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Title 49Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter DPart 195 → Subpart F


Title 49: Transportation
PART 195—TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE


Subpart F—Operation and Maintenance


Contents
§195.400   Scope.
§195.401   General requirements.
§195.402   Procedural manual for operations, maintenance, and emergencies.
§195.403   Emergency response training.
§195.404   Maps and records.
§195.405   Protection against ignitions and safe access/egress involving floating roofs.
§195.406   Maximum operating pressure.
§195.408   Communications.
§195.410   Line markers.
§195.412   Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under navigable waters.
§195.413   Underwater inspection and reburial of pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets.
§195.414   Inspections of pipelines in areas affected by extreme weather and natural disasters.
§195.415   [Reserved]
§195.416   Pipeline assessments.
§§195.417-419   [Reserved]
§195.420   Valve maintenance.
§195.422   Pipeline repairs.
§195.424   Pipe movement.
§195.426   Scraper and sphere facilities.
§195.428   Overpressure safety devices and overfill protection systems.
§195.430   Firefighting equipment.
§195.432   Inspection of in-service breakout tanks.
§195.434   Signs.
§195.436   Security of facilities.
§195.438   Smoking or open flames.
§195.440   Public awareness.
§195.442   Damage prevention program.
§195.444   Leak detection.
§195.446   Control room management.

High Consequence Areas

§195.450   Definitions.

Pipeline Integrity Management

§195.452   Pipeline integrity management in high consequence areas.
§195.454   Integrity assessments for certain underwater hazardous liquid pipeline facilities located in high consequence areas.

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§195.400   Scope.

This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for operating and maintaining pipeline systems constructed with steel pipe.

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§195.401   General requirements.

(a) No operator may operate or maintain its pipeline systems at a level of safety lower than that required by this subpart and the procedures it is required to establish under §195.402(a) of this subpart.

(b) An operator must make repairs on its pipeline system according to the following requirements:

(1) Non Integrity management repairs. Whenever an operator discovers any condition that could adversely affect the safe operation of its pipeline system, it must correct the condition within a reasonable time. However, if the condition is of such a nature that it presents an immediate hazard to persons or property, the operator may not operate the affected part of the system until it has corrected the unsafe condition.

(2) Integrity management repairs. When an operator discovers a condition on a pipeline covered under §195.452, the operator must correct the condition as prescribed in §195.452(h).

(3) Prioritizing repairs. An operator must consider the risk to people, property, and the environment in prioritizing the correction of any conditions referenced in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section.

(c) Except as provided in §195.5, no operator may operate any part of any of the following pipelines unless it was designed and constructed as required by this part:

(1) An interstate pipeline, other than a low-stress pipeline, on which construction was begun after March 31, 1970, that transports hazardous liquid.

(2) An interstate offshore gathering line, other than a low-stress pipeline, on which construction was begun after July 31, 1977, that transports hazardous liquid.

(3) An intrastate pipeline, other than a low-stress pipeline, on which construction was begun after October 20, 1985, that transports hazardous liquid.

(4) A pipeline on which construction was begun after July 11, 1991, that transports carbon dioxide.

(5) A low-stress pipeline on which construction was begun after August 10, 1994.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-33, 50 FR 15899, Apr. 23, 1985; Amdt. 195-33A, 50 FR 39008, Sept. 26, 1985; Amdt. 195-36, 51 FR 15008, Apr. 22, 1986; Amdt. 195-45, 56 FR 26926, June 12, 1991; Amdt. 195-53, 59 FR 35471, July 12, 1994; Amdt. 195-94, 75 FR 48607, Aug. 11, 2010; Amdt. 195-102, 84 FR 52295, Oct. 1, 2019]

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§195.402   Procedural manual for operations, maintenance, and emergencies.

(a) General. Each operator shall prepare and follow for each pipeline system a manual of written procedures for conducting normal operations and maintenance activities and handling abnormal operations and emergencies. This manual shall be reviewed at intervals not exceeding 15 months, but at least once each calendar year, and appropriate changes made as necessary to insure that the manual is effective. This manual shall be prepared before initial operations of a pipeline system commence, and appropriate parts shall be kept at locations where operations and maintenance activities are conducted.

(b) The Associate Administrator or the State Agency that has submitted a current certification under the pipeline safety laws (49 U.S.C. 60101 et seq.) with respect to the pipeline facility governed by an operator's plans and procedures may, after notice and opportunity for hearing as provided in 49 CFR 190.206 or the relevant State procedures, require the operator to amend its plans and procedures as necessary to provide a reasonable level of safety.

(c) Maintenance and normal operations. The manual required by paragraph (a) of this section must include procedures for the following to provide safety during maintenance and normal operations:

(1) Making construction records, maps, and operating history available as necessary for safe operation and maintenance.

(2) Gathering of data needed for reporting accidents under subpart B of this part in a timely and effective manner.

(3) Operating, maintaining, and repairing the pipeline system in accordance with each of the requirements of this subpart and subpart H of this part.

(4) Determining which pipeline facilities are located in areas that would require an immediate response by the operator to prevent hazards to the public if the facilities failed or malfunctioned.

(5) Analyzing pipeline accidents to determine their causes.

(6) Minimizing the potential for hazards identified under paragraph (c)(4) of this section and the possibility of recurrence of accidents analyzed under paragraph (c)(5) of this section.

(7) Starting up and shutting down any part of the pipeline system in a manner designed to assure operation within the limits prescribed by §195.406, consider the hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide in transportation, variations in altitude along the pipeline, and pressure monitoring and control devices.

(8) In the case of a pipeline that is not equipped to fail safe, monitoring from an attended location pipeline pressure during startup until steady state pressure and flow conditions are reached and during shut-in to assure operation within limits prescribed by §195.406.

(9) In the case of facilities not equipped to fail safe that are identified under paragraph 195.402(c)(4) or that control receipt and delivery of the hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide, detecting abnormal operating conditions by monitoring pressure, temperature, flow or other appropriate operational data and transmitting this data to an attended location.

(10) Abandoning pipeline facilities, including safe disconnection from an operating pipeline system, purging of combustibles, and sealing abandoned facilities left in place to minimize safety and environmental hazards. For each abandoned offshore pipeline facility or each abandoned onshore pipeline facility that crosses over, under or through commercially navigable waterways the last operator of that facility must file a report upon abandonment of that facility in accordance with §195.59 of this part.

(11) Minimizing the likelihood of accidental ignition of vapors in areas near facilities identified under paragraph (c)(4) of this section where the potential exists for the presence of flammable liquids or gases.

(12) Establishing and maintaining liaison with fire, police, and other appropriate public officials to learn the responsibility and resources of each government organization that may respond to a hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide pipeline emergency and acquaint the officials with the operator's ability in responding to a hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide pipeline emergency and means of communication.

(13) Periodically reviewing the work done by operator personnel to determine the effectiveness of the procedures used in normal operation and maintenance and taking corrective action where deficiencies are found.

(14) Taking adequate precautions in excavated trenches to protect personnel from the hazards of unsafe accumulations of vapor or gas, and making available when needed at the excavation, emergency rescue equipment, including a breathing apparatus and, a rescue harness and line.

(15) Implementing the applicable control room management procedures required by §195.446.

(d) Abnormal operation. The manual required by paragraph (a) of this section must include procedures for the following to provide safety when operating design limits have been exceeded:

(1) Responding to, investigating, and correcting the cause of:

(i) Unintended closure of valves or shutdowns;

(ii) Increase or decrease in pressure or flow rate outside normal operating limits;

(iii) Loss of communications;

(iv) Operation of any safety device;

(v) Any other malfunction of a component, deviation from normal operation, or personnel error which could cause a hazard to persons or property.

(2) Checking variations from normal operation after abnormal operation has ended at sufficient critical locations in the system to determine continued integrity and safe operation.

(3) Correcting variations from normal operation of pressure and flow equipment and controls.

(4) Notifying responsible operator personnel when notice of an abnormal operation is received.

(5) Periodically reviewing the response of operator personnel to determine the effectiveness of the procedures controlling abnormal operation and taking corrective action where deficiencies are found.

(e) Emergencies. The manual required by paragraph (a) of this section must include procedures for the following to provide safety when an emergency condition occurs:

(1) Receiving, identifying, and classifying notices of events which need immediate response by the operator or notice to fire, police, or other appropriate public officials and communicating this information to appropriate operator personnel for corrective action.

(2) Prompt and effective response to a notice of each type emergency, including fire or explosion occurring near or directly involving a pipeline facility, accidental release of hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide from a pipeline facility, operational failure causing a hazardous condition, and natural disaster affecting pipeline facilities.

(3) Having personnel, equipment, instruments, tools, and material available as needed at the scene of an emergency.

(4) Taking necessary action, such as emergency shutdown or pressure reduction, to minimize the volume of hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide that is released from any section of a pipeline system in the event of a failure.

(5) Control of released hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide at an accident scene to minimize the hazards, including possible intentional ignition in the cases of flammable highly volatile liquid.

(6) Minimization of public exposure to injury and probability of accidental ignition by assisting with evacuation of residents and assisting with halting traffic on roads and railroads in the affected area, or taking other appropriate action.

(7) Notifying fire, police, and other appropriate public officials of hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide pipeline emergencies and coordinating with them preplanned and actual responses during an emergency, including additional precautions necessary for an emergency involving a pipeline system transporting a highly volatile liquid.

(8) In the case of failure of a pipeline system transporting a highly volatile liquid, use of appropriate instruments to assess the extent and coverage of the vapor cloud and determine the hazardous areas.

(9) Providing for a post accident review of employee activities to determine whether the procedures were effective in each emergency and taking corrective action where deficiencies are found.

(10) Actions required to be taken by a controller during an emergency, in accordance with §195.446.

(f) Safety-related condition reports. The manual required by paragraph (a) of this section must include instructions enabling personnel who perform operation and maintenance activities to recognize conditions that potentially may be safety-related conditions that are subject to the reporting requirements of §195.55.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981; 47 FR 32721, July 29, 1982, as amended by Amdt. 195-24, 47 FR 46852, Oct. 21, 1982; Amdt. 195-39, 53 FR 24951, July 1, 1988; Amdt. 195-45, 56 FR 26926, June 12, 1991; Amdt. 195-46, 56 FR 31090, July 9, 1991; Amdt. 195-49, 59 FR 6585, Feb. 11, 1994; Amdt. 195-55, 61 FR 18518, Apr. 26, 1996; Amdt. 195-69, 65 FR 54444, Sept. 8, 2000; Amdt. 195-173, 66 FR 67004, Dec. 27, 2001; Amdt. 195-93, 74 FR 63329, Dec. 3, 2009; Amdt. 195-98, 78 FR 58915, Sept. 25, 2013]

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§195.403   Emergency response training.

(a) Each operator shall establish and conduct a continuing training program to instruct emergency response personnel to:

(1) Carry out the emergency procedures established under 195.402 that relate to their assignments;

(2) Know the characteristics and hazards of the hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide transported, including, in case of flammable HVL, flammability of mixtures with air, odorless vapors, and water reactions;

(3) Recognize conditions that are likely to cause emergencies, predict the consequences of facility malfunctions or failures and hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide spills, and take appropriate corrective action;

(4) Take steps necessary to control any accidental release of hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide and to minimize the potential for fire, explosion, toxicity, or environmental damage; and

(5) Learn the potential causes, types, sizes, and consequences of fire and the appropriate use of portable fire extinguishers and other on-site fire control equipment, involving, where feasible, a simulated pipeline emergency condition.

(b) At the intervals not exceeding 15 months, but at least once each calendar year, each operator shall:

(1) Review with personnel their performance in meeting the objectives of the emergency response training program set forth in paragraph (a) of this section; and

(2) Make appropriate changes to the emergency response training program as necessary to ensure that it is effective.

(c) Each operator shall require and verify that its supervisors maintain a thorough knowledge of that portion of the emergency response procedures established under 195.402 for which they are responsible to ensure compliance.

[Amdt. 195-67, 64 FR 46866, Aug. 27, 1999, as amended at Amdt. 195-78, 68 FR 53528, Sept. 11, 2003]

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§195.404   Maps and records.

(a) Each operator shall maintain current maps and records of its pipeline systems that include at least the following information:

(1) Location and identification of the following pipeline facilities:

(i) Breakout tanks;

(ii) Pump stations;

(iii) Scraper and sphere facilities;

(iv) Pipeline valves;

(v) Facilities to which §195.402(c)(9) applies;

(vi) Rights-of-way; and

(vii) Safety devices to which §195.428 applies.

(2) All crossings of public roads, railroads, rivers, buried utilities, and foreign pipelines.

(3) The maximum operating pressure of each pipeline.

(4) The diameter, grade, type, and nominal wall thickness of all pipe.

(b) Each operator shall maintain for at least 3 years daily operating records that indicate—

(1) The discharge pressure at each pump station; and

(2) Any emergency or abnormal operation to which the procedures under §195.402 apply.

(c) Each operator shall maintain the following records for the periods specified:

(1) The date, location, and description of each repair made to pipe shall be maintained for the useful life of the pipe.

(2) The date, location, and description of each repair made to parts of the pipeline system other than pipe shall be maintained for at least 1 year.

(3) A record of each inspection and test required by this subpart shall be maintained for at least 2 years or until the next inspection or test is performed, whichever is longer.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-34, 50 FR 34474, Aug. 26, 1985; Amdt. 195-173, 66 FR 67004, Dec. 27, 2001]

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§195.405   Protection against ignitions and safe access/egress involving floating roofs.

(a) After October 2, 2000, protection provided against ignitions arising out of static electricity, lightning, and stray currents during operation and maintenance activities involving aboveground breakout tanks must be in accordance with API RP 2003 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3), unless the operator notes in the procedural manual (§195.402(c)) why compliance with all or certain provisions of API RP 2003 is not necessary for the safety of a particular breakout tank.

(b) The hazards associated with access/egress onto floating roofs of in-service aboveground breakout tanks to perform inspection, service, maintenance, or repair activities (other than specified general considerations, specified routine tasks or entering tanks removed from service for cleaning) are addressed in API Pub 2026 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3) . After October 2, 2000, the operator must review and consider the potentially hazardous conditions, safety practices, and procedures in API Pub 2026 for inclusion in the procedure manual (§195.402(c)).

[Amdt. 195-99,80 FR 187, Jan. 5, 2015; 80 FR 46848, Aug. 6, 2015]

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§195.406   Maximum operating pressure.

(a) Except for surge pressures and other variations from normal operations, no operator may operate a pipeline at a pressure that exceeds any of the following:

(1) The internal design pressure of the pipe determined in accordance with §195.106. However, for steel pipe in pipelines being converted under §195.5, if one or more factors of the design formula (§195.106) are unknown, one of the following pressures is to be used as design pressure:

(i) Eighty percent of the first test pressure that produces yield under section N5.0 of appendix N of ASME/ANSI B31.8 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3), reduced by the appropriate factors in §§195.106 (a) and (e); or

(ii) If the pipe is 12 34 inch (324 mm) or less outside diameter and is not tested to yield under this paragraph, 200 p.s.i. (1379 kPa) gage.

(2) The design pressure of any other component of the pipeline.

(3) Eighty percent of the test pressure for any part of the pipeline which has been pressure tested under subpart E of this part.

(4) Eighty percent of the factory test pressure or of the prototype test pressure for any individually installed component which is excepted from testing under §195.305.

(5) For pipelines under §§195.302(b)(1) and (b)(2)(i) that have not been pressure tested under subpart E of this part, 80 percent of the test pressure or highest operating pressure to which the pipeline was subjected for 4 or more continuous hours that can be demonstrated by recording charts or logs made at the time the test or operations were conducted.

(b) No operator may permit the pressure in a pipeline during surges or other variations from normal operations to exceed 110 percent of the operating pressure limit established under paragraph (a) of this section. Each operator must provide adequate controls and protective equipment to control the pressure within this limit.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-33, 50 FR 15899, Apr. 23, 1985; 50 FR 38660, Sept. 24, 1985; Amdt. 195-51, 59 FR 29385, June 7, 1994; Amdt. 195-52, 59 FR 33397, June 28, 1994; Amdt. 195-63, 63 FR 37506, July 13, 1998; Amdt. 195-65, 63 FR 59480, Nov. 4, 1998; Amdt. 195-99, 80 FR 184, Jan. 5, 2015]

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§195.408   Communications.

(a) Each operator must have a communication system to provide for the transmission of information needed for the safe operation of its pipeline system.

(b) The communication system required by paragraph (a) of this section must, as a minimum, include means for:

(1) Monitoring operational data as required by §195.402(c)(9);

(2) Receiving notices from operator personnel, the public, and public authorities of abnormal or emergency conditions and sending this information to appropriate personnel or government agencies for corrective action;

(3) Conducting two-way vocal communication between a control center and the scene of abnormal operations and emergencies; and

(4) Providing communication with fire, police, and other appropriate public officials during emergency conditions, including a natural disaster.

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§195.410   Line markers.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each operator shall place and maintain line markers over each buried pipeline in accordance with the following:

(1) Markers must be located at each public road crossing, at each railroad crossing, and in sufficient number along the remainder of each buried line so that its location is accurately known.

(2) The marker must state at least the following on a background of sharply contrasting color:

(i) The word “Warning,” “Caution,” or “Danger” followed by the words “Petroleum (or the name of the hazardous liquid transported) Pipeline”, or “Carbon Dioxide Pipeline,” all of which, except for markers in heavily developed urban areas, must be in letters at least 1 inch (25 millimeters) high with an approximate stroke of 14 inch (6.4 millimeters).

(ii) The name of the operator and a telephone number (including area code) where the operator can be reached at all times.

(b) Line markers are not required for buried pipelines located—

(1) Offshore or at crossings of or under waterways and other bodies of water; or

(2) In heavily developed urban areas such as downtown business centers where—

(i) The placement of markers is impractical and would not serve the purpose for which markers are intended; and

(ii) The local government maintains current substructure records.

(c) Each operator shall provide line marking at locations where the line is above ground in areas that are accessible to the public.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-27, 48 FR 25208, June 6, 1983; Amdt. 195-54, 60 FR 14650, Mar. 20, 1995; Amdt. 195-63, 63 FR 37506, July 13, 1998]

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§195.412   Inspection of rights-of-way and crossings under navigable waters.

(a) Each operator shall, at intervals not exceeding 3 weeks, but at least 26 times each calendar year, inspect the surface conditions on or adjacent to each pipeline right-of-way. Methods of inspection include walking, driving, flying or other appropriate means of traversing the right-of-way.

(b) Except for offshore pipelines, each operator shall, at intervals not exceeding 5 years, inspect each crossing under a navigable waterway to determine the condition of the crossing.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-24, 47 FR 46852, Oct. 21, 1982; Amdt. 195-52, 59 FR 33397, June 28, 1994]

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§195.413   Underwater inspection and reburial of pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets.

(a) Except for gathering lines of 412 inches (114mm) nominal outside diameter or smaller, each operator shall prepare and follow a procedure to identify its pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets in waters less than 15 feet (4.6 meters) deep as measured from mean low water that are at risk of being an exposed underwater pipeline or a hazard to navigation. The procedures must be in effect August 10, 2005.

(b) Each operator shall conduct appropriate periodic underwater inspections of its pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico and its inlets in waters less than 15 feet (4.6 meters) deep as measured from mean low water based on the identified risk.

(c) If an operator discovers that its pipeline is an exposed underwater pipeline or poses a hazard to navigation, the operator shall—

(1) Promptly, but not later than 24 hours after discovery, notify the National Response Center, telephone: 1-800-424-8802, of the location and, if available, the geographic coordinates of that pipeline.

(2) Promptly, but not later than 7 days after discovery, mark the location of the pipeline in accordance with 33 CFR Part 64 at the ends of the pipeline segment and at intervals of not over 500 yards (457 meters) long, except that a pipeline segment less than 200 yards (183 meters) long need only be marked at the center; and

(3) Within 6 months after discovery, or not later than November 1 of the following year if the 6 month period is later than November 1 of the year of discovery, bury the pipeline so that the top of the pipe is 36 inches (914 millimeters) below the underwater natural bottom (as determined by recognized and generally accepted practices) for normal excavation or 18 inches (457 millimeters) for rock excavation.

(i) An operator may employ engineered alternatives to burial that meet or exceed the level of protection provided by burial.

(ii) If an operator cannot obtain required state or Federal permits in time to comply with this section, it must notify OPS; specify whether the required permit is State or Federal; and, justify the delay.

[Amdt. 195-82, 69 FR 48407, Aug. 10, 2004]

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§195.414   Inspections of pipelines in areas affected by extreme weather and natural disasters.

(a) General. Following an extreme weather event or natural disaster that has the likelihood of damage to infrastructure by the scouring or movement of the soil surrounding the pipeline, such as a named tropical storm or hurricane; a flood that exceeds the river, shoreline, or creek high-water banks in the area of the pipeline; a landslide in the area of the pipeline; or an earthquake in the area of the pipeline, an operator must inspect all potentially affected pipeline facilities to detect conditions that could adversely affect the safe operation of that pipeline.

(b) Inspection method. An operator must consider the nature of the event and the physical characteristics, operating conditions, location, and prior history of the affected pipeline in determining the appropriate method for performing the initial inspection to determine the extent of any damage and the need for the additional assessments required under paragraph (a) of this section.

(c) Time period. The inspection required under paragraph (a) of this section must commence within 72 hours after the cessation of the event, defined as the point in time when the affected area can be safely accessed by the personnel and equipment required to perform the inspection as determined under paragraph (b) of this section. In the event that the operator is unable to commence the inspection due to the unavailability of personnel or equipment, the operator must notify the appropriate PHMSA Region Director as soon as practicable.

(d) Remedial action. An operator must take prompt and appropriate remedial action to ensure the safe operation of a pipeline based on the information obtained as a result of performing the inspection required under paragraph (a) of this section. Such actions might include, but are not limited to:

(1) Reducing the operating pressure or shutting down the pipeline;

(2) Modifying, repairing, or replacing any damaged pipeline facilities;

(3) Preventing, mitigating, or eliminating any unsafe conditions in the pipeline right-of-way;

(4) Performing additional patrols, surveys, tests, or inspections;

(5) Implementing emergency response activities with Federal, State, or local personnel; and

(6) Notifying affected communities of the steps that can be taken to ensure public safety.

[Amdt. 195-102, 84 FR 52295, Oct. 1, 2019]

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§195.415   [Reserved]

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§195.416   Pipeline assessments.

(a) Scope. This section applies to onshore line pipe that can accommodate inspection by means of in-line inspection tools and is not subject to the integrity management requirements in §195.452.

(b) General. An operator must perform an initial assessment of each of its pipeline segments by October 1, 2029, and perform periodic assessments of its pipeline segments at least once every 10 calendar years from the year of the prior assessment or as otherwise necessary to ensure public safety or the protection of the environment.

(c) Method. Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, an operator must perform the integrity assessment for the range of relevant threats to the pipeline segment by the use of an appropriate in-line inspection tool(s). When performing an assessment using an in-line inspection tool, an operator must comply with §195.591. An operator must explicitly consider uncertainties in reported results (including tool tolerance, anomaly findings, and unity chart plots or other equivalent methods for determining uncertainties) in identifying anomalies. If this is impracticable based on operational limits, including operating pressure, low flow, and pipeline length or availability of in-line inspection tool technology for the pipe diameter, then the operator must perform the assessment using the appropriate method(s) in paragraphs (c)(1), (2), or (3) of this section for the range of relevant threats being assessed. The methods an operator selects to assess low-frequency electric resistance welded pipe, pipe with a seam factor less than 1.0 as defined in §195.106(e) or lap-welded pipe susceptible to longitudinal seam failure must be capable of assessing seam integrity, cracking, and of detecting corrosion and deformation anomalies. The following alternative assessment methods may be used as specified in this paragraph:

(1) A pressure test conducted in accordance with subpart E of this part;

(2) External corrosion direct assessment in accordance with §195.588; or

(3) Other technology in accordance with paragraph (d).

(d) Other technology. Operators may elect to use other technologies if the operator can demonstrate the technology can provide an equivalent understanding of the condition of the line pipe for threat being assessed. An operator choosing this option must notify the Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) 90 days before conducting the assessment by:

(1) Sending the notification, along with the information required to demonstrate compliance with this paragraph, to the Information Resources Manager, Office of Pipeline Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, Washington, DC 20590; or

(2) Sending the notification, along with the information required to demonstrate compliance with this paragraph, to the Information Resources Manager by facsimile to (202) 366-7128.

(3) Prior to conducting the “other technology” assessments, the operator must receive a notice of “no objection” from the PHMSA Information Services Manager or Designee.

(e) Data analysis. A person qualified by knowledge, training, and experience must analyze the data obtained from an assessment performed under paragraph (b) of this section to determine if a condition could adversely affect the safe operation of the pipeline. Operators must consider uncertainties in any reported results (including tool tolerance) as part of that analysis.

(f) Discovery of condition. For purposes of §195.401(b)(1), discovery of a condition occurs when an operator has adequate information to determine that a condition presenting a potential threat to the integrity of the pipeline exists. An operator must promptly, but no later than 180 days after an assessment, obtain sufficient information about a condition to make that determination required under paragraph (e) of this section, unless the operator can demonstrate the 180-day interval is impracticable. If the operator believes that 180 days are impracticable to make a determination about a condition found during an assessment, the pipeline operator must notify PHMSA and provide an expected date when adequate information will become available. This notification must be made in accordance with §195.452 (m).

(g) Remediation. An operator must comply with the requirements in §195.401 if a condition that could adversely affect the safe operation of a pipeline is discovered in complying with paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section.

(h) Consideration of information. An operator must consider all relevant information about a pipeline in complying with the requirements in paragraphs (a) through (g) of this section.

[Amdt. 195-102, 84 FR 52295, Oct. 1, 2019]

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§§195.417-419   [Reserved]

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§195.420   Valve maintenance.

(a) Each operator shall maintain each valve that is necessary for the safe operation of its pipeline systems in good working order at all times.

(b) Each operator shall, at intervals not exceeding 712 months, but at least twice each calendar year, inspect each mainline valve to determine that it is functioning properly.

(c) Each operator shall provide protection for each valve from unauthorized operation and from vandalism.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981; 47 FR 32721, July 29, 1982, as amended by Amdt. 195-24, 47 FR 46852, Oct. 21, 1982]

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§195.422   Pipeline repairs.

(a) Each operator shall, in repairing its pipeline systems, insure that the repairs are made in a safe manner and are made so as to prevent damage to persons or property.

(b) No operator may use any pipe, valve, or fitting, for replacement in repairing pipeline facilities, unless it is designed and constructed as required by this part.

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§195.424   Pipe movement.

(a) No operator may move any line pipe, unless the pressure in the line section involved is reduced to not more than 50 percent of the maximum operating pressure.

(b) No operator may move any pipeline containing highly volatile liquids where materials in the line section involved are joined by welding unless—

(1) Movement when the pipeline does not contain highly volatile liquids is impractical;

(2) The procedures of the operator under §195.402 contain precautions to protect the public against the hazard in moving pipelines containing highly volatile liquids, including the use of warnings, where necessary, to evacuate the area close to the pipeline; and

(3) The pressure in that line section is reduced to the lower of the following:

(i) Fifty percent or less of the maximum operating pressure; or

(ii) The lowest practical level that will maintain the highly volatile liquid in a liquid state with continuous flow, but not less than 50 p.s.i. (345 kPa) gage above the vapor pressure of the commodity.

(c) No operator may move any pipeline containing highly volatile liquids where materials in the line section involved are not joined by welding unless—

(1) The operator complies with paragraphs (b) (1) and (2) of this section; and

(2) That line section is isolated to prevent the flow of highly volatile liquid.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981; 46 FR 38922, July 30, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-63, 63 FR 37506, July 13, 1998]

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§195.426   Scraper and sphere facilities.

No operator may use a launcher or receiver that is not equipped with a relief device capable of safely relieving pressure in the barrel before insertion or removal of scrapers or spheres. The operator must use a suitable device to indicate that pressure has been relieved in the barrel or must provide a means to prevent insertion or removal of scrapers or spheres if pressure has not been relieved in the barrel.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981; 47 FR 32721, July 29, 1982]

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§195.428   Overpressure safety devices and overfill protection systems.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each operator shall, at intervals not exceeding 15 months, but at least once each calendar year, or in the case of pipelines used to carry highly volatile liquids, at intervals not to exceed 712 months, but at least twice each calendar year, inspect and test each pressure limiting device, relief valve, pressure regulator, or other item of pressure control equipment to determine that it is functioning properly, is in good mechanical condition, and is adequate from the standpoint of capacity and reliability of operation for the service in which it is used.

(b) In the case of relief valves on pressure breakout tanks containing highly volatile liquids, each operator shall test each valve at intervals not exceeding 5 years.

(c) Aboveground breakout tanks that are constructed or significantly altered according to API Std 2510 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3) after October 2, 2000, must have an overfill protection system installed according to API Std 2510, section 7.1.2. Other aboveground breakout tanks with 600 gallons (2271 liters) or more of storage capacity that are constructed or significantly altered after October 2, 2000, must have an overfill protection system installed according to API RP 2350 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3). However, an operator need not comply with any part of API RP 2350 for a particular breakout tank if the operator describes in the manual required by §195.402 why compliance with that part is not necessary for safety of the tank.

(d) After October 2, 2000, the requirements of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section for inspection and testing of pressure control equipment apply to the inspection and testing of overfill protection systems.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-24, 47 FR 46852, Oct. 21, 1982; Amdt. 195-66, 64 FR 15936, Apr. 2, 1999, as amended by Amdt. 195-100, 80 FR 12780, Mar. 11, 2015]

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§195.430   Firefighting equipment.

Each operator shall maintain adequate firefighting equipment at each pump station and breakout tank area. The equipment must be—

(a) In proper operating condition at all times;

(b) Plainly marked so that its identity as firefighting equipment is clear; and

(c) Located so that it is easily accessible during a fire.

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§195.432   Inspection of in-service breakout tanks.

(a) Except for breakout tanks inspected under paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, each operator shall, at intervals not exceeding 15 months, but at least once each calendar year, inspect each in-service breakout tank.

(b) Each operator must inspect the physical integrity of in-service atmospheric and low-pressure steel above-ground breakout tanks according to API Std 653 (except section 6.4.3, Alternative Internal Inspection Interval) (incorporated by reference, see §195.3). However, if structural conditions prevent access to the tank bottom, its integrity may be assessed according to a plan included in the operations and maintenance manual under §195.402(c)(3). The risk-based internal inspection procedures in API Std 653, section 6.4.3 cannot be used to determine the internal inspection interval.

(1) Operators who established internal inspection intervals based on risk-based inspection procedures prior to March 6, 2015 must re-establish internal inspection intervals based on API Std 653, section 6.4.2 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3).

(i) If the internal inspection interval was determined by the prior risk-based inspection procedure using API Std 653, section 6.4.3 and the resulting calculation exceeded 20 years, and it has been more than 20 years since an internal inspection was performed, the operator must complete a new internal inspection in accordance with §195.432(b)(1) by January 5, 2017.

(ii) If the internal inspection interval was determined by the prior risk-based inspection procedure using API Std 653, section 6.4.3 and the resulting calculation was less than or equal to 20 years, and the time since the most recent internal inspection exceeds the re-established inspection interval in accordance with §195.432(b)(1), the operator must complete a new internal inspection by January 5, 2017.

(iii) If the internal inspection interval was not based upon current engineering and operational information (i.e., actual corrosion rate of floor plates, actual remaining thickness of the floor plates, etc.), the operator must complete a new internal inspection by January 5, 2017 and re-establish a new internal inspection interval in accordance with §195.432(b)(1).

(2) [Reserved]

(c) Each operator must inspect the physical integrity of in-service steel aboveground breakout tanks built to API Std 2510 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3) according to section 6 of API Std 510 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3).

(d) The intervals of inspection specified by documents referenced in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section begin on May 3, 1999, or on the operator's last recorded date of the inspection, whichever is earlier.

[Amdt. 195-66, 64 FR 15936, Apr. 2, 1999, as amended by Amdt. 195-94, 75 FR 48607, Aug. 11, 2010, Amdt. 195-99, 80 FR 187, Jan. 5, 2015; 80 FR 46848, Aug. 6, 2015]

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§195.434   Signs.

Each operator must maintain signs visible to the public around each pumping station and breakout tank area. Each sign must contain the name of the operator and a telephone number (including area code) where the operator can be reached at all times.

[Amdt. 195-78, 68 FR 53528, Sept. 11, 2003]

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§195.436   Security of facilities.

Each operator shall provide protection for each pumping station and breakout tank area and other exposed facility (such as scraper traps) from vandalism and unauthorized entry.

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§195.438   Smoking or open flames.

Each operator shall prohibit smoking and open flames in each pump station area and each breakout tank area where there is a possibility of the leakage of a flammable hazardous liquid or of the presence of flammable vapors.

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§195.440   Public awareness.

(a) Each pipeline operator must develop and implement a written continuing public education program that follows the guidance provided in the American Petroleum Institute's (API) Recommended Practice (RP) 1162 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3).

(b) The operator's program must follow the general program recommendations of API RP 1162 and assess the unique attributes and characteristics of the operator's pipeline and facilities.

(c) The operator must follow the general program recommendations, including baseline and supplemental requirements of API RP 1162, unless the operator provides justification in its program or procedural manual as to why compliance with all or certain provisions of the recommended practice is not practicable and not necessary for safety.

(d) The operator's program must specifically include provisions to educate the public, appropriate government organizations, and persons engaged in excavation related activities on:

(1) Use of a one-call notification system prior to excavation and other damage prevention activities;

(2) Possible hazards associated with unintended releases from a hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide pipeline facility;

(3) Physical indications that such a release may have occurred;

(4) Steps that should be taken for public safety in the event of a hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide pipeline release; and

(5) Procedures to report such an event.

(e) The program must include activities to advise affected municipalities, school districts, businesses, and residents of pipeline facility locations.

(f) The program and the media used must be as comprehensive as necessary to reach all areas in which the operator transports hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide.

(g) The program must be conducted in English and in other languages commonly understood by a significant number and concentration of the non-English speaking population in the operator's area.

(h) Operators in existence on June 20, 2005, must have completed their written programs no later than June 20, 2006. Upon request, operators must submit their completed programs to PHMSA or, in the case of an intrastate pipeline facility operator, the appropriate State agency.

(i) The operator's program documentation and evaluation results must be available for periodic review by appropriate regulatory agencies.

[Amdt. 195-84, 70 FR 28843, May 19, 2005]

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§195.442   Damage prevention program.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each operator of a buried pipeline must carry out, in accordance with this section, a written program to prevent damage to that pipeline from excavation activities. For the purpose of this section, the term “excavation activities” includes excavation, blasting, boring, tunneling, backfilling, the removal of aboveground structures by either explosive or mechanical means, and other earthmoving operations.

(b) An operator may comply with any of the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section through participation in a public service program, such as a one-call system, but such participation does not relieve the operator of the responsibility for compliance with this section. However, an operator must perform the duties of paragraph (c)(3) of this section through participation in a one-call system, if that one-call system is a qualified one-call system. In areas that are covered by more than one qualified one-call system, an operator need only join one of the qualified one-call systems if there is a central telephone number for excavators to call for excavation activities, or if the one-call systems in those areas communicate with one another. An operator's pipeline system must be covered by a qualified one-call system where there is one in place. For the purpose of this section, a one-call system is considered a “qualified one-call system” if it meets the requirements of section (b)(1) or (b)(2) or this section.

(1) The state has adopted a one-call damage prevention program under §198.37 of this chapter; or

(2) The one-call system:

(i) Is operated in accordance with §198.39 of this chapter;

(ii) Provides a pipeline operator an opportunity similar to a voluntary participant to have a part in management responsibilities; and

(iii) Assesses a participating pipeline operator a fee that is proportionate to the costs of the one-call system's coverage of the operator's pipeline.

(c) The damage prevention program required by paragraph (a) of this section must, at a minimum:

(1) Include the identity, on a current basis, of persons who normally engage in excavation activities in the area in which the pipeline is located.

(2) Provides for notification of the public in the vicinity of the pipeline and actual notification of persons identified in paragraph (c)(1) of this section of the following as often as needed to make them aware of the damage prevention program:

(i) The program's existence and purpose; and

(ii) How to learn the location of underground pipelines before excavation activities are begun.

(3) Provide a means of receiving and recording notification of planned excavation activities.

(4) If the operator has buried pipelines in the area of excavation activity, provide for actual notification of persons who give notice of their intent to excavate of the type of temporary marking to be provided and how to identify the markings.

(5) Provide for temporary marking of buried pipelines in the area of excavation activity before, as far as practical, the activity begins.

(6) Provide as follows for inspection of pipelines that an operator has reason to believe could be damaged by excavation activities:

(i) The inspection must be done as frequently as necessary during and after the activities to verify the integrity of the pipeline; and

(ii) In the case of blasting, any inspection must include leakage surveys.

(d) A damage prevention program under this section is not required for the following pipelines:

(1) Pipelines located offshore.

(2) Pipelines to which access is physically controlled by the operator.

[Amdt. 195-54, 60 FR 14651, Mar. 20, 1995, as amended by Amdt. 195-60, 62 FR 61699, Nov. 19, 1997]

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§195.444   Leak detection.

(a) Scope. Except for offshore gathering and regulated rural gathering pipelines, this section applies to all hazardous liquid pipelines transporting liquid in single phase (without gas in the liquid).

(b) General. A pipeline must have an effective system for detecting leaks in accordance with §§195.134 or 195.452, as appropriate. An operator must evaluate the capability of its leak detection system to protect the public, property, and the environment and modify it as necessary to do so. At a minimum, an operator's evaluation must consider the following factors—length and size of the pipeline, type of product carried, the swiftness of leak detection, location of nearest response personnel, and leak history.

(c) CPM leak detection systems. Each computational pipeline monitoring (CPM) leak detection system installed on a hazardous liquid pipeline must comply with API RP 1130 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3) in operating, maintaining, testing, record keeping, and dispatcher training of the system.

[Amdt. 195-102, 84 FR 52296, Oct. 1, 2019]

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§195.446   Control room management.

(a) General. This section applies to each operator of a pipeline facility with a controller working in a control room who monitors and controls all or part of a pipeline facility through a SCADA system. Each operator must have and follow written control room management procedures that implement the requirements of this section. The procedures required by this section must be integrated, as appropriate, with the operator's written procedures required by §195.402. An operator must develop the procedures no later than August 1, 2011, and must implement the procedures according to the following schedule. The procedures required by paragraphs (b), (c)(5), (d)(2) and (d)(3), (f) and (g) of this section must be implemented no later than October 1, 2011. The procedures required by paragraphs (c)(1) through (4), (d)(1), (d)(4), and (e) must be implemented no later than August 1, 2012. The training procedures required by paragraph (h) must be implemented no later than August 1, 2012, except that any training required by another paragraph of this section must be implemented no later than the deadline for that paragraph.

(b) Roles and responsibilities. Each operator must define the roles and responsibilities of a controller during normal, abnormal, and emergency operating conditions. To provide for a controller's prompt and appropriate response to operating conditions, an operator must define each of the following:

(1) A controller's authority and responsibility to make decisions and take actions during normal operations;

(2) A controller's role when an abnormal operating condition is detected, even if the controller is not the first to detect the condition, including the controller's responsibility to take specific actions and to communicate with others;

(3) A controller's role during an emergency, even if the controller is not the first to detect the emergency, including the controller's responsibility to take specific actions and to communicate with others;

(4) A method of recording controller shift-changes and any hand-over of responsibility between controllers; and

(5) The roles, responsibilities and qualifications of others who have the authority to direct or supersede the specific technical actions of controllers.

(c) Provide adequate information. Each operator must provide its controllers with the information, tools, processes and procedures necessary for the controllers to carry out the roles and responsibilities the operator has defined by performing each of the following:

(1) Implement API RP 1165 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3) whenever a SCADA system is added, expanded or replaced, unless the operator demonstrates that certain provisions of API RP 1165 are not practical for the SCADA system used;

(2) Conduct a point-to-point verification between SCADA displays and related field equipment when field equipment is added or moved and when other changes that affect pipeline safety are made to field equipment or SCADA displays;

(3) Test and verify an internal communication plan to provide adequate means for manual operation of the pipeline safely, at least once each calendar year, but at intervals not to exceed 15 months;

(4) Test any backup SCADA systems at least once each calendar year, but at intervals not to exceed 15 months; and

(5) Implement section 5 of API RP 1168 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3) to establish procedures for when a different controller assumes responsibility, including the content of information to be exchanged.

(d) Fatigue mitigation. Each operator must implement the following methods to reduce the risk associated with controller fatigue that could inhibit a controller's ability to carry out the roles and responsibilities the operator has defined:

(1) Establish shift lengths and schedule rotations that provide controllers off-duty time sufficient to achieve eight hours of continuous sleep;

(2) Educate controllers and supervisors in fatigue mitigation strategies and how off-duty activities contribute to fatigue;

(3) Train controllers and supervisors to recognize the effects of fatigue; and

(4) Establish a maximum limit on controller hours-of-service, which may provide for an emergency deviation from the maximum limit if necessary for the safe operation of a pipeline facility.

(e) Alarm management. Each operator using a SCADA system must have a written alarm management plan to provide for effective controller response to alarms. An operator's plan must include provisions to:

(1) Review SCADA safety-related alarm operations using a process that ensures alarms are accurate and support safe pipeline operations;

(2) Identify at least once each calendar month points affecting safety that have been taken off scan in the SCADA host, have had alarms inhibited, generated false alarms, or that have had forced or manual values for periods of time exceeding that required for associated maintenance or operating activities;

(3) Verify the correct safety-related alarm set-point values and alarm descriptions when associated field instruments are calibrated or changed and at least once each calendar year, but at intervals not to exceed 15 months;

(4) Review the alarm management plan required by this paragraph at least once each calendar year, but at intervals not exceeding 15 months, to determine the effectiveness of the plan;

(5) Monitor the content and volume of general activity being directed to and required of each controller at least once each calendar year, but at intervals not exceeding 15 months, that will assure controllers have sufficient time to analyze and react to incoming alarms; and

(6) Address deficiencies identified through the implementation of paragraphs (e)(1) through (e)(5) of this section.

(f) Change management. Each operator must assure that changes that could affect control room operations are coordinated with the control room personnel by performing each of the following:

(1) Implement section 7 of API RP 1168 (incorporated by reference, see §195.3) for control room management change and require coordination between control room representatives, operator's management, and associated field personnel when planning and implementing physical changes to pipeline equipment or configuration; and

(2) Require its field personnel to contact the control room when emergency conditions exist and when making field changes that affect control room operations.

(g) Operating experience. Each operator must assure that lessons learned from its operating experience are incorporated, as appropriate, into its control room management procedures by performing each of the following:

(1) Review accidents that must be reported pursuant to §195.50 and 195.52 to determine if control room actions contributed to the event and, if so, correct, where necessary, deficiencies related to:

(i) Controller fatigue;

(ii) Field equipment;

(iii) The operation of any relief device;

(iv) Procedures;

(v) SCADA system configuration; and

(vi) SCADA system performance.

(2) Include lessons learned from the operator's experience in the training program required by this section.

(h) Training. Each operator must establish a controller training program and review the training program content to identify potential improvements at least once each calendar year, but at intervals not to exceed 15 months. An operator's program must provide for training each controller to carry out the roles and responsibilities defined by the operator. In addition, the training program must include the following elements:

(1) Responding to abnormal operating conditions likely to occur simultaneously or in sequence;

(2) Use of a computerized simulator or non-computerized (tabletop) method for training controllers to recognize abnormal operating conditions;

(3) Training controllers on their responsibilities for communication under the operator's emergency response procedures;

(4) Training that will provide a controller a working knowledge of the pipeline system, especially during the development of abnormal operating conditions;

(5) For pipeline operating setups that are periodically, but infrequently used, providing an opportunity for controllers to review relevant procedures in advance of their application; and

(6) Control room team training and exercises that include both controllers and other individuals, defined by the operator, who would reasonably be expected to operationally collaborate with controllers (control room personnel) during normal, abnormal or emergency situations. Operators must comply with the team training requirements under this paragraph no later than January 23, 2018.

(i) Compliance validation. Upon request, operators must submit their procedures to PHMSA or, in the case of an intrastate pipeline facility regulated by a State, to the appropriate State agency.

(j) Compliance and deviations. An operator must maintain for review during inspection:

(1) Records that demonstrate compliance with the requirements of this section; and

(2) Documentation to demonstrate that any deviation from the procedures required by this section was necessary for the safe operation of the pipeline facility.

[Amdt. 195-93, 74 FR 63329, Dec. 3, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 5537, Feb. 3, 2010; 76 FR 35135, June 16, 2011; Amdt. 195-101, 82 FR 7999, Jan. 23, 2017]

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High Consequence Areas

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§195.450   Definitions.

The following definitions apply to this section and §195.452:

Emergency flow restricting device or EFRD means a check valve or remote control valve as follows:

(1) Check valve means a valve that permits fluid to flow freely in one direction and contains a mechanism to automatically prevent flow in the other direction.

(2) Remote control valve or RCV means any valve that is operated from a location remote from where the valve is installed. The RCV is usually operated by the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The linkage between the pipeline control center and the RCV may be by fiber optics, microwave, telephone lines, or satellite.

High consequence area means:

(1) A commercially navigable waterway, which means a waterway where a substantial likelihood of commercial navigation exists;

(2) A high population area, which means an urbanized area, as defined and delineated by the Census Bureau, that contains 50,000 or more people and has a population density of at least 1,000 people per square mile;

(3) An other populated area, which means a place, as defined and delineated by the Census Bureau, that contains a concentrated population, such as an incorporated or unincorporated city, town, village, or other designated residential or commercial area;

(4) An unusually sensitive area, as defined in §195.6.

[Amdt. 195-70, 65 FR 75405, Dec. 1, 2000]

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Pipeline Integrity Management

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§195.452   Pipeline integrity management in high consequence areas.

(a) Which pipelines are covered by this section? This section applies to each hazardous liquid pipeline and carbon dioxide pipeline that could affect a high consequence area, including any pipeline located in a high consequence area unless the operator effectively demonstrates by risk assessment that the pipeline could not affect the area. (Appendix C of this part provides guidance on determining if a pipeline could affect a high consequence area.) Covered pipelines are categorized as follows:

(1) Category 1 includes pipelines existing on May 29, 2001, that were owned or operated by an operator who owned or operated a total of 500 or more miles of pipeline subject to this part.

(2) Category 2 includes pipelines existing on May 29, 2001, that were owned or operated by an operator who owned or operated less than 500 miles of pipeline subject to this part.

(3) Category 3 includes pipelines constructed or converted after May 29, 2001, and low-stress pipelines in rural areas under §195.12.

(4) Low stress pipelines as specified in §195.12.

(b) What program and practices must operators use to manage pipeline integrity? Each operator of a pipeline covered by this section must:

(1) Develop a written integrity management program that addresses the risks on each segment of pipeline in the first column of the following table no later than the date in the second column:

PipelineDate
Category 1March 31, 2002.
Category 2February 18, 2003.
Category 3Date the pipeline begins operation or as provided in §195.12 for low stress pipelines in rural areas.

(2) Include in the program an identification of each pipeline or pipeline segment in the first column of the following table not later than the date in the second column:

Pipeline Date
Category 1December 31, 2001.
Category 2November 18, 2002.
Category 3Date the pipeline begins operation.

(3) Include in the program a plan to carry out baseline assessments of line pipe as required by paragraph (c) of this section.

(4) Include in the program a framework that—

(i) Addresses each element of the integrity management program under paragraph (f) of this section, including continual integrity assessment and evaluation under paragraph (j) of this section; and

(ii) Initially indicates how decisions will be made to implement each element.

(5) Implement and follow the program.

(6) Follow recognized industry practices in carrying out this section, unless—

(i) This section specifies otherwise; or

(ii) The operator demonstrates that an alternative practice is supported by a reliable engineering evaluation and provides an equivalent level of public safety and environmental protection.

(c) What must be in the baseline assessment plan? (1) An operator must include each of the following elements in its written baseline assessment plan:

(i) The methods selected to assess the integrity of the line pipe. An operator must assess the integrity of the line pipe by in-line inspection tool(s) described in paragraph (c)(1)(i)(A) of this section for the range of relevant threats to the pipeline segment. If it is impracticable based upon the construction of the pipeline (e.g., diameter changes, sharp bends, and elbows) or operational limits including operating pressure, low flow, pipeline length, or availability of in-line inspection tool technology for the pipe diameter, then the operator must use the appropriate method(s) in paragraphs (c)(1)(i)(B), (C), or (D) of this section for the range of relevant threats to the pipeline segment. The methods an operator selects to assess low-frequency electric resistance welded pipe, pipe with a seam factor less than 1.0 as defined in §195.106(e) or lap-welded pipe susceptible to longitudinal seam failure, must be capable of assessing seam integrity, cracking, and of detecting corrosion and deformation anomalies.

(A) In-line inspection tool or tools capable of detecting corrosion and deformation anomalies including dents, gouges, and grooves. For pipeline segments with an identified or probable risk or threat related to cracks (such as at pipe body or weld seams) based on the risk factors specified in paragraph (e), an operator must use an in-line inspection tool or tools capable of detecting crack anomalies. When performing an assessment using an in-line inspection tool, an operator must comply with §195.591. An operator using this method must explicitly consider uncertainties in reported results (including tool tolerance, anomaly findings, and unity chart plots or equivalent for determining uncertainties) in identifying anomalies;

(B) Pressure test conducted in accordance with subpart E of this part;

(C) External corrosion direct assessment in accordance with §195.588; or

(D) Other technology that the operator demonstrates can provide an equivalent understanding of the condition of the line pipe. An operator choosing this option must notify the Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) 90 days before conducting the assessment, by sending a notice to the address or facsimile number specified in paragraph (m) of this section.

(ii) A schedule for completing the integrity assessment;

(iii) An explanation of the assessment methods selected and evaluation of risk factors considered in establishing the assessment schedule.

(2) An operator must document, prior to implementing any changes to the plan, any modification to the plan, and reasons for the modification.

(d) When must operators complete baseline assessments?

(1) All pipelines. An operator must complete the baseline assessment before a new or conversion-to-service pipeline begins operation through the development of procedures, identification of high consequence areas, and pressure testing of could-affect high consequence areas in accordance with §195.304.

(2) Newly identified areas. If an operator obtains information (whether from the information analysis required under paragraph (g) of this section, Census Bureau maps, or any other source) demonstrating that the area around a pipeline segment has changed to meet the definition of a high consequence area (see §195.450), that area must be incorporated into the operator's baseline assessment plan within 1 year from the date that the information is obtained. An operator must complete the baseline assessment of any pipeline segment that could affect a newly identified high consequence area within 5 years from the date an operator identifies the area.

(e) What are the risk factors for establishing an assessment schedule (for both the baseline and continual integrity assessments)? (1) An operator must establish an integrity assessment schedule that prioritizes pipeline segments for assessment (see paragraphs (d)(1) and (j)(3) of this section). An operator must base the assessment schedule on all risk factors that reflect the risk conditions on the pipeline segment. The factors an operator must consider include, but are not limited to:

(i) Results of the previous integrity assessment, defect type and size that the assessment method can detect, and defect growth rate;

(ii) Pipe size, material, manufacturing information, coating type and condition, and seam type;

(iii) Leak history, repair history and cathodic protection history;

(iv) Product transported;

(v) Operating stress level;

(vi) Existing or projected activities in the area;

(vii) Local environmental factors that could affect the pipeline (e.g., seismicity, corrosivity of soil, subsidence, climatic);

(viii) geo-technical hazards; and

(ix) Physical support of the segment such as by a cable suspension bridge.

(2) Appendix C of this part provides further guidance on risk factors.

(f) What are the elements of an integrity management program? An integrity management program begins with the initial framework. An operator must continually change the program to reflect operating experience, conclusions drawn from results of the integrity assessments, and other maintenance and surveillance data, and evaluation of consequences of a failure on the high consequence area. An operator must include, at minimum, each of the following elements in its written integrity management program:

(1) A process for identifying which pipeline segments could affect a high consequence area;

(2) A baseline assessment plan meeting the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section;

(3) An analysis that integrates all available information about the integrity of the entire pipeline and the consequences of a failure (see paragraph (g) of this section);

(4) Criteria for remedial actions to address integrity issues raised by the assessment methods and information analysis (see paragraph (h) of this section);

(5) A continual process of assessment and evaluation to maintain a pipeline's integrity (see paragraph (j) of this section);

(6) Identification of preventive and mitigative measures to protect the high consequence area (see paragraph (i) of this section);

(7) Methods to measure the program's effectiveness (see paragraph (k) of this section);

(8) A process for review of integrity assessment results and information analysis by a person qualified to evaluate the results and information (see paragraph (h)(2) of this section).

(g) What is an information analysis? In periodically evaluating the integrity of each pipeline segment (see paragraph (j) of this section), an operator must analyze all available information about the integrity of its entire pipeline and the consequences of a possible failure along the pipeline. Operators must continue to comply with the data integration elements specified in §195.452(g) that were in effect on October 1, 2018, until October 1, 2022. Operators must begin to integrate all the data elements specified in this section starting October 1, 2020, with all attributes integrated by October 1, 2022. This analysis must:

(1) Integrate information and attributes about the pipeline that include, but are not limited to:

(i) Pipe diameter, wall thickness, grade, and seam type;

(ii) Pipe coating, including girth weld coating;

(iii) Maximum operating pressure (MOP) and temperature;

(iv) Endpoints of segments that could affect high consequence areas (HCAs);

(v) Hydrostatic test pressure including any test failures or leaks—if known;

(vi) Location of casings and if shorted;

(vii) Any in-service ruptures or leaks—including identified causes;

(viii) Data gathered through integrity assessments required under this section;

(ix) Close interval survey (CIS) survey results;

(x) Depth of cover surveys;

(xi) Corrosion protection (CP) rectifier readings;

(xii) CP test point survey readings and locations;

(xiii) AC/DC and foreign structure interference surveys;

(xiv) Pipe coating surveys and cathodic protection surveys.

(xv) Results of examinations of exposed portions of buried pipelines (i.e., pipe and pipe coating condition, see §195.569);

(xvi) Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and other cracking (pipe body or weld) excavations and findings, including in-situ non-destructive examinations and analysis results for failure stress pressures and cyclic fatigue crack growth analysis to estimate the remaining life of the pipeline;

(xvii) Aerial photography;

(xviii) Location of foreign line crossings;

(xix) Pipe exposures resulting from repairs and encroachments;

(xx) Seismicity of the area; and

(xxi) Other pertinent information derived from operations and maintenance activities and any additional tests, inspections, surveys, patrols, or monitoring required under this part.

(2) Consider information critical to determining the potential for, and preventing, damage due to excavation, including current and planned damage prevention activities, and development or planned development along the pipeline;

(3) Consider how a potential failure would affect high consequence areas, such as location of a water intake.

(4) Identify spatial relationships among anomalous information (e.g., corrosion coincident with foreign line crossings; evidence of pipeline damage where aerial photography shows evidence of encroachment). Storing the information in a geographic information system (GIS), alone, is not sufficient. An operator must analyze for interrelationships among the data.

(h) What actions must an operator take to address integrity issues?—(1) General requirements. An operator must take prompt action to address all anomalous conditions in the pipeline that the operator discovers through the integrity assessment or information analysis. In addressing all conditions, an operator must evaluate all anomalous conditions and remediate those that could reduce a pipeline's integrity, as required by this part. An operator must be able to demonstrate that the remediation of the condition will ensure that the condition is unlikely to pose a threat to the long-term integrity of the pipeline. An operator must comply with all other applicable requirements in this part in remediating a condition. Each operator must, in repairing its pipeline systems, ensure that the repairs are made in a safe and timely manner and are made so as to prevent damage to persons, property, or the environment. The calculation method(s) used for anomaly evaluation must be applicable for the range of relevant threats.

(i) Temporary pressure reduction. An operator must notify PHMSA, in accordance with paragraph (m) of this section, if the operator cannot meet the schedule for evaluation and remediation required under paragraph (h)(3) of this section and cannot provide safety through a temporary reduction in operating pressure.

(ii) Long-term pressure reduction. When a pressure reduction exceeds 365 days, the operator must notify PHMSA in accordance with paragraph (m) of this section and explain the reasons for the delay. An operator must also take further remedial action to ensure the safety of the pipeline.

(2) Discovery of condition. Discovery of a condition occurs when an operator has adequate information to determine that a condition presenting a potential threat to the integrity of the pipeline exists. An operator must promptly, but no later than 180 days after an assessment, obtain sufficient information about a condition to make that determination, unless the operator can demonstrate the 180-day interval is impracticable. If the operator believes that 180 days are impracticable to make a determination about a condition found during an assessment, the pipeline operator must notify PHMSA in accordance with paragraph (m) of this section and provide an expected date when adequate information will become available.

(3) Schedule for evaluation and remediation. An operator must complete remediation of a condition according to a schedule prioritizing the conditions for evaluation and remediation. If an operator cannot meet the schedule for any condition, the operator must explain the reasons why it cannot meet the schedule and how the changed schedule will not jeopardize public safety or environmental protection.

(4) Special requirements for scheduling remediation—(i) Immediate repair conditions. An operator's evaluation and remediation schedule must provide for immediate repair conditions. To maintain safety, an operator must temporarily reduce the operating pressure or shut down the pipeline until the operator completes the repair of these conditions. An operator must calculate the temporary reduction in operating pressure using the formulas referenced in paragraph (h)(4)(i)(B) of this section. If no suitable remaining strength calculation method can be identified, an operator must implement a minimum 20 percent or greater operating pressure reduction, based on actual operating pressure for two months prior to the date of inspection, until the anomaly is repaired. An operator must treat the following conditions as immediate repair conditions:

(A) Metal loss greater than 80% of nominal wall regardless of dimensions.

(B) A calculation of the remaining strength of the pipe shows a predicted burst pressure less than the established maximum operating pressure at the location of the anomaly. Suitable remaining strength calculation methods include, but are not limited to, ASME/ANSI B31G (incorporated by reference, see §195.3) and PRCI PR-3-805 (R-STRENG) (incorporated by reference, see §195.3).

(C) A dent located on the top of the pipeline (above the 4 and 8 o'clock positions) that has any indication of metal loss, cracking or a stress riser.

(D) A dent located on the top of the pipeline (above the 4 and 8 o'clock positions) with a depth greater than 6% of the nominal pipe diameter.

(E) An anomaly that in the judgment of the person designated by the operator to evaluate the assessment results requires immediate action.

(ii) 60-day conditions. Except for conditions listed in paragraph (h)(4)(i) of this section, an operator must schedule evaluation and remediation of the following conditions within 60 days of discovery of condition.

(A) A dent located on the top of the pipeline (above the 4 and 8 o'clock positions) with a depth greater than 3% of the pipeline diameter (greater than 0.250 inches in depth for a pipeline diameter less than Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) 12).

(B) A dent located on the bottom of the pipeline that has any indication of metal loss, cracking or a stress riser.

(iii) 180-day conditions. Except for conditions listed in paragraph (h)(4)(i) or (ii) of this section, an operator must schedule evaluation and remediation of the following within 180 days of discovery of the condition:

(A) A dent with a depth greater than 2% of the pipeline's diameter (0.250 inches in depth for a pipeline diameter less than NPS 12) that affects pipe curvature at a girth weld or a longitudinal seam weld.

(B) A dent located on the top of the pipeline (above 4 and 8 o'clock position) with a depth greater than 2% of the pipeline's diameter (0.250 inches in depth for a pipeline diameter less than NPS 12).

(C) A dent located on the bottom of the pipeline with a depth greater than 6% of the pipeline's diameter.

(D) A calculation of the remaining strength of the pipe shows an operating pressure that is less than the current established maximum operating pressure at the location of the anomaly. Suitable remaining strength calculation methods include, but are not limited to, ASME/ANSI B31G and PRCI PR-3-805 (R-STRENG).

(E) An area of general corrosion with a predicted metal loss greater than 50% of nominal wall.

(F) Predicted metal loss greater than 50% of nominal wall that is located at a crossing of another pipeline, or is in an area with widespread circumferential corrosion, or is in an area that could affect a girth weld.

(G) A potential crack indication that when excavated is determined to be a crack.

(H) Corrosion of or along a longitudinal seam weld.

(I) A gouge or groove greater than 12.5% of nominal wall.

(iv) Other conditions. In addition to the conditions listed in paragraphs (h)(4)(i) through (iii) of this section, an operator must evaluate any condition identified by an integrity assessment or information analysis that could impair the integrity of the pipeline, and as appropriate, schedule the condition for remediation. Appendix C of this part contains guidance concerning other conditions that an operator should evaluate.

(i) What preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take to protect the high consequence area?—(1) General requirements. An operator must take measures to prevent and mitigate the consequences of a pipeline failure that could affect a high consequence area. These measures include conducting a risk analysis of the pipeline segment to identify additional actions to enhance public safety or environmental protection. Such actions may include, but are not limited to, implementing damage prevention best practices, better monitoring of cathodic protection where corrosion is a concern, establishing shorter inspection intervals, installing EFRDs on the pipeline segment, modifying the systems that monitor pressure and detect leaks, providing additional training to personnel on response procedures, conducting drills with local emergency responders and adopting other management controls.

(2) Risk analysis criteria. In identifying the need for additional preventive and mitigative measures, an operator must evaluate the likelihood of a pipeline release occurring and how a release could affect the high consequence area. This determination must consider all relevant risk factors, including, but not limited to:

(i) Terrain surrounding the pipeline segment, including drainage systems such as small streams and other smaller waterways that could act as a conduit to the high consequence area;

(ii) Elevation profile;

(iii) Characteristics of the product transported;

(iv) Amount of product that could be released;

(v) Possibility of a spillage in a farm field following the drain tile into a waterway;

(vi) Ditches along side a roadway the pipeline crosses;

(vii) Physical support of the pipeline segment such as by a cable suspension bridge;

(viii) Exposure of the pipeline to operating pressure exceeding established maximum operating pressure;

(ix) Seismicity of the area.

(3) Leak detection. An operator must have a means to detect leaks on its pipeline system. An operator must evaluate the capability of its leak detection means and modify, as necessary, to protect the high consequence area. An operator's evaluation must, at least, consider, the following factors—length and size of the pipeline, type of product carried, the pipeline's proximity to the high consequence area, the swiftness of leak detection, location of nearest response personnel, leak history, and risk assessment results.

(4) Emergency Flow Restricting Devices (EFRD). If an operator determines that an EFRD is needed on a pipeline segment to protect a high consequence area in the event of a hazardous liquid pipeline release, an operator must install the EFRD. In making this determination, an operator must, at least, consider the following factors—the swiftness of leak detection and pipeline shutdown capabilities, the type of commodity carried, the rate of potential leakage, the volume that can be released, topography or pipeline profile, the potential for ignition, proximity to power sources, location of nearest response personnel, specific terrain between the pipeline segment and the high consequence area, and benefits expected by reducing the spill size.

(j) What is a continual process of evaluation and assessment to maintain a pipeline's integrity?—(1) General. After completing the baseline integrity assessment, an operator must continue to assess the line pipe at specified intervals and periodically evaluate the integrity of each pipeline segment that could affect a high consequence area.

(2) Verifying covered segments. An operator must verify the risk factors used in identifying pipeline segments that could affect a high consequence area on at least an annual basis not to exceed 15 months (Appendix C of this part provides additional guidance on factors that can influence whether a pipeline segment could affect a high consequence area). If a change in circumstance indicates that the prior consideration of a risk factor is no longer valid or that an operator should consider new risk factors, an operator must perform a new integrity analysis and evaluation to establish the endpoints of any previously identified covered segments. The integrity analysis and evaluation must include consideration of the results of any baseline and periodic integrity assessments (see paragraphs (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this section), information analyses (see paragraph (g) of this section), and decisions about remediation and preventive and mitigative actions (see paragraphs (h) and (i) of this section). An operator must complete the first annual verification under this paragraph no later than July 1, 2021.

(3) Assessment intervals. An operator must establish five-year intervals, not to exceed 68 months, for continually assessing the line pipe's integrity. An operator must base the assessment intervals on the risk the line pipe poses to the high consequence area to determine the priority for assessing the pipeline segments. An operator must establish the assessment intervals based on the factors specified in paragraph (e) of this section, the analysis of the results from the last integrity assessment, and the information analysis required by paragraph (g) of this section.

(4) Variance from the 5-year intervals in limited situations—(i) Engineering basis. An operator may be able to justify an engineering basis for a longer assessment interval on a segment of line pipe. The justification must be supported by a reliable engineering evaluation combined with the use of other technology, such as external monitoring technology, that provides an understanding of the condition of the line pipe equivalent to that which can be obtained from the assessment methods allowed in paragraph (j)(5) of this section. An operator must notify OPS 270 days before the end of the five-year (or less) interval of the justification for a longer interval, and propose an alternative interval. An operator must send the notice to the address specified in paragraph (m) of this section.

(ii) Unavailable technology. An operator may require a longer assessment period for a segment of line pipe (for example, because sophisticated internal inspection technology is not available). An operator must justify the reasons why it cannot comply with the required assessment period and must also demonstrate the actions it is taking to evaluate the integrity of the pipeline segment in the interim. An operator must notify OPS 180 days before the end of the five-year (or less) interval that the operator may require a longer assessment interval, and provide an estimate of when the assessment can be completed. An operator must send a notice to the address specified in paragraph (m) of this section.

(5) Assessment methods. An operator must assess the integrity of the line pipe by any of the following methods. The methods an operator selects to assess low frequency electric resistance welded pipe or lap welded pipe susceptible to longitudinal seam failure must be capable of assessing seam integrity and of detecting corrosion and deformation anomalies.

(i) In-Line Inspection tool or tools capable of detecting corrosion and deformation anomalies, including dents, gouges, and grooves. For pipeline segments that are susceptible to cracks (pipe body and weld seams), an operator must use an in-line inspection tool or tools capable of detecting crack anomalies. When performing an assessment using an In-Line Inspection tool, an operator must comply with §195.591;

(ii) Pressure test conducted in accordance with subpart E of this part;

(iii) External corrosion direct assessment in accordance with §195.588; or

(iv) Other technology that the operator demonstrates can provide an equivalent understanding of the condition of the line pipe. An operator choosing this option must notify OPS 90 days before conducting the assessment, by sending a notice to the address or facsimile number specified in paragraph (m) of this section.

(k) What methods to measure program effectiveness must be used? An operator's program must include methods to measure whether the program is effective in assessing and evaluating the integrity of each pipeline segment and in protecting the high consequence areas. See Appendix C of this part for guidance on methods that can be used to evaluate a program's effectiveness.

(l) What records must an operator keep to demonstrate compliance? (1) An operator must maintain, for the useful life of the pipeline, records that demonstrate compliance with the requirements of this subpart. At a minimum, an operator must maintain the following records for review during an inspection:

(i) A written integrity management program in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.

(ii) Documents to support the decisions and analyses, including any modifications, justifications, deviations and determinations made, variances, and actions taken, to implement and evaluate each element of the integrity management program listed in paragraph (f) of this section.

(2) See Appendix C of this part for examples of records an operator would be required to keep.

(m) How does an operator notify PHMSA? An operator must provide any notification required by this section by:

(1) Sending the notification by electronic mail to [email protected]; or

(2) Sending the notification by mail to ATTN: Information Resources Manager, DOT/PHMSA/OPS, East Building, 2nd Floor, E22-321, 1200 New Jersey Ave SE., Washington, DC 20590.

(n) Accommodation of instrumented internal inspection devices

(1) Scope. This paragraph does not apply to any pipeline facilities listed in §195.120(b).

(2) General. An operator must ensure that each pipeline is modified to accommodate the passage of an instrumented internal inspection device by July 2, 2040.

(3) Newly identified areas. If a pipeline could affect a newly identified high consequence area (see paragraph (d)(2) of this section) after July 2, 2035, an operator must modify the pipeline to accommodate the passage of an instrumented internal inspection device within 5 years of the date of identification or before performing the baseline assessment, whichever is sooner.

(4) Lack of accommodation. An operator may file a petition under §190.9 of this chapter for a finding that the basic construction (i.e., length, diameter, operating pressure, or location) of a pipeline cannot be modified to accommodate the passage of an instrumented internal inspection device or that the operator determines it would abandon or shut-down a pipeline as a result of the cost to comply with the requirement of this section.

(5) Emergencies. An operator may file a petition under §190.9 of this chapter for a finding that a pipeline cannot be modified to accommodate the passage of an instrumented internal inspection device as a result of an emergency. An operator must file such a petition within 30 days after discovering the emergency. If the petition is denied, the operator must modify the pipeline to allow the passage of an instrumented internal inspection device within 1 year after the date of the notice of the denial.

[Amdt. 195-70, 65 FR 75406, Dec. 1, 2000]

Editorial Notes: 1. For Federal Register citations affecting §195.452, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

2. At 84 FR 52296, Oct. 1, 2019, §195.452 was amended by adding paragraph (o); however, the amendment could not be incorporated because the revised text was not provided.

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§195.454   Integrity assessments for certain underwater hazardous liquid pipeline facilities located in high consequence areas.

Notwithstanding any pipeline integrity management program or integrity assessment schedule otherwise required under §195.452, each operator of any underwater hazardous liquid pipeline facility located in a high consequence area that is not an offshore pipeline facility and any portion of which is located at depths greater than 150 feet under the surface of the water must ensure that:

(a) Pipeline integrity assessments using internal inspection technology appropriate for the integrity threats to the pipeline are completed not less often than once every 12 months, and;

(b) Pipeline integrity assessments using pipeline route surveys, depth of cover surveys, pressure tests, external corrosion direct assessment, or other technology that the operator demonstrates can further the understanding of the condition of the pipeline facility, are completed on a schedule based on the risk that the pipeline facility poses to the high consequence area in which the pipeline facility is located.

[Amdt. 195-102, 84 FR 52298, Oct. 1, 2019]

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