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Title 26 → Chapter I → Subchapter A → Part 1 → §1.7520-3 |

Title 26: Internal Revenue

PART 1—INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED)

(a) Internal Revenue Code sections to which section 7520 does not apply. Section 7520 of the Internal Revenue Code does not apply for purposes of—

(1) Part I, subchapter D of subtitle A (section 401 et. seq.), relating to the income tax treatment of certain qualified plans. (However, section 7520 does apply to the estate and gift tax treatment of certain qualified plans and for purposes of determining excess accumulations under section 4980A);

(2) Sections 72 and 101(b), relating to the income taxation of life insurance, endowment, and annuity contracts, unless otherwise provided for in the regulations under sections 72, 101, and 1011 (see, particularly, §§1.101-2(e)(1)(iii)(b)(2), and 1.1011-2(c), Example 8);

(3) Sections 83 and 451, unless otherwise provided for in the regulations under those sections;

(4) Section 457, relating to the valuation of deferred compensation, unless otherwise provided for in the regulations under section 457;

(5) Sections 3121(v) and 3306(r), relating to the valuation of deferred amounts, unless otherwise provided for in the regulations under those sections;

(6) Section 6058, relating to valuation statements evidencing compliance with qualified plan requirements, unless otherwise provided for in the regulations under section 6058;

(7) Section 7872, relating to income and gift taxation of interest-free loans and loans with below-market interest rates, unless otherwise provided for in the regulations under section 7872; or

(8) Section 2702(a)(2)(A), relating to the value of a nonqualified retained interest upon a transfer of an interest in trust to or for the benefit of a member of the transferor's family; and

(9) Any other sections of the Internal Revenue Code to the extent provided by the Internal Revenue Service in revenue rulings or revenue procedures. (See §§601.201 and 601.601 of this chapter).

(b) Other limitations on the application of section 7520—(1) In general—(i) Ordinary beneficial interests. For purposes of this section:

(A) An ordinary annuity interest is the right to receive a fixed dollar amount at the end of each year during one or more measuring lives or for some other defined period. A standard section 7520 annuity factor for an ordinary annuity interest represents the present worth of the right to receive $1.00 per year for a defined period, using the interest rate prescribed under section 7520 for the appropriate month. If an annuity interest is payable more often than annually or is payable at the beginning of each period, a special adjustment must be made in any computation with a standard section 7520 annuity factor.

(B) An ordinary income interest is the right to receive the income from, or the use of, property during one or more measuring lives or for some other defined period. A standard section 7520 income factor for an ordinary income interest represents the present worth of the right to receive the use of $1.00 for a defined period, using the interest rate prescribed under section 7520 for the appropriate month.

(C) An ordinary remainder or reversionary interest is the right to receive an interest in property at the end of one or more measuring lives or some other defined period. A standard section 7520 remainder factor for an ordinary remainder or reversionary interest represents the present worth of the right to receive $1.00 at the end of a defined period, using the interest rate prescribed under section 7520 for the appropriate month.

(ii) Certain restricted beneficial interests. A restricted beneficial interest is an annuity, income, remainder, or reversionary interest that is subject to a contingency, power, or other restriction, whether the restriction is provided for by the terms of the trust, will, or other governing instrument or is caused by other circumstances. In general, a standard section 7520 annuity, income, or remainder factor may not be used to value a restricted beneficial interest. However, a special section 7520 annuity, income, or remainder factor may be used to value a restricted beneficial interest under some circumstances. See paragraph (b)(4) Example 2 of this section, which illustrates a situation where a special section 7520 actuarial factor is needed to take into account the shorter life expectancy of the terminally ill measuring life. See §1.7520-1(c) for requesting a special factor from the Internal Revenue Service.

(iii) Other beneficial interests. If, under the provisions of this paragraph (b), the interest rate and mortality components prescribed under section 7520 are not applicable in determining the value of any annuity, income, remainder, or reversionary interest, the actual fair market value of the interest (determined without regard to section 7520) is based on all of the facts and circumstances if and to the extent permitted by the Internal Revenue Code provision applicable to the property interest.

(2) Provisions of governing instrument and other limitations on source of payment—(i) Annuities. A standard section 7520 annuity factor may not be used to determine the present value of an annuity for a specified term of years or the life of one or more individuals unless the effect of the trust, will, or other governing instrument is to ensure that the annuity will be paid for the entire defined period. In the case of an annuity payable from a trust or other limited fund, the annuity is not considered payable for the entire defined period if, considering the applicable section 7520 interest rate at the valuation date of the transfer, the annuity is expected to exhaust the fund before the last possible annuity payment is made in full. For this purpose, it must be assumed that it is possible for each measuring life to survive until age 110. For example, for a fixed annuity payable annually at the end of each year, if the amount of the annuity payment (expressed as a percentage of the initial corpus) is less than or equal to the applicable section 7520 interest rate at the date of the transfer, the corpus is assumed to be sufficient to make all payments. If the percentage exceeds the applicable section 7520 interest rate and the annuity is for a definite term of years, multiply the annual annuity amount by the Table B term certain annuity factor, as described in §1.7520-1(c)(1), for the number of years of the defined period. If the percentage exceeds the applicable section 7520 interest rate and the annuity is payable for the life of one or more individuals, multiply the annual annuity amount by the Table B annuity factor for 110 years minus the age of the youngest individual. If the result exceeds the limited fund, the annuity may exhaust the fund, and it will be necessary to calculate a special section 7520 annuity factor that takes into account the exhaustion of the trust or fund. This computation would be modified, if appropriate, to take into account annuities with different payment terms. See §25.7520-3(b)(2)(v) Example 5 of this chapter, which provides an illustration involving an annuity trust that is subject to exhaustion.

(ii) Income and similar interests—(A) Beneficial enjoyment. A standard section 7520 income factor for an ordinary income interest may not be used to determine the present value of an income or similar interest in trust for a term of years or for the life of one or more individuals unless the effect of the trust, will, or other governing instrument is to provide the income beneficiary with that degree of beneficial enjoyment of the property during the term of the income interest that the principles of the law of trusts accord to a person who is unqualifiedly designated as the income beneficiary of a trust for a similar period of time. This degree of beneficial enjoyment is provided only if it was the transferor's intent, as manifested by the provisions of the governing instrument and the surrounding circumstances, that the trust provide an income interest for the income beneficiary during the specified period of time that is consistent with the value of the trust corpus and with its preservation. In determining whether a trust arrangement evidences that intention, the treatment required or permitted with respect to individual items must be considered in relation to the entire system provided for in the administration of the subject trust. Similarly, in determining the present value of the right to use tangible property (whether or not in trust) for one or more measuring lives or for some other specified period of time, the interest rate component prescribed under section 7520 and §1.7520-1 may not be used unless, during the specified period, the effect of the trust, will or other governing instrument is to provide the beneficiary with that degree of use, possession, and enjoyment of the property during the term of interest that applicable state law accords to a person who is unqualifiedly designated as a life tenant or term holder for a similar period of time.

(B) Diversions of income and corpus. A standard section 7520 income factor for an ordinary income interest may not be used to value an income interest or similar interest in property for a term of years or for one or more measuring lives if—

(1) The trust, will, or other governing instrument requires or permits the beneficiary's income or other enjoyment to be withheld, diverted, or accumulated for another person's benefit without the consent of the income beneficiary; or

(2) The governing instrument requires or permits trust corpus to be withdrawn from the trust for another person's benefit during the income beneficiary's term of enjoyment without the consent of and accountability to the income beneficiary for such diversion.

(iii) Remainder and reversionary interests. A standard section 7520 remainder interest factor for an ordinary remainder or reversionary interest may not be used to determine the present value of a remainder or reversionary interest (whether in trust or otherwise) unless, consistent with the preservation and protection that the law of trusts would provide for a person who is unqualifiedly designated as the remainder beneficiary of a trust for a similar duration, the effect of the administrative and dispositive provisions for the interest or interests that precede the remainder or reversionary interest is to assure that the property will be adequately preserved and protected (e.g., from erosion, invasion, depletion, or damage) until the remainder or reversionary interest takes effect in possession and enjoyment. This degree of preservation and protection is provided only if it was the transferor's intent, as manifested by the provisions of the arrangement and the surrounding circumstances, that the entire disposition provide the remainder or reversionary beneficiary with an undiminished interest in the property transferred at the time of the termination of the prior interest.

(iv) Pooled income fund interests. In general, pooled income funds are created and administered to achieve a special rate of return. A beneficial interest in a pooled income fund is not ordinarily valued using a standard section 7520 income or remainder interest factor. The present value of a beneficial interest in a pooled income fund is determined according to rules and special remainder factors prescribed in §1.642(c)-6 and, when applicable, the rules set forth in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, if the individual who is the measuring life is terminally ill at the time of the transfer.

(3) Mortality component. The mortality component prescribed under section 7520 may not be used to determine the present value of an annuity, income interest, remainder interest, or reversionary interest if an individual who is a measuring life is terminally ill at the time of the transaction. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(3), an individual who is known to have an incurable illness or other deteriorating physical condition is considered terminally ill if there is at least a 50 percent probability that the individual will die within 1 year. However, if the individual survives for eighteen months or longer after the date of the transaction, that individual shall be presumed to have not been terminally ill at the time of the transaction unless the contrary is established by clear and convincing evidence.

(4) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (b) are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Annuity funded with unproductive property. The taxpayer transfers corporation stock worth $1,000,000 to a trust. The trust provides for a 6 percent ($60,000 per year) annuity in cash or other property to be paid to a charitable organization for 25 years and for the remainder to be distributed to the donor's child. The trust specifically authorizes, but does not require, the trustee to retain the shares of stock. The section 7520 interest rate for the month of the transfer is 8.2 percent. The corporation has paid no dividends on this stock during the past 5 years, and there is no indication that this policy will change in the near future. Under applicable state law, the corporation is considered to be a sound investment that satisfies fiduciary standards. Therefore, the trust's sole investment in this corporation is not expected to adversely affect the interest of either the annuitant or the remainder beneficiary. Considering the 6 percent annuity payout rate and the 8.2 percent section 7520 interest rate, the trust corpus is considered sufficient to pay this annuity for the entire 25-year term of the trust, or even indefinitely. Although it appears that neither beneficiary would be able to compel the trustee to make the trust corpus produce investment income, the annuity interest in this case is considered to be an ordinary annuity interest, and the standard section 7520 annuity factor may be used to determine the present value of the annuity. In this case, the section 7520 annuity factor would represent the right to receive $1.00 per year for a term of 25 years.

Example 2. Terminal illness. The taxpayer transfers property worth $1,000,000 to a charitable remainder unitrust described in section 664(d)(2) and §1.664-3. The trust provides for a fixed-percentage 7 percent unitrust benefit (each annual payment is equal to 7 percent of the trust assets as valued at the beginning of each year) to be paid quarterly to an individual beneficiary for life and for the remainder to be distributed to a charitable organization. At the time the trust is created, the individual beneficiary is age 60 and has been diagnosed with an incurable illness and there is at least a 50 percent probability of the individual dying within 1 year. Assuming the presumption in paragraph (b)(3) of this section does not apply, because there is at least a 50 percent probability that this beneficiary will die within 1 year, the standard section 7520 unitrust remainder factor for a person age 60 from the valuation tables may not be used to determine the present value of the charitable remainder interest. Instead, a special unitrust remainder factor must be computed that is based on the section 7520 interest rate and that takes into account the projection of the individual beneficiary's actual life expectancy.

(5) Additional limitations. Section 7520 does not apply to the extent as may otherwise be provided by the Commissioner.

(c) Effective date. Section 1.7520-3(a) is effective as of May 1, 1989. The provisions of paragraph (b) of this section are effective with respect to transactions after December 13, 1995.

[T.D. 8540, 59 FR 30150, June 10, 1994, as amended by T.D. 8630, 60 FR 63915, Dec. 13, 1995]