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Title 47Chapter ISubchapter CPart 73 → Subpart B


Title 47: Telecommunication
PART 73—RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES


Subpart B—FM Broadcast Stations


Contents
§73.201   Numerical designation of FM broadcast channels.
§73.202   Table of Allotments.
§73.203   Availability of channels.
§73.204   International agreements and other restrictions on use of channels.
§73.205   Zones.
§73.207   Minimum distance separation between stations.
§73.208   Reference points and distance computations.
§73.209   Protection from interference.
§73.210   Station classes.
§73.211   Power and antenna height requirements.
§73.212   Administrative changes in authorizations.
§73.213   Grandfathered short-spaced stations.
§73.215   Contour protection for short-spaced assignments.
§73.220   Restrictions on use of channels.
§73.232   Territorial exclusivity.
§73.258   Indicating instruments.
§73.267   Determining operating power.
§73.277   Permissible transmissions.
§73.293   Use of FM multiplex subcarriers.
§73.295   FM subsidiary communications services.
§73.297   FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.
§73.310   FM technical definitions.
§73.311   Field strength contours.
§73.312   Topographic data.
§73.313   Prediction of coverage.
§73.314   Field strength measurements.
§73.315   FM transmitter location.
§73.316   FM antenna systems.
§73.317   FM transmission system requirements.
§73.318   FM blanketing interference.
§73.319   FM multiplex subcarrier technical standards.
§73.322   FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.
§73.333   Engineering charts.

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§73.201   Numerical designation of FM broadcast channels.

The FM broadcast band consists of that portion of the radio frequency spectrum between 88 MHz and 108 MHz. It is divided into 100 channels of 200 kHz each. For convenience, the frequencies available for FM broadcasting (including those assigned to noncommercial educational broadcasting) are given numerical designations which are shown in the table below:

Frequency (Mc/s)Channel No.
88.1201
88.3202
88.5203
88.7204
88.9205
89.1206
89.3207
89.5208
89.7209
89.9210
90.1211
90.3212
90.5213
90.7214
90.9215
91.1216
91.3217
91.5218
91.7219
91.9220
92.1221
92.3222
92.5223
92.7224
92.9225
93.1226
93.3227
93.5228
93.7229
93.9230
94.1231
94.3232
94.5233
94.7234
94.9235
95.1236
95.3237
95.5238
95.7239
95.9240
96.1241
96.3242
96.5243
96.7244
96.9245
97.1246
97.3247
97.5248
97.7249
97.9250
98.1251
98.3252
98.5253
98.7254
98.9255
99.1256
99.3257
99.5258
99.7259
99.9260
100.1261
100.3262
100.5263
100.7264
100.9265
101.1266
101.3267
101.5268
101.7269
101.9270
102.1271
102.3272
102.5273
102.7274
102.9275
103.1276
103.3277
103.5278
103.7279
103.9280
104.1281
104.3282
104.5283
104.7284
104.9285
105.1286
105.3287
105.5288
105.7289
105.9290
106.1291
106.3292
106.5293
106.7294
106.9295
107.1296
107.3297
107.5298
107.7299
107.9300

Note: The frequency 108.0 MHz may be assigned to VOR test stations subject to the condition that interference is not caused to the reception of FM broadcasting stations, present or future.

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 30 FR 4480, Apr. 7, 1965; 52 FR 10570, Apr. 2, 1987]

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§73.202   Table of Allotments.

(a) General. The following Table of Allotments contains the channels (other than noncommercial educational Channels 201-220) designated for use in communities in the United States, its territories, and possessions, and not currently assigned to a licensee or permittee or subject to a pending application for construction permit or license. All listed channels are for Class B stations in Zones I and I-A and for Class C stations in Zone II unless otherwise specifically designated. Channels to which licensed, permitted, and “reserved” facilities have been assigned are reflected in the Media Bureau's publicly available Consolidated Data Base System.

(1) Channels designated with an asterisk may be used only by noncommercial educational broadcast stations. The rules governing the use of those channels are contained in part 73, subpart C of this chapter. An entity that would be eligible to operate a noncommercial educational broadcast station can, in conjunction with an initial petition for rulemaking filed pursuant to part 1, subpart C of this chapter, request that a nonreserved FM channel (channels 221 through 300) be allotted as reserved only for noncommercial educational broadcasting by demonstrating the following:

(i) No reserved channel can be used without causing prohibited interference to TV channel 6 stations or foreign broadcast stations; or

(ii) The applicant is technically precluded from using the reserved band by existing stations or previously filed applications and the proposed station would provide a first or second noncommercial educational radio service to 2,000 or more people who constitute 10% of the population within the proposed allocation's 60 dBu (1 mV/m) service contour.

(2) Each channel listed in the Table of Allotments reflects the class of station that is authorized to use it based on the minimum and maximum facility requirements for each class contained in §73.211.

Note: The provisions of this paragraph [(a)(2) of this section] become effective [3 years from the effective date of the Report and Order in BC Docket 80-90].

(b) Table of FM Allotments.

Table 1 to Paragraph (b)

[U.S. States]

   Channel No.
ALABAMA
Camden230A
Hamilton221A
Maplesville292A
Thomaston280C3
Waverly262A
ALASKA
Kotzebue280A
Yakutat280A
ARIZONA
Aguila297C2
Bagdad299C3
Desert Hills292A
Ehrenberg228C2
First Mesa281C
Leupp293C1
Overgaard234C1
Parker257C2
Paulden228C3
Peach Springs†265A
Pima*296A
Quartzsite275C3
Rough Rock258C2
Salome231A
Sells285A
Snowflake259C2
Somerton*260C3
Tusayan222C1
Wickenburg229C3
ARKANSAS
Dermott224A
Heber Springs270C3
Hermitage300A
Rison255A
Strong296C3
CALIFORNIA
Alturas277C
Avenal269A
Barstow267A
Boonville300A
Cartago233A
Cedarville238A
Coalinga247B1
Coalinga261B
Cottonwood221A
Dos Palos240A
Earlimart228A
Essex280B
Firebaugh234A
Ford City271A
Ft. Bragg253B1
Hemet*273A
Lindsay277B1
Lake Isabella239A
Ludlow261B1
Portola258A
Randsburg275A
Sacramento300B
Shasta Lake224A
Sutter Creek*298A
Westley*238A
Wofford Heights251A
COLORADO
Akron279C1
Battlement Mesa275C3
Calhan284C3
Dinosaur262C1
Dotsero261A
Dove Creek229C3
Eckley257C1
Hugo222A
Idalia231A
Lake City247A
Olathe*270C2, *293C
Stratton246C1
Walden226A
CONNECTICUT
DELAWARE
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
FLORIDA
Cross City249C3
Fort Walton Beach295A
Horseshoe Beach*234C3
Otter Creek*240A
GEORGIA
Maysville265A
Pembroke257C1
Plains290A
Tignall287A
HAWAII
Kualapuu296C2
IDAHO
McCall280A
ILLINOIS
Abingdon291A
Cedarville*258A
Greenup*230A
Pinckneyville*282A
INDIANA
Fowler*291A
Madison*265A
Terre Haute*298B
IOWA
Asbury*254A
Dunkerton280A
Keosauqua*271C3
Rockford225A
Rudd*268A
KANSAS
Council Grove*281C3
KENTUCKY
Irvington261A
Perryville298A
LOUISIANA
Bastrop228A
Florien222A
Golden Meadow*289C2
Haynesville286A
Hornbeck269A
Oil City285A
Rosepine281A
Wisner300C3
MAINE
MARYLAND
Newark235A
MASSACHUSETTS
Orange247A
West Tisbury*282A
MICHIGAN
Carney260A
Custer260A
Houghton242C1
Lake Isabella255A
Lexington*256A
Onekama227C3
Pigeon267A
MINNESOTA
Baudette233C1
Grand Marais245C3
Grand Portage224C, 274C
Red Lake287C1
MISSISSIPPI
Bruce233A
Cleveland226C2
Drew237A
McLain245A
Mound Bayou270A
New Albany268A
New Augusta269A
Summit228A
MISSOURI
Bourbon231A
Columbia252C2
Eminence281A
Laurie265C3
Maryville285C3
MONTANA
Bozeman*240C3
Cut Bank265C2
Lima265C2
Valler289C1
NEBRASKA
Bayard251A
NEVADA
Caliente264A
Owyhee247C3
Silver Springs273C
Tonopah224A
NEW HAMPSHIRE
Enfield282A
Groveton268A
Jefferson247A
Stratford254A
NEW JERSEY
NEW MEXICO
Animas279C1
Chama241C3
Crownpoint†297A
Des Moines287C
Lovington269C3
Roswell237C0
Skyline-Ganipa240A
Tohatchi268C2
Virden228C1
NEW YORK
Amherst*221A
Keeseville231A
Livingston Manor296A
Narrowsburg275A
Rhinebeck*273A
Rosendale255A
Sagaponack233A
Shelter Island277A
Westfield265A
NORTH CAROLINA
Dillsboro*237A
NORTH DAKOTA
Gackle256C1
Medina222C1
Sarles290C1
OHIO
OKLAHOMA
Arnett293C2
Cheyenne247C2
Clayton262A
Coalgate242A
Connerville247A
Cordell*229A
Covington290A
Hennessey249A
Millerton265C2
Savanna275A
Vici249A
Wayne266A
Waukomie292A
Wright City295A
OREGON
Altamont235C1
Arlington295C2
Boardman231C3
Dallas*252C3
Diamond Lake251A
Huntington228C1
Manzanita248C3
Merrill289A
Moro283C2
Powers293C2
Prineville267C1
Vale288C
Waldport229C2
PENNSYLVANIA
Liberty*298A
RHODE ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKOTA
Eagle Butt228C1
Edgemont289C1
TENNESSEE
      
Englewood250A
TEXAS
Albany255A
Annona263A
Asherton284A
Aspermont226C2
Austwell290A
Balmorhea283C
Batesville250A
Benjamin237C3
Big Lake246A, 252C2, 281C1, 296C3
Big Spring265C3
Bogata247A
Bruni293A
Canadian235C1
Carbon238A
Carrizo Springs228A, 295A
Centerville274A
Christine245C3
Cotulla264A, 289A
Crosbyton264C3
Crystal Beach268A
Cuney259A
Dalhart261C2
Dickens240A, 294A
Dilley291A
Early294A
Eden294A
El Indio236A
Encinal259A, 286A
Encino250A, 283A
Estelline263C3
Fort Stockton263C
Freer288A
Garwood247A
George West292A
Goldwaithe297A
Goree277A
Groom223A, 273A
Guthrie252A
Hale Center236C1
Hamlin283C2
Harper256C3
Hawley269A
Hebbronville282A
Hereford278C2
Hico293A
Iraan269C2
Jacksonville236A
Jayton231C2
Junction277C3, 297A
Knox City293A, 297A
Leakey257A, 275A, 299A
Llano242C3
Lockney271C3
Lometa253A
Longview300C2
Lovelady288A
Marathon276C1
Marquez296A
Mason281C2, 239C2
Matador244C2, 276C3
Matagorda291A
McCamey233C3, 237C3
McLean298C3
Memphis283A, 292A
Menard265A, 292A
Meyersville261A
Midway251A
Milano274A
Moody256A
Moran281A
Mount Enterprise279A
Muleshoe227C1
Mullin224A, 277A
Munday270C1
Newcastle263A
O'Donnell249A
Olney282A
Oakwood233A
Paducah234C3
Paint Rock296C3
Palacios264A
Palacios259C1
Pearsall277A
Port Isabel288A
Premont264C3, 287A
Presidio292C1
Quanah251C3
Richland Springs235A, 299A
Rising Star290C3
Roaring Springs227A, 249C3
Roby290A
Rocksprings291A
Roscoe228A
Rule253A
San Isidro255A, 278A
Sanderson274C1, 286C2
Sanger281C3
Seymour222C2
Sheffield224C2
Silverton221A
Smiley280A
Spur260C3
Teague237C3
Trinity251A
Turkey221C2, 269A
Van Alstyne*260A
Wellington248C3, 253C3
Wells254A
Westbrook272A
Zapata292A
UTAH
Huntington287C3
Milford288C
Paragonah258A
Toquerville281C
VERMONT
Hardwick290A
West Rutland298A
VIRGINIA
Chincoteague233A
WASHINGTON
Coupeville266A
Dayton272A
Kahlotus283A
Oak Harbor*233A, 277A
Raymond300A
Trout Lake236A
WEST VIRGINIA
WISCONSIN
Ashland*275A
Crandon276A
Hayward*232C2
Laona272C3
New Holstein258A
Tomahawk265C3
WYOMING
Albin282C3
Baggs277A
Bairoil235C3
Basin299C1
Cora274C2
Dubois242A
Jackson*294C2
Lusk242A
Manville255C1
Marbleton257C1
Medicine Bow259C3
Meeteetse259C
Pine Bluffs287A
Rawlins298C2
Rozet256C3
Wamsutter285A
Wheatland286A, 293A
U.S. Territories
AMERICAN SAMOA
CENTRAL MARIANAS
GARAPAN
GUAM
PUERTO RICO
VIRGIN ISLANDS
Charlotte Amalie237B
Charlotte Amalie*275A

[30 FR 12711, Oct. 6, 1965]

Editorial Notes: 1. For Federal Register citations affecting §73.202, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

2. At 77 FR 50053, Aug. 20, 2012, §73.202(b), the Table of FM Allotments under California, was amended; however, the amendment could not be incorporated due to inaccurate amendatory instruction.

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§73.203   Availability of channels.

(a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section and §1.401(d) of this chapter and 73.3573(a)(1), applications may be filed to construct new FM broadcast stations only at the communities and on the channels contained in the Table of Allotments (§73.202(b)).

(b) Applications filed on a first come, first served basis for the minor modification of an existing FM broadcast station may propose any change in channel and/or class and/or community not defined as major in §73.3573(a). Applications for a change in community of license must comply with the requirements set forth in §73.3573(g).

Note to §73.203: This section is limited to non-reserved band changes in channel and/or class and/or community. Applications requesting such changes must meet either the minimum spacing requirements of §73.207 at the site specified in the application, without resort to the provisions of the Commission's rules permitting short spaced stations as set forth in §§73.213 through 73.215, or demonstrate by a separate exhibit attached to the application the existence of a suitable allotment site that fully complies with §§73.207 and 73.315 without resort to §§73.213 through 73.215.

[71 FR 76219, Dec. 20, 2006]

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§73.204   International agreements and other restrictions on use of channels.

See §§73.207, 73.220 and 73.1650.

[49 FR 10264, Mar. 20, 1984]

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§73.205   Zones.

For the purpose of allotments and assignments, the United States is divided into three zones as follows:

(a) Zone I consists of that portion of the United States located within the confines of the following lines drawn on the United States Albers Equal Area Projection Map (based on standard parallels 291/2° and 451/2°; North American datum): Beginning at the most easterly point on the State boundary line between North Carolina and Virginia; thence in a straight line to a point on the Virginia-West Virginia boundary line located at north latitude 37°49 and west longitude 80°1230; thence westerly along the southern boundary lines of the States of West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois to a point at the junction of the Illinois, Kentucky, and Missouri State boundary lines; thence northerly along the western boundary line of the State of Illinois to a point at the junction of the Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin State boundary lines; thence easterly along the northern State boundary line of Illinois to the 90th meridian; thence north along this meridian to the 43.5° parallel; thence east along this parallel to the United States-Canada border; thence southerly and following that border until it again intersects the 43.5° parallel; thence east along this parallel to the 71st meridian; thence in a straight line to the intersection of the 69th meridian and the 45th parallel; thence east along the 45th parallel to the Atlantic Ocean. When any of the above lines pass through a city, the city shall be considered to be located in Zone I. (See Figure 1 of §73.699.)

(b) Zone I-A consists of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and that portion of the State of California which is located south of the 40th parallel.

(c) Zone II consists of Alaska, Hawaii and the rest of the United States which is not located in either Zone I or Zone I-A.

[29 FR 14116, Oct. 14, 1964, and 31 FR 10125, July 27, 1966, as amended at 48 FR 29504, June 27, 1983]

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§73.207   Minimum distance separation between stations.

(a) Except for assignments made pursuant to §73.213 or 73.215, FM allotments and assignments must be separated from other allotments and assignments on the same channel (co-channel) and five pairs of adjacent channels by not less than the minimum distances specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. The Commission will not accept petitions to amend the Table of Allotments unless the reference points meet all of the minimum distance separation requirements of this section. The Commission will not accept applications for new stations, or applications to change the channel or location of existing assignments unless transmitter sites meet the minimum distance separation requirements of this section, or such applications conform to the requirements of §73.213 or 73.215. However, applications to modify the facilities of stations with short-spaced antenna locations authorized pursuant to prior waivers of the distance separation requirements may be accepted, provided that such applications propose to maintain or improve that particular spacing deficiency. Class D (secondary) assignments are subject only to the distance separation requirements contained in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. (See §73.512 for rules governing the channel and location of Class D (secondary) assignments.)

(b) The distances listed in Tables A, B, and C apply to allotments and assignments on the same channel and each of five pairs of adjacent channels. The five pairs of adjacent channels are the first (200 kHz above and 200 kHz below the channel under consideration), the second (400 kHz above and below), the third (600 kHz above and below), the fifty-third (10.6 MHz above and below), and the fifty-fourth (10.8 MHz above and below). The distances in the Tables apply regardless of whether the proposed station class appears first or second in the “Relation” column of the table.

(1) Domestic allotments and assignments must be separated from each other by not less than the distances in Table A which follows:

Table A—Minimum Distance Separation Requirements in Kilometers (miles)

Relation Co-channel 200 kHz 400/600 kHz 10.6/10.8 MHz
A to A115 (71)72 (45)31 (19)10 (6)
A to B1143 (89)96 (60)48 (30)12 (7)
A to B178 (111)113 (70)69 (43)15 (9)
A to C3142 (88)89 (55)42 (26)12 (7)
A to C2166 (103)106 (66)55 (34)15 (9)
A to C1200 (124)133 (83)75 (47)22 (14)
A to C0215 (134)152 (94)86 (53)25 (16)
A to C226 (140)165 (103)95 (59)29 (18)
B1 to B1175 (109)114 (71)50 (31)14 (9)
B1 to B211 (131)145 (90)71 (44)17 (11)
B1 to C3175 (109)114 (71)50 (31)14 (9)
B1 to C2200 (124)134 (83)56 (35)17 (11)
B1 to C1233 (145)161 (100)77 (48)24 (15)
B1 to C0248 (154)180 (112)87 (54)27 (17)
B1 to C259 (161)193 (120)105 (65)31 (19)
B to B241 (150)169 (105)74 (46)20 (12)
B to C3211 (131)145 (90)71 (44)17 (11)
B to C2241 (150)169 (105)74 (46)20 (12)
B to C1270 (168)195 (121)79 (49)27 (17)
B to C0272 (169)214 (133)89 (55)31 (19)
B to C274 (170)217 (135)105 (65)35 (22)
C3 to C3153 (95)99 (62)43 (27)14 (9)
C3 to C2177 (110)117 (73)56 (35)17 (11)
C3 to C1211 (131)144 (90)76 (47)24 (15)
C3 to C0226 (140)163 (101)87 (54)27 (17)
C3 to C237 (147)176 (109)96 (60)31 (19)
C2 to C2190 (118)130 (81)58 (36)20 (12)
C2 to C1224 (139)158 (98)79 (49)27 (17)
C2 to C0239 (148)176 (109)89 (55)31 (19)
C2 to C249 (155)188 (117)105 (65)35 (22)
C1 to C1245 (152)177 (110)82 (51)34 (21)
C1 to C0259 (161)196 (122)94 (58)37 (23)
C1 to C270 (168)209 (130)105 (65)41 (25)
C0 to C0270 (168)207 (129)96 (60)41 (25)
C0 to C281 (175)220 (137)105 (65)45 (28)
C to C290 (180)241 (150)105 (65)48 (30)

(2) Under the Canada-United States FM Broadcasting Agreement, domestic U.S. allotments and assignments within 320 kilometers (199 miles) of the common border must be separated from Canadian allotments and assignments by not less than the distances given in Table B, which follows. When applying Table B, U.S. Class C2 allotments and assignments are considered to be Class B; also, U.S. Class C3 allotments and assignments and U.S. Class A assignments operating with more than 3 kW ERP and 100 meters antenna HAAT (or equivalent lower ERP and higher antenna HAAT based on a class contour distance of 24 km) are considered to be Class B1.

Table B—Minimum Distance Separation Requirements in Kilometers

RelationCo-ChannelAdjacent ChannelsI.F.
0 kHz200 kHz400 kHz600 kHz10.6/10.8 MHz
A-A1328545378
A-B1180113625416
A-B206132766916
A-C1239164989032
A-C24217710810032
B1-B1197131705724
B1-B223149847124
B1-C12561811069240
B1-C25919511610340
B-B237164947424
               
B-C12711951159540
B-C27420912510640
C1-C129221713410148
C1-C30223014411148
C-C30624115311348

(3) Under the 1992 Mexico-United States FM Broadcasting Agreement, domestic U.S. assignments or allotments within 320 kilometers (199 miles) of the common border must be separated from Mexican assignments or allotments by not less than the distances given in Table C in this paragraph (b)(3). When applying Table C—

(i) U.S. or Mexican assignments or allotments which have been notified internationally as Class A are limited to a maximum of 3.0 kW ERP at 100 meters HAAT, or the equivalent;

(ii) U.S. or Mexican assignments or allotments which have been notified internationally as Class AA are limited to a maximum of 6.0 kW ERP at 100 meters HAAT, or the equivalent;

(iii) U.S. Class C3 assignments or allotments are considered Class B1;

(iv) U.S. Class C2 assignments or allotments are considered Class B; and

(v) Class C1 assignments or allotments assume maximum facilities of 100 kW ERP at 300 meters HAAT. However, U.S. Class C1 stations may not, in any event, exceed the domestic U.S. limit of 100 kW ERP at 299 meters HAAT, or the equivalent.

Table C—Minimum Distance Separation Requirements in Kilometers

RelationCo-Channel200 kHz400 kHz or 600 kHz10.6 or 10.8 MHz (I.F.)
A to A10061258
A to AA11168319
A to B1138884811
A to B1631056514
A to C11961297421
A to C2101619428
AA to AA115723110
AA to B1143964812
AA to B1781256915
AA to C12001337522
AA to C2261659529
B1 to B11751145014
B1 to B2111457117
B1 to C12331617724
B1 to C2591939631
B to B2371646520
B to C12701957927
B to C2702159835
C1 to C12451778234
C1 to C27020910241
C to C29022810548

(c) The distances listed below apply only to allotments and assignments on Channel 253 (98.5 MHz). The Commission will not accept petitions to amend the Table of Allotments, applications for new stations, or applications to change the channel or location of existing assignments where the following minimum distances (between transmitter sites, in kilometers) from any TV Channel 6 allotment or assignment are not met:

Minimum Distance Separation From TV Channel 6 (82-88 MHz)

FM ClassTV Zone ITV Zones II & III
A1722
B11923
B2226
C31923
C22226
C12933
C3641

[48 FR 29504, June 27, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 10264, Mar. 20, 1984; 49 FR 19670, May 9, 1984; 49 FR 50047, Dec. 26, 1984; 51 FR 26250, July 22, 1986; 54 FR 14963, Apr. 14, 1989; 54 FR 16366, Apr. 24, 1989; 54 FR 19374, May 5, 1989; 54 FR 35338, Aug. 25, 1989; 56 FR 27426, June 14, 1991; 56 FR 57293, Nov. 8, 1991; 62 FR 50256, Sept. 25, 1997; 65 FR 79776, Dec. 20, 2000]

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§73.208   Reference points and distance computations.

(a)(1) The following reference points must be used to determine distance separation requirements when petitions to amend the Table of Allotments (§73.202(b)) are considered:

(i) First, transmitter sites if authorized, or if proposed in applications with cut-off protection pursuant to paragraph (a)(3) of this section;

(ii) Second, reference coordinates designated by the FCC;

(iii) Third, coordinates listed in the United States Department of Interior publication entitled Index to the National Atlas of the United States of America; or

(iv) Last, coordinates of the main post office.

(The community's reference points for which the petition is submitted will normally be the coordinates listed in the above publication.)

(2) When the distance between communities is calculated using community reference points and it does not meet the minimum separation requirements of §73.207, the channel may still be allotted if a transmitter site is available that would meet the minimum separation requirements and still permit the proposed station to meet the minimum field strength requirements of §73.315. A showing indicating the availability of a suitable site should be sumitted with the petition. In cases where a station is not authorized in a community or communities and the proposed channel cannot meet the separation requirement a showing should also be made indicating adequate distance between suitable transmitter sites for all communities.

(3) Petitions to amend the Table of Allotments that do not meet minimum distance separation requirements to transmitter sites specified in pending applications will not be considered unless they are filed no later than:

(i) The last day of a filing window if the application is for a new FM facility or a major change in the non-reserved band and is filed during a filing window established under section 73.3564(d)(3); or

(ii) The cut-off date established in a Commission Public Notice under §73.3564(d) and 73.3573(e) if the application is for a new FM facility or a major change in the reserved band; or

(iii) The date of receipt of all other types of FM applications. If an application is amended so as to create a conflict with a petition for rule making filed prior to the date the amendment is filed, the amended application will be treated as if filed on the date of the amendment for purposes of this paragraph (a)(3).

Note: If the filing of a conflicting FM application renders an otherwise timely filed counterproposal unacceptable, the counterproposal may be considered in the rulemaking proceeding if it is amended to protect the site of the previously filed FM application within 15 days after being placed on the Public Notice routinely issued by the staff concerning the filing of counterproposals. No proposals involving communities not already included in the proceeding can be introduced during the reply comment period as a method of resolving conflicts. The counterproponent is required to make a showing that, at the time it filed the counterproposal, it did not know, and could not have known by exercising due diligence, of the pendency of the conflicting FM application.

(b) Station separations in licensing proceedings shall be determined by the distance between the coordinates of the proposed transmitter site in one community and

(1) The coordinates of an authorized transmitter site for the pertinent channel in the other community; or, where such transmitter site is not available for use as a reference point,

(2) Reference coordinates designated by the FCC; or, if none are designated,

(3) The coordinates of the other community as listed in the publication listed in paragraph (a) of this section; or, if not contained therein,

(4) The coordinates of the main post office of such other community.

(5) In addition, where there are pending applications in other communities which, if granted, would have to be considered in determining station separations, the coordinates of the transmitter sites proposed in such applications must be used to determine whether the requirements with respect to minimum separations between the proposed stations in the respective cities have been met.

(c) The method given in this paragraph shall be used to compute the distance between two reference points, except that, for computation of distance involving stations in Canada and Mexico, the method for distance computation specified in the applicable international agreement shall be used instead. The method set forth in this paragraph is valid only for distances not exceeding 475 km (295 miles).

(1) Convert the latitudes and longitudes of each reference point from degree-minute-second format to degree-decimal format by dividing minutes by 60 and seconds by 3600, then adding the results to degrees.

(2) Calculate the middle latitude between the two reference points by averaging the two latitudes as follows:

ML = (LAT1dd + LAT2dd) ÷ 2

(3) Calculate the number of kilometers per degree latitude difference for the middle latitude calculated in paragraph (c)(2) as follows:

KPDlat = 111.13209−0.56605 cos(2ML) + 0.00120 cos(4ML)

(4) Calculate the number of kilometers per degree longitude difference for the middle latitude calculated in paragraph (c)(2) as follows:

KPDlon = 111.41513 cos(ML)−0.09455 cos(3ML) + 0.00012 cos(5ML)

(5) Calculate the North-South distance in kilometers as follows:

NS = KPDlat(LAT1dd−LAT2dd)

(6) Calculate the East-West distance in kilometers as follows:

EW = KPDlon(LON1dd−LON2dd)

(7) Calculate the distance between the two reference points by taking the square root of the sum of the squares of the East-West and North-South distances as follows:

DIST = (NS2 + EW2)0.5

(8) Round the distance to the nearest kilometer.

(9) Terms used in this section are defined as follows:

(i) LAT1dd and LON1dd = the coordinates of the first reference point in degree-decimal format.

(ii) LAT2dd and LON2dd = the coordinates of the second reference point in degree-decimal format.

(iii) ML = the middle latitude in degree-decimal format.

(iv) KPDlat = the number of kilometers per degree of latitude at a given middle latitude.

(v) KPDlon = the number of kilometers per degree of longitude at a given middle latitude.

(vi) NS = the North-South distance in kilometers.

(vii) EW = the East-West distance in kilometers.

(viii) DIST = the distance between the two reference points, in kilometers.

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 29 FR 14116, Oct. 14, 1964; 48 FR 29505, June 27, 1983; 52 FR 37788, Oct. 9, 1987; 52 FR 39920, Oct. 26, 1987; 54 FR 9806, Mar. 8, 1989; 57 FR 36020, Aug. 12, 1992; 58 FR 38537, July 19, 1993]

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§73.209   Protection from interference.

(a) Permittees and licensees of FM broadcast stations are not protected from any interference which may be caused by the grant of a new station, or of authority to modify the facilities of an existing station, in accordance with the provisions of this subpart. However, they are protected from interference caused by Class D (secondary) noncommercial educational FM stations. See §73.509.

(b) The nature and extent of the protection from interference afforded FM broadcast stations operating on Channels 221-300 is limited to that which results when assignments are made in accordance with the rules in this subpart.

(c) Permittees and licensees of FM stations are not protected from interference which may be caused by the grant of a new LPFM station or of authority to modify an existing LPFM station, except as provided in subpart G of this part.

[43 FR 39715, Sept. 6, 1978 and 48 FR 29505, June 27, 1983; 54 FR 9802, Mar. 8, 1989; 65 FR 7640, Feb. 15, 2000; 65 FR 67299, Nov. 9, 2000]

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§73.210   Station classes.

(a) The rules applicable to a particular station, including minimum and maximum facilities requirements, are determined by its class. Possible class designations depend upon the zone in which the station's transmitter is located, or proposed to be located. The zones are defined in §73.205. Allotted station classes are indicated in the Table of Allotments, §73.202. Class A, B1 and B stations may be authorized in Zones I and I-A. Class A, C3, C2, C1, C0 and C stations may be authorized in Zone II.

(b) The power and antenna height requirements for each class are set forth in §73.211. If a station has an ERP and an antenna HAAT such that it cannot be classified using the maximum limits and minimum requirements in §73.211, its class shall be determined using the following procedure:

(1) Determine the reference distance of the station using the procedure in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of §73.211. If this distance is less than or equal to 28 km, the station is Class A; otherwise,

(2) For a station in Zone I or Zone I-A, except for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands:

(i) If this distance is greater than 28 km and less than or equal to 39 km, the station is Class B1.

(ii) If this distance is greater than 39 km and less than or equal to 52 km, the station is Class B.

(3) For a station in Zone II:

(i) If this distance is greater than 28 km and less than or equal to 39 km, the station is Class C3.

(ii) If this distance is greater than 39 km and less than or equal to 52 km, the station is Class C2.

(iii) If this distance is greater than 52 km and less than or equal to 72 km, the station is Class C1.

(iv) If this distance is greater than 72 km and less than or equal to 83 km, the station is Class C0.

(v) If this distance is greater than 83 km and less than or equal to 92 km, the station is Class C.

(4) For a station in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands:

(i) If this distance is less than or equal to 42 km, the station is Class A.

(ii) If this distance is greater than 42 km and less than or equal to 46 km, the station is Class B1.

(iii) If this distance is greater then 46 km and less than or equal to 78 km, the station is Class B.

[52 FR 37788, Oct. 9, 1987; 52 FR 39920, Oct. 26, 1987, as amended at 54 FR 16367, Apr. 24, 1989; 54 FR 19374, May 5, 1989; 54 FR 35339, Aug. 25, 1989; 65 FR 79777, Dec. 20, 2000]

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§73.211   Power and antenna height requirements.

(a) Minimum requirements. (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(3) and (b)(2) of this section, FM stations must operate with a minimum effective radiated power (ERP) as follows:

(i) The minimum ERP for Class A stations is 0.1 kW.

(ii) The ERP for Class B1 stations must exceed 6 kW.

(iii) The ERP for Class B stations must exceed 25 kW.

(iv) The ERP for Class C3 stations must exceed 6 kW.

(v) The ERP for Class C2 stations must exceed 25 kW.

(vi) The ERP for Class C1 stations must exceed 50 kW.

(vii) The minimum ERP for Class C and C0 stations is 100 kW.

(2) Class C0 stations must have an antenna height above average terrain (HAAT) of at least 300 meters (984 feet). Class C stations must have an antenna height above average terrain (HAAT) of at least 451 meters (1480 feet).

(3) Stations of any class except Class A may have an ERP less than that specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, provided that the reference distance, determined in accordance with paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, exceeds the distance to the class contour for the next lower class. Class A stations may have an ERP less than 100 watts provided that the reference distance, determined in accordance with paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, equals or exceeds 6 kilometers.

(b) Maximum limits. (1) Except for stations located in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands, the maximum ERP in any direction, reference HAAT, and distance to the class contour for each FM station class are listed below:

Station class Maximum ERP Reference HAAT in meters (ft.) Class contour distance in kilometers
A6 kW (7.8 dBk)100 (328)28
B125 kW (14.0 dBk)100 (328)39
B50 kW (17.0 dBk)150 (492)52
C325 kW (14.0 dBk)100 (328)39
C250 kW (17.0 dBk)150 (492)52
C1100 kW (20.0 dBk)299 (981)72
C0100 kW (20.0 dBk)450 (1476)83
C100 kW (20.0 dBk)600 (1968)92

(i) The reference distance of a station is obtained by finding the predicted distance to the 1mV/m contour using Figure 1 of §73.333 and then rounding to the nearest kilometer. Antenna HAAT is determined using the procedure in §73.313. If the HAAT so determined is less than 30 meters (100 feet), a HAAT of 30 meters must be used when finding the predicted distance to the 1 mV/m contour.

(ii) If a station's ERP is equal to the maximum for its class, its antenna HAAT must not exceed the reference HAAT, regardless of the reference distance. For example, a Class A station operating with 6 kW ERP may have an antenna HAAT of 100 meters, but not 101 meters, even though the reference distance is 28 km in both cases.

(iii) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, no station will be authorized in Zone I or I-A with an ERP equal to 50 kW and a HAAT exceeding 150 meters. No station will be authorized in Zone II with an ERP equal to 100 kW and a HAAT exceeding 600 meters.

(2) If a station has an antenna HAAT greater than the reference HAAT for its class, its ERP must be lower than the class maximum such that the reference distance does not exceed the class contour distance. If the antenna HAAT is so great that the station's ERP must be lower than the minimum ERP for its class (specified in paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(3) of this section), that lower ERP will become the minimum for that station.

(3) For stations located in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands, the maximum ERP in any direction, reference HAAT, and distance to the class contour for each FM station class are listed below:

Station classMaximum ERPReference HAAT in meters (ft.)Class contour distance in kilometers
A6kW (7.8 dBk)240 (787)42
B125kW (14.0 dBk)150 (492)46
B50kW (17.0 dBk)472 (1549)78

(c) Existing stations. Stations authorized prior to March 1, 1984 that do not conform to the requirements of this section may continue to operate as authorized. Stations operating with facilities in excess of those specified in paragraph (b) of this section may not increase their effective radiated powers or extend their 1 mV/m field strength contour beyond the location permitted by their present authorizations. The provisions of this section will not apply to applications to increase facilities for those stations operating with less than the minimum power specified in paragraph (a) of this section.

(d) Existing Class C stations below minimum antenna HAAT. Class C stations authorized prior to January 19, 2001 that do not meet the minimum antenna HAAT specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section for Class C stations may continue to operate as authorized subject to the reclassification procedures set forth in Note 4 to §73.3573.

[53 FR 17042, May 13, 1988, as amended at 54 FR 16367, Apr. 24, 1989; 54 FR 19374, May 5, 1989; 54 FR 35339, Aug. 25, 1989; 65 FR 79777, Dec. 20, 2000]

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§73.212   Administrative changes in authorizations.

(a) In the issuance of FM broadcast station authorizations, the Commission will specify the transmitter output power and effective radiated power in accordance with the following tabulation:

Power (watts or kW)Rounded out to nearest figure (watts or kW)
1 to 3.05
3 to 10.1
10 to 30.5
30 to 1001
100 to 3005
300 to 1,00010

(b) Antenna heights above average terrain will be rounded out to the nearest meter.

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 48 FR 29506, June 27, 1983]

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§73.213   Grandfathered short-spaced stations.

(a) Stations at locations authorized prior to November 16, 1964, that did not meet the separation distances required by §73.207 and have remained continuously short-spaced since that time may be modified or relocated with respect to such short-spaced stations, provided that (i) any area predicted to receive interference lies completely within any area currently predicted to receive co-channel or first-adjacent channel interference as calculated in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section, or that (ii) a showing is provided pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of this section that demonstrates that the public interest would be served by the proposed changes.

(1) The F(50,50) curves in Figure 1 of §73.333 are to be used in conjunction with the proposed effective radiated power and antenna height above average terrain, as calculated pursuant to §73.313(c), (d)(2) and (d)(3), using data for as many radials as necessary, to determine the location of the desired (service) field strength. The F(50,10) curves in Figure 1a of §73.333 are to be used in conjunction with the proposed effective radiated power and antenna height above average terrain, as calculated pursuant to §73.313(c), (d)(2) and (d)(3), using data for as many radials as necessary, to determine the location of the undesired (interfering) field strength. Predicted interference is defined to exist only for locations where the desired (service) field strength exceeds 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) for a Class B station, 0.7 mV/m (57 dBu) for a Class B1 station, and 1 mV/m (60 dBu) for any other class of station.

(i) Co-channel interference is predicted to exist, for the purpose of this section, at all locations where the undesired (interfering station) F(50,10) field strength exceeds a value 20 dB below the desired (service) F(50,50) field strength of the station being considered (e.g., where the protected field strength is 60 dBu, the interfering field strength must be 40 dBu or more for predicted interference to exist).

(ii) First-adjacent channel interference is predicted to exist, for the purpose of this section, at all locations where the undesired (interfering station) F(50,10) field strength exceeds a value 6 dB below the desired (service) F(50,50) field strength of the station being considered (e.g., where the protected field strength is 60 dBu, the interfering field strength must be 54 dBu or more for predicted interference to exist).

(2) For co-channel and first-adjacent channel stations, a showing that the public interest would be served by the changes proposed in an application must include exhibits demonstrating that the total area and population subject to co-channel or first-adjacent channel interference, caused and received, would be maintained or decreased. In addition, the showing must include exhibits demonstrating that the area and the population subject to co-channel or first-adjacent channel interference caused by the proposed facility to each short-spaced station individually is not increased. In all cases, the applicant must also show that any area predicted to lose service as a result of new co-channel or first-adjacent-channel interference has adequate aural service remaining. For the purpose of this section, adequate service is defined as 5 or more aural services (AM or FM).

(3) For co-channel and first-adjacent-channel stations, a copy of any application proposing interference caused in any areas where interference is not currently caused must be served upon the licensee(s) of the affected short-spaced station(s).

(4) For stations covered by this paragraph (a), there are no distance separation or interference protection requirements with respect to second-adjacent and third-adjacent channel short-spacings that have existed continuously since November 16, 1964.

(b) Stations at locations authorized prior to May 17, 1989, that did not meet the IF separation distances required by §73.207 and have remained short-spaced since that time may be modified or relocated provided that the overlap area of the two stations' 36 mV/m field strength contours is not increased.

(c) Short spacings involving at least one Class A allotment or authorization. Stations that became short spaced on or after November 16, 1964 (including stations that do not meet the minimum distance separation requirements of paragraph (c)(1) of this section and that propose to maintain or increase their existing distance separations) may be modified or relocated in accordance with paragraph (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section, except that this provision does not apply to stations that became short spaced by grant of applications filed after October 1, 1989, or filed pursuant to §73.215. If the reference coordinates of an allotment are short spaced to an authorized facility or another allotment (as a result of the revision of §73.207 in the Second Report and Order in MM Docket No. 88-375), an application for the allotment may be authorized, and subsequently modified after grant, in accordance with paragraph (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section only with respect to such short spacing. No other stations will be authorized pursuant to these paragraphs.

(1) Applications for authorization under requirements equivalent to those of prior rules. Each application for authority to operate a Class A station with no more than 3000 watts ERP and 100 meters antenna HAAT (or equivalent lower ERP and higher antenna HAAT based on a class contour distance of 24 km) must specify a transmitter site that meets the minimum distance separation requirements in this paragraph. Each application for authority to operate a Class A station with more than 3000 watts ERP (up to a maximum of 5800 watts), but with an antenna HAAT lower than 100 meters such that the distance to the predicted 0.05 mV/m (34 dBµV/m) F(50,10) field strength contour does not exceed 98 km must specify a transmitter site that meets the minimum distance separation requirements in this paragraph. Each application for authority to operate an FM station of any class other than Class A must specify a transmitter site that meets the minimum distance separation requirements in this paragraph with respect to Class A stations operating pursuant to this paragraph or paragraph (c)(2) of this section, and that meets the minimum distance separation requirements of §73.207 with respect to all other stations.

Minimum Distance Separation Requirements in Kilometers (miles)

RelationCo-channel200 kHz400/600 kHz10.6/10.8 MHz
A to A105 (65)64 (40)27 (17)8 (5)
A to B1138 (86)88 (55)48 (30)11 (6)
A to B163 (101)105 (65)69 (43)14 (9)
A to C3138 (86)84 (52)42 (26)11 (6)
A to C2163 (101)105 (65)55 (34)14 (9)
A to C1196 (122)129 (80)74 (46)21 (13)
A to C222 (138)161 (100)94 (58)28 (17)

(2) Applications for authorization of Class A facilities greater than 3,000 watts ERP and 100 meters HAAT. Each application to operate a Class A station with an ERP and HAAT such that the reference distance would exceed 24 kilometers must contain an exhibit demonstrating the consent of the licensee of each co-channel, first, second or third adjacent channel station (for which the requirements of §73.207 are not met) to a grant of that application. Each such application must specify a transmitter site that meets the applicable IF-related channel distance separation requirements of §73.207. Applications that specify a new transmitter site which is short-spaced to an FM station other than another Class A station which is seeking a mutual increase in facilities may be granted only if no alternative fully-spaced site or less short-spaced site is available. Licensees of Class A stations seeking mutual increases in facilities need not show that a fully spaced site or less short-spaced site is available. Applications submitted pursuant to the provisions of this paragraph may be granted only if such action is consistent with the public interest.

[52 FR 37789, Oct. 9, 1987, as amended at 54 FR 14964, Apr. 14, 1989; 54 FR 35339, Aug. 25, 1989; 56 FR 27426, June 14, 1991; 62 FR 50521, Sept. 26, 1997; 63 FR 33876, June 22, 1998]

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§73.215   Contour protection for short-spaced assignments.

The Commission will accept applications that specify short-spaced antenna locations (locations that do not meet the domestic co-channel and adjacent channel minimum distance separation requirements of §73.207); Provided That, such applications propose contour protection, as defined in paragraph (a) of this section, with all short-spaced assignments, applications and allotments, and meet the other applicable requirements of this section. Each application to be processed pursuant to this section must specifically request such processing on its face, and must include the necessary exhibit to demonstrate that the requisite contour protection will be provided. Such applications may be granted when the Commission determines that such action would serve the public interest, convenience, and necessity.

(a) Contour protection. Contour protection, for the purpose of this section, means that on the same channel and on the first, second and third adjacent channels, the predicted interfering contours of the proposed station do not overlap the predicted protected contours of other short-spaced assignments, applications and allotments, and the predicted interfering contours of other short-spaced assignments, applications and allotments do not overlap the predicted protected contour of the proposed station.

(1) The protected contours, for the purpose of this section, are defined as follows. For all Class B and B1 stations on Channels 221 through 300 inclusive, the F(50,50) field strengths along the protected contours are 0.5 mV/m (54 dBµ) and 0.7 mV/m (57 dBµ), respectively. For all other stations, the F(50,50) field strength along the protected contour is 1.0 mV/m (60 dBµ).

(2) The interfering contours, for the purpose of this section, are defined as follows. For co-channel stations, the F(50,10) field strength along the interfering contour is 20 dB lower than the F(50,50) field strength along the protected contour for which overlap is prohibited. For first adjacent channel stations (±200 kHz), the F(50,10) field strength along the interfering contour is 6 dB lower than the F(50,50) field strength along the protected contour for which overlap is prohibited. For both second and third adjacent channel stations (±400 kHz and ±600 kHz), the F(50,10) field strength along the interfering contour is 40 dB higher than the F(50,50) field strength along the protected contour for which overlap is prohibited.

(3) The locations of the protected and interfering contours of the proposed station and the other short-spaced assignments, applications and allotments must be determined in accordance with the procedures of paragraphs (c), (d)(2) and (d)(3) of §73.313, using data for as many radials as necessary to accurately locate the contours.

(4) Protected and interfering contours (in dBu) for stations in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands are as follows:

Station with interfering contour Station with protected contour
Class A Class B1 Class B
Interfering Protected Interfering Protected Interfering Protected
Co-Channel:
Class A466641614060
Class B1436339593858
Class B456541614161
1st Adj. Channel:
Class A616756625965
Class B1576354605460
Class B626856625763
2nd-3rd Adj. Channel:
Class A107671006010464
Class B199591006010464
Class B9454945410464

Maximum permitted facilities assumed for each station pursuant to 47 CFR 73.211(b)(3):

6 kW ERP/240 meters HAAT—Class A

25 kW ERP/150 meters HAAT—Class B1

50 kW ERP/472 meters HAAT—Class B

(b) Applicants requesting short-spaced assignments pursuant to this section must take into account the following factors in demonstrating that contour protection is achieved:

(1) The ERP and antenna HAAT of the proposed station in the direction of the contours of other short-spaced assignments, applications and allotments. If a directional antenna is proposed, the pattern of that antenna must be used to calculate the ERP in particular directions. See §73.316 for additional requirements for directional antennas.

(2) The ERP and antenna HAAT of other short-spaced assignments, applications and allotments in the direction of the contours of the proposed station. The ERP and antenna HAATs in the directions of concern must be determined as follows:

(i) For vacant allotments, contours are based on the presumed use, at the allotment's reference point, of the maximum ERP that could be authorized for the station class of the allotment, and antenna HAATs in the directions of concern that would result from a non-directional antenna mounted at a standard eight-radial antenna HAAT equal to the reference HAAT for the station class of the allotment.

(ii) For existing stations that were not authorized pursuant to this section, including stations with authorized ERP that exceeds the maximum ERP permitted by §73.211 for the standard eight-radial antenna HAAT employed, and for applications not requesting authorization pursuant to this section, contours are based on the presumed use of the maximum ERP for the applicable station class (as specified in §73.211), and the antenna HAATs in the directions of concern that would result from a non-directional antenna mounted at a standard eight-radial antenna HAAT equal to the reference HAAT for the applicable station class, without regard to any other restrictions that may apply (e.g. zoning laws, FAA constraints, application of §73.213).

(iii) For stations authorized pursuant to this section, except stations with authorized ERP that exceeds the maximum ERP permitted by §73.211 for the standard eight-radial antenna HAAT employed, contours are based on the use of the authorized ERP in the directions of concern, and HAATs in the directions of concern derived from the authorized standard eight-radial antenna HAAT. For stations with authorized ERP that exceeds the maximum ERP permitted by §73.211 for the standard eight-radial antenna HAAT employed, authorized under this section, contours are based on the presumed use of the maximum ERP for the applicable station class (as specified in §73.211), and antenna HAATs in the directions of concern that would result from a non-directional antenna mounted at a standard eight-radial antenna HAAT equal to the reference HAAT for the applicable station class, without regard to any other restrictions that may apply.

(iv) For applications containing a request for authorization pursuant to this section, except for applications to continue operation with authorized ERP that exceeds the maximum ERP permitted by §73.211 for the standard eight-radial antenna HAAT employed, contours are based on the use of the proposed ERP in the directions of concern, and antenna HAATs in the directions of concern derived from the proposed standard eight-radial antenna HAAT. For applications to continue operation with an ERP that exceeds the maximum ERP permitted by §73.211 for the standard eight-radial HAAT employed, if processing is requested under this section, contours are based on the presumed use of the maximum ERP for the applicable station class (as specified in §73.211), and antenna HAATs in the directions of concern that would result from a nondirectional antenna mounted at a standard eight-radial antenna HAAT equal to the reference HAAT for the applicable station class, without regard to any other restrictions that may apply.

Note to paragraph (b): Applicants are cautioned that the antenna HAAT in any particular direction of concern will not usually be the same as the standard eight-radial antenna HAAT or the reference HAAT for the station class.

(c) Applications submitted for processing pursuant to this section are not required to propose contour protection of any assignment, application or allotment for which the minimum distance separation requirements of §73.207 are met, and may, in the directions of those assignments, applications and allotments, employ the maximum ERP permitted by §73.211 for the standard eight-radial antenna HAAT employed.

(d) Stations authorized pursuant to this section may be subsequently authorized on the basis of compliance with the domestic minimum separation distance requirements of §73.207, upon filing of an FCC Form 301 or FCC Form 340 (as appropriate) requesting a modification of authorization.

(e) The Commission will not accept applications that specify a short-spaced antenna location for which the following minimum distance separation requirements, in kilometers (miles), are not met:

Relation Co-Channel 200 kHz 400/600 kHz
A to A92 (57)49 (30)25 (16)
A to B1119 (74)72 (45)42 (26)
A to B143 (89)96 (60)63 (39)
A to C3119 (74)72 (45)36 (22)
A to C2143 (89)89 (55)49 (30)
A to C1178 (111)111 (69)69 (43)
A to C0193 (120)130 (81)80 (50)
A to C203 (126)142 (88)89 (55)
B1 to B1143 (89)96 (60)44 (27)
B1 to B178 (111)114 (71)65 (40)
B1 to C3143 (89)96 (60)44 (27)
B1 to C2175 (109)114 (71)50 (31)
B1 to C1200 (124)134 (83)71 (44)
B1 to C00215 (134)153 (95)81 (50)
B1 to C233 (145)165 (103)99 (61)
B to B211 (131)145 (90)68 (42)
B to C3178 (111)114 (70)65 (40)
B to C2211 (131)145 (90)68 (42)
B to C1241 (150)169 (105)73 (45)
B to C0266 (165)195 (121)83 (52)
B to C268 (163)195 (121)99 (61)
C3 to C3142 (88)89 (55)37 (23)
C3 to C2166 (103)106 (66)50 (31)
C3 to C1200 (124)133 (83)70 (43)
C3to C0215 (134)152 (94)81 (50)
C3 to C226 (140)165 (103)90 (56)
C2 to C2177 (110)117 (73)52 (32)
C2 to C1211 (131)144 (90)73 (45)
C2 to C0227 (141)163 (101)83 (52)
C2 to C237 (147)176 (109)96 (61)
C1 to C1224 (139)158 (98)76 (47)
C1 to C0239 (148)176 (109)88 (55)
C1 to C249 (155)188 (117)99 (61)
C0 to C0259 (161)196 (122)90 (56)
C0 to C270 (168)207 (12999 (61)
C to C270 (168)209 (130)99 (61)

[54 FR 9802, Mar. 8, 1989, as amended at 54 FR 35340, Aug. 25, 1989; 56 FR 57294, Nov. 8, 1991; 57 FR 46325, Oct. 8, 1992; 65 FR 79777, Dec. 20, 2000; 66 FR 8149, Jan. 29, 2001]

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§73.220   Restrictions on use of channels.

(a) The frequency 89.1 MHz (channel 206) is revised in the New York City metropolitan area for the use of the United Nations with the equivalent of an antenna height of 150 meters (492 feet) above average terrain and effective radiated power of 20 kWs, and the FCC will make no assignments which would cause objectionable interference with such use.

(b) [Reserved]

[43 FR 45845, Oct. 4, 1978, as amended at 46 FR 50376, Oct. 13, 1981, 47 FR 30068, July 12, 1982; 48 FR 29507, June 27, 1983; 70 FR 46676, Aug. 10, 2005]

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§73.232   Territorial exclusivity.

No licensee of an FM broadcast station shall have any arrangement with a network organization which prevents or hinders another station serving substantially the same area from broadcasting the network's programs not taken by the former station, or which prevents or hinders another station serving a substantially different area from broadcasting any program of the network organization: Provided, however, That this section does not prohibit arrangements under which the station is granted first call within its primary service area upon the network's programs. The term “network organization” means any organization originating program material, with or without commercial messages, and furnishing the same to stations interconnected so as to permit simultaneous broadcast by all or some of them. However, arrangements involving only stations under common ownership, or only the rebroadcast by one station of programming from another with no compensation other than a lump-sum payment by the station rebroadcasting, are not considered arrangements with a network organization. The term “arrangement“ means any contract, arrangement or understanding, express or implied.

[42 FR 16422, Mar. 28, 1977, as amended at 57 FR 48333, Oct. 23, 1992]

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§73.258   Indicating instruments.

(a) Each FM broadcast station shall be equipped with indicating instruments which conform with the specifications described in §73.1215 for determining power by the indirect method; for indicating the relative amplitude of the transmission line radio frequency current, voltage, or power; and with such other instruments as are necessary for the proper adjustment, operation, and maintenance of the transmitting system.

(b) The function of each instrument shall be clearly and permanently shown in the instrument itself or on the panel immediately adjacent thereto.

(c) In the event that any one of these indicating instruments becomes defective when no substitute which conforms with the required specifications is available, the station may be operated without the defective instrument pending its repair or replacement for a period not in excess of 60 days without further authority of the FCC: Provided that, if the defective instrument is the transmission line meter of a station which determines the output power by the direct method, the operating power shall be determined by the indirect method in accordance with §73.267(c) during the entire time the station is operated without the transmission line meter.

(d) If conditions beyond the control of the licensee prevent the restoration of the meter to service within the above allowed period, an informal letter request in accordance with §73.3549 may be filed with the FCC, Attention: Audio Division, Media Bureau, in Washington, DC for such additional time as may be required to complete repairs of the defective instrument.

[41 FR 36818, Sept. 1, 1976, as amended at 48 FR 44805, Sept. 30, 1983; 50 FR 32416, Aug. 12, 1985; 63 FR 33876, June 22, 1998; 67 FR 13231, Mar. 21, 2002]

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§73.267   Determining operating power.

(a) The operating power of each FM station is to be determined by either the direct or indirect method.

(b) Direct method. The direct method of power determination for an FM station uses the indications of a calibrated transmission line meter (responsive to relative voltage, current, or power) located at the RF output terminals of the transmitter. This meter must be calibrated whenever there is any indication that the calibration is inaccurate or whenever any component of the metering circuit is repaired or replaced. The calibration must cover, as a minimum, the range from 90% to 105% of authorized power. The meter calibration may be checked by measuring the power at the transmitter terminals while either:

(1) Operating the transmitter into the transmitting antenna, and determining actual operating power by the indirect method described in §73.267(c); or

(2) Operating the transmitter into a load (of substantially zero reactance and a resistance equal to the transmission line characteristic impedance) and using an electrical device (within ±5% accuracy) or temperature and coolant flow indicator (within ±4% accuracy) to determine the power.

(3) The calibration must cover, as a minimum, the range from 90% to 105% of authorized power and the meter must provide clear indications which will permit maintaining the operating power within the prescribed tolerance or the meter shall be calibrated to read directly in power units.

(c) Indirect method. The operating power is determined by the indirect method by applying an appropriate factor to the input power to the last radio-frequency power amplifier stage of the transmitter, using the following formula:

Transmitter output power = Ep × Ip × F

Where:

Ep = DC input voltage of final radio stage.

Ip = Total DC input current of final radio stage.

F = Efficiency factor.

(1) If the above formula is not appropriate for the design of the transmitter final amplifier, use a formula specified by the transmitter manufacturer with other appropriate operating parameters.

(2) The value of the efficiency factor, F, established for the authorized transmitter output power is to be used for maintaining the operating power, even though there may be some variation in F over the power operating range of the transmitter.

(3) The value of F is to be determined and a record kept thereof by one of the following procedures listed in order of preference:

(i) Using the most recent measurement data for calibration of the transmission line meter according to the procedures described in paragraph (b) of this section or the most recent measurements made by the licensee establishing the value of F. In the case of composite transmitters or those in which the final amplifier stages have been modified pursuant to FCC approval, the licensee must furnish the FCC and also retain with the station records the measurement data used as a basis for determining the value of F.

(ii) Using measurement data shown on the transmitter manufacturer's test data supplied to the licensee; Provided, That measurements were made at the authorized frequency and transmitter output power.

(iii) Using the transmitter manufacturer's measurement data submitted to the FCC for type acceptance and as shown in the instruction book supplied to the licensee.

(Secs. 4, 5, 303, 48 Stat., as amended, 1066, 1068, 1082 (47 U.S.C. 154, 155, 303))

[44 FR 58731, Oct. 11, 1979, as amended at 45 FR 28141, Apr. 28, 1980; 48 FR 38479, Aug. 24, 1983; 49 FR 4210, Feb. 3, 1984; 49 FR 49851, Dec. 24, 1984]

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§73.277   Permissible transmissions.

(a) No FM broadcast licensee or permittee shall enter into any agreement, arrangement or understanding, oral or written, whereby it undertakes to supply, or receives consideration for supplying, on its main channel a functional music, background music, or other subscription service (including storecasting) for reception in the place or places of business of any subscriber.

(b) The transmission (or interruption) of radio energy in the FM broadcast band is permissible only pursuant to a station license, program test authority, construction permit, or experimental authorization and the provisions of this part of the rules.

[29 FR 7471, June 10, 1964. Redesignated at 39 FR 38655, Nov. 1, 1974 and amended at 48 FR 28454, June 22, 1983]

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§73.293   Use of FM multiplex subcarriers.

Licensees of FM broadcast stations may transmit, without further authorization, subcarrier communication services in accordance with the provisions of §§73.319 and 73.322.

[51 FR 17028, May 8, 1986]

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§73.295   FM subsidiary communications services.

(a) Subsidiary communication services are those transmitted on a subcarrier within the FM baseband signal, but do not include services which enhance the main program broadcast service, or exclusively relate to station operations (see §73.293). Subsidiary communications include, but are not limited to services such as functional music, specialized foreign language programs, radio reading services, utility load management, market and financial data and news, paging and calling, traffic control signal switching, bilingual television audio, and point to point or multipoint messages.

(b) FM subsidiary communications services that are common carrier in nature are subject to common carrier regulation. Licensees operating such services are required to apply to the FCC for the appropriate authorization and to comply with all policies and rules applicable to the service. Responsibility for making the initial determinations of whether a particular activity is common carriage rests with the FM station licensee. Initial determinations by licensees are subject to FCC examination and may be reviewed at the FCC's discretion.

(c) Subsidiary communications services are of a secondary nature under the authority of the FM station authorization, and the authority to provide such communications services may not be retained or transferred in any manner separate from the station's authorization. The grant or renewal of an FM station permit or license is not furthered or promoted by proposed or past services. The permittee or licensee must establish that the broadcast operation is in the public interest wholly apart from the subsidiary communications services provided.

(d) The station identification, delayed recording and sponsor identification announcements required by §§73.1201, 73.1208, and 73.1212 are not applicable to material transmitted under an SCA.

(e) The licensee or permittee must retain control over all material transmitted in a broadcast mode via the station's facilities, with the right to reject any material that it deems inappropriate or undesirable.

[48 FR 28454, June 22, 1983, as amended at 48 FR 44805, Sept. 30, 1983; 49 FR 33663, Aug. 15, 1984; 50 FR 32416, Aug. 12, 1985; 57 FR 48333, Oct. 23, 1992]

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§73.297   FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

(a) An FM broadcast station may, without specific authority from the FCC, transmit stereophonic (biphonic, quadraphonic, etc.) sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment under the provisions of §§2.1001, 73.322, and 73.1590 of the Rules. Prior to commencement of stereophonic sound broadcasting, equipment performance measurements must be made to ensure that the transmitted signal complies with all applicable rules and standards.

(b) Each licensee or permittee engaging in multichannel broadcasting must measure the pilot subcarrier frequency as often as necessary to ensure that it is kept at all times within 2 Hz of the authorized frequency.

[48 FR 28454, June 22, 1983, and 48 FR 38479, Aug. 24, 1983]

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§73.310   FM technical definitions.

(a) Frequency modulation. Antenna height above average terrain (HAAT). HAAT is calculated by: determining the average of the antenna heights above the terrain from 3 to 16 kilometers (2 to 10 miles) from the antenna for the eight directions evenly spaced for each 45° of azimuth starting with True North (a different antenna height will be determined in each direction from the antenna): and computing the average of these separate heights. In some cases less than eight directions may be used. (See §73.313(d).) Where circular or elliptical polarization is used, the antenna height above average terrain must be based upon the height of the radiation of the antenna that transmits the horizontal component of radiation.

Antenna power gain. The square of the ratio of the root-mean-square (RMS) free space field strength produced at 1 kilometer in the horizontal plane in millivolts per meter for 1 kW antenna input power to 221.4 mV/m. This ratio is expressed in decibels (dB). If specified for a particular direction, antenna power gain is based on that field strength in the direction only.

Auxiliary facility. An auxiliary facility is an antenna separate from the main facility's antenna, permanently installed on the same tower or at a different location, from which a station may broadcast for short periods without prior Commission authorization or notice to the Commission while the main facility is not in operation (e.g., where tower work necessitates turning off the main antenna or where lightning has caused damage to the main antenna or transmission system) (See §73.1675).

Center frequency. The term “center frequency” means:

(1) The average frequency of the emitted wave when modulated by a sinusoidal signal.

(2) The frequency of the emitted wave without modulation.

Composite antenna pattern. The composite antenna pattern is a relative field horizontal plane pattern for 360 degrees of azimuth, for which the value at a particular azimuth is the greater of the horizontally polarized or vertically polarized component relative field values. The composite antenna pattern is normalized to a maximum of unity (1.000) relative field.

Composite baseband signal. A signal which is composed of all program and other communications signals that frequency modulates the FM carrier.

Effective radiated power. The term “effective radiated power” means the product of the antenna power (transmitter output power less transmission line loss) times: (1) The antenna power gain, or (2) the antenna field gain squared. Where circular or elliptical polarization is employed, the term effective radiated power is applied separately to the horizontal and vertical components of radiation. For allocation purposes, the effective radiated power authorized is the horizontally polarized component of radiation only.

Equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP). The term “equivalent isotropically radiated power (also known as “effective radiated power above isotropic) means the product of the antenna input power and the antenna gain in a given direction relative to an isotropic antenna.

FM Blanketing. Blanketing is that form of interference to the reception of other broadcast stations which is caused by the presence of an FM broadcast signal of 115 dBu (562 mV/m) or greater signal strength in the area adjacent to the antenna of the transmitting station. The 115 dBu contour is referred to as the blanketing contour and the area within this contour is referred to as the blanketing area.

FM broadcast band. The band of frequencies extending from 88 to 108 MHz, which includes those assigned to noncommercial educational broadcasting.

FM broadcast channel. A band of frequencies 200 kHz wide and designated by its center frequency. Channels for FM broadcast stations begin at 88.1 MHz and continue in successive steps of 200 kHz to and including 107.9 MHz.

FM broadcast station. A station employing frequency modulation in the FM broadcast band and licensed primarily for the transmission of radiotelephone emissions intended to be received by the general public.

Field strength. The electric field strength in the horizontal plane.

Free space field strength. The field strength that would exist at a point in the absence of waves reflected from the earth or other reflecting objects.

Frequency departure. The amount of variation of a carrier frequency or center frequency from its assigned value.

Frequency deviation. The peak difference between modulated wave and the carrier frequency.

Frequency modulation. A system of modulation where the instantaneous radio frequency varies in proportion to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal (amplitude of modulating signal to be measured after pre-emphasis, if used) and the instantaneous radio frequency is independent of the frequency of the modulating signal.

Frequency swing. The peak difference between the maximum and the minimum values of the instantaneous frequency of the carrier wave during modulation.

Multiplex transmission. The term “multiplex transmission” means the simultaneous transmission of two or more signals within a single channel. Multiplex transmission as applied to FM broadcast stations means the transmission of facsimile or other signals in addition to the regular broadcast signals.

Percentage modulation. The ratio of the actual frequency deviation to the frequency deviation defined as 100% modulation, expressed in percentage. For FM broadcast stations, a frequency deviation of ±75kHz is defined as 100% modulation.

(b) Stereophonic sound broadcasting. Cross-talk. An undesired signal occurring in one channel caused by an electrical signal in another channel.

FM stereophonic broadcast. The transmission of a stereophonic program by a single FM broadcast station utilizing the main channel and a stereophonic subchannel.

Left (or right) signal. The electrical output of a microphone or combination of microphones placed so as to convey the intensity, time, and location of sounds originating predominately to the listener's left (or right) of the center of the performing area.

Left (or right) stereophonic channel. The left (or right) signal as electrically reproduced in reception of FM stereophonic broadcasts.

Main channel. The band of frequencies from 50 to 15,000 Hz which frequency-modulate the main carrier.

Pilot subcarrier. A subcarrier that serves as a control signal for use in the reception of FM stereophonic sound broadcasts.

Stereophonic separation. The ratio of the electrical signal caused in sound channel A to the signal caused in sound channel B by the transmission of only a channel B signal. Channels A and B may be any two channels of a stereophonic sound broadcast transmission system.

Stereophonic sound. The audio information carried by plurality of channels arranged to afford the listener a sense of the spatial distribution of sound sources. Stereophonic sound broadcasting includes, but is not limited to, biphonic (two channel), triphonic (three channel) and quadrophonic (four channel) program services.

Stereophonic sound subcarrier. A subcarrier within the FM broadcast baseband used for transmitting signals for stereophonic sound reception of the main broadcast program service.

Stereophonic sound subchannel. The band of frequencies from 23 kHz to 99 kHz containing sound subcarriers and their associated sidebands.

(c) Visual transmissions. Communications or message transmitted on a subcarrier intended for reception and visual presentation on a viewing screen, teleprinter, facsimile printer, or other form of graphic display or record.

(d) Control and telemetry transmissions. Signals transmitted on a multiplex subcarrier intended for any form of control and switching functions or for equipment status data and aural or visual alarms.

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 39 FR 10575, Mar. 21, 1974; 44 FR 36038, June 20, 1979; 48 FR 28454, June 22, 1983; 48 FR 29507, June 27, 1983; 48 FR 37216, Aug. 17, 1983; 49 FR 45145, Nov. 15, 1984; 57 FR 48333, Oct. 23, 1992; 62 FR 51058, Sept. 30, 1997]

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§73.311   Field strength contours.

(a) Applications for FM broadcast authorizations must show the field strength contours required by FCC Form 301 or FCC Form 340, as appropriate.

(b) The field strength contours provided for in this section shall be considered for the following purposes only:

(1) In the estimation of coverage resulting from the selection of a particular transmitter site by an applicant for an FM broadcast station.

(2) In connection with problems of coverage arising out of application of §73.3555.

(3) In determining compliance with §73.315(a) concerning the minimum field strength to be provided over the principal community to be served.

(4) In determining compliance with §73.215 concerning contour protection.

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 31 FR 10126, July 27, 1966; 32 FR 11471, Aug. 9, 1967; 52 FR 10570, Apr. 2, 1987; 54 FR 9802, Mar. 8, 1989]

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§73.312   Topographic data.

(a) In the preparation of the profile graphs previously described, and in determining the location and height above mean sea level of the antenna site, the elevation or contour intervals shall be taken from United States Geological Survey Topographic Quadrangle Maps, United States Army Corps of Engineers Maps or Tennessee Valley Authority maps, whichever is the latest, for all areas for which such maps are available. If such maps are not published for the area in question, the next best topographic information should be used. Topographic data may sometimes be obtained from state and municipal agencies. The data from the Sectional Aeronautical Charts (including bench marks) or railroad depot elevations and highway elevations from road maps may be used where no better information is available. In cases where limited topographic data can be obtained, use may be made of an altimeter in a car driven along roads extending generally radially from the transmitter site.

(b) The Commission will not ordinarily require the submission of topographical maps for areas beyond 24 km (15 miles) from the antenna site, but the maps must include the principal city or cities to be served. If it appears necessary, additional data may be requested.

(c) The U.S. Geological Survey Topography Quadrangle Sheets may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Department of the Interior, Washington, DC 20240. The Sectional Aeronautical Charts are available from the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Department of Commerce, Washington, DC 20235. These maps may also be secured from branch offices and from authorized agents or dealers in most principal cities.

(d) In lieu of maps, the average terrain elevation may be computer generated except in cases of dispute, using elevations from a 30 second, point or better topographic data file. The file must be identified and the data processed for intermediate points along each radial using linear interpolation techniques. The height above mean sea level of the antenna site must be obtained manually using appropriate topographic maps.

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 31 FR 10126, July 27, 1966; 49 FR 48937, Dec. 17, 1984; 58 FR 44950, Aug. 25, 1993; 63 FR 33877, June 22, 1998]

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§73.313   Prediction of coverage.

(a) All predictions of coverage made pursuant to this section shall be made without regard to interference and shall be made only on the basis of estimated field strengths.

(b) Predictions of coverage shall be made only for the same purposes as relate to the use of field strength contours as specified in §73.311.

(c) In predicting the distance to the field strength contours, the F(50,50) field strength chart, Figure 1 of §73.333 must be used. The 50% field strength is defined as that value exceeded for 50% of the time.

(1) The F(50,50) chart gives the estimated 50% field strengths exceeded at 50% of the locations in dB above 1 uV/m. The chart is based on an effective power radiated from a half-wave dipole antenna in free space, that produces an unattenuated field strength at 1 kilometer of about 107 dB above 1 uV/m (221.4 mV/m).

(2) To use the chart for other ERP values, convert the ordinate scale by the appropriate adjustment in dB. For example, the ordinate scale for an ERP of 50 kW should be adjusted by 17 dB [10 log (50 kW) = 17 dBk], and therefore a field strength of 60 dBu would correspond to the field strength value at (60−17 =) 44 dBu on the chart. When predicting the distance to field strength contours, use the maximum ERP of the main radiated lobe in the pertinent azimuthal direction (do not account for beam tilt). When predicting field strengths over areas not in the plane of the maximum main lobe, use the ERP in the direction of such areas, determined by considering the appropriate vertical radiation pattern.

(d) The antenna height to be used with this chart is the height of the radiation center of the antenna above the average terrain along the radial in question. In determining the average elevation of the terrain, the elevations between 3 and 16 kilometers from the antenna site are used.

(1) Profile graphs must be drawn for eight radials beginning at the antenna site and extending 16 kilometers therefrom. The radials should be drawn for each 45° of azimuth starting with True North. At least one radial must include the principal community to be served even though it may be more than 16 kilometers from the antenna site. However, in the event none of the evenly spaced radials include the principal community to be served, and one or more such radials are drawn in addition, these radials must not be used in computing the antenna height above average terrain.

(2) Where the 3 to 16 kilometers portion of a radial extends in whole or in part over a large body of water or extends over foreign territory but the 50 uV/m (34 dBu) contour encompasses land area within the United States beyond the 16 kilometers portion of the radial, the entire 3 to 16 kilometers portion of the radial must be included in the computation of antenna height above average terrain. However, where the 50 uV/m (34 dBu) contour does not so encompass United States land area, and (i) the entire 3 to 16 kilometers portion of the radial extends over large bodies of water or over foreign territory, such radial must be completely omitted from the computation of antenna height above average terrain, and (ii) where a part of the 3 to 16 kilometers portion of a radial extends over large bodies of water or foreign territory, only that part of the radial extending from 3 kilometers to the outermost portion of land in the United States covered by the radial used must be used in the computation of antenna height above average terrain.

(3) The profile graph for each radial should be plotted by contour intervals of from 12 to 30 meters and, where the data permits, at least 50 points of elevation (generally uniformly spaced) should be used for each radial. In instances of very rugged terrain where the use of contour intervals of 30 meters would result in several points in a short distance, 60 or 120 meter contour intervals may be used for such distances. On the other hand, where the terrain is uniform or gently sloping the smallest contour interval indicated on the topographic map should be used, although only relatively few points may be available. The profile graph should indicate the topography accurately for each radial, and the graphs should be plotted with the distance in kilometers as the abscissa and the elevation in meters above mean sea level as the ordinate. The profile graphs should indicate the source of the topographical data used. The graph should also show the elevation of the center of the radiating system. The graph may be plotted either on rectangular coordinate paper or on special paper that shows the curvature of the earth. It is not necessary to take the curvature of the earth into consideration in this procedure as this factor is taken care of in the charts showing signal strengths. The average elevation of the 13 kilometer distance between 3 and 16 kilometers from the antenna site should then be determined from the profile graph for each radial. This may be obtained by averaging a large number of equally spaced points, by using a planimeter, or by obtaining the median elevation (that exceeded for 50% of the distance) in sectors and averaging those values.

(4) Examples of HAAT calculations:

(i) The heights above average terrain on the eight radials are as follows:

   Meters
120
45°255
90°185
135°90
180°−10
225°−85
270°40
315°85

The antenna height above terrain (defined in §73.310(a)) is computed as follows:

(120 + 255 + 185 + 90 − 10 − 85 + 40 + 85) / 8 = 85 meters.

(ii) Same as paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section, except the 0° radial is entirely over sea water. The antenna height above average terrain is computed as follows (note that the divisor is 7 not 8):

(255 + 185 + 90 − 10 − 85 + 40 + 85) / 7 = 80 meters.

(iii) Same as paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section, except that only the first 10 kilometers of the 90° radial are in the United States; beyond 10 kilometers the 90° radial is in a foreign country. The height above average terrain of the 3 to 10 kilometer portion of the 90° radial is 105 meters. The antenna height above average terrain is computed as follows (note that the divisor is 8 not 7.5):

(120 + 255 + 105 + 90 − 10 − 85 + 40 + 85) / 8 = 75 meters.

(e) In cases where the terrain in one or more directions from the antenna site departs widely from the average elevation of the 3 to 16 kilometer sector, the prediction method may indicate contour distances that are different from what may be expected in practice. For example, a mountain ridge may indicate the practical limit of service although the prediction method may indicate otherwise. In such cases, the prediction method should be followed, but a supplemental showing may be made concerning the contour distances as determined by other means. Such supplemental showings should describe the procedure used and should include sample calculations. Maps of predicted coverage should include both the coverage as predicted by the regular method and as predicted by a supplemental method. When measurements of area are required, these should include the area obtained by the regular prediction method and the area obtained by the supplemental method. In directions where the terrain is such that antenna heights less than 30 meters for the 3 to 16 kilometer sector are obtained, an assumed height of 30 meters must be used for the prediction of coverage. However, where the actual contour distances are critical factors, a supplemental showing of expected coverage must be included together with a description of the method used in predicting such coverage. In special cases, the FCC may require additional information as to terrain and coverage.

(f) The effect of terrain roughness on the predicted field strength of a signal at points distant from an FM transmitting antenna is assumed to depend on the magnitude of a terrain roughness factor (h) which, for a specific propagation path, is determined by the characteristics of a segment of the terrain profile for that path 40 kilometers in length located between 10 and 50 kilometers from the antenna. The terrain roughness factor has a value equal to the distance, in meters, between elevations exceeded by all points on the profile for 10% and 90% respectively, of the length of the profile segment. (See §73.333, Figure 4.)

(g) If the lowest field strength value of interest is initially predicted to occur over a particular propagation path at a distance that is less than 50 kilometers from the antenna, the terrain profile segment used in the determination of terrain roughness factor over that path must be that included between points 10 kilometers from the transmitter and such lesser distances. No terrain roughness correction need be applied when all field strength values of interest are predicted to occur 10 kilometers or less from the transmitting antenna.

(h) Profile segments prepared for terrain roughness factor determinations are to be plotted in rectangular coordinates, with no less than 50 points evenly spaced within the segment using data obtained from topographic maps with contour intervals of approximately 15 meters (50 feet) or less if available.

(i) The field strength charts (§73.333, Figs. 1-1a) were developed assuming a terrain roughness factor of 50 meters, which is considered to be representative of average terrain in the United States. Where the roughness factor for a particular propagation path is found to depart appreciably from this value, a terrain roughness correction (ΔF) should be applied to field strength values along this path, as predicted with the use of these charts. The magnitude and sign of this correction, for any value of Δh, may be determined from a chart included in §73.333 as Figure 5.

(j) Alternatively, the terrain roughness correction may be computed using the following formula:

ΔF = 1.9−0.03(Δh)(1 + f/300)

Where:

ΔF = terrain roughness correction in dB

Δk = terrain roughness factor in meters

f = frequency of signal in MHz (MHz)

(Secs. 4, 5, 303, 48 Stat., as amended, 1066, 1068, 1082 (47 U.S.C. 154, 155, 303))

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 40 FR 27678, July 1, 1975; 48 FR 29507, June 27, 1983; 52 FR 11655, Apr. 10, 1987; 52 FR 37789, Oct. 9, 1987; 57 FR 48333, Oct. 23, 1992; 63 FR 33877, June 22, 1998]

Effective Date Note: At 42 FR 25736, May 19, 1977, the effective date of §73.313 paragraphs (i) and (j) was stayed indefinitely.

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§73.314   Field strength measurements.

(a) Except as provided for in §73.209, FM broadcast stations shall not be protected from any type of interference or propagation effect. Persons desiring to submit testimony, evidence or data to the Commission for the purpose of showing that the technical standards contained in this subpart do not properly reflect the levels of any given type of interference or propagation effect may do so only in appropriate rule making proceedings concerning the amendment of such technical standards. Persons making field strength measurements for formal submission to the Commission in rule making proceedings, or making such measurements upon the request of the Commission, shall follow the procedure for making and reporting such measurements outlined in paragraph (b) of this section. In instances where a showing of the measured level of a signal prevailing over a specific community is appropriate, the procedure for making and reporting field strength measurements for this purpose is set forth in paragraph (c) of this section.

(b) Collection of field strength data for propagation analysis.

(1) Preparation for measurements. (i) On large scale topographic maps, eight or more radials are drawn from the transmitter location to the maximum distance at which measurements are to be made, with the angles included between adjacent radials of approximately equal size. Radials should be oriented so as to traverse representative types of terrain. The specific number of radials and their orientation should be such as to accomplish this objective.

(ii) Each radial is marked, at a point exactly 16 kilometers from the transmitter and, at greater distances, at successive 3 kilometer intervals. Where measurements are to be conducted over extremely rugged terrain, shorter intervals may be used, but all such intervals must be of equal length. Accessible roads intersecting each radial as nearly as possible at each 3 kilometer marker are selected. These intersections are the points on the radial at which measurements are to be made, and are referred to subsequently as measuring locations. The elevation of each measuring location should approach the elevation at the corresponding 3 kilometer marker as nearly as possible.

(2) Measurement procedure. All measurements must be made utilizing a receiving antenna designed for reception of the horizontally polarized signal component, elevated 9 meters above the roadbed. At each measuring location, the following procedure must be used:

(i) The instrument calibration is checked.

(ii) The antenna is elevated to a height of 9 meters.

(iii) The receiving antenna is rotated to determine if the strongest signal is arriving from the direction of the transmitter.

(iv) The antenna is oriented so that the sector of its response pattern over which maximum gain is realized is in the direction of the transmitter.

(v) A mobile run of at least 30 meters is made, that is centered on the intersection of the radial and the road, and the measured field strength is continuously recorded on a chart recorder over the length of the run.

(vi) The actual measuring location is marked exactly on the topographic map, and a written record, keyed to the specific location, is made of all factors which may affect the recorded field, such as topography, height and types of vegetation, buildings, obstacles, weather, and other local features.

(vii) If, during the test conducted as described in paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section, the strongest signal is found to come from a direction other than from the transmitter, after the mobile run prescribed in paragraph (b)(2)(v) of this section is concluded, additional measurements must be made in a “cluster” of at least five fixed points. At each such point, the field strengths with the antenna oriented toward the transmitter, and with the antenna oriented so as to receive the strongest field, are measured and recorded. Generally, all points should be within 60 meters of the center point of the mobile run.

(viii) If overhead obstacles preclude a mobile run of at least 30 meters, a “cluster” of five spot measurements may be made in lieu of this run. The first measurement in the cluster is identified. Generally, the locations for other measurements must be within 60 meters of the location of the first.

(3) Method of reporting measurements. A report of measurements to the Commission shall be submitted in affidavit form, in triplicate, and should contain the following information:

(i) Tables of field strength measurements, which, for each measuring location, set forth the following data:

(A) Distance from the transmitting antenna.

(B) Ground elevation at measuring location.

(C) Date, time of day, and weather.

(D) Median field in dBu for 0 dBk, for mobile run or for cluster, as well as maximum and minimum measured field strengths.

(E) Notes describing each measuring location.

(ii) U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps, on which is shown the exact location at which each measurement was made. The original plots shall be made on maps of the largest available scale. Copies may be reduced in size for convenient submission to the Commission, but not to the extent that important detail is lost. The original maps shall be made available, if requested. If a large number of maps is involved, an index map should be submitted.

(iii) All information necessary to determine the pertinent characteristics of the transmitting installation, including frequency, geographical coordinates of antenna site, rated and actual power output of transmitter, measured transmission line loss, antenna power gain, height of antenna above ground, above mean sea level, and above average terrain. The effective radiated power should be computed, and horizontal and vertical plane patterns of the transmitting antenna should be submitted.

(iv) A list of calibrated equipment used in the field strength survey, which, for each instrument, specifies its manufacturer, type, serial number and rated accuracy, and the date of its most recent calibration by the manufacturer, or by a laboratory. Complete details of any instrument not of standard manufacture shall be submitted.

(v) A detailed description of the calibration of the measuring equipment, including field strength meters, measuring antenna, and connecting cable.

(vi) Terrain profiles in each direction in which measurements were made, drawn on curved earth paper for equivalent 4/3 earth radius, of the largest available scale.

(c) Collection of field strength data to determine FM broadcast service in specific communities.

(1) Preparation for measurement. (i) The population (P) of the community, and its suburbs, if any, is determined by reference to an appropriate source, e.g., the 1970 U.S. Census tables of population of cities and urbanized areas.

(ii) The number of locations at which measurements are to be made shall be at least 15, and shall be approximately equal to 0.1(P)1/2, if this product is a number greater than 15.

(iii) A rectangular grid, of such size and shape as to encompass the boundaries of the community is drawn on an accurate map of the community. The number of line intersections on the grid included within the boundaries of the community shall be at least equal to the required number of measuring locations. The position of each intersection on the community map determines the location at which a measurement shall be made.

(2) Measurement procedure. All measurements must be made using a receiving antenna designed for reception of the horizontally polarized signal component, elevated 9 meters above ground level.

(i) Each measuring location shall be chosen as close as feasible to a point indicated on the map, as previously prepared, and at as nearly the same elevation as that point as possible.

(ii) At each measuring location, after equipment calibration and elevation of the antenna, a check is made to determine whether the strongest signal arrives from a direction other than from the transmitter.

(iii) At 20 percent or more of the measuring locations, mobile runs, as described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section shall be made, with no less than three such mobile runs in any case. The points at which mobile measurements are made shall be well separated. Spot measurements may be made at other measuring points.

(iv) Each actual measuring location is marked exactly on the map of the community, and suitably keyed. A written record shall be maintained, describing, for each location, factors which may affect the recorded field, such as the approximate time of measurement, weather, topography, overhead wiring, heights and types of vegetation, buildings and other structures. The orientation, with respect to the measuring location shall be indicated of objects of such shape and size as to be capable of causing shadows or reflections. If the strongest signal received was found to arrive from a direction other than that of the transmitter, this fact shall be recorded.

(3) Method of reporting measurements. A report of measurements to the Commission shall be submitted in affidavit form, in triplicate, and should contain the following information:

(i) A map of the community showing each actual measuring location, specifically identifying the points at which mobile runs were made.

(ii) A table keyed to the above map, showing the field strength at each measuring point, reduced to dBu for the actual effective radiated power of the station. Weather, date, and time of each measurement shall be indicated.

(iii) Notes describing each measuring location.

(iv) A topographic map of the largest available scale on which are marked the community and the transmitter site of the station whose signals have been measured, which includes all areas on or near the direct path of signal propagation.

(v) Computations of the mean and standard deviation of all measured field strengths, or a graph on which the distribution of measured field strength values is plotted.

(vi) A list of calibrated equipment used for the measurements, which for each instrument, specifies its manufacturer, type, serial number and rated accuracy, and the date of its most recent calibration by the manufacturer, or by a laboratory. Complete details of any instrument not of standard manufacture shall be submitted.

(vii) A detailed description of the procedure employed in the calibration of the measuring equipment, including field strength meters, measuring antenna, and connecting cable.

[40 FR 27682, July 1, 1975; 40 FR 28802, July 9, 1975, as amended at 48 FR 29508, June 27, 1983]

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§73.315   FM transmitter location.

(a) The transmitter location shall be chosen so that, on the basis of the effective radiated power and antenna height above average terrain employed, a minimum field strength of 70 dB above one uV/m (dBu), or 3.16 mV/m, will be provided over the entire principal community to be served.

(b) The transmitter location should be chosen to maximize coverage to the city of license while minimizing interference. This is normally accomplished by locating in the least populated area available while maintaining the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section. In general, the transmitting antenna of a station should be located in the most sparsely populated area available at the highest elevation available. The location of the antenna should be so chosen that line-of-sight can be obtained from the antenna over the principle city or cities to be served; in no event should there be a major obstruction in this path.

(c) The transmitting location should be selected so that the 1 mV/m contour encompasses the urban population within the area to be served. It is recognized that topography, shape of the desired service area, and population distribution may make the choice of a transmitter location difficult. In such cases consideration may be given to the use of a directional antenna system, although it is generally preferable to choose a site where a nondirectional antenna may be employed.

(d) In cases of questionable antenna locations it is desirable to conduct propagation tests to indicate the field strength expected in the principal city or cities to be served and in other areas, particularly where severe shadow problems may be expected. In considering applications proposing the use of such locations, the Commission may require site tests to be made. Such tests should include measurements made in accordance with the measurement procedures described in §73.314, and full data thereon shall be supplied to the Commission. The test transmitter should employ an antenna having a height as close as possible to the proposed antenna height, using a balloon or other support if necessary and feasible. Information concerning the authorization of site tests may be obtained from the Commission upon request.

(e) Cognizance must of course be taken regarding the possible hazard of the proposed antenna structure to aviation and the proximity of the proposed site to airports and airways. Procedures and standards with respect to the Commission's consideration of proposed antenna structures which will serve as a guide to persons intending to apply for radio station licenses are contained in Part 17 of this chapter (Construction, Marking, and Lighting of Antenna Structures).

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 41 FR 22943, June 8, 1976; 49 FR 38131, Sept. 27, 1984; 49 FR 45146, Nov. 15, 1984; 51 FR 9965, Mar. 24, 1986; 52 FR 10570, Apr. 2, 1987; 65 FR 79778, Dec. 20, 2000]

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§73.316   FM antenna systems.

(a) It shall be standard to employ horizontal polarization; however, circular or elliptical polarization may be employed if desired. Clockwise or counterclockwise rotation may be used. The supplemental vertically polarized effective radiated power required for circular or elliptical polarization shall in no event exceed the effective radiated power authorized.

(b) Directional antennas. A directional antenna is an antenna that is designed or altered for the purpose of obtaining a non-circular radiation pattern.

(1) Applications for the use of directional antennas that propose a ratio of maximum to minimum radiation in the horizontal plane of more than 15 dB will not be accepted.

(2) Directional antennas used to protect short-spaced stations pursuant to §73.213 or §73.215 of the rules, that have a radiation pattern which varies more than 2 dB per 10 degrees of azimuth will not be authorized.

(c) Applications for directional antennas. (1) Applications for construction permit proposing the use of directional antenna systems must include a tabulation of the composite antenna pattern for the proposed directional antenna. A value of 1.0 must be used to correspond to the direction of maximum radiation. The pattern must be tabulated such that 0° corresponds to the direction of maximum radiation or alternatively, in the case of an asymmetrical antenna pattern, the pattern must be tabulated such that 0° corresponds to the actual azimuth with respect to true North. In the case of a composite antenna composed of two or more individual antennas, the pattern required is that for the composite antenna, not the patterns for each of the individual antennas. Applications must include valuations tabulated at intervals of not greater than ten (10) degrees. In addition, tabulated values of all maximas and minimas, with their corresponding azimuths, must be submitted.

(2) Applications for license upon completion of antenna construction must include the following:

(i) A complete description of the antenna system, including the manufacturer and model number of the directional antenna. It is not sufficient to label the antenna with only a generic term such as “dipole.” In the case of individually designed antennas with no model number, or in the case of a composite antenna composed of two or more individual antennas, the antenna must be described as a “custom” or “composite” antenna, as appropriate. A full description of the design of the antenna must also be submitted.

(ii) A plot of the composite pattern of the directional antenna. A value of 1.0 must be used to correspond to the direction of maximum radiation. The plot of the pattern must be oriented such that 0° corresponds to the direction of maximum radiation or alternatively, in the case of an asymmetrical antenna pattern, the plot must be oriented such that 0° corresponds to the actual azimuth with respect to true North. The horizontal plane pattern must be plotted to the largest scale possible on unglazed letter-size polar coordinate paper (main engraving approximately 18 cm × 25 cm (7 inches × 10 inches)) using only scale divisions and subdivisions of 1, 2, 2.5, or 5 times 10-nth. Values of field strength less than 10% of the maximum field strength plotted on that pattern must be shown on an enlarged scale. In the case of a composite antenna composed of two or more individual antennas, the composite antenna pattern should be provided, and not the pattern for each of the individual antennas.

(iii) A tabulation of the measured relative field pattern required in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. The tabulation must use the same zero degree reference as the plotted pattern, and must contain values for at least every 10 degrees. Sufficient vertical patterns to indicate clearly the radiation characteristics of the antenna above and below the horizontal plane. Complete information and patterns must be provided for angles of −10 deg. from the horizontal plane and sufficient additional information must be included on that portion of the pattern lying between + 10 deg. and the zenith and −10 deg. and the nadir, to conclusively demonstrate the absence of undesirable lobes in these areas. The vertical plane pattern must be plotted on rectangular coordinate paper with reference to the horizontal plane. In the case of a composite antenna composed of two or more individual antennas, the composite antenna pattern should be used, and not the pattern for each of the individual antennas.

(iv) A statement that the antenna is mounted on the top of an antenna tower recommended by the antenna manufacturer, or is side-mounted on a particular type of antenna tower in accordance with specific instructions provided by the antenna manufacturer.

(v) A statement that the directional antenna is not mounted on the top of an antenna tower which includes a top-mounted platform larger than the nominal cross-sectional area of the tower in the horizontal plane.

(vi) A statement that no other antenna of any type is mounted on the same tower level as a directional antenna, and that no antenna of any type is mounted within any horizontal or vertical distance specified by the antenna manufacturer as being necessary for proper directional operation.

(vii) A statement from an engineer listing such individual engineer's qualifications and certifying that the antenna has been installed pursuant to the manufacturer's instructions.

(viii) A statement from a licensed surveyor that the installed antenna is properly oriented.

(ix)(A) For a station authorized pursuant to §73.215 or Sec. §73.509, a showing that the root mean square (RMS) of the measured composite antenna pattern (encompassing both the horizontally and vertically polarized radiation components (in relative field)) is at least 85 percent of the RMS of the authorized composite directional antenna pattern (in relative field). The RMS value, for a composite antenna pattern specified in relative field values, may be determined from the following formula:

RMS = the square root of:

[(relative field value 1)2 + (relative field value 2)2 + .... + (last relative field value)2]

total number of relative field values

(B) where the relative field values are taken from at least 36 evenly spaced radials for the entire 360 degrees of azimuth. The application for license must also demonstrate that coverage of the community of license by the 70 dBu contour is maintained for stations authorized pursuant to §73.215 on Channels 221 through 300, as required by §73.315(a), while noncommercial educational stations operating on Channels 201 through 220 must show that the 60 dBu contour covers at least a portion of the community of license.

(d) Applications proposing the use of FM transmitting antennas in the immediate vicinity (i.e. 60 meters or less) of other FM or TV broadcast antennas must include a showing as to the expected effect, if any, of such approximate operation.

(e) Where an FM licensee or permittee proposes to mount its antenna on or near an AM tower, as defined in §1.30002, the FM licensee or permittee must comply with §1.30003 or §1.30002, depending on whether the antenna is proposed to be mounted on an AM tower (§1.30003) or near an AM tower (§1.30002).

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 34 FR 14222, Sept. 10, 1969; 37 FR 25841, Dec. 5, 1972; 43 FR 53738, Nov. 17, 1978; 48 FR 29508, June 27, 1983; 51 FR 17028, May 8, 1986; 54 FR 9804, Mar. 8, 1989; 56 FR 57294, Nov. 8, 1991; 62 FR 51058, Sept. 30, 1997; 63 FR 70047, Dec. 18, 1998; 78 FR 66298, Nov. 5, 2013]

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§73.317   FM transmission system requirements.

(a) FM broadcast stations employing transmitters authorized after January 1, 1960, must maintain the bandwidth occupied by their emissions in accordance with the specification detailed below. FM broadcast stations employing transmitters installed or type accepted before January 1, 1960, must achieve the highest degree of compliance with these specifications practicable with their existing equipment. In either case, should harmful interference to other authorized stations occur, the licensee shall correct the problem promptly or cease operation.

(b) Any emission appearing on a frequency removed from the carrier by between 120 kHz and 240 kHz inclusive must be attenuated at least 25 dB below the level of the unmodulated carrier. Compliance with this requirement will be deemed to show the occupied bandwidth to be 240 kHz or less.

(c) Any emission appearing on a frequency removed from the carrier by more than 240 kHz and up to and including 600 kHz must be attenuated at least 35 dB below the level of the unmodulated carrier.

(d) Any emission appearing on a frequency removed from the carrier by more than 600 kHz must be attenuated at least 43 + 10 Log10 (Power, in watts) dB below the level of the unmodulated carrier, or 80 dB, whichever is the lesser attenuation.

(e) Preemphasis shall not be greater than the impedance-frequency characteristics of a series inductance resistance network having a time constant of 75 microseconds. (See upper curve of Figure 2 of §73.333.)

[51 FR 17028, May 8, 1986]

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§73.318   FM blanketing interference.

Areas adjacent to the transmitting antenna that receive a signal with a strength of 115 dBu (562 mV/m) or greater will be assumed to be blanketed. In determining the blanketed area, the 115 dBu contour is determined by calculating the inverse distance field using the effective radiated power of the maximum radiated lobe of the antenna without considering its vertical radiation pattern or height. For directional antennas, the effective radiated power in the pertinent bearing shall be used.

(a) The distance to the 115 dBu contour is determined using the following equation:

D (in kilometers) = 0.394√ P

D (in miles) = 0.245√ P

Where P is the maximum effective radiated power (ERP), measured in kilowatts, of the maximum radiated lobe.

(b) After January 1, 1985, permittees or licensees who either (1) commence program tests, or (2) replace their antennas, or (3) request facilities modifications and are issued a new construction permit must satisfy all complaints of blanketing interference which are received by the station during a one year period. The period begins with the commencement of program tests, or commencement of programming utilizing the new antenna. Resolution of complaints shall be at no cost to the complainant. These requirements specifically do not include interference complaints resulting from malfunctioning or mistuned receivers, improperly installed antenna systems, or the use of high gain antennas or antenna booster amplifiers. Mobile receivers and non-RF devices such as tape recorders or hi-fi amplifiers (phonographs) are also excluded.

(c) A permittee collocating with one or more existing stations and beginning program tests on or after January 1, 1985, must assume full financial responsibility for remedying new complaints of blanketing interference for a period of one year. Two or more permittees that concurrently collocate on or after January 1, 1985, shall assume shared responsibility for remedying blanketing complaints within the blanketing area unless an offending station can be readily determined and then that station shall assume full financial responsibility.

(d) Following the one year period of full financial obligation to satisfy blanketing complaints, licensees shall provide technical information or assistance to complainants on remedies for blanketing interference.

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 52 FR 25866, July 9, 1987]

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§73.319   FM multiplex subcarrier technical standards.

(a) The technical specifications in this Section apply to all transmissions of FM multiplex subcarriers except those used for stereophonic sound broadcasts under the provisions of §73.322.

(b) Modulation. Any form of modulation may be used for subcarrier operation.

(c) Subcarrier baseband. (1) During monophonic program transmissions, multiplex subcarriers and their significant sidebands must be within the range of 20 kHz to 99 kHz.

(2) During stereophonic sound program transmissions (see §73.322), multiplex subcarriers and their significant sidebands must be within the range of 53 kHz to 99 kHz.

(3) During periods when broadcast programs are not being transmitted, multiplex subcarriers and their significant sidebands must be within the range of 20 kHz to 99 kHz.

(d) Subcarrier injection. (1) During monophonic program transmissions, modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all subcarriers may not exceed 30% referenced to 75 kHz modulation deviation. However, the modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all subcarriers above 75 kHz may not modulate the carrier by more than 10%.

(2) During stereophonic program transmissions, modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all subcarriers may not exceed 20% referenced to 75 kHz modulation deviation. However, the modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all subcarriers above 75 kHz may not modulate the carrier by more than 10%.

(3) During periods when no broadcast program service is transmitted, modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all subcarriers may not exceed 30% referenced to 75 kHz modulation deviation. However, the modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all subcarriers above 75 kHz may not modulate the carrier by more than 10%.

(4) Total modulation of the carrier wave during transmission of multiplex subcarriers used for subsidiary communications services must comply with the provisions §73.1570(b).

(e) Subcarrier generators may be installed and used with a type accepted FM broadcast transmitter without specific authorization from the FCC provided the generator can be connected to the transmitter without requiring any mechanical or electrical modifications in the transmitter FM exciter circuits.

(f) Stations installing multiplex subcarrier transmitting equipment must ensure the proper suppression of spurious or harmonic radiations. See §§73.317, 73.1590 and 73.1690. If the subcarrier operation causes the station's transmissions not to comply with the technical provisions for FM broadcast stations or causes harmful interference to other communication services, the licensee or permittee must correct the problem promptly or cease operation. The licensee may be required to verify the corrective measures with supporting data. Such data must be retained at the station and be made available to the FCC upon request.

[48 FR 28455, June 22, 1983, as amended at 48 FR 37216, Aug. 17, 1983; 49 FR 15080, Apr. 17, 1984; 49 FR 38131, Sept. 27, 1984; 50 FR 1534, Jan. 11, 1985; 51 FR 17029, May 8, 1986; 57 FR 48333, Oct. 23, 1992]

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§73.322   FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.

(a) An FM broadcast station shall not use 19 kHz ±20 Hz, except as the stereophonic pilot frequency in a transmission system meeting the following parameters:

(1) The modulating signal for the main channel consists of the sum of the right and left signals.

(2) The pilot subcarrier at 19 kHz ±2 Hz, must frequency modulate the main carrier between the limits of 8 and 10 percent.

(3) One stereophonic subcarrier must be the second harmonic of the pilot subcarrier (i.e., 38 kHz) and must cross the time axis with a positive slope simultaneously with each crossing of the time axis by the pilot subcarrier. Additional stereophomic subcarriers are not precluded.

(4) Double sideband, suppressed-carrier, amplitude modulation of the stereophonic subcarrier at 38 kHz must be used.

(5) The stereophonic subcarrier at 38 kHz must be suppressed to a level less than 1% modulation of the main carrier.

(6) The modulating signal for the required stereophonic subcarrier must be equal to the difference of the left and right signals.

(7) The following modulation levels apply:

(i) When a signal exists in only one channel of a two channel (biphonic) sound transmission, modulation of the carrier by audio components within the baseband range of 50 Hz to 15 kHz shall not exceed 45% and modulation of the carrier by the sum of the amplitude modulated subcarrier in the baseband range of 23 kHz to 53 kHz shall not exceed 45%.

(ii) When a signal exists in only one channel of a stereophonic sound transmission having more than one stereophonic subcarrier in the baseband, the modulation of the carrier by audio components within the audio baseband range of 23 kHz to 99 kHz shall not exceed 53% with total modulation not to exceed 90%.

(b) Stations not transmitting stereo with the method described in (a), must limit the main carrier deviation caused by any modulating signals occupying the band 19 kHz ±20 Hz to 125 Hz.

(c) All stations, regardless of the stereophonic transmission system used, must not exceed the maximum modulation limits specified in §73.1570(b)(2). Stations not using the method described in (a), must limit the modulation of the carrier by audio components within the audio baseband range of 23 kHz to 99 kHz to not exceed 53%.

[51 FR 17029, May 8, 1986]

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§73.333   Engineering charts.

This section consists of the following Figures 1, 1a, 2, and slider 4 and 5.

Note: The figures reproduced herein, due to their small scale, are not to be used in connection with material submitted to the F.C.C.

eCFR graphic ec01mr91.085.gif

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eCFR graphic ec01mr91.086.gif

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eCFR graphic ec01mr91.087.gif

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eCFR graphic ec01mr91.088.gif

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eCFR graphic ec01mr91.089.gif

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eCFR graphic ec01mr91.090.gif

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(Secs. 4, 5, 303, 48 Stat., as amended, 1066, 1068, 1082 (47 U.S.C. 154, 155, 303))

[28 FR 13623, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 35 FR 2591, Feb. 5, 1970; 40 FR 27679, July 1, 1975; 45 FR 28141, Apr. 28, 1980; 48 FR 29508, June 27, 1983; 49 FR 19670, May 9, 1984]

Effective Date Note: At 42 FR 25736, May 19, 1977, in §73.333, the effective date of Figures 4 and 5 was stayed indefinitely.

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