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Title 46 → Chapter I → Subchapter E → Part 45 → Subpart C |

Title 46: Shipping

PART 45—GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES

Contents

§45.51 Types of ships.

§45.53 Summer freeboard.

§45.55 Freeboard coefficient.

§45.57 Correction: Position of deckline.

§45.58 Correction: Short superstructure.

§45.59 Definitions for superstructure corrections.

§45.61 Correction for superstructures and trunks.

§45.63 Correction for sheer.

§45.65 Excess sheer limitations.

§45.67 Sheer measurement.

§45.69 Correction for bow height.

§45.71 Midsummer freeboard.

§45.73 Winter freeboard.

§45.75 Intermediate freeboard.

§45.77 Salt water freeboard.

(a) For the purpose of this subpart, a type A vessel has—

(1) No cargo ports or similar sideshell openings below the freeboard deck;

(2) Only small freeboard deck openings fitted with watertight gasketed hatch covers of steel;

(3) No dimension of a freeboard deck cargo opening greater than 6 feet and the total area not exceeding 18 ft2; and

(4) No more than two freeboard deck cargo openings to a single cargo space.

(b) For the purposes of this subpart a type B vessel is a vessel that does not meet the requirements in paragraph (a) of this section.

(a) Except as required in paragraph (c) of this section, the minimum freeboard in summer for a type A vessel is F in the following formula modified by the corrections in this subpart:

F (inches) = 10.2 × P1 × D

where P1 is defined in §45.55 and D is the depth for freeboard in feet.

(b) Except as required in paragraph (c) of this section, the minimum freeboard in summer for a type B vessel is F in the formula modified by the corrections in this subpart:

F (inches) = 12 × P1 × D

where P1 is defined by §45.55 and D is the depth for freeboard in feet.

(c) Seasonal freeboards assigned under §§45.71 through 45.75 must be calculated on the basis of the summer freeboard calculated under paragraph (a) or (b) of this section.

(d) If a minimum freeboard is required for a vessel under this part which is greater than that required by paragraph (a) or (b) of this section because of scantling or subdivision requirements, the summer freeboard and the seasonal freeboards assigned under this subpart must be no less than that minimum freeboard, except the midsummer seasonal freeboard may be calculated on the basis of the summer freeboard assigned under this paragraph.

(e) If a greater than the calculated minimum freeboard is requested by the applicant for the load line certificate, that greater freeboard may be assigned as the summer freeboard and—

(1) The intermediate and winter seasonal freeboards assigned must be calculated under paragraph (a) or (b) of this section; and

(2) The midsummer seasonal freeboard must be calculated on the basis of the summer freeboard assigned under this paragraph.

(a) For ships less than 350 feet in length (L), the freeboard coefficient is P1 in the formula:

P1=P + A[(L/D)-(L/Ds)]

where P is a factor, which is a function of the length from table 1 and “A” is a coefficient, which is a function of length (L), from table 2; L/D is the ratio of the length (L) to the depth for freeboard (D); L/Ds is the ratio of the length (L) to a standard depth (Ds) from table 3.

D is not to be used as less than that which will give a ration of L to D that is:

(a) More than 15 when L = 400 feet or less, or

(b) More than 21 when L = 700 feet or more, with the ratio for intermediate lengths being calculated proportionately.

(b) For ships 350 feet or more in length (L), the coefficient “A” is zero and the formula is:

P1=P

where P is a factor, which is a function of length from table (1).

(a) Where the depth to the upper edge of the deckline is greater or less than D, the difference between the depths must be added to or deducted from the freeboard.

(b) When the Commandant or the approved assigning authority approves a location for the deckline that is above or below the freeboard deck, the minimum summer freeboard must be corrected by—

(1) Adding the difference between the depth and D if the depth is greater than D; and

(2) Subtracting the difference between the depth and D, if the depth is less than D.

(c) Except for the adjustment allowed in paragraph (b) of this section, no freeboard of less than 2 in. may be assigned.

The minimum freeboard in summer for a type B vessel that is 79 ft. or more but less than 500 ft. in length and has enclosed superstructures with an effective length of 25 percent or less of the length of the vessel must be increased by—

0.03 (500—L) (0.25—E/L) inches

where:

(L) = length of vessel in feet;

(E) = effective length of superstructure in feet as defined in §45.59.

For the purpose of §§45.58 through 45.61—

(a) The standard height of a superstructure (Hs) other than a raised quarter deck and the standard height of a trunk (Hs) is determined by the formula:

Hs=[6.0 + (L/300)] ft

(b) The length of superstructure (S) is the length of those parts of the superstructure which extends to the sides of the vessel and that lie within the length (L).

(c) The effective length (E) of a trunk is its length in the ratio of its mean breadth to B.

(d) The effective length (E) of an enclosed superstructure of standard height or greater is its length “S”.

(e) Where the height of an enclosed superstructure or trunk is less than the standard height (Hs),the effective length (E) is its length reduced in the ratio of its height to Hs.

(f) The effective length (E) of a raised quarter deck of 2⁄3 Hs or greater that has no openings in the front bulkhead is its length up to a maximum of 0.6L.

(g) The effective length (E) of a raised quarter deck of less than 2⁄3 Hs or that does not have an intact front bulkhead is its length reduced by the ratio of its height to Hs.

Table 12(1)

tables of p values

Length of Ship (feet) | Value of P |
---|---|

80 | 0.1100 |

90 | 0.1136 |

100 | 0.1172 |

110 | 0.1208 |

120 | 0.1244 |

130 | 0.1281 |

140 | 0.1318 |

150 | 0.1355 |

160 | 0.1393 |

170 | 0.1430 |

180 | 0.1468 |

190 | 0.1506 |

200 | 0.1545 |

210 | 0.1583 |

220 | 0.1622 |

230 | 0.1661 |

240 | 0.1700 |

250 | 0.1740 |

260 | 0.1780 |

270 | 0.1820 |

280 | 0.1860 |

290 | 0.1900 |

300 | 0.1941 |

310 | 0.1982 |

320 | 0.2023 |

330 | 0.2065 |

340 | 0.2106 |

350 | 0.2148 |

360 | 0.2190 |

370 | 0.2233 |

380 | 0.2275 |

390 | 0.2318 |

400 | 0.2361 |

410 | 0.2400 |

420 | 0.2437 |

430 | 0.2472 |

440 | 0.2506 |

450 | 0.2537 |

460 | 0.2567 |

470 | 0.2595 |

480 | 0.2621 |

490 | 0.2645 |

500 | 0.2667 |

510 | 0.2688 |

520 | 0.2706 |

530 | 0.2723 |

540 | 0.2738 |

550 | 0.2751 |

560 | 0.2762 |

570 | 0.2772 |

580 | 0.2779 |

590 | 0.2785 |

600 | 0.2788 |

610 | 0.2790 |

620 | 0.2790 |

630 | 0.2789 |

640 | 0.2785 |

650 | 0.2779 |

660 | 0.2772 |

670 | 0.2768 |

680 | 0.2760 |

690 | 0.2751 |

700 | 0.2740 |

710 | 0.2728 |

720 | 0.2715 |

730 | 0.2700 |

740 | 0.2684 |

750 | 0.2667 |

760 | 0.2648 |

770 | 0.2628 |

780 | 0.2607 |

790 | 0.2584 |

800 | 0.2560 |

810 | 0.2532 |

820 | 0.2504 |

830 | 0.2476 |

840 | 0.2448 |

850 | 0.2420 |

860 | 0.2392 |

870 | 0.2364 |

880 | 0.2336 |

890 | 0.2308 |

900 | 0.2280 |

910 | 0.2252 |

920 | 0.2224 |

930 | 0.2196 |

940 | 0.2168 |

950 | 0.2140 |

960 | 0.2112 |

970 | 0.2084 |

980 | 0.2056 |

990 | 0.2028 |

1000 | 0.2000 |

Table 12(2)

values of “a” for use in the expression

Length of Ship (feet) | Value of “A” |
---|---|

80 | 0.00864 |

90 | 0.00806 |

100 | 0.00750 |

110 | 0.00696 |

120 | 0.00644 |

130 | 0.00594 |

140 | 0.00546 |

150 | 0.00500 |

160 | 0.00456 |

170 | 0.00414 |

180 | 0.00374 |

190 | 0.00336 |

200 | 0.00300 |

210 | 0.00266 |

220 | 0.00234 |

230 | 0.00204 |

240 | 0.00176 |

250 | 0.00150 |

260 | 0.00126 |

270 | 0.00104 |

280 | 0.00084 |

290 | 0.00066 |

300 | 0.00050 |

310 | 0.00036 |

320 | 0.00024 |

330 | 0.00014 |

340 | 0.00006 |

350 | 0.00000 |

Table 12(3)

values of l/ds

Length of Ship (feet) | Value of L/D5 |
---|---|

80 | 6.50000 |

90 | 6.76563 |

100 | 7.03125 |

110 | 7.29688 |

120 | 7.56250 |

130 | 7.82813 |

140 | 8.09375 |

150 | 8.35938 |

160 | 8.62500 |

170 | 8.89063 |

180 | 9.19625 |

190 | 9.42188 |

200 | 9.68750 |

210 | 9.95313 |

220 | 10.21875 |

230 | 10.48438 |

240 | 10.75000 |

250 | 11.01563 |

260 | 11.28125 |

270 | 11.54688 |

280 | 11.81250 |

290 | 12.07813 |

300 | 12.34375 |

310 | 12.60938 |

320 | 12.87500 |

330 | 13.14063 |

340 | 13.40625 |

350 | 13.67188 |

360 | 13.93750 |

370 | 14.20313 |

380 | 14.46875 |

390 | 14.73438 |

400 | 15.00000 |

(h) Superstructures which are not enclosed have no effective length.

(i) When a lower deck is designated as the freeboard deck, that part of the hull which extends above the freeboard deck is treated as a superstructure so far as concerns the application of the conditions of assignment and the calculation of freeboard.

(j) A bridge or poop is enclosed only when access is provided whereby the crew may reach accommodations, machinery, or other working spaces inside the superstructure by alternative means that are available at all times when bulkhead openings are closed.

(a) Where the effective length E of superstructures and trunks that meet the requirements of subpart D of this part is 1.0L, the minimum summer freeboard may be corrected by subtracting 1⁄2 Hs.

(b) Where the effective length of superstructures and trunks is less than 1.0L the minimum summer freeboard may be corrected by subtracting a percentage of one-half of the standard superstructure height (Hs) determined by the formula:

Percentage = (E/2L) (1 + E/L) × 100

(c) To be eligible for the correction a trunk must—

(1) Be at least as strong and as stiff as a superstructure;

(2) Have no opening in the freeboard deck in way of the trunk, except small access openings;

(3) Have hatchway coamings and covers that meet §§45.143 through 45.147;

(4) Provide a permanent working platform fore and aft with guardrails;

(5) Provide fore and aft access between detached trunks and superstructures by permanent gangways;

(6) Be at least 60 percent of the breadth of the ship in way of the trunk; and

(7) Be at least 0.6 L in length, if no superstructure, is provided.

(a) The minimum summer freeboard must be increased by the deficiency, or may be decreased by the excess as limited by §45.65, of sheer calculated from table 4, multiplied by:

0.75—(S/2L)

where S is the total length of enclosed superstructures. Trunks are not included.

The decrease in freeboard allowed in §45.63 is limited as follows:

Sheer Calculation—Table 4

Station | Actual ordinate | S. M. | Product |
---|---|---|---|

After Half: | |||

AP | 1 | ||

L/6-AP | 3 | ||

L/3-AP | 3 | ||

Midship | 1 | _______ | |

Sum of Aft Products | |||

After Standard Sheer .2665L + 26.65^{1} | _______ | ||

Difference: Sum-STD | _______ + Excess/−Deficiency | ||

AFT Sheer: Diff ÷ 8 | _______ Excess/Deficiency | ||

Fwd. Half: | |||

FP | 1 | ||

L/6-FP | 3 | ||

L/3-FP | 3 | ||

Midships | 1 | _______ | |

Sum of Fwd Products | |||

Fwd Standard Sheer .5330L + 53.30^{1} | _______ | ||

Difference: Sum-STD | _______ + Excess/−Deficiency | ||

FWD Sheer: Diff ÷ 8 | _______ Excess/Deficiency |

^{1}L in Standard Sheer = L or 500 whichever is less.

Sheer Summation

Aft Sheer± | _______ |

Fwd Sheer± | _______ |

Net Sheer± | _______ |

Mean: Net−2 | _______ Excess/Deficiency |

(a) In vessels having no enclosed superstructure from 0.1 L abaft amidships to 0.1 L forward of amidships, no decrease is allowed.

(b) In vessels having enclosed superstructures amidships less than 0.1 L before and abaft amidships, the decrease must be reduced by linear interpolation.

(c) If excess sheer exists in the forward half, and the after half is at least 75 percent of standard sheer, the full decrease is allowed. If the after sheer is between 50 percent and 75 percent of standard sheer an intermediate decrease, determined by linear interpolation, is allowed for the excess sheer forward. If the after sheer is 50 percent of standard or less, no decrease is allowed for the excess sheer forward.

(d) Where an enclosed poop or forecastle is of standard height with greater sheer than that of the freeboard deck, or is greater than standard height, an addition to the sheer of the freeboard deck may be made using the following formula:

S=vL′/3L

Where

s = sheer credit, to be deducted from the deficiency or added to the excess of sheer.

v = difference between actual and standard height of superstructure at the end ordinate.

L′ = mean enclosed length of poop or forecastle up to a maximum length of 0.5 L.

The superstructure deck must not be less than standard height above this curve at any point. This curve must be used in determining the sheer profile for forward and after halves of the vessel.

(e) The maximum decreased for excess sheer must be no more than 11⁄2 inches per 100 feet of length.

(f) Where the deck of an enclosed superstructure has at least the same sheer as the exposed freeboard deck, the sheer of the enclosed portion of the freeboard deck cannot be taken into account.

(a) The sheer is measured from the freeboard deck at side to a line of reference drawn parallel to the keel through the sheer line at amidships;

(b) In ships designed with a rake of keel or designed to trim by the stern, the sheer must be measured in reference to a line drawn through the sheer line at amidships parallel to the design load waterline.

(c) In flush deck ships and in ships with detached superstructures, the sheer must be measured at the freeboard deck.

(d) In ships with a step or break in the topsides, the sheer must be measured from the equivalent depth amidships.

(e) In vessels with a superstructure of standard height that extends over the whole length of the freeboard deck, the sheer must be measured on the superstructure deck. Where the height of superstructure exceeds the standard, the least difference (Z) between the actual and standard heights must be added to each end ordinate. Similarly, the intermediate ordinates at distance of 1⁄6 L and 1⁄3 L from each perpendicular must be increased by 0.444 Z and 0.111 Z respectively.

(a) The minimum summer freeboard of all manned vessels must be increased by the same amount in inches as any deficiency which may be shown by the following formulas:

(1) For vessels having a length of not less than 79 feet and not greater than 550 feet,

0.593 L (1.0-L/1640) inches—actual bow height

(2) For vessels having a length greater than 550 feet,

(341.6—0.227 L) inches—actual bow height

(b) Where the bow height is obtained by sheer, the sheer must extend for at least 15 percent of the length of the vessel measured from the forward perpendicular.

(c) Where the bow height is obtained by a superstructure, the superstructure must be enclosed and extend from the stem to a point at least 0.06 L abaft the forward perpendicular.

(d) Vessels which, to suit exceptional operational requirements, cannot meet the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section may be given special consideration by the Commandant.

(e) The bow height is defined as the vertical distance at the forward perpendicular between the waterline corresponding to the assigned summer freeboard at the designed trim and the top of the exposed deck at side.

The minimum midsummer freeboard (fms) in inches is obtained by the formula:

fms = f(s) − 0.3Ts

where:

f(s) = summer freeboard in inches

Ts = distance in feet between top of keel and the summer load line.

The minimum winter freeboard (fw) in inches is obtained by the formula:

fw=f(s) + T s (200)/L

where:

L = length L in feet but not less than 400 feet.

The minimum intermediate freeboard (fI) in inches is obtained by the formula:

fI=f(s) + T s(100)/L

where:

L = length L in feet but not less than 400 feet.

(a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula:

Addition=Δ/41T

where:

Δ = displacement in fresh water, in tons of 2,240 pounds, at the summer load waterline.

T = tons per inch immersion, of 2,240 pounds, in fresh water at the summer load waterline.

(b) When the displacement at the summer load waterline cannot be certified, the addition in inches to the minimum freeboard in fresh water may be obtained by multiplying 0.25 by the summer draught in feet measured from the top of the keel to the center of the load line diamond.