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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of June 4, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter IPart 241Subpart B → §241.4


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 241—SOLID WASTES USED AS FUELS OR INGREDIENTS IN COMBUSTION UNITS
Subpart B—Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Wastes When Used as Fuels or Ingredients in Combustion Units


§241.4   Non-Waste Determinations for Specific Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials When Used as a Fuel.

(a) The following non-hazardous secondary materials are not solid wastes when used as a fuel in a combustion unit:

(1) Scrap tires that are not discarded and are managed under the oversight of established tire collection programs, including tires removed from vehicles and off-specification tires.

(2) Resinated wood.

(3) Coal refuse that has been recovered from legacy piles and processed in the same manner as currently-generated coal refuse.

(4) Dewatered pulp and paper sludges that are not discarded and are generated and burned on-site by pulp and paper mills that burn a significant portion of such materials where such dewatered residuals are managed in a manner that preserves the meaningful heating value of the materials.

(5) Construction and demolition (C&D) wood processed from C&D debris according to best management practices. Combustors of C&D wood must obtain a written certification from C&D processing facilities that the C&D wood has been processed by trained operators in accordance with best management practices. Best management practices for purposes of this categorical listing must include sorting by trained operators that excludes or removes the following materials from the final product fuel: non-wood materials (e.g., polyvinyl chloride and other plastics, drywall, concrete, aggregates, dirt, and asbestos), and wood treated with creosote, pentachlorophenol, chromated copper arsenate, or other copper, chromium, or arsenical preservatives. In addition:

(i) Positive sorting. C&D processing facilities that use positive sorting—where operators pick out desirable wood from co-mingled debris—or that receive and process positive sorted C&D wood must either:

(A) Exclude all painted wood (to the extent that only de minimis quantities inherent to processing limitations may remain) from the final product fuel,

(B) Use X-ray Fluorescence to ensure that painted wood included in the final product fuel does not contain lead-based paint, or

(C) Require documentation that a building has been tested for and does not include lead-based paint before accepting demolition debris from that building.

(ii) Negative sorting. C&D processing facilities that use negative sorting—where operators remove contaminated or otherwise undesirable materials from co-mingled debris—must remove fines (i.e., small-sized particles that may contain relatively high concentrations of lead and other contaminants) and either:

(A) Remove all painted wood (to the extent that only de minimis quantities inherent to processing limitations may remain),

(B) Use X-ray Fluorescence to detect and remove lead-painted wood, or

(C) Require documentation that a building has been tested for and does not include lead-based paint before accepting demolition debris from that building.

(iii) Training. Processors must train operators to exclude or remove the materials as listed in paragraph (a)(5) of this section from the final product fuel. Records of training must include date of training held and must be maintained on-site for a period of three years.

(iv) Written certification. A written certification must be obtained by the combustor for every new or modified contract, purchase agreement, or other legally binding document, from each final processor of C&D wood and must include the statement: the processed C&D wood has been sorted by trained operators in accordance with best management practices.

(6) Paper recycling residuals generated from the recycling of recovered paper, paperboard and corrugated containers and combusted by paper recycling mills whose boilers are designed to burn solid fuel.

(7) Creosote-treated railroad ties that are processed and then combusted in the following types of units. Processing must include, at a minimum, metal removal and shredding or grinding.

(i) Units designed to burn both biomass and fuel oil as part of normal operations and not solely as part of start-up or shut-down operations, and

(ii) Units at major source pulp and paper mills or power producers subject to 40 CFR part 63, subpart DDDDD, that combust CTRTs and had been designed to burn biomass and fuel oil, but are modified (e.g., oil delivery mechanisms are removed) in order to use natural gas instead of fuel oil, as part of normal operations and not solely as part of start-up or shut-down operations. The CTRTs may continue to be combusted as product fuel under this subparagraph only if the following conditions are met, which are intended to ensure that the CTRTs are not being discarded:

(A) CTRTs must be burned in existing (i.e. commenced construction prior to April 14, 2014) stoker, bubbling bed, fluidized bed, or hybrid suspension grate boilers; and

(B) CTRTs can comprise no more than 40 percent of the fuel that is used on an annual heat input basis.

(8) Creosote-borate treated railroad ties, and mixtures of creosote, borate and/or copper naphthenate treated railroad ties that are processed and then combusted in the following types of units. Processing must include, at a minimum, metal removal and shredding or grinding.

(i) Units designed to burn both biomass and fuel oil as part of normal operations and not solely as part of start-up or shut-down operations; and

(ii) Units at major source pulp and paper mills or power producers subject to 40 CFR part 63, subpart DDDDD, designed to burn biomass and fuel oil as part of normal operations and not solely as part of start-up or shut-down operations, but are modified (e.g., oil delivery mechanisms are removed) in order to use natural gas instead of fuel oil, The creosote-borate and mixed creosote, borate and copper naphthenate treated railroad ties may continue to be combusted as product fuel under this subparagraph only if the following conditions are met, which are intended to ensure that such railroad ties are not being discarded:

(A) Creosote-borate and mixed creosote, borate and copper naphthenate treated railroad ties must be burned in existing (i.e., commenced construction prior to April 14, 2014) stoker, bubbling bed, fluidized bed, or hybrid suspension grate boilers; and

(B) Creosote-borate and mixed creosote, borate and copper naphthenate treated railroad ties can comprise no more than 40 percent of the fuel that is used on an annual heat input basis.

(iii) Units meeting requirements in paragraph (a)(8)(i) or (ii) of this section that are also designed to burn coal.

(9) Copper naphthenate treated railroad ties that are processed and then combusted in units designed to burn biomass, biomass and fuel oil, or biomass and coal. Processing must include at a minimum, metal removal, and shredding or grinding.

(10) Copper naphthenate-borate treated railroad ties that are processed and then combusted in units designed to burn biomass, biomass and fuel oil, or biomass and coal. Processing must include at a minimum, metal removal, and shredding or grinding.

(b) Any person may submit a rulemaking petition to the Administrator to identify additional non-hazardous secondary materials to be listed in paragraph (a) of this section. Contents and procedures for the submittal of the petitions include the following:

(1) Each petition must be submitted to the Administrator by certified mail and must include:

(i) The petitioner's name and address;

(ii) A statement of the petitioner's interest in the proposed action;

(iii) A description of the proposed action, including (where appropriate) suggested regulatory language; and

(iv) A statement of the need and justification for the proposed action, including any supporting tests, studies, or other information. Where the non-hazardous secondary material does not meet the legitimacy criteria, the applicant must explain why such non-hazardous secondary material should be considered a non-waste fuel, balancing the legitimacy criteria with other relevant factors.

(2) The Administrator will make a tentative decision to grant or deny a petition and will publish notice of such tentative decision, either in the form of an advanced notice of proposed rulemaking, a proposed rule, or a tentative determination to deny the petition, in the Federal Register for written public comment.

(3) Upon the written request of any interested person, the Administrator may, at its discretion, hold an informal public hearing to consider oral comments on the tentative decision. A person requesting a hearing must state the issues to be raised and explain why written comments would not suffice to communicate the person's views. The Administrator may in any case decide on its own motion to hold an informal public hearing.

(4) After evaluating all public comments the Administrator will make a final decision by publishing in the Federal Register a regulatory amendment or a denial of the petition.

(5) The Administrator will grant or deny a petition based on the weight of evidence showing the following:

(i) The non-hazardous secondary material has not been discarded in the first instance and is legitimately used as a fuel in a combustion unit, or if discarded, has been sufficiently processed into a material that is legitimately used as a fuel.

(ii) Where any one of the legitimacy criteria in §241.3(d)(1) is not met, that the use of the non-hazardous secondary material is integrally tied to the industrial production process, that the non-hazardous secondary material is functionally the same as the comparable traditional fuel, or other relevant factors as appropriate.

[78 FR 9213, Feb. 7, 2013, as amended by 81 FR 6743, Feb. 8, 2016; 83 FR 5340, Feb. 7, 2018]

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