “American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection,” incorporated by reference in §1915.5;

(ii) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z89.1-2003, “American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection,” incorporated by reference in §1915.5; or

(iii) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z89.1-1997, “American National Standard for Personnel Protection—Protective Headwear for Industrial Workers—Requirements,” incorporated by reference in §1915.5.

(2) Head protection devices that the employer demonstrates are at least as effective as head protection devices that are constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of this section.

[61 FR 26352, May 24, 1996,, as amended at 74 FR 46358, Sept. 9, 2009; 77 FR 37599, June 22, 2012]

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§1915.156   Foot protection.

(a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or objects piercing the sole.

(b) Criteria for protective footwear. (1) Protective footwear must comply with any of the following consensus standards:

(i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard Test Methods for Foot Protection,” and ASTM F-2413-2005, “Standard Specification for Performance Requirements for Protective Footwear,” which are incorporated by reference in §1915.5;

(ii) ANSI Z41-1999, “American National Standard for Personal Protection—Protective Footwear,” which is incorporated by reference in §1915.5; or

(iii) ANSI Z41-1991, “American National Standard for Personal Protection—Protective Footwear,” which is incorporated by reference in §1915.5.

(2) Protective footwear that the employer demonstrates is at least as effective as protective footwear that is constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of this section.

[61 FR 26352, May 24, 1996,, as amended at 74 FR 46358, Sept. 9, 2009]

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§1915.157   Hand and body protection.

(a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate hand protection and other protective clothing where there is exposure to hazards such as skin absorption of harmful substances, severe cuts or lacerations, severe abrasions, punctures, chemical burns, thermal burns, harmful temperature extremes, and sharp objects.

(b) Hot work operations. The employer shall ensure that no employee wears clothing impregnated or covered in full or in part with flammable or combustible materials (such as grease or oil) while engaged in hot work operations or working near an ignition source.

(c) Electrical protective devices. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective electrical insulating gloves and sleeves or other electrical protective equipment, if that employee is exposed to electrical shock hazards while working on electrical equipment.

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§1915.158   Lifesaving equipment.

(a) Personal flotation devices. (1) PFDs (life preservers, life jackets, or work vests) worn by each affected employee must be United States Coast Guard (USCG) approved pursuant to 46 CFR part 160 (Type I, II, III, or V PFD) and marked for use as a work vest, for commercial use, or for use on vessels. USCG approval is pursuant to 46 CFR part 160, Coast Guard Lifesaving Equipment Specifications.

(2) Prior to each use, personal floatation devices shall be inspected for dry rot, chemical damage, or other defects which may affect their strength and buoyancy. Defective personal floatation devices shall not be used.

(b) Ring life buoys and ladders. (1) When work is being performed on a floating vessel 200 feet (61 m) or more in length, at least three 30-inch (0.76 m) U.S. Coast Guard approved ring life buoys with lines attached shall be located in readily visible and accessible places. Ring life buoys shall be located one forward, one aft, and one at the access to the gangway.

(2) On floating vessels under 200 feet (61 m) in length, at least one 30-inch (0.76 m) U.S. Coast Guard approved ring life buoy with line attached shall be located at the gangway.

(3) At least one 30-inch (0.76 m) U. S. Coast Guard approved ring life buoy with a line attached shall be located on each staging alongside of a floating vessel on which work is being performed.

(4) At least 90 feet (27.43m) of line shall be attached to each ring life buoy.

(5) There shall be at least one portable or permanent ladder in the vicinity of each floating vessel on which work is being performed. The ladder shall be of sufficient length to assist employees to reach safety in the event they fall into the water.

[61 FR 26352, May 24, 1996, as amended at 67 FR 44543, July 3, 2002]

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§1915.159   Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS).

The criteria of this section apply to PFAS and their use. Effective January 1, 1998, body belts and non-locking snaphooks are not acceptable as part of a personal fall arrest system.

(a) Criteria for connectors and anchorages. (1) Connectors shall be made of drop forged, pressed, or formed steel or shall be made of materials with equivalent strength.

(2) Connectors shall have a corrosion-resistant finish, and all surfaces and edges shall be smooth to prevent damage to the interfacing parts of the system.

(3) D-rings and snaphooks shall be capable of sustaining a minimum tensile load of 5,000 pounds (22.24 Kn).

(4) D-rings and snaphooks shall be proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds (16 Kn) without cracking, breaking, or being permanently deformed.

(5) Snaphooks shall be sized to be compatible with the member to which they are connected to prevent unintentional disengagement of the snaphook caused by depression of the snaphook keeper by the connected member, or shall be of a locking type that is designed and used to prevent disengagement of the snap-hook by contact of the snaphook keeper by the connected member.

(6) Snaphooks, unless of a locking type designed and used to prevent disengagement from the following connections, shall not be engaged:

(i) Directly to webbing, rope or wire rope;

(ii) To each other;

(iii) To a D-ring to which another snaphook or other connector is attached;

(iv) To a horizontal lifeline; or

(v) To any object that is incompatibly shaped or dimensioned in relation to the snaphook such that unintentional disengagement could occur by the connected object being able to depress the snaphook keeper and release itself.

(7) On suspended scaffolds or similar work platforms with horizontal lifelines that may become vertical lifelines, the devices used for connection to the horizontal lifeline shall be capable of locking in any direction on the lifeline.

(8) Anchorages used for attachment of personal fall arrest equipment shall be independent of any anchorage being used to support or suspend platforms.

(9) Anchorages shall be capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds (22.24 Kn) per employee attached, or shall be designed, installed, and used as follows:

(i) As part of a complete personal fall arrest system which maintains a safety factor of at least two; and

(ii) Under the direction and supervision of a qualified person.

(b) Criteria for lifelines, lanyards, and personal fall arrest systems. (1) When vertical lifelines are used, each employee shall be provided with a separate lifeline.

(2) Vertical lifelines and lanyards shall have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (22.24 Kn).

(3) Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards that automatically limit free fall distances to 2 feet (0.61 m) or less shall be capable of sustaining a minimum tensile load of 3,000 pounds (13.34 Kn) applied to a self-retracting lifeline or lanyard with the lifeline or lanyard in the fully extended position.

(4) Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards which do not limit free fall distance to 2 feet (0.61 m) or less, ripstitch lanyards and tearing and deforming lanyards shall be capable of sustaining a minimum static tensile load of 5,000 pounds (22.24 Kn) applied to the device when they are in the fully extended position.

(5) Horizontal lifelines shall be designed, installed, and used under the supervision of a qualified person, and shall only be used as part of a complete personal fall arrest system that maintains a safety factor of at least two.

(6) Effective November 20, 1996, personal fall arrest systems shall:

(i) Limit the maximum arresting force on a falling employee to 900 pounds (4 Kn) when used with a body belt;

(ii) Limit the maximum arresting force on a falling employee to 1,800 pounds (8 Kn) when used with a body harness;

(iii) Bring a falling employee to a complete stop and limit the maximum deceleration distance an employee travels to 3.5 feet (1.07 m), and

(iv) Have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact energy of an employee free falling a distance of 6 feet (1.83 m), or the free fall distance permitted by the system, whichever is less;

Note to paragraph (b)(6) of this section: A personal fall arrest system which meets the criteria and protocols contained in appendix B, is considered to comply with paragraph (b)(6). If the combined tool and body weight is 310 pounds (140.62 kg) or more, systems that meet the criteria and protocols contained in appendix B will be deemed to comply with the provisions of paragraph (b)(6) only if they are modified appropriately to provide protection for the extra weight of the employee and tools.

(7) Personal fall arrest systems shall be rigged such that an employee can neither free fall more than 6 feet (1.83 m) nor contact any lower level.

(c) Criteria for selection, use and care of systems and system components. (1) Lanyards shall be attached to employees using personal fall arrest systems, as follows:

(i) The attachment point of a body harness shall be located in the center of the wearer's back near the shoulder level, or above the wearer's head. If the free fall distance is limited to less than 20 inches (50.8 cm), the attachment point may be located in the chest position; and

(ii) The attachment point of a body belt shall be located in the center of the wearer's back.

(2) Ropes and straps (webbing) used in lanyards, lifelines and strength components of body belts and body harnesses shall be made from synthetic fibers or wire rope.

(3) Ropes, belts, harnesses, and lanyards shall be compatible with their hardware.

(4) Lifelines and lanyards shall be protected against cuts, abrasions, burns from hot work operations and deterioration by acids, solvents, and other chemicals.

(5) Personal fall arrest systems shall be inspected prior to each use for mildew, wear, damage, and other deterioration. Defective components shall be removed from service.

(6) Personal fall arrest systems and components subjected to impact loading shall be immediately removed from service and shall not be used again for employee protection until inspected and determined by a qualified person to be undamaged and suitable for reuse.

(7) The employer shall provide for prompt rescue of employees in the event of a fall or shall ensure that employees are able to rescue themselves.

(8) Body belts shall be at least one and five-eighths inches (4.13 cm) wide.

(9) Personal fall arrest systems and components shall be used only for employee fall protection and not to hoist materials.

(d) Training. Before using personal fall arrest equipment, each affected employee shall be trained to understand the application limits of the equipment and proper hook-up, anchoring, and tie-off techniques. Affected employees shall also be trained so that they can demonstrate the proper use, inspection, and storage of their equipment.

[61 FR 26352, May 24, 1996, as amended at 67 FR 44544, July 3, 2002]

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§1915.160   Positioning device systems.

Positioning device systems and their use shall conform to the following provisions:

(a) Criteria for connectors and anchorages. (1) Connectors shall have a corrosion-resistant finish, and all surfaces and edges shall be smooth to prevent damage to interfacing parts of this system.

(2) Connecting assemblies shall have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (22.24 Kn).

(3) Positioning device systems shall be secured to an anchorage capable of supporting at least twice the potential impact load of an employee's fall.

(4) Snaphooks, unless each is of a locking type designed and used to prevent disengagement, shall not be connected to each other. As of January 1, 1998, only locking type snaphooks shall be used in positioning device systems.

(b) Criteria for positioning device systems. (1) Restraint (tether) lines shall have a minimum breaking strength of 3,000 pounds (13.34 Kn).

(2) The following system performance criteria for positioning device systems are effective November 20, 1996:

(i) A window cleaner's positioning system shall be capable of withstanding without failure a drop test consisting of a 6 foot (1.83 m) drop of a 250-pound (113.4 kg) weight. The system shall limit the initial arresting force to not more than 2,000 pounds (8.9 Kn), with a duration not to exceed 2 milliseconds. The system shall limit any subsequent arresting forces imposed on the falling employee to not more than 1,000 pounds (4.45 Kn);

(ii) All other positioning device systems shall be capable of withstanding without failure a drop test consisting of a 4 foot (1.22 m) drop of a 250-pound (113.4 kg) weight.

Note to paragraph (b)(2) of this section: Positioning device systems which comply with the provisions of section 2 of non-mandatory appendix B to this subpart shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this paragraph (b)(2).

(c) Criteria for the use and care of positioning device systems. (1) Positioning device systems shall be inspected before each use for mildew, wear, damage, and other deterioration. Defective components shall be removed from service.

(2) A positioning device system or component subjected to impact loading shall be immediately removed from service and shall not be used again for employee protection, unless inspected and determined by a qualified person to be undamaged and suitable for reuse.

(d) Training. Before using a positioning device system, employees shall be trained in the application limits, proper hook-up, anchoring and tie-off techniques, methods of use, inspection, and storage of positioning device systems.

[61 FR 26352, May 24, 1996, as amended at 67 FR 44544, July 3, 2002]

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Appendix A to Subpart I of Part 1915—Non-Mandatory Guidelines for Hazard Assessment, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Selection, and PPE Training Program

This appendix is intended to provide compliance assistance for hazard assessment, selection of personal protective equipment (PPE) and PPE training. It neither adds to or detracts from the employer's responsibility to comply with the provisions of this subpart.

1. Controlling hazards. Employers and employees should not rely exclusively on PPE for protection from hazards. PPE should be used, where appropriate, in conjunction with engineering controls, guards, and safe work practices and procedures.

2. Assessment and selection. Employers need to consider certain general guidelines for assessing the hazardous situations that are likely to arise under foreseeable work activity conditions and to match employee PPE to the identified hazards. The employer should designate a safety officer or some other qualified person to exercise common sense and appropriate expertise to assess work activity hazards and select PPE.

3. Assessment guidelines. In order to assess the need for PPE the following steps should be taken:

a. Survey. Conduct a walk-through survey of the area in question to identify sources of hazards.

Categories for Consideration:

(1) Impact

(2) Penetration

(3) Compression (roll-over)

(4) Chemical

(5) Heat

(6) Harmful dust

(7) Light (optical) radiation

(8) Drowning

(9) Falling

b. Sources. During the walk-through survey the safety officer should observe:

(1) Sources of motion; for example, machinery or processes where any movement of tools, machine elements or particles could exist, or movement of personnel that could result in collision with stationary objects.

(2) Sources of high temperatures that could result in burns, eye injury or ignition of protective equipment.

(3) Types of chemical exposures.

(4) Sources of harmful dust.

(5) Sources of light radiation, for instance, welding, brazing, cutting, heat treating, furnaces, and high intensity lights.

(6) Sources of falling objects or potential for dropping objects.

(7) Sources of sharp objects which might pierce or cut the hands.

(8) Sources of rolling or pinching objects which could crush the feet.

(9) Layout of work place and location of co-workers.

(10) Any electrical hazards.

(11) Review injury/accident data to help identify problem areas.

Organize data. Following the walk-through survey, it is necessary to organize the data and other information obtained. That material provides the basis for hazard assessment that enables the employer to select the appropriate PPE.

d. Analyze data. Having gathered and organized data regarding a particular occupation, employers need to estimate the potential for injuries. Each of the identified hazards (see paragraph 3.a.) should be reviewed and classified as to its type, the level of risk, and the seriousness of any potential injury. Where it is foreseeable that an employee could be exposed to several hazards simultaneously, the consequences of such exposure should be considered.

4. Selection guidelines. After completion of the procedures in paragraph 3, the general procedure for selection of protective equipment is to:

(a) become familiar with the potential hazards and the types of protective equipment that are available, and what they can do; for example, splash protection, and impact protection;

(b) compare the hazards associated with the environment; for instance, impact velocities, masses, projectile shapes, radiation intensities, with the capabilities of the available protective equipment;

(c) select the protective equipment which ensures a level of protection greater than the minimum required to protect employees from the hazards; and

(d) fit the user with the protective device and give instructions on care and use of the PPE. It is very important that users be made aware of all warning labels and limitations of their PPE.

5. Fitting the device. Careful consideration must be given to comfort and fit. The employee will be most likely to wear the protective device if it fits comfortably. PPE that does not fit properly may not provide the necessary protection, and may create other problems for wearers. Generally, protective devices are available in a variety of sizes and choices. Therefore employers should be careful to select the appropriate sized PPE.

6. Devices with adjustable features. (a) Adjustments should be made on an individual basis so the wearer will have a comfortable fit that maintains the protective device in the proper position. Particular care should be taken in fitting devices for eye protection against dust and chemical splash to ensure that the seal is appropriate for the face.

(b) In addition, proper fitting of hard hats is important to ensure that the hard hat will not fall off during work operations. In some cases a chin strap may be necessary to keep the hard hat on an employee's head. (Chin straps should break at a reasonably low force to prevent a strangulation hazard). Where manufacturer's instructions are available, they should be followed carefully.

7. Reassessment of hazards. Compliance with the hazard assessment requirements of §1915.152(b) will involve the reassessment of work activities where changing circumstances make it necessary. a. The employer should have a safety officer or other qualified person reassess the hazards of the work activity area as necessary. This reassessment should take into account changes in the workplace or work practices, such as those associated with the installation of new equipment, and the lessons learned from reviewing accident records, and a reevaluation performed to determine the suitability of PPE selected for use.

8. Selection chart guidelines for eye and face protection. Examples of occupations for which eye protection should be routinely considered are carpenters, engineers, coppersmiths, instrument technicians, insulators, electricians, machinists, mobile equipment mechanics and repairers, plumbers and ship fitters, sheet metal workers and tinsmiths, grinding equipment operators, machine operators, welders, boiler workers, painters, laborers, grit blasters, ship fitters and burners. This is not a complete list of occupations that require the use of eye protection. The following chart provides general guidance for the proper selection of eye and face protection to protect against hazards associated with the listed hazard “source” operations.

Eye and Face Protection Selection Chart

SourceAssessment of hazardProtection
Impact:
Chipping, grinding machining, masonry work, woodworking, sawing, drilling, chiseling, powered fastening, riveting, and sandingFlying fragments, objects, large chips, particles, sand, dirt, etcSpectacles with side protection, goggles, face shields. See notes (1), (3), (5), (6), (10). For severe exposure, use face shield.
Heat:
Furnace operations, pouring, casting, hot dipping, and weldingHot sparksFace shields, goggles, spectacles with side protection. For severe exposure use face shield. See notes (1), (2), (3).
   Splash from molten metalsFace shields worn over goggles. See notes (1), (2), (3).
   High temperature exposureScreen face shields, reflective face shields. See notes (1), (2), (3).
Chemicals:
Acid and chemicals handling, degreasing, platingSplashGoggles, eyecup and cover types. For severe exposure, use face shield. See notes (3), (11).
   Irritating mistsSpecial-purpose goggles.
Dust:
Woodworking, buffing, general dusty conditionsNuisance dustGoggles, eyecup and cover types. See note (8).
Light and/or Radiation:
Welding: Electric arcOptical radiationWelding helmets or welding shields. Typical shades: 10-14. See notes (9), (12).
Welding: GasOptical radiationWelding goggles or welding face shield. Typical shades: gas welding 4-8, cutting 3-6, brazing 3-4. See note (9).
Cutting, Torch brazing, Torch solderingOptical radiationSpectacles or welding face-shield. Typical shades, 1.5-3. See notes (3), (9).
GlarePoor visionSpectacles with shaded or special-purpose lenses, as suitable. See notes (9), (10).

Notes to Eye and Face Protection Selection Chart

(a) Care should be taken to recognize the possibility of multiple and simultaneous exposure to a variety of hazards. Adequate protection against the highest level of each of the hazards should be provided. Protective devices do not provide unlimited protection.

(b) Operations involving heat may also involve light radiation. As required by the standard, protection from both hazards must be provided.

(c) Face shields should only be worn over primary eye protection (spectacles or goggles).

(d) As required by the standard, filter lenses must meet the requirements for shade designations in §1915.153(a)(4). Tinted and shaded lenses are not filter lenses unless they are marked or identified as such.

(e) As required by the standard, persons whose vision requires the use of prescription (Rx) lenses must wear either protective devices fitted with prescription (Rx) lenses or protective devices designed to be worn over regular prescription (Rx) eye wear.

(f) Wearers of contact lenses must also wear appropriate eye and face protection devices in a hazardous environment. It should be recognized that dusty and/or chemical environments may represent an additional hazard to contact lens wearers.

(g) Caution should be exercised in the use of metal frame protective devices in electrical hazard areas.

(h) Atmospheric conditions and the restricted ventilation of the protector can cause lenses to fog. Frequent cleansing may be necessary.

(i) Welding helmets or face shields should be used only over primary eye protection (spectacles or goggles).

(j) Non-side shield spectacles are available for frontal protection only, but are not acceptable eye protection for the sources and operations listed for “impact.”

(k) Ventilation should be adequate, but well protected from splash entry. Eye and face protection should be designed and used so that it provides both adequate ventilation and protects the wearer from splash entry.

(l) Protection from light radiation is directly related to filter lens density. See note (d). Select the darkest shade that allows task performance.

9. Selection guidelines for head protection. (a) Hard hats are designed to provide protection from impact and penetration hazards caused by falling objects. Head protection is also available which provides protection from electric shock and burn. When selecting head protection, knowledge of potential electrical hazards is important. Class A helmets, in addition to impact and penetration resistance, provide electrical protection from low-voltage conductors. (They are proof tested to 2,200 volts.) Class B helmets, in addition to impact and penetration resistance, provide electrical protection from high-voltage conductors. (They are proof tested to 20,000 volts.) Class C helmets provide impact and penetration resistance. (They are usually made of aluminum, which conducts electricity and should not be used around electrical hazards.)

(b) Where falling object hazards are present, head protection must be worn. Some examples of exposure include: working below other workers who are using tools and materials which could fall; working around or under conveyor belts which are carrying parts or materials; working below machinery or processes which might cause material or objects to fall; and working on exposed energized conductors.

(c) Examples of occupations for which head protection should be considered are: carpenters, electricians, machinists, boilermakers, erectors, plumbers, coppersmiths, ship fitters, welders, laborers and material handlers.

10. Selection guidelines for foot protection. (a) Safety shoes and boots must meet ANSI Z41-1991 and provide impact and compression protection to the foot. Where necessary, safety shoes can be obtained which provide puncture protection. In some work situations, metatarsal (top of foot) protection should be provided, and in some other special situations, electrical conductive or insulating safety shoes would be appropriate.

(b) Safety shoes or boots with impact protection would be required for carrying or handling materials such as packages, objects, parts or heavy tools, which could be dropped, and for other activities where objects might fall onto the feet. Safety shoes or boots with compression protection would be required for work activities involving skid trucks (manual material handling carts) around bulk rolls (such as paper rolls) and around heavy pipes, all of which could potentially roll over an employees' feet. Safety shoes or boots with puncture protection would be required where sharp objects such as nails, wire, tacks, screws, large staples, scrap metal etc., could be stepped on by employees, causing an injury.

(c) Some occupations (not a complete list) for which foot protection should be routinely considered are: shipping and receiving clerks, stock clerks, carpenters, electricians, machinists, boiler makers, plumbers, copper smiths, pipe fitters, ship fitters, burners, chippers and grinders, erectors, press operators, welders, laborers, and material handlers.

11. Selection guidelines for hand protection. (a) Gloves are often relied upon to prevent cuts, abrasions, burns, and skin contact with chemicals that are capable of causing local or systemic effects following dermal exposure. OSHA is unaware of any gloves that provide protection against all potential hand hazards, and commonly available glove materials provide only limited protection against many chemicals. Therefore, it is important to select the most appropriate glove for a particular application and to determine how long it can be worn, and whether it can be reused.

(b) It is also important to know the performance characteristics of gloves relative to the specific hazard anticipated, e.g., chemical hazards, cut hazards, and flame hazards. These performance characteristics should be assessed by using standard test procedures. Before purchasing gloves, the employer should request documentation from the manufacturer that the gloves meet the appropriate test standard(s) for the hazard(s) anticipated.

(c) other general factors to be considered for glove selection are:

(A) As long as the performance characteristics are acceptable, in certain circumstances, it may be more cost effective to regularly change cheaper gloves than to reuse more expensive types; and,

(B) The work activities of the employee should be studied to determine the degree of dexterity required, the duration, frequency, and degree of exposure to the hazard, and the physical stresses that will be applied.

(d) With respect to selection of gloves for protection against chemical hazards:

(A) The toxic properties of the chemical(s) must be determined; in particular, the ability of the chemical to cause local effects on the skin or to pass through the skin and cause systemic effects or both;

(B) Generally, any “chemical resistant” glove can be used for dry powders;

(C) For mixtures and formulated products (unless specific test data are available), a glove should be selected on the basis of the chemical component with the shortest breakthrough time, since it is possible for solvents to carry active ingredients through polymeric materials; and,

(D) Employees must be able to remove the gloves in such a manner as to prevent skin contamination.

12. Cleaning and maintenance. (a) It is important that all PPE be kept clean and be properly maintained. Cleaning is particularly important for eye and face protection where dirty or fogged lenses could impair vision.

(b) For the purposes of compliance, PPE should be inspected, cleaned, and maintained at regular intervals so that the PPE provides the requisite protection.

(c) It is important to ensure that contaminated PPE which cannot be decontaminated is disposed of in a manner that protects employees from exposure to hazards.

13. Examples of work activities, trades and selection of basic PPE.

Example 1: Welder. Based on an assessment of the work activity area hazards to which welders are exposed, the equipment listed below is the basic PPE required for this occupation. This does not take into account a job location in which additional PPE may be required, such as where the welder works from an elevated platform without guard rails. In this situation the welder must also wear the proper fall protection equipment, such as a body harness.

—Hard hat

—Welding Shield (Face)

—Welding Gloves

—Safety Glasses

—Safety Shoes

—Welding Sleeves (welding in the overhead position)

(Signed and dated)

Example 2: Yard Maintenance Worker. Based on an assessment of the workplace hazards to which shipyard maintenance workers are exposed, the equipment listed below is the basic PPE required for this occupation. Where maintenance workers are exposed to other hazards, such as asbestos, the insulation on a pipe is being repaired, maintenance workers must be provided with the appropriate supplemental PPE (requirements for asbestos PPE are set out in 1915.1001).

—Hard Hat

—Safety Glasses

—Work Gloves

—Safety Shoes

(Signed and Dated)

Example 3: Chipper and Grinder Worker. Based on an assessment of the workplace hazards to which shipyard chipper and grinder workers are exposed, the equipment listed below is the basic PPE required for this occupation. Where workers are exposed to other hazards, such as hazardous dust from chipping or grinding operations, chipper and grinder workers must be provided with the appropriate supplemental PPE.

—Safety Glasses

—Transparent Face Shields

—Hearing Protection

—Foot Protection

—Gloves

(Signed and Dated)

Example 4: Painter. Based on an assessment of the workplace hazards to which shipyard painters are exposed, the equipment listed below is the basic PPE required for this occupation. Where painters are exposed to other hazards, such as a fall from an elevation where no guardrails are present, painters must be provided with the appropriate supplemental PPE.

—Hard Hats

—Safety Glasses

—Disposable Clothing

—Gloves

—Respiratory Protection, including Airline Respirators when working in Confined Spaces

—Barrier Creams

(Signed and Dated)

Example 5: Tank Cleaner. Tank cleaning operations and the basic PPE required for them depend largely upon the type of cargo shipped in the tank. Therefore, the following example is given for a tank in which gasoline has been shipped. Based on an assessment of the workplace hazards to which shipyard tank cleaners are exposed, specifically benzene and flammability hazards, the equipment listed below is the basic PPE required for this situation. Other tank cleaning operations will require variations in the PPE listed below.

—Respiratory Protection, Airline Respirators for working in confined spaces or where personal exposure limits could be exceeded.

—Chemically resistant clothing

—Face Shields

—Chemically resistant boots

—Chemically resistant gloves

—Fall Protection

—Non sparking tools and equipment

—Explosion-proof Lighting

(Signed and Dated)

[47 FR 16986, Apr. 20, 1982, as amended at 67 FR 44544, July 3, 2002]

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Appendix B to Subpart I of Part 1915—General Testing Conditions and Additional Guidelines for Personal Fall Protection Systems (Non-Mandatory)

1. Personal fall arrest systems—(a) General test conditions. (1) Lifelines, lanyards, and deceleration devices should be attached to an anchorage and connected to the body-belt or body harness in the same manner as they would be when used to protect employees, except that lanyards should be tested only when connected directly to the anchorage, and not when connected to a lifeline.

(2) The anchorage should be rigid, and should not have a deflection greater than .04 inches (1 cm) when a force of 2,250 pounds (10.01 Kn) is applied.

(3) The frequency response of the load measuring instrumentation should be 100 Hz.

(4) The test weight used in the strength and force tests should be a rigid, metal cylindrical or torso-shaped object with a girth of 38 inches plus or minus 4 inches (96.5 cm plus or minus 10.16 cm).

(5) The lanyard or lifeline used to create the free fall distance should be the one supplied with the system, or in its absence, the least elastic lanyard or lifeline available to be used by the employee with the system.

(6) The test weight for each test should be hoisted to the required level and should be quickly released without having any appreciable motion imparted to it.

(7) The system's performance should be evaluated, taking into account the range of environmental conditions for which it is designed to be used.

(8) Following the test, the system need not be capable of further operation.

(b) Strength test. (1) During the testing of all systems, a test weight of 300 pounds plus or minus 5 pounds (136.08 kg plus or minus 2.27 kg) should be used. (See paragraph (a)(4) above.)

(2) The test consists of dropping the test weight once. A new unused system should be used for each test.

(3) For lanyard systems, the lanyard length should be 6 feet plus or minus 2 inches (1.83 m plus or minus 5.08 cm) as measured from the fixed anchorage to the attachment on the body belt or harness.

(4) For rope-grab-type deceleration systems, the length of the lifeline above the center line of the grabbing mechanism to the lifeline's anchorage point should not exceed 2 feet (0.61 m).

(5) For lanyard systems, for systems with deceleration devices which do not automatically limit free fall distance to 2 feet (0.61 m) or less, and for systems with deceleration devices which have a connection distance in excess of 1 foot (0.31 m) (measured between the centerline of the lifeline and the attachment point to the body belt or harness), the test weight should be rigged to free fall a distance of 7.5 feet (2.29 m) from a point that is 1.5 feet (45.72 cm) above the anchorage point, to its hanging location (6 feet (1.83 m) below the anchorage). The test weight should fall without interference, obstruction, or hitting the floor or the ground during the test. In some cases, a non-elastic wire lanyard of sufficient length may need to be added to the system (for test purposes) to create the necessary free fall distance.

(6) For deceleration device systems with integral lifelines or lanyards which automatically limit free fall distance to 2 feet (0.61 m) or less, the test weight should be rigged to free fall a distance of four feet (1.22 m).

(7) Any weight which detaches from the belt or harness should constitute failure for the strength test.

(c) Force test general. The test consists of dropping the respective test weight once. A new, unused system should be used for each test.

(1) For lanyard systems. (i) A test weight of 220 pounds plus or minus three pounds (99.79 kg plus or minus 1.36 kg) should be used (see paragraph (a)(4) above).

(ii) Lanyard length should be 6 feet plus or minus 2 inches (1.83 m plus or minus 5.08 cm) as measured from the fixed anchorage to the attachment on the body belt or body harness.

(iii) The test weight should fall free from the anchorage level to its handling location (a total of 6 feet (1.83 m) free fall distance) without interference, obstruction, or hitting the floor or ground during the test.

(2) For all other systems. (i) A test weight of 220 pounds plus or minus 3 pounds (99.79 kg plus or minus 1.36 kg) should be used (see paragraph (a)(4) above).

(ii) The free fall distance to be used in the test should be the maximum fall distance physically permitted by the system during normal use conditions, up to a maximum free fall distance for the test weight of 6 feet (1.83 m), except as follows:

(A) For deceleration systems which have a connection link or lanyard, the test weight should free fall a distance equal to the connection distance (measured between the center line of the lifeline and the attachment point to the body belt or harness).

(B) For deceleration device systems with integral life lines or lanyards which automatically limit free fall distance to 2 feet (0.61 m) or less, the test weight should free fall a distance equal to that permitted by the system in normal use. (For example, to test a system with a self-retracting lifeline or lanyard, the test weight should be supported and the system allowed to retract the lifeline or lanyard as it would in normal use. The test weight would then be released and the force and deceleration distance measured.)

(3) Failure. A system fails the force test if the recorded maximum arresting force exceeds 1,260 pounds (5.6 Kn) when using a body belt, or exceeds 2,520 pounds (11.21 Kn) when using a body harness.

(4) Distances. The maximum elongation and deceleration distance should be recorded during the force test.

(d) Deceleration device tests—general. The device should be evaluated or tested under the environmental conditions (such as rain, ice, grease, dirt, type of lifeline, etc.) for which the device is designed.

(1) Rope-grab-type deceleration devices. (i) Devices should be moved on a lifeline 1,000 times over the same length of line a distance of not less than 1 foot (30.48 cm), and the mechanism should lock each time.

(ii) Unless the device is permanently marked to indicate the type of lifelines which must be used, several types (different diameters and different materials) of lifelines should be used to test the device.

(2) Other-self-activating-type deceleration devices. The locking mechanisms of other self-activating-type deceleration devices designed for more than one arrest should lock each of 1,000 times as they would in normal service.

2. Positioning device systems—(a) Test Conditions. (1) The fixed anchorage should be rigid and should not have a deflection greater than .04 inches (1.02 mm) when a force of 2,250 pounds (10.01 Kn) is applied.

(2) For lineman's body belts and pole straps, the body belt should be secured to a 250 pound (113.4 kg) bag of sand at a point which simulates the waist of an employee. One end of the pole strap should be attached to the rigid anchorage and the other end to the body belt. The sand bag should be allowed to free fall a distance of 4 feet (1.22 m). Failure of the pole strap and body belt should be indicated by any breakage or slippage sufficient to permit the bag to fall free to the ground.

(3) For window cleaner's belts, the complete belt should withstand a drop test consisting of a 250 pound (113.4 kg) weight falling free for a distance of 6 feet (1.83 m). The weight should be a rigid object with a girth of 38 inches plus or minus four inches (96.52 cm plus or minus 10.16 cm.) The weight should be placed in the waistband with the belt buckle drawn firmly against the weight, as when the belt is worn by a window cleaner. One belt terminal should be attached to a rigid anchor and the other terminal should hang free. The terminals should be adjusted to their maximum span. The weight fastened in the freely suspended belt should then be lifted exactly 6 feet (1.83 m) above its “at rest” position and released so as to permit a free fall of 6 feet (1.83 m) vertically below the point of attachment of the terminal anchor. The belt system should be equipped with devices and instrumentation capable of measuring the duration and magnitude of the arrest forces. Any breakage or slippage which permits the weight to fall free of the system constitutes failure of the test. In addition, the initial and subsequent arresting force peaks should be measured and should not exceed 2,000 pounds (8.9 Kn) for more than 2 milliseconds for the initial impact, nor exceed 1,000 pounds (4.45 Kn) for the remainder of the arrest time.

(4) All other positioning device systems (except for restraint line systems) should withstand a drop test consisting of a 250-pound (113.4 kg) weight falling free for a distance of 4 feet (1.22 m). The weight should be a rigid object with a girth of 38 inches plus or minus 4 inches (96.52 cm plus or minus 10.16 cm). The body belt or harness should be affixed to the test weight as it would be to an employee. The system should be connected to the rigid anchor in the manner that the system would be connected in normal use. The weight should be lifted exactly 4 feet (1.22 m) above its “at rest” position and released so as to permit a vertical free fall of 4 feet (1.22 m). Any breakage or slippage which permits the weight to fall free to the ground should constitute failure of the system.

[47 FR 16986, Apr. 20, 1982, as amended at 67 FR 44544, July 3, 2002]

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