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e-CFR data is current as of September 17, 2020

Title 25Chapter ISubchapter E → Part 42


Title 25: Indians


PART 42—STUDENT RIGHTS


Contents
§42.1   What general principles apply to this part?
§42.2   What rights do individual students have?
§42.3   How should a school address alleged violations of school policies?
§42.4   What are alternative dispute resolution processes?
§42.5   When can a school use ADR processes to address an alleged violation?
§42.6   When does due process require a formal disciplinary hearing?
§42.7   What does due process in a formal disciplinary proceeding include?
§42.8   What are a student's due process rights in a formal disciplinary proceeding?
§42.9   What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary proceedings?
§42.10   How must the school communicate individual student rights to students, parents or guardians, and staff?
§42.11   Information collection.

Authority: 5 U.S.C. 301, Pub. L. 107-110, 115 Stat. 1425.

Source: 70 FR 22218, Apr. 28, 2005, unless otherwise noted.

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§42.1   What general principles apply to this part?

(a) This part applies to every Bureau-funded school. The regulations in this part govern student rights and due process procedures in disciplinary proceedings in all Bureau-funded schools. To comply with this part, each school must:

(1) Respect the constitutional, statutory, civil and human rights of individual students; and

(2) Respect the role of Tribal judicial systems where appropriate.

(b) All student rights, due process procedures, and educational practices should, where appropriate or possible, afford students consideration of and rights equal to the student's traditional Native customs and practices.

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§42.2   What rights do individual students have?

Individual students at Bureau-funded schools have, and must be accorded, at least the following rights:

(a) The right to an education that may take into consideration Native American or Alaska Native values;

(b) The right to an education that incorporates applicable Federal and Tribal constitutional and statutory protections for individuals; and

(c) The right to due process in instances of disciplinary actions.

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§42.3   How should a school address alleged violations of school policies?

(a) In addressing alleged violations of school policies, each school must consider, to the extent appropriate, the reintegration of the student into the school community.

(b) The school may address a student violation using alternative dispute resolution (ADR) processes or the formal disciplinary process.

(1) When appropriate, the school should first attempt to use the ADR processes described in §42.4 that may allow resolution of the alleged violation without recourse to punitive action.

(2) Where ADR processes do not resolve matters or cannot be used, the school must address the alleged violation through a formal disciplinary proceeding under §42.7 consistent with the due process rights described in §42.7.

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§42.4   What are alternative dispute resolution processes?

Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) processes are formal or informal processes that may allow resolution of the violation without recourse to punitive action.

(a) ADR processes may:

(1) Include peer adjudication, mediation, and conciliation; and

(2) Involve appropriate customs and practices of the Indian Tribes or Alaska Native Villages to the extent that these practices are readily identifiable.

(b) For further information on ADR processes and how to use them, contact the Office of Collaborative Action and Dispute Resolution by:

(1) Sending an e-mail to: cadr@ios.doi.gov; or

(2) Writing to: Office of Collaborative Action and Dispute Resolution, Department of the Interior, 1849 C Street NW., MS 5258, Washington, DC 20240.

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§42.5   When can a school use ADR processes to address an alleged violation?

(a) The school may address an alleged violation through the ADR processes described in §42.4, unless one of the conditions in paragraph (b) of this section applies.

(b) The school must not use ADR processes in any of the following circumstances:

(1) Where the Act requires immediate expulsion (“zero tolerance” laws);

(2) For a special education disciplinary proceeding where use of ADR would not be compatible with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Pub. L. 105-17); or

(3) When all parties do not agree to using alternative dispute resolution processes.

(c) If ADR processes do not resolve matters or cannot be used, the school must address alleged violations through the formal disciplinary proceeding described in §42.8.

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§42.6   When does due process require a formal disciplinary hearing?

Unless local school policies and procedures provide for less, a formal disciplinary hearing is required before a suspension in excess of 10 days or expulsion.

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§42.7   What does due process in a formal disciplinary proceeding include?

Due process must include written notice of the charges and a fair and impartial hearing as required by this section.

(a) The school must give the student written notice of charges within a reasonable time before the hearing required by paragraph (b) of this section. Notice of the charges includes:

(1) A copy of the school policy allegedly violated;

(2) The facts related to the alleged violation;

(3) Information about any statements that the school has received relating to the charge and instructions on how to obtain copies of those statements; and

(4) Information regarding those parts of the student's record that the school will consider in rendering a disciplinary decision.

(b) The school must hold a fair and impartial hearing before imposing disciplinary action, except under the following circumstances:

(1) If the Act requires immediate removal (such as, if the student brought a firearm to school) or if there is some other statutory basis for removal;

(2) In an emergency situation that seriously and immediately endangers the health or safety of the student or others; or

(3) If the student (or the student's parent or guardian if the student is less than 18 years old) chooses to waive entitlement to a hearing.

(c) In an emergency situation under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the school:

(1) May temporarily remove the student;

(2) Must immediately document for the record the facts giving rise to the emergency; and

(3) Must afford the student a hearing that follows due process, as set forth in this part, within ten days.

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§42.8   What are a student's due process rights in a formal disciplinary proceeding?

A student has the following due process rights in a formal disciplinary proceeding:

(a) The right to have present at the hearing the student's parents or guardians (or their designee);

(b) The right to be represented by counsel (legal counsel will not be paid for by the Bureau-funded school or the Secretary);

(c) The right to produce, and have produced, witnesses on the student's behalf and to confront and examine all witnesses;

(d) The right to the record of the disciplinary action, including written findings of fact and conclusions;

(e) The right to administrative review and appeal under school policy;

(f) The right not to be compelled to testify against himself or herself; and

(g) The right to have an allegation of misconduct and related information expunged from the student's school record if the student is found not guilty of the charges.

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§42.9   What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary proceedings?

In formal disciplinary proceedings, each school must consider victims' rights when appropriate.

(a) The victim's rights may include a right to:

(1) Participate in disciplinary proceedings either in writing or in person;

(2) Provide a statement concerning the impact of the incident on the victim; and

(3) Have the outcome explained to the victim and to his or her parents or guardian by a school official, consistent with confidentiality.

(b) For the purposes of this part, the victim is the actual victim, not his or her parents or guardians.

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§42.10   How must the school communicate individual student rights to students, parents or guardians, and staff?

Each school must:

(a) Develop a student handbook that includes local school policies, definitions of suspension, expulsion, zero tolerance, and other appropriate terms, and a copy of the regulations in this part;

(b) Provide all school staff a current and updated copy of student rights and responsibilities before the first day of each school year;

(c) Provide all students and their parents or guardians a current and updated copy of student rights and responsibilities every school year upon enrollment; and

(d) Require students, school staff, and to the extent possible, parents and guardians, to confirm in writing that they have received a copy and understand the student rights and responsibilities.

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§42.11   Information collection.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person is required to respond to, nor shall any person be subject to a penalty for failure to comply with a collection of information, subject to the requirements of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.) (PRA), unless that collection of information displays a currently valid Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Control Number. This part in §§42.6, 42.7, and 42.9 contains collections of information subject to the PRA. These collections have been approved by OMB under control number 1076-0163.

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