e-CFR banner

Home
gpo.gov
govinfo.gov

e-CFR Navigation Aids

Browse

Simple Search

Advanced Search

 — Boolean

 — Proximity

 

Search History

Search Tips

Corrections

Latest Updates

User Info

FAQs

Agency List

Incorporation By Reference

eCFR logo

Related Resources

 

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of April 7, 2020

Title 47Chapter ISubchapter APart 2 → Subpart C


Title 47: Telecommunication
PART 2—FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS


Subpart C—Emissions


Contents
§2.201   Emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics.
§2.202   Bandwidths.

§2.201   Emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics.

The following system of designating emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics shall be employed.

(a) Emissions are designated according to their classification and their necessary bandwidth.

(b) Three symbols are used to describe the basic characteristics of emissions. Emissions are classified and symbolized according to the following characteristics:

(1) First symbol—type of modulation of the main carrier;

(2) Second symbol—nature of signal(s) modulating the main carrier;

(3) Third symbol—type of information to be transmitted.

Note to paragraph (b): Two additional symbols for the classification of emissions may be added for a more complete description of an emission. See Appendix 1, Sub-Section IIB of the ITU Radio Regulations for the specifications of these fourth and fifth symbols. Use of these symbols is not required by the Commission.

(c) First Symbol—types of modulation of the main carrier:

   (1) Emission of an unmodulated carrierN
   (2) Emission in which the main carrier is amplitude-modulated (including cases where sub-carriers are angle-modulated):
—Double-sidebandA
—Single-sideband, full carrierH
—Single-sideband, reduced or variable level carrierR
—Single-sideband, suppressed carrierJ
—Independent sidebandsB
—Vestigial sidebandC
   (3) Emission in which the main carrier is angle-modulated:
—Frequency modulationF
—Phase modulationG

Note: Whenever frequency modulation “F” is indicated, Phase modulation “G” is also acceptable.

   (4) Emission in which the main carrier is amplitude and angle-modulated either simultaneously or in a pre-established sequenceD
   (5) Emission of pulses:1
—Sequence of unmodulated pulsesP
—A sequence of pulses:
—Modulated in amplitudeK
—Modulated in width/durationL
—Modulated in position/phaseM
—In which the carrier is angle-modulated during the period of the pulseQ
—Which is a combination of the foregoing or is produced by other meansV
   (6) Cases not covered above, in which an emission consists of the main carrier modulated, either simultaneously or in a pre-established sequence, in a combination of two or more of the following modes: amplitude, angle, pulseW
   (7) Cases not otherwise coveredX

1Emissions where the main carrier is directly modulated by a signal which has been coded into quantized form (e.g. pulse code modulation) should be designated under (2) or (3).

(d) Second Symbol—nature of signal(s) modulating the main carrier:

   (1) No modulating signal0
   (2) A single channel containing quantized or digital information without the use of a modulating sub-carrier, excluding time-division muliplex1
   (3) A single channel containing quantized or digital information with the use of a modulating sub-carrier, excluding time-division multiplex2
   (4) A single channel containing analogue information3
   (5) Two or more channels containing quantized or digital information7
   (6) Two or more channels containing analogue information8
   (7) Composite system with one or more channels containing quantized or digital information, together with one or more channels containing analogue information9
   (8) Cases not otherwise coveredX

(e) Third Symbol—type of information to be transmitted:2

2In this context the word “information” does not include information of a constant, unvarying nature such as is provided by standard frequency emissions, continuous wave and pulse radars, etc.

   (1) No information transmittedN
   (2) Telegraphy—for aural receptionA
   (3) Telegraphy—for automatic receptionB
   (4) FacsimileC
   (5) Data transmission, telemetry, telecommandD
   (6) Telephony (including sound broadcasting)E
   (7) Television (video)F
   (8) Combination of the aboveW
   (9) Cases not otherwise coveredX

(f) Type B emission: As an exception to the above principles, damped waves are symbolized in the Commission's rules and regulations as type B emission. The use of type B emissions is forbidden.

(g) Whenever the full designation of an emission is necessary, the symbol for that emission, as given above, shall be preceded by the necessary bandwidth of the emission as indicated in §2.202(b)(1).

[49 FR 48697, Dec. 14, 1984, as amended at 75 FR 63030, Oct. 13, 2010]

§2.202   Bandwidths.

(a) Occupied bandwidth. The frequency bandwidth such that, below its lower and above its upper frequency limits, the mean powers radiated are each equal to 0.5 percent of the total mean power radiated by a given emission. In some cases, for example multichannel frequency-division systems, the percentage of 0.5 percent may lead to certain difficulties in the practical application of the definitions of occupied and necessary bandwidth; in such cases a different percentage may prove useful.

(b) Necessary bandwidth. For a given class of emission, the minimum value of the occupied bandwidth sufficient to ensure the transmission of information at the rate and with the quality required for the system employed, under specified conditions. Emissions useful for the good functioning of the receiving equipment as, for example, the emission corresponding to the carrier of reduced carrier systems, shall be included in the necessary bandwidth.

(1) The necessary bandwidth shall be expressed by three numerals and one letter. The letter occupies the position of the decimal point and represents the unit of bandwidth. The first character shall be neither zero nor K, M or G.

(2) Necessary bandwidths:

between 0.001 and 999 Hz shall be expressed in Hz (letter H);

between 1.00 and 999 kHz shall be expressed in kHz (letter K);

between 1.00 and 999 MHz shall be expressed in MHz (letter M);

between 1.00 and 999 GHz shall be expressed in GHz (letter G).

(3) Examples:

0.002 Hz—H002   180.5 kHz—181K
0.1 Hz—H100   180.7 kHz—181K
25.3 Hz—25H3   1.25 MHz—1M25
400 Hz—400H   2 MHz—2M00
2.4 kHz—2K40   10 MHz—10M0
6 kHz—6K00   202 MHz—202M
12.5 kHz—12K5   5.65 GHz—5G65
180.4 kHz—180K 

(c) The necessary bandwidth may be determined by one of the following methods:

(1) Use of the formulas included in the table, in paragraph (g) of this section, which also gives examples of necessary bandwidths and designation of corresponding emissions;

(2) For frequency modulated radio systems which have a substantially linear relationship between the value of input voltage to the modulator and the resulting frequency deviation of the carrier and which carry either single sideband suppressed carrier frequency division multiplex speech channels or television, computation in accordance with provisions of paragraph (f) of this section and formulas and methods indicated in the table, in paragraph (g) of this section;

(3) Computation in accordance with Recommendations of the International Radio Consultative Committee (C.C.I.R.);

(4) Measurement in cases not covered by paragraph (c) (1), (2), or (3) of this section.

(d) The value so determined should be used when the full designation of an emission is required. However, the necessary bandwidth so determined is not the only characteristic of an emission to be considered in evaluating the interference that may be caused by that emission.

(e) In the formulation of the table in paragraph (g) of this section, the following terms are employed:

Bn = Necessary bandwidth in hertz

B = Modulation rate in bauds

N = Maximum possible number of black plus white elements to be transmitted per second, in facsimile

M = Maximum modulation frequency in hertz

C = Sub-carrier frequency in hertz

D = Peak frequency deviation, i.e., half the difference between the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous frequency. The instantaneous frequency in hertz is the time rate of change in phase in radians divided by 2

t = Pulse duration in seconds at half-amplitude

tr = Pulse rise time in seconds between 10% and 90% of maximum amplitude

K = An overall numerical factor which varies according to the emission and which depends upon the allowable signal distortion.

Nc = Number of baseband telephone channels in radio systems employing multichannel multiplexing

P = Continuity pilot sub-carrier frequency (Hz) (continuous signal utilized to verify performance of frequency-division multiplex systems).

(f) Determination of values of D and Bn for systems specified in paragraph (c)(2) of this section:

(1) Determination of D in systems for multichannel telephony:

(i) The rms value of the per-channel deviation for the system shall be specified. (In the case of systems employing preemphasis or phase modulation, this value of per-channel deviation shall be specified at the characteristic baseband frequency.)

(ii) The value of D is then calculated by multiplying the rms value of the per-channel deviation by the appropriate factors, as follows:

Number of message circuitsMultiplying factorsLimits of X (Pavg (dBmO))
More than 3, but less than 124.47 × [a factor specified by the equipment manufacturer or station licensee, subject to Commission approval]
   3.76 antilog (X + 2 log10 Nc)
At least 12, but less than 60—————————————X: −2 to + 2.6.
   20
   3.76 antilog (X + 4 log10 Nc)
At least 60, but less than 240—————————————X: −5.6to −1.0.
   20
   3.76 antilog (X + 10 log10 Nc)
240 or more—————————————X: −19.6 to −15.0.
   20

Where X represents the average power in a message circuit in dBmO; Nc is the number of circuits in the multiplexed message load; 3.76 corresponds to a peak load factor of 11.5 dB.

(2) The necessary bandwidth (Bn) normally is considered to be numerically equal to:

(i) 2M + 2DK, for systems having no continuity pilot subcarrier or having a continuity pilot subcarrier whose frequency is not the highest modulating the main carrier;

(ii) 2P + 2DK, for systems having a continuity pilot subcarrier whose frequency exceeds that of any other signal modulating the main carrier, unless the conditions set forth in paragraph (f)(3) of this section are met.

(3) As an exception to paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section, the necessary bandwidth (Bn) for such systems is numerically equal to 2P or 2M + 2DK, whichever is greater, provided the following conditions are met:

(i) The modulation index of the main carrier due to the continuity pilot subcarrier does not exceed 0.25, and

(ii) In a radio system of multichannel telephony, the rms frequency deviation of the main carrier due to the continuity pilot subcarrier does not exceed 70 percent of the rms value of the per-channel deviation, or, in a radio system for television, the rms deviation of the main carrier due to the pilot does not exceed 3.55 percent of the peak deviation of the main carrier.

(g) Table of necessary bandwidths:

Description of emissionNecessary bandwidthDesignation of emission
FormulaSample calculation
I. NO MODULATING SIGNAL
Continuous wave emissionN0N (zero)
II. AMPLITUDE MODULATION
1. Signal With Quantized or Digital Information
Continuous wave telegraphyBn = BK, K = 5 for fading circuits, K = 3 for non-fading circuits25 words per minute; B = 20, K = 5, Bandwidth: 100 Hz100HA1A
Telegraphy by on-off keying of a tone modulated carrierBn = BK + 2M, K = 5 for fading circuits, K = 3 for non-fading circuits25 words per minute; B = 20, M = 1000, K = 5, Bandwidth: 2100 Hz = 2.1 kHz2K10A2A
Selective calling signal, single-sideband full carrierBn = MMaximum code frequency is: 2110 Hz, M = 2110, Bandwidth: 2110 Hz = 2.11 kHz2K11H2B
Direct-printing telegraphy using a frequency shifted modulating sub-carrier single-sideband suppressed carrierBn = 2M + 2DK, M = B ÷ 2B = 50, D = 35 Hz (70 Hz shift), K = 1.2, Bandwidth: 134 Hz134HJ2B
Telegraphy, single sideband reduced carrierBn = central frequency + M + DK, M = B ÷ 215 channels; highest central frequency is: 2805 Hz, B = 100, D = 42.5 Hz (85 Hz shift), K = 0.7 Bandwidth: 2.885 Hz = 2.885 kHz2K89R7B
2. Telephony (Commercial Quality)
Telephony double-sidebandBn = 2MM = 3000, Bandwidth = 6000 Hz = 6 kHz6K00A3E
Telephony, single-sideband, full carrierBn = 2MM = 3000, Bandwidth: 3000 Hz = 3 kHz3K00H3E
Telephony, single-sideband suppressed carrierBn = M−lowest modulation frequencyM = 3000, lowest modulation frequency is 3000 Hz, 2700 Hz Bandwidth: 2700Hz = 2.7 kHz2K70J3E
Telephony with separate frequency modulated signal to control the level of demodulated speech signal, single-sideband, reduced carrierBn = MMaximum control frequency is 2990 Hz, M = 2990, Bandwidth: 2990 Hz = 2.99 kHz2K99R3E
Telephony with privacy, single-sideband, suppressed carrier (two or more channels)Bn = Nc M−lowest modulation frequency in the lowest channelNc = 2, M = 3000 lowest modulation frequency is 250 Hz, Bandwidth: 5750 Hz = 5.75 kHz5K75J8E
Telephony, independent sideband (two or more channels)Bn = sum of M for each sideband2 channels, M = 3000, Bandwidth: 6000 Hz = 6 kHz6K00B8E
3. Sound Broadcasting
Sound broadcasting, double-sidebandBn = 2M, M may vary between 4000 and 10000 depending on the quality desiredSpeech and music, M = 4000, Bandwidth: 8000 Hz= 8 kHz8K00A3E
Sound broadcasting, single-sideband reduced carrier (single channel)Bn = M, M may vary between 4000 and 10000 depending on the quality desiredSpeech and music, M = 4000, Bandwidth: 4000 Hz= 4 kHz4K00R3E
Sound broadcasting, single-sideband, suppressed carrierBn = M−lowest modulation frequencySpeech and music, M = 4500, lowest modulation frequency = 50 Hz, Bandwidth: 4450 Hz = 4.45 kHz4K45J3E
4. Television
Television, vision and soundRefer to CCIR documents for the bandwidths of the commonly used television systemsNumber of lines = 525; Nominal video bandwidth: 4.2 MHz, Sound carrier relative to video carrier = 4.5 MHz5M75C3F
      Total vision bandwidth: 5.75 MHz; FM aural bandwidth including guardbands: 250,000 Hz250KF3E
      Total bandwidth: 6 MHz6M25C3F
5. Facsimile
Analogue facsimile by sub-carrier frequency modulation of a single-sideband emission with reduced carrierBn = C−N ÷ 2 + DK, K = 1.1 (typically)N = 1100, corresponding to an index of cooperation of 352 and a cycler rotation speed of 60 rpm. Index of cooperation is the product of the drum diameter and number of lines per unit length C = 1900, D = 400 Hz, Bandwidth = 2.890 Hz = 2.89 kHz2K89R3C
Analogue facsimile; frequency modulation of an audio frequency sub-carrier which modulates the main carrier, single-sideband suppressed carrierBn = 2M + 2DK, M = N/2, K = 1.1 (typically)N = 1100, D = 400 Hz, Bandwidth: 1980 Hz = 1.98 kHz1K98J3C
6. Composite Emissions
Double-sideband, television relayBn = 2C + 2M + 2DVideo limited to 5 MHz, audio on 6.5 MHz frequency modulated subcarrier deviation = 50 kHz: C = 6.5 × 106 D = 50 × 103 Hz, M = 15,000, Bandwidth: 13.13 × 106 Hz = 13.13 MHz13M2A8W
Double-sideband radio relay systemBn = 2M10 voice channels occupying baseband between 1 kHz and 164 kHz; M = 164,000 bandwith = 328,000 Hz = 328 kHz328KA8E
Double-sideband emission of VOR with voice (VOR = VHF omnidirectional radio range)Bn = 2Cmax + 2M + 2DK, K = 1 (typically)The main carrier is modulated by: —a 30 Hz sub-carrier—a carrier resulting from a 9960 Hz tone frequency modulated by a 30 Hz tone—a telephone channel—a 1020 Hz keyed tone for continual Morse identification. Cmax = 9960, M = 30, D = 480 Hz, Bandwidth: 20,940 Hz = 20.94 kHz20K9A9W
Independent sidebands; several telegraph channels together with several telephone channelsBn = sum of M for each sidebandNormally composite systems are operated in accordance with standardized channel arrangements, (e.g. CCIR Rec. 348-2) 3 telephone channels and 15 telegraphy channels require the bandwidth 12,000 Hz = 12 kHz12K0B9W
III-A. FREQUENCY MODULATION
1. Signal With Quantized or Digital Information
Telegraphy without error-correction (single channel)Bn = 2M + 2DK, M = B ÷ 2, K = 1.2 (typically)B = 100, D = 85 Hz (170 Hz shift), Bandwidth: 304 Hz304HF1B
Four-frequency duplex telegraphyBn2M + 2DK, B = Modulation rate in bands of the faster channel. If the channels are synchronized: M = B ÷ 2, otherwise M = 2B, K = 1.1 (typically)Spacing between adjacent frequencies = 400 Hz; Synchronized channels; B = 100, M = 50, D = 600 Hz, Bandwidth: 1420 Hz = 1.42 kHz1K42F7B
2. Telephony (Commercial Quality)
Commercial telephonyBn = 2M + 2DK, K = 1 (typically, but under conditions a higher value may be necessaryFor an average case of commercial telephony, M = 3,000, Bandwidth: 16,000 Hz = 16 kHz16K0F3E
3. Sound Broadcasting
Sound broadcastingBn = 2M + 2DK, K = 1 (typically)Monaural, D = 75,000 Hz, M = 15,000, Bandwidth: 18,000 Hz = 180 kHz180KF3E
4. Facsimile
Facsimile by direct frequency modulation of the carrier; black and whiteBn = 2M + 2DK, M = N ÷ 2, K = 1.1 (typically)N = 1100 elements/sec; D = 400 Hz, Bandwidth: 1980 Hz = 1.98 kHZ1K98F1C
Analogue facsimileBn = 2M + 2DK, M = N ÷ 2, K = 1.1 (typically)N = 1100 elements/sec; D = 400 Hz, Bandwidth: 1980 Hz = 1.98 kHz1K98F3C
5. Composite Emissions (See Table III-B)
Radio-relay system, frequency division multiplexBn = 2P + 2DK, K = 1Microwave radio relay system specifications: 60 telephone channels occupying baseband between 60 and 300 kHz; rms per-channel deviation 200 kHz; pilot at 331 kHz produces 200 kHz rms deviation of main carrier. Computation of Bn:D = (200 × 1033 × 3.76 × 1.19), Hz = 0.895 × 106, P = 0.331 × 106 Hz; Bandwidth: 2.452 × 106 Hz2M45F8E
Radio-relay system frequency division multipleBn = 2M + 2DK, K = 1Microwave radio relay relay systems specifications: 1200 telephone channels occupying baseband between 60 and 5564 kHz; rms per channel deviation 200 kHz; continunity pilot at 6199 kHz produces 140 kHz rms deviation of main carrier. Computation of Bn:D = (200 × 103 × 3.76 × 3.63) = 2.73 × 106; M = 5.64 × 106 Hz; P = 6.2 × 106 Hz; (2M + 2DK<2P; Bandwidth 16.59 × 106 Hz16M6F8E
Radio-relay system, frequency division multiplexBn = 2PMicrowave radio relay system specifications: Multiplex 600 telephone channels occupying baseband between 60 and 2540 kHz; continuity pilot at 8500 kHz produces 140 kHz rms deviation of main carrier. Computation of Bn:D = (200 × 103 × 3.76 × 2.565) = 1.93 × 106 Hz; M = 2.54 × 106 Hz; 2DK)≤2P Bandwidth: 17 × 106 Hz17M0F8E
Unmodulated pulse emissionBn = 2K ÷ t, K depends upon the ratio of pulse rise time. Its value usually falls between 1 and 10 and in many cases it does not need to exceed 6Primary Radar Range resolution: 150 m, K = 1.5 (triangular pulse where t≃tr, only components down to 27 dB from the strongest are considered) Then t = 2 × range resolution ÷ velocity of light = 2 × 150 ÷ 3 × 108 = 1 × 10−6 seconds, Bandwidth: 3 × 106 Hz = 3 MHz3M00P0N
6. Composite Emissions
Radio-relay systemBn = 2K ÷ t, K = 1.6Pulse position modulated by 36 voice channel baseband; pulse width at half amplitude = 0.4 us, Bandwidth: 8 × 106 Hz = 8 MHz (Bandwidth independent of the number of voice channels)8M00M7E
Radio-relay systemBn = 2K/t
K = 1.6
Pulse position modulated by 36 voice channel baseband: pulse width at half amplitude 0.4 μS; Bn = 8 × 106 Hz = 8 MHz (Bandwidth independent of the number of voice channels)8M00M7E
Composite transmission digital modulation using DSB-AM (Microwave radio relay system)Bn = 2RK/log2SDigital modulation used to send 5 megabits per second by use of amplitude modulation of the main carrier with 4 signaling states
R = 5 × 106 bits per second; K = 1; S = 4; Bn = 5 MHz
5M00K7
Binary Frequency Shift Keying(0.03 <2D/R <1.0);
Bn = 3.86D + 0.27R
(1.0 <2D/R <2)
Bn = 2.4D + 1.0R
Digital modulation used to send 1 megabit per second by frequency shift keying with 2 signaling states and 0.75 MHz peak deviation of the carrier
R = 1 × 106 bps; D = 0.75 × 106 Hz; Bn = 2.8 MHz
2M80F1D
Multilevel Frequency Shift KeyingBn = (R/log2S) + 2DKDigital modulation to send 10 megabits per second by use of frequency shift keying with four signaling states and 2 MHz peak deviation of the main carrier
R = 10 × 106 bps; D = 2 MHz; K = 1; S = 4; Bn = 9 MHz
9M00F7D
Phase Shift KeyingBn = 2RK/log2SDigital modulation used to send 10 megabits per second by use of phase shift keying with 4 signaling states
R = 10 × 106 bps; K = 1; S = 4; Bn = 10 MHz
10M0G7D
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)Bn = 2R/log2S64 QAM used to send 135 Mbps has the same necessary bandwidth as 64-PSK used to send 135 Mbps;
R = 135 × 106 bps; S = 64; Bn = 45 MHz
45M0W
Minimum Shift Keying2-ary:
Bn = R(1.18)
4-ary:
Bn = R(2.34)
Digital modulation used to send 2 megabits per second using 2-ary minimum shift keying
R = 2.36 × 106 bps; Bn = 2.36 MHz
2M36G1D

[28 FR 12465, Nov. 22, 1963, as amended at 37 FR 8883, May 2, 1972; 37 FR 9996, May 18, 1972; 48 FR 16492, Apr. 18, 1983; 49 FR 48698, Dec. 14, 1984; 68 FR 68543, Dec. 9, 2003]

Need assistance?