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Title 45Subtitle ASubchapter APart 75 → Subpart F


Title 45: Public Welfare
PART 75—UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, COST PRINCIPLES, AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR HHS AWARDS


Subpart F—Audit Requirements


Contents

General

§75.500   Purpose.

Audits

§75.501   Audit requirements.
§75.502   Basis for determining Federal awards expended.
§75.503   Relation to other audit requirements.
§75.504   Frequency of audits.
§75.505   Sanctions.
§75.506   Audit costs.
§75.507   Program-specific audits.

Auditees

§75.508   Auditee responsibilities.
§75.509   Auditor selection.
§75.510   Financial statements.
§75.511   Audit findings follow-up.
§75.512   Report submission.

Federal Agencies

§75.513   Responsibilities.

Auditors

§75.514   Scope of audit.
§75.515   Audit reporting.
§75.516   Audit findings.
§75.517   Audit documentation.
§75.518   Major program determination.
§75.519   Criteria for Federal program risk.
§75.520   Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

Management Decisions

§75.521   Management decision.
Appendix I to Part 75—Full Text of Notice of Funding Opportunity
Appendix II to Part 75—Contract Provisions for Non-Federal Entity Contracts Under Federal Awards
Appendix III to Part 75—Indirect (F&A) Costs Identification and Assignment, and Rate Determination for Institutions of Higher Education (IHEs)
Appendix IV to Part 75—Indirect (F&A) Costs Identification and Assignment, and Rate Determination for Nonprofit Organizations
Appendix V to Part 75—State/Local Governmentwide Central Service Cost Allocation Plans
Appendix VI to Part 75—Public Assistance Cost Allocation Plans
Appendix VII to Part 75—States and Local Government and Indian Tribe Indirect Cost Proposals
Appendix VIII to Part 75—Nonprofit Organizations Exempted from Subpart E of Part 75
Appendix IX to Part 75—Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals
Appendix X to Part 75—Data Collection Form (SF-SAC)
Appendix XI to Part 75—Compliance Supplement
Appendix XII to Part 75—Award Term and Conditions for Recipient Integrity and Performance Matters

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General

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§75.500   Purpose.

This part sets forth standards for obtaining consistency and uniformity among HHS agencies for the audit of non-Federal entities expending Federal awards.

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Audits

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§75.501   Audit requirements.

(a) Audit required. A non-Federal entity that expends $750,000 or more during the non-Federal entity's fiscal year in Federal awards must have a single or program-specific audit conducted for that year in accordance with the provisions of this part.

(b) Single audit. A non-Federal entity that expends $750,000 or more during the non-Federal entity's fiscal year in Federal awards must have a single audit conducted in accordance with §75.514 except when it elects to have a program-specific audit conducted in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.

(c) Program-specific audit election. When an auditee expends Federal awards under only one Federal program (excluding R&D) and the Federal program's statutes, regulations, or the terms and conditions of the Federal award do not require a financial statement audit of the auditee, the auditee may elect to have a program-specific audit conducted in accordance with §75.507. A program-specific audit may not be elected for R&D unless all of the Federal awards expended were received from the same Federal agency, or the same Federal agency and the same pass-through entity, and that Federal agency, or pass-through entity in the case of a subrecipient, approves in advance a program-specific audit.

(d) Exemption when Federal awards expended are less than $750,000. A non-Federal entity that expends less than $750,000 during the non-Federal entity's fiscal year in Federal awards is exempt from Federal audit requirements for that year, except as noted in §75.503, but records must be available for review or audit by appropriate officials of the Federal agency, pass-through entity, and Government Accountability Office (GAO).

(e) Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDC). Management of an auditee that owns or operates a FFRDC may elect to treat the FFRDC as a separate entity for purposes of this part.

(f) Subrecipients and contractors. An auditee may simultaneously be a recipient, a subrecipient, and a contractor. Federal awards expended as a recipient or a subrecipient are subject to audit under this part. The payments received for goods or services provided as a contractor are not Federal awards. Section 75.351 sets forth the considerations in determining whether payments constitute a Federal award or a payment for goods or services provided as a contractor.

(g) Compliance responsibility for contractors. In most cases, the auditee's compliance responsibility for contractors is only to ensure that the procurement, receipt, and payment for goods and services comply with Federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of Federal awards. Federal award compliance requirements normally do not pass through to contractors. However, the auditee is responsible for ensuring compliance for procurement transactions which are structured such that the contractor is responsible for program compliance or the contractor's records must be reviewed to determine program compliance. Also, when these procurement transactions relate to a major program, the scope of the audit must include determining whether these transactions are in compliance with Federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of Federal awards.

(h) For-profit subrecipient. Since this part does not apply to for-profit subrecipients, the pass-through entity is responsible for establishing requirements, as necessary, to ensure compliance by for-profit subrecipients. The agreement with the for-profit subrecipient must describe applicable compliance requirements and the for-profit subrecipient's compliance responsibility. Methods to ensure compliance for Federal awards made to for-profit subrecipients may include pre-award audits, monitoring during the agreement, and post-award audits. See also §75.352.

(i) Recipients and subrecipients that are commercial organizations (including for-profit hospitals) have two options regarding audits:

(1) A financial related audit (as defined in the Government Auditing Standards, GPO Stock #020-000-00-265-4) of a particular award in accordance with Government Auditing Standards, in those cases where the recipient receives awards under only one HHS program; or, if awards are received under multiple HHS programs, a financial related audit of all HHS awards in accordance with Government Auditing Standards; or

(2) An audit that meets the requirements contained in this subpart.

(j) Commercial organizations that receive annual HHS awards totaling less than $750,000 are exempt from requirements for a non-Federal audit for that year, but records must be available for review by appropriate officials of Federal agencies.

(k) See also §75.216.

[79 FR 75889, Dec. 19, 2014, as amended at 81 FR 3018, Jan. 20, 2016]

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§75.502   Basis for determining Federal awards expended.

(a) Determining Federal awards expended. The determination of when a Federal award is expended must be based on when the activity related to the Federal award occurs. Generally, the activity pertains to events that require the non-Federal entity to comply with Federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of Federal awards, such as: expenditure/expense transactions associated with awards including grants, cost-reimbursement contracts under the FAR, compacts with Indian Tribes, cooperative agreements, and direct appropriations; the disbursement of funds to subrecipients; the use of loan proceeds under loan and loan guarantee programs; the receipt of property; the receipt of surplus property; the receipt or use of program income; the distribution or use of food commodities; the disbursement of amounts entitling the non-Federal entity to an interest subsidy; and the period when insurance is in force.

(b) Loan and loan guarantees (loans). Since the Federal Government is at risk for loans until the debt is repaid, the following guidelines must be used to calculate the value of Federal awards expended under loan programs, except as noted in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section:

(1) Value of new loans made or received during the audit period; plus

(2) Beginning of the audit period balance of loans from previous years for which the Federal Government imposes continuing compliance requirements; plus

(3) Any interest subsidy, cash, or administrative cost allowance received.

(c) Loan and loan guarantees (loans) at IHEs. When loans are made to students of an IHE but the IHE does not make the loans, then only the value of loans made during the audit period must be considered Federal awards expended in that audit period. The balance of loans for previous audit periods is not included as Federal awards expended because the lender accounts for the prior balances.

(d) Prior loan and loan guarantees (loans). Loans, the proceeds of which were received and expended in prior years, are not considered Federal awards expended under this part when the Federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of Federal awards pertaining to such loans impose no continuing compliance requirements other than to repay the loans.

(e) Endowment funds. The cumulative balance of Federal awards for endowment funds that are federally restricted are considered Federal awards expended in each audit period in which the funds are still restricted.

(f) Free rent. Free rent received by itself is not considered a Federal award expended under this part. However, free rent received as part of a Federal award to carry out a Federal program must be included in determining Federal awards expended and subject to audit under this part.

(g) Valuing non-cash assistance. Federal non-cash assistance, such as free rent, food commodities, donated property, or donated surplus property, must be valued at fair market value at the time of receipt or the assessed value provided by the HHS agency.

(h) Medicare. Medicare payments to a non-Federal entity for providing patient care services to Medicare-eligible individuals are not considered Federal awards expended under this part.

(i) Medicaid. Medicaid payments to a subrecipient for providing patient care services to Medicaid-eligible individuals are not considered Federal awards expended under this part unless a state requires the funds to be treated as Federal awards expended because reimbursement is on a cost-reimbursement basis.

(j) Certain loans provided by the National Credit Union Administration. For purposes of this part, loans made from the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund and the Central Liquidity Facility that are funded by contributions from insured non-Federal entities are not considered Federal awards expended.

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§75.503   Relation to other audit requirements.

(a) An audit conducted in accordance with this part must be in lieu of any financial audit of Federal awards which a non-Federal entity is required to undergo under any other Federal statute or regulation. To the extent that such audit provides a Federal agency with the information it requires to carry out its responsibilities under Federal statute or regulation, a Federal agency must rely upon and use that information.

(b) Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this section, a Federal agency, Inspectors General, or GAO may conduct or arrange for additional audits which are necessary to carry out its responsibilities under Federal statute or regulation. The provisions of this part do not authorize any non-Federal entity to constrain, in any manner, such Federal agency from carrying out or arranging for such additional audits, except that the Federal agency must plan such audits to not be duplicative of other audits of Federal awards. Prior to commencing such an audit, the Federal agency or pass-through entity must review the FAC for recent audits submitted by the non-Federal entity, and to the extent such audits meet a Federal agency or pass-through entity's needs, the Federal agency or pass-through entity must rely upon and use such audits. Any additional audits must be planned and performed in such a way as to build upon work performed, including the audit documentation, sampling, and testing already performed, by other auditors.

(c) The provisions of this part do not limit the authority of Federal agencies to conduct, or arrange for the conduct of, audits and evaluations of Federal awards, nor limit the authority of any Federal agency Inspector General or other Federal official. For example, requirements that may be applicable under the FAR or CAS and the terms and conditions of a cost-reimbursement contract may include additional applicable audits to be conducted or arranged for by Federal agencies.

(d) Federal agency to pay for additional audits. A Federal agency that conducts or arranges for additional audits must, consistent with other applicable Federal statutes and regulations, arrange for funding the full cost of such additional audits.

(e) Request for a program to be audited as a major program. An HHS awarding agency may request that an auditee have a particular Federal program audited as a major program in lieu of the HHS awarding agency conducting or arranging for the additional audits. To allow for planning, such requests should be made at least 180 calendar days prior to the end of the fiscal year to be audited. The auditee, after consultation with its auditor, should promptly respond to such a request by informing the HHS awarding agency whether the program would otherwise be audited as a major program using the risk-based audit approach described in §75.518 and, if not, the estimated incremental cost. The HHS awarding agency must then promptly confirm to the auditee whether it wants the program audited as a major program. If the program is to be audited as a major program based upon this HHS awarding agency request, and the HHS awarding agency agrees to pay the full incremental costs, then the auditee must have the program audited as a major program. A pass-through entity may use the provisions of this paragraph for a subrecipient.

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§75.504   Frequency of audits.

Except for the provisions for biennial audits provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, audits required by this part must be performed annually. Any biennial audit must cover both years within the biennial period.

(a) A state, local government, or Indian tribe that is required by constitution or statute, in effect on January 1, 1987, to undergo its audits less frequently than annually, is permitted to undergo its audits pursuant to this part biennially. This requirement must still be in effect for the biennial period.

(b) Any nonprofit organization that had biennial audits for all biennial periods ending between July 1, 1992, and January 1, 1995, is permitted to undergo its audits pursuant to this part biennially.

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§75.505   Sanctions.

In cases of continued inability or unwillingness to have an audit conducted in accordance with this part, Federal agencies and pass-through entities must take appropriate action as provided in §75.371.

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§75.506   Audit costs.

See §75.425.

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§75.507   Program-specific audits.

(a) Program-specific audit guide available. In many cases, a program-specific audit guide will be available to provide specific guidance to the auditor with respect to internal controls, compliance requirements, suggested audit procedures, and audit reporting requirements. A listing of current program-specific audit guides can be found in the compliance supplement beginning with the 2014 supplement including HHS awarding agency contact information and a Web site where a copy of the guide can be obtained. When a current program-specific audit guide is available, the auditor must follow GAGAS and the guide when performing a program-specific audit.

(b) Program-specific audit guide not available. (1) When a current program-specific audit guide is not available, the auditee and auditor must have basically the same responsibilities for the Federal program as they would have for an audit of a major program in a single audit.

(2) The auditee must prepare the financial statement(s) for the Federal program that includes, at a minimum, a schedule of expenditures of Federal awards for the program and notes that describe the significant accounting policies used in preparing the schedule, a summary schedule of prior audit findings consistent with the requirements of §75.511(b), and a corrective action plan consistent with the requirements of §75.511(c).

(3) The auditor must:

(i) Perform an audit of the financial statement(s) for the Federal program in accordance with GAGAS;

(ii) Obtain an understanding of internal controls and perform tests of internal controls over the Federal program consistent with the requirements of §75.514(c) for a major program;

(iii) Perform procedures to determine whether the auditee has complied with Federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of Federal awards that could have a direct and material effect on the Federal program consistent with the requirements of §75.514(d) for a major program;

(iv) Follow up on prior audit findings, perform procedures to assess the reasonableness of the summary schedule of prior audit findings prepared by the auditee in accordance with the requirements of §75.511, and report, as a current year audit finding, when the auditor concludes that the summary schedule of prior audit findings materially misrepresents the status of any prior audit finding; and

(v) Report any audit findings consistent with the requirements of §75.516.

(4) The auditor's report(s) may be in the form of either combined or separate reports and may be organized differently from the manner presented in this section. The auditor's report(s) must state that the audit was conducted in accordance with this part and include the following:

(i) An opinion (or disclaimer of opinion) as to whether the financial statement(s) of the Federal program is presented fairly in all material respects in accordance with the stated accounting policies;

(ii) A report on internal control related to the Federal program, which must describe the scope of testing of internal control and the results of the tests;

(iii) A report on compliance which includes an opinion (or disclaimer of opinion) as to whether the auditee complied with laws, regulations, and the terms and conditions of Federal awards which could have a direct and material effect on the Federal program; and

(iv) A schedule of findings and questioned costs for the Federal program that includes a summary of the auditor's results relative to the Federal program in a format consistent with §75.515(d)(1) and findings and questioned costs consistent with the requirements of §75.515(d)(3).

(c) Report submission for program-specific audits. (1) The audit must be completed and the reporting required by paragraph (c)(2) or (c)(3) of this section submitted within the earlier of 30 calendar days after receipt of the auditor's report(s), or nine months after the end of the audit period, unless a different period is specified in a program-specific audit guide. Unless restricted by Federal law or regulation, the auditee must make report copies available for public inspection. Auditees and auditors must ensure that their respective parts of the reporting package do not include protected personally identifiable information.

(2) When a program-specific audit guide is available, the auditee must electronically submit to the FAC the data collection form prepared in accordance with §75.512(b), as applicable to a program-specific audit, and the reporting required by the program-specific audit guide.

(3) When a program-specific audit guide is not available, the reporting package for a program-specific audit must consist of the financial statement(s) of the Federal program, a summary schedule of prior audit findings, and a corrective action plan as described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, and the auditor's report(s) described in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. The data collection form prepared in accordance with §75.512(b), as applicable to a program-specific audit, and one copy of this reporting package must be electronically submitted to the FAC.

(d) Other sections of this part may apply. Program-specific audits are subject to:

(1) §75.500 through §75.503(d);

(2) §75.504 through §75.506;

(3) §75.508 through §75.509;

(4) §75.511;

(5) §75.512(e) through (h);

(6) §75.513;

(7) §75.516 through §75.517;

(8) §75.521, and

(9) Other referenced provisions of this part unless contrary to the provisions of this section, a program-specific audit guide, or program statutes and regulations.

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Auditees

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§75.508   Auditee responsibilities.

The auditee must:

(a) Procure or otherwise arrange for the audit required by this part in accordance with §75.509, and ensure it is properly performed and submitted when due in accordance with §75.512.

(b) Prepare appropriate financial statements, including the schedule of expenditures of Federal awards in accordance with §75.510.

(c) Promptly follow up and take corrective action on audit findings, including preparation of a summary schedule of prior audit findings and a corrective action plan in accordance with §75.511(b) and §75.511(c), respectively.

(d) Provide the auditor with access to personnel, accounts, books, records, supporting documentation, and other information as needed for the auditor to perform the audit required by this part.

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§75.509   Auditor selection.

(a) Auditor procurement. In procuring audit services, the auditee must follow the procurement standards prescribed by the Procurement Standards in §§75.326 through 75.335 of subpart D of this part or the FAR (48 CFR part 42), as applicable. When procuring audit services, the objective is to obtain high-quality audits. In requesting proposals for audit services, the objectives and scope of the audit must be made clear and the non-Federal entity must request a copy of the audit organization's peer review report which the auditor is required to provide under GAGAS. Factors to be considered in evaluating each proposal for audit services include the responsiveness to the request for proposal, relevant experience, availability of staff with professional qualifications and technical abilities, the results of peer and external quality control reviews, and price. Whenever possible, the auditee must make positive efforts to utilize small businesses, minority-owned firms, and women's business enterprises, in procuring audit services as stated in §75.330, or the FAR (48 CFR part 42), as applicable.

(b) Restriction on auditor preparing indirect cost proposals. An auditor who prepares the indirect cost proposal or cost allocation plan may not also be selected to perform the audit required by this part when the indirect costs recovered by the auditee during the prior year exceeded $1 million. This restriction applies to the base year used in the preparation of the indirect cost proposal or cost allocation plan and any subsequent years in which the resulting indirect cost agreement or cost allocation plan is used to recover costs.

(c) Use of Federal auditors. Federal auditors may perform all or part of the work required under this part if they comply fully with the requirements of this part.

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§75.510   Financial statements.

(a) Financial statements. The auditee must prepare financial statements that reflect its financial position, results of operations or changes in net assets, and, where appropriate, cash flows for the fiscal year audited. The financial statements must be for the same organizational unit and fiscal year that is chosen to meet the requirements of this part. However, non-Federal entity-wide financial statements may also include departments, agencies, and other organizational units that have separate audits in accordance with §75.514(a) and prepare separate financial statements.

(b) Schedule of expenditures of Federal awards. The auditee must also prepare a schedule of expenditures of Federal awards for the period covered by the auditee's financial statements which must include the total Federal awards expended as determined in accordance with §75.502. While not required, the auditee may choose to provide information requested by HHS awarding agencies and pass-through entities to make the schedule easier to use. For example, when a Federal program has multiple Federal award years, the auditee may list the amount of Federal awards expended for each Federal award year separately. At a minimum, the schedule must:

(1) List individual Federal programs by Federal agency. For a cluster of programs, provide the cluster name, list individual Federal programs within the cluster of programs, and provide the applicable Federal agency name. For R&D, total Federal awards expended must be shown either by individual Federal award or by Federal agency and major subdivision within the Federal agency. For example, the National Institutes of Health is a major subdivision in the Department of Health and Human Services.

(2) For Federal awards received as a subrecipient, the name of the pass-through entity and identifying number assigned by the pass-through entity must be included.

(3) Provide total Federal awards expended for each individual Federal program and the CFDA number or other identifying number when the CFDA information is not available. For a cluster of programs also provide the total for the cluster.

(4) Include the total amount provided to subrecipients from each Federal program.

(5) For loan or loan guarantee programs described in §75.502(b), identify in the notes to the schedule the balances outstanding at the end of the audit period. This is in addition to including the total Federal awards expended for loan or loan guarantee programs in the schedule.

(6) Include notes that describe that significant accounting policies used in preparing the schedule, and note whether or not the auditee elected to use the 10% de minimis cost rate as covered in §75.414.

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§75.511   Audit findings follow-up.

(a) General. The auditee is responsible for follow-up and corrective action on all audit findings. As part of this responsibility, the auditee must prepare a summary schedule of prior audit findings. The auditee must also prepare a corrective action plan for current year audit findings. The summary schedule of prior audit findings and the corrective action plan must include the reference numbers the auditor assigns to audit findings under §75.516(c). Since the summary schedule may include audit findings from multiple years, it must include the fiscal year in which the finding initially occurred. The corrective action plan and summary schedule of prior audit findings must include findings relating to the financial statements which are required to be reported in accordance with GAGAS.

(b) Summary schedule of prior audit findings. The summary schedule of prior audit findings must report the status of all audit findings included in the prior audit's schedule of findings and questioned costs. The summary schedule must also include audit findings reported in the prior audit's summary schedule of prior audit findings except audit findings listed as corrected in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section, or no longer valid or not warranting further action in accordance with paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(1) When audit findings were fully corrected, the summary schedule need only list the audit findings and state that corrective action was taken.

(2) When audit findings were not corrected or were only partially corrected, the summary schedule must describe the reasons for the finding's recurrence and planned corrective action, and any partial corrective action taken. When corrective action taken is significantly different from corrective action previously reported in a corrective action plan or in the Federal agency's or pass-through entity's management decision, the summary schedule must provide an explanation.

(3) When the auditee believes the audit findings are no longer valid or do not warrant further action, the reasons for this position must be described in the summary schedule. A valid reason for considering an audit finding as not warranting further action is that all of the following have occurred:

(i) Two years have passed since the audit report in which the finding occurred was submitted to the FAC;

(ii) The Federal agency or pass-through entity is not currently following up with the auditee on the audit finding; and

(iii) A management decision was not issued.

(c) Corrective action plan. At the completion of the audit, the auditee must prepare, in a document separate from the auditor's findings described in §75.516, a corrective action plan to address each audit finding included in the current year auditor's reports. The corrective action plan must provide the name(s) of the contact person(s) responsible for corrective action, the corrective action planned, and the anticipated completion date. If the auditee does not agree with the audit findings or believes corrective action is not required, then the corrective action plan must include an explanation and specific reasons.

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§75.512   Report submission.

(a) General. (1) The audit must be completed and the data collection form described in paragraph (b) of this section and reporting package described in paragraph (c) of this section must be submitted within the earlier of 30 calendar days after receipt of the auditor's report(s), or nine months after the end of the audit period. If the due date falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or Federal holiday, the reporting package is due the next business day.

(2) Unless restricted by Federal statutes or regulations, the auditee must make copies available for public inspection. Auditees and auditors must ensure that their respective parts of the reporting package do not include protected personally identifiable information.

(b) Data collection. The FAC is the repository of record for subpart F of this part reporting packages and the data collection form. All Federal agencies, pass-through entities and others interested in a reporting package and data collection form must obtain it by accessing the FAC.

(1) The auditee must submit required data elements described in appendix X to part 75, which state whether the audit was completed in accordance with this part and provides information about the auditee, its Federal programs, and the results of the audit. The data must include information available from the audit required by this part that is necessary for Federal agencies to use the audit to ensure integrity for Federal programs. The data elements and format must be approved by OMB, available from the FAC, and include collections of information from the reporting package described in paragraph (c) of this section. A senior level representative of the auditee (e.g., state controller, director of finance, chief executive officer, or chief financial officer) must sign a statement to be included as part of the data collection that says that the auditee complied with the requirements of this part, the data were prepared in accordance with this part (and the instructions accompanying the form), the reporting package does not include protected personally identifiable information, the information included in its entirety is accurate and complete, and that the FAC is authorized to make the reporting package and the form publicly available on a Web site.

(2) Exception for Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations. An auditee that is an Indian tribe or a tribal organization (as defined in the Indian Self-Determination, Education and Assistance Act (ISDEAA), 25 U.S.C. 450b(l)) may opt not to authorize the FAC to make the reporting package publicly available on a Web site, by excluding the authorization for the FAC publication in the statement described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. If this option is exercised, the auditee becomes responsible for submitting the reporting package directly to any pass-through entities through which it has received a Federal award and to pass-through entities for which the summary schedule of prior audit findings reported the status of any findings related to Federal awards that the pass-through entity provided. Unless restricted by Federal statute or regulation, if the auditee opts not to authorize publication, it must make copies of the reporting package available for public inspection.

(3) Using the information included in the reporting package described in paragraph (c) of this section, the auditor must complete the applicable data elements of the data collection form. The auditor must sign a statement to be included as part of the data collection form that indicates, at a minimum, the source of the information included in the form, the auditor's responsibility for the information, that the form is not a substitute for the reporting package described in paragraph (c) of this section, and that the content of the form is limited to the collection of information prescribed by OMB.

(c) Reporting package. The reporting package must include the:

(1) Financial statements and schedule of expenditures of Federal awards discussed in §75.510(a) and (b), respectively;

(2) Summary schedule of prior audit findings discussed in §75.511(b);

(3) Auditor's report(s) discussed in §75.515; and

(4) Corrective action plan discussed in §75.511(c).

(d) Submission to FAC. The auditee must electronically submit to the FAC the data collection form described in paragraph (b) of this section and the reporting package described in paragraph (c) of this section.

(e) Requests for management letters issued by the auditor. In response to requests by a Federal agency or pass-through entity, auditees must submit a copy of any management letters issued by the auditor.

(f) Report retention requirements. Auditees must keep one copy of the data collection form described in paragraph (b) of this section and one copy of the reporting package described in paragraph (c) of this section on file for three years from the date of submission to the FAC.

(g) FAC responsibilities. The FAC must make available the reporting packages received in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section and §75.507(c) to the public, except for Indian tribes exercising the option in (b)(2) of this section, and maintain a data base of completed audits, provide appropriate information to Federal agencies, and follow up with known auditees that have not submitted the required data collection forms and reporting packages.

(h) Electronic filing. Nothing in this part must preclude electronic submissions to the FAC in such manner as may be approved by OMB.

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Federal Agencies

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§75.513   Responsibilities.

(a)(1) Cognizant agency for audit responsibilities. A non-Federal entity expending more than $50 million a year in Federal awards must have a cognizant agency for audit. The designated cognizant agency for audit must be the Federal awarding agency that provides the predominant amount of direct funding to a non-Federal entity unless OMB designates a specific cognizant agency for audit.

(2) To provide for continuity of cognizance, the determination of the predominant amount of direct funding must be based upon direct Federal awards expended in the non-Federal entity's fiscal years ending in 2009, 2014, 2019 and every fifth year thereafter. For example, audit cognizance for periods ending in 2011 through 2015 will be determined based on Federal awards expended in 2009.

(3) Notwithstanding the manner in which audit cognizance is determined, a Federal awarding agency with cognizance for an auditee may reassign cognizance to another Federal awarding agency that provides substantial funding and agrees to be the cognizant agency for audit. Within 30 calendar days after any reassignment, both the old and the new cognizant agency for audit must provide notice of the change to the FAC, the auditee, and, if known, the auditor. The cognizant agency for audit must:

(i) Provide technical audit advice and liaison assistance to auditees and auditors.

(ii) Obtain or conduct quality control reviews on selected audits made by non-Federal auditors, and provide the results to other interested organizations. Cooperate and provide support to the Federal agency designated by OMB to lead a government-wide project to determine the quality of single audits by providing a statistically reliable estimate of the extent that single audits conform to applicable requirements, standards, and procedures; and to make recommendations to address noted audit quality issues, including recommendations for any changes to applicable requirements, standards and procedures indicated by the results of the project. This government-wide audit quality project must be performed once every 6 years beginning in 2018 or at such other interval as determined by OMB, and the results must be public.

(iii) Promptly inform other affected Federal agencies and appropriate Federal law enforcement officials of any direct reporting by the auditee or its auditor required by GAGAS or statutes and regulations.

(iv) Advise the community of independent auditors of any noteworthy or important factual trends related to the quality of audits stemming from quality control reviews. Significant problems or quality issues consistently identified through quality control reviews of audit reports must be referred to appropriate state licensing agencies and professional bodies.

(v) Advise the auditor, HHS awarding agencies, and, where appropriate, the auditee of any deficiencies found in the audits when the deficiencies require corrective action by the auditor. When advised of deficiencies, the auditee must work with the auditor to take corrective action. If corrective action is not taken, the cognizant agency for audit must notify the auditor, the auditee, and applicable HHS awarding agencies and pass-through entities of the facts and make recommendations for follow-up action. Major inadequacies or repetitive substandard performance by auditors must be referred to appropriate state licensing agencies and professional bodies for disciplinary action.

(vi) Coordinate, to the extent practical, audits or reviews made by or for Federal agencies that are in addition to the audits made pursuant to this part, so that the additional audits or reviews build upon rather than duplicate audits performed in accordance with this part.

(vii) Coordinate a management decision for cross-cutting audit findings (as defined in §75.2 Cross-cutting audit finding) that affect the Federal programs of more than one agency when requested by any Federal awarding agency whose awards are included in the audit finding of the auditee.

(viii) Coordinate the audit work and reporting responsibilities among auditors to achieve the most cost-effective audit.

(ix) Provide advice to auditees as to how to handle changes in fiscal years.

(b) Oversight agency for audit responsibilities. An auditee who does not have a designated cognizant agency for audit will be under the general oversight of the Federal agency determined in accordance with §75.2 Oversight agency for audit. A Federal agency with oversight for an auditee may reassign oversight to another Federal agency that agrees to be the oversight agency for audit. Within 30 calendar days after any reassignment, both the old and the new oversight agency for audit must provide notice of the change to the FAC, the auditee, and, if known, the auditor. The oversight agency for audit:

(1) Must provide technical advice to auditees and auditors as requested.

(2) May assume all or some of the responsibilities normally performed by a cognizant agency for audit.

(c) HHS awarding agency responsibilities. The HHS awarding agency must perform the following for the Federal awards it makes (See also the requirements of §75.210):

(1) Ensure that audits are completed and reports are received in a timely manner and in accordance with the requirements of this part.

(2) Provide technical advice and counsel to auditees and auditors as requested.

(3) Follow-up on audit findings to ensure that the recipient takes appropriate and timely corrective action. As part of audit follow-up, the HHS awarding agency must:

(i) Issue a management decision as prescribed in §75.521;

(ii) Monitor the recipient taking appropriate and timely corrective action;

(iii) Use cooperative audit resolution mechanisms (see §75.2 Cooperative audit resolution) to improve Federal program outcomes through better audit resolution, follow-up, and corrective action; and

(iv) Develop a baseline, metrics, and targets to track, over time, the effectiveness of the Federal agency's process to follow-up on audit findings and on the effectiveness of Single Audits in improving non-Federal entity accountability and their use by HHS awarding agencies in making award decisions.

(4) Provide OMB annual updates to the compliance supplement and work with OMB to ensure that the compliance supplement focuses the auditor to test the compliance requirements most likely to cause improper payments, fraud, waste, abuse or generate audit finding for which the Federal awarding agency will take sanctions.

(5) Provide OMB with the name of a single audit accountable official from among the senior policy officials of the HHS awarding agency who must be:

(i) Responsible for ensuring that the agency fulfills all the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section and effectively uses the single audit process to reduce improper payments and improve Federal program outcomes.

(ii) Held accountable to improve the effectiveness of the single audit process based upon metrics as described in paragraph (c)(3)(iv) of this section.

(iii) Responsible for designating the Federal agency's key management single audit liaison.

(6) Provide OMB with the name of a key management single audit liaison who must:

(i) Serve as the Federal awarding agency's management point of contact for the single audit process both within and outside the Federal Government.

(ii) Promote interagency coordination, consistency, and sharing in areas such as coordinating audit follow-up; identifying higher-risk non-Federal entities; providing input on single audit and follow-up policy; enhancing the utility of the FAC; and studying ways to use single audit results to improve Federal award accountability and best practices.

(iii) Oversee training for the HHS awarding agency's program management personnel related to the single audit process.

(iv) Promote the HHS awarding agency's use of cooperative audit resolution mechanisms.

(v) Coordinate the HHS awarding agency's activities to ensure appropriate and timely follow-up and corrective action on audit findings.

(vi) Organize the Federal cognizant agency for audit's follow-up on cross-cutting audit findings that affect the Federal programs of more than one HHS awarding agency.

(vii) Ensure the HHS awarding agency provides annual updates of the compliance supplement to OMB.

(viii) Support the HHS awarding agency's single audit accountable official's mission.

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Auditors

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§75.514   Scope of audit.

(a) General. The audit must be conducted in accordance with GAGAS. The audit must cover the entire operations of the auditee, or, at the option of the auditee, such audit must include a series of audits that cover departments, agencies, and other organizational units that expended or otherwise administered Federal awards during such audit period, provided that each such audit must encompass the financial statements and schedule of expenditures of Federal awards for each such department, agency, and other organizational unit, which must be considered to be a non-Federal entity. The financial statements and schedule of expenditures of Federal awards must be for the same audit period.

(b) Financial statements. The auditor must determine whether the financial statements of the auditee are presented fairly in all material respects in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. The auditor must also determine whether the schedule of expenditures of Federal awards is stated fairly in all material respects in relation to the auditee's financial statements as a whole.

(c) Internal control. (1) The compliance supplement provides guidance on internal controls over Federal programs based upon the guidance in Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government issued by the Comptroller General of the United States and the Internal Control—Integrated Framework, issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).

(2) In addition to the requirements of GAGAS, the auditor must perform procedures to obtain an understanding of internal control over Federal programs sufficient to plan the audit to support a low assessed level of control risk of noncompliance for major programs.

(3) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(4) of this section, the auditor must:

(i) Plan the testing of internal control over compliance for major programs to support a low assessed level of control risk for the assertions relevant to the compliance requirements for each major program; and

(ii) Perform testing of internal control as planned in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section.

(4) When internal control over some or all of the compliance requirements for a major program are likely to be ineffective in preventing or detecting noncompliance, the planning and performing of testing described in paragraph (c)(3) of this section are not required for those compliance requirements. However, the auditor must report a significant deficiency or material weakness in accordance with §75.516, assess the related control risk at the maximum, and consider whether additional compliance tests are required because of ineffective internal control.

(d) Compliance. (1) In addition to the requirements of GAGAS, the auditor must determine whether the auditee has complied with Federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of Federal awards that may have a direct and material effect on each of its major programs.

(2) The principal compliance requirements applicable to most Federal programs and the compliance requirements of the largest Federal programs are included in the compliance supplement.

(3) For the compliance requirements related to Federal programs contained in the compliance supplement, an audit of these compliance requirements will meet the requirements of this part. Where there have been changes to the compliance requirements and the changes are not reflected in the compliance supplement, the auditor must determine the current compliance requirements and modify the audit procedures accordingly. For those Federal programs not covered in the compliance supplement, the auditor must follow the compliance supplement's guidance for programs not included in the supplement.

(4) The compliance testing must include tests of transactions and such other auditing procedures necessary to provide the auditor sufficient appropriate audit evidence to support an opinion on compliance.

(e) Audit follow-up. The auditor must follow-up on prior audit findings, perform procedures to assess the reasonableness of the summary schedule of prior audit findings prepared by the auditee in accordance with §75.511(b), and report, as a current year audit finding, when the auditor concludes that the summary schedule of prior audit findings materially misrepresents the status of any prior audit finding. The auditor must perform audit follow-up procedures regardless of whether a prior audit finding relates to a major program in the current year.

(f) Data collection form. As required in §75.512(b)(3), the auditor must complete and sign specified sections of the data collection form.

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§75.515   Audit reporting.

The auditor's report(s) may be in the form of either combined or separate reports and may be organized differently from the manner presented in this section. The auditor's report(s) must state that the audit was conducted in accordance with this part and include the following:

(a) An opinion (or disclaimer of opinion) as to whether the financial statements are presented fairly in all material respects in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and an opinion (or disclaimer of opinion) as to whether the schedule of expenditures of Federal awards is fairly stated in all material respects in relation to the financial statements as a whole.

(b) A report on internal control over financial reporting and compliance with provisions of laws, regulations, contracts, and award agreements, noncompliance with which could have a material effect on the financial statements. This report must describe the scope of testing of internal control and compliance and the results of the tests, and, where applicable, it will refer to the separate schedule of findings and questioned costs described in paragraph (d) of this section.

(c) A report on compliance for each major program and a report on internal control over compliance. This report must describe the scope of testing of internal control over compliance, include an opinion or disclaimer of opinion as to whether the auditee complied with Federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of Federal awards which could have a direct and material effect on each major program and refer to the separate schedule of findings and questioned costs described in paragraph (d) of this section.

(d) A schedule of findings and questioned costs which must include the following three components:

(1) A summary of the auditor's results, which must include:

(i) The type of report the auditor issued on whether the financial statements audited were prepared in accordance with GAAP (i.e., unmodified opinion, qualified opinion, adverse opinion, or disclaimer of opinion);

(ii) Where applicable, a statement about whether significant deficiencies or material weaknesses in internal control were disclosed by the audit of the financial statements;

(iii) A statement as to whether the audit disclosed any noncompliance that is material to the financial statements of the auditee;

(iv) Where applicable, a statement about whether significant deficiencies or material weaknesses in internal control over major programs were disclosed by the audit;

(v) The type of report the auditor issued on compliance for major programs (i.e., unmodified opinion, qualified opinion, adverse opinion, or disclaimer of opinion);

(vi) A statement as to whether the audit disclosed any audit findings that the auditor is required to report under §75.516(a);

(vii) An identification of major programs by listing each individual major program; however in the case of a cluster of programs only the cluster name as shown on the Schedule of Expenditures of Federal Awards is required;

(viii) The dollar threshold used to distinguish between Type A and Type B programs, as described in §75.518(b)(1), or (b)(3) when a recalculation of the Type A threshold is required for large loan or loan guarantees; and

(ix) A statement as to whether the auditee qualified as a low-risk auditee under §75.520.

(2) Findings relating to the financial statements which are required to be reported in accordance with GAGAS.

(3) Findings and questioned costs for Federal awards which must include audit findings as defined in §75.516(a).

(i) Audit findings (e.g., internal control findings, compliance findings, questioned costs, or fraud) that relate to the same issue must be presented as a single audit finding. Where practical, audit findings should be organized by Federal agency or pass-through entity.

(ii) Audit findings that relate to both the financial statements and Federal awards, as reported under paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section, respectively, must be reported in both sections of the schedule. However, the reporting in one section of the schedule may be in summary form with a reference to a detailed reporting in the other section of the schedule.

(e) Nothing in this part precludes combining of the audit reporting required by this section with the reporting required by §75.512(b) when allowed by GAGAS and appendix X to part 75.

[79 FR 75889, Dec. 19, 2014, as amended at 81 FR 3018, Jan. 20, 2016]

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§75.516   Audit findings.

(a) Audit findings reported. The auditor must report the following as audit findings in a schedule of findings and questioned costs:

(1) Significant deficiencies and material weaknesses in internal control over major programs and significant instances of abuse relating to major programs. The auditor's determination of whether a deficiency in internal control is a significant deficiency or material weakness for the purpose of reporting an audit finding is in relation to a type of compliance requirement for a major program identified in the Compliance Supplement.

(2) Material noncompliance with the provisions of Federal statutes, regulations, or the terms and conditions of Federal awards related to a major program. The auditor's determination of whether a noncompliance with the provisions of Federal statutes, regulations, or the terms and conditions of Federal awards is material for the purpose of reporting an audit finding is in relation to a type of compliance requirement for a major program identified in the compliance supplement.

(3) Known questioned costs that are greater than $25,000 for a type of compliance requirement for a major program. Known questioned costs are those specifically identified by the auditor. In evaluating the effect of questioned costs on the opinion on compliance, the auditor considers the best estimate of total costs questioned (likely questioned costs), not just the questioned costs specifically identified (known questioned costs). The auditor must also report known questioned costs when likely questioned costs are greater than $25,000 for a type of compliance requirement for a major program. In reporting questioned costs, the auditor must include information to provide proper perspective for judging the prevalence and consequences of the questioned costs.

(4) Known questioned costs that are greater than $25,000 for a Federal program which is not audited as a major program. Except for audit follow-up, the auditor is not required under this part to perform audit procedures for such a Federal program; therefore, the auditor will normally not find questioned costs for a program that is not audited as a major program. However, if the auditor does become aware of questioned costs for a Federal program that is not audited as a major program (e.g., as part of audit follow-up or other audit procedures) and the known questioned costs are greater than $25,000, then the auditor must report this as an audit finding.

(5) The circumstances concerning why the auditor's report on compliance for each major program is other than an unmodified opinion, unless such circumstances are otherwise reported as audit findings in the schedule of findings and questioned costs for Federal awards.

(6) Known or likely fraud affecting a Federal award, unless such fraud is otherwise reported as an audit finding in the schedule of findings and questioned costs for Federal awards. This paragraph does not require the auditor to report publicly information which could compromise investigative or legal proceedings or to make an additional reporting when the auditor confirms that the fraud was reported outside the auditor's reports under the direct reporting requirements of GAGAS.

(7) Instances where the results of audit follow-up procedures disclosed that the summary schedule of prior audit findings prepared by the auditee in accordance with §75.511(b) materially misrepresents the status of any prior audit finding.

(b) Audit finding detail and clarity. Audit findings must be presented in sufficient detail and clarity for the auditee to prepare a corrective action plan and take corrective action, and for Federal agencies and pass-through entities to arrive at a management decision. The following specific information must be included, as applicable, in audit findings:

(1) Federal program and specific Federal award identification including the CFDA title and number, Federal award identification number and year, name of Federal agency, and name of the applicable pass-through entity. When information, such as the CFDA title and number or Federal award identification number, is not available, the auditor must provide the best information available to describe the Federal award.

(2) The criteria or specific requirement upon which the audit finding is based, including the Federal statutes, regulations, or the terms and conditions of the Federal awards. Criteria generally identify the required or desired state or expectation with respect to the program or operation. Criteria provide a context for evaluating evidence and understanding findings.

(3) The condition found, including facts that support the deficiency identified in the audit finding.

(4) A statement of cause that identifies the reason or explanation for the condition or the factors responsible for the difference between the situation that exists (condition) and the required or desired state (criteria), which may also serve as a basis for recommendations for corrective action.

(5) The possible asserted effect to provide sufficient information to the auditee and Federal agency, or pass-through entity in the case of a subrecipient, to permit them to determine the cause and effect to facilitate prompt and proper corrective action. A statement of the effect or potential effect should provide a clear, logical link to establish the impact or potential impact of the difference between the condition and the criteria.

(6) Identification of questioned costs and how they were computed. Known questioned costs must be identified by applicable CFDA number(s) and applicable Federal award identification number(s).

(7) Information to provide proper perspective for judging the prevalence and consequences of the audit findings, such as whether the audit findings represent an isolated instance or a systemic problem. Where appropriate, instances identified must be related to the universe and the number of cases examined and be quantified in terms of dollar value. The auditor should report whether the sampling was a statistically valid sample.

(8) Identification of whether the audit finding was a repeat of a finding in the immediately prior audit and if so any applicable prior year audit finding numbers.

(9) Recommendations to prevent future occurrences of the deficiency identified in the audit finding.

(10) Views of responsible officials of the auditee.

(c) Reference numbers. Each audit finding in the schedule of findings and questioned costs must include a reference number in the format meeting the requirements of the data collection form submission required by §75.512(b) to allow for easy referencing of the audit findings during follow-up.

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§75.517   Audit documentation.

(a) Retention of audit documentation. The auditor must retain audit documentation and reports for a minimum of three years after the date of issuance of the auditor's report(s) to the auditee, unless the auditor is notified in writing by the cognizant agency for audit, oversight agency for audit, cognizant agency for indirect costs, or pass-through entity to extend the retention period. When the auditor is aware that the Federal agency, pass-through entity, or auditee is contesting an audit finding, the auditor must contact the parties contesting the audit finding for guidance prior to destruction of the audit documentation and reports.

(b) Access to audit documentation. Audit documentation must be made available upon request to the cognizant or oversight agency for audit or its designee, cognizant agency for indirect cost, a Federal agency, or GAO at the completion of the audit, as part of a quality review, to resolve audit findings, or to carry out oversight responsibilities consistent with the purposes of this part. Access to audit documentation includes the right of Federal agencies to obtain copies of audit documentation, as is reasonable and necessary.

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§75.518   Major program determination.

(a) General. The auditor must use a risk-based approach to determine which Federal programs are major programs. This risk-based approach must include consideration of: Current and prior audit experience, oversight by Federal agencies and pass-through entities, and the inherent risk of the Federal this program. The process in paragraphs (b) through (h) of this section must be followed.

(b) Step one. (1) The auditor must identify the larger Federal programs, which must be labeled Type A programs. Type A programs are defined as Federal programs with Federal awards expended during the audit period exceeding the levels outlined in the table in this paragraph (b)(1):

Total Federal awards expendedType A/B threshold
(i) Equal to or exceed $750,000 but less than or equal to $25 million$750,000.
(ii) Exceed $25 million but less than or equal to $100 millionTotal Federal awards expended times .03.
(iii) Exceed $100 million but less than or equal to $1 billion$3 million.
(iv) Exceed $1 billion but less than or equal to $10 billionTotal Federal awards expended times .003.
(v) Exceed $10 billion but less than or equal to $20 billion$30 million.
(vi) Exceed $20 billionTotal Federal awards expended times .0015.

(2) Federal programs not labeled Type A under paragraph (b)(1) of this section must be labeled Type B programs.

(3) The inclusion of large loan and loan guarantees (loans) must not result in the exclusion of other programs as Type A programs. When a Federal program providing loans exceeds four times the largest non-loan program it is considered a large loan program, and the auditor must consider this Federal program as a Type A program and exclude its values in determining other Type A programs. This recalculation of the Type A program is performed after removing the total of all large loan programs. For the purposes of this paragraph a program is only considered to be a Federal program providing loans if the value of Federal awards expended for loans within the program comprises fifty percent or more of the total Federal awards expended for the program. A cluster of programs is treated as one program and the value of Federal awards expended under a loan program is determined as described in §75.502.

(4) For biennial audits permitted under §75.504, the determination of Type A and Type B programs must be based upon the Federal awards expended during the two-year period.

(c) Step two. (1) The auditor must identify Type A programs which are low-risk. In making this determination, the auditor must consider whether the requirements in §75.519(c), the results of audit follow-up, or any changes in personnel or systems affecting the program indicate significantly increased risk and preclude the program from being low risk. For a Type A program to be considered low-risk, it must have been audited as a major program in at least one of the two most recent audit periods (in the most recent audit period in the case of a biennial audit), and, in the most recent audit period, the program must have not had:

(i) Internal control deficiencies which were identified as material weaknesses in the auditor's report on internal control for major programs as required under §75.515(c);

(ii) A modified opinion on the program in the auditor's report on major programs as required under §75.515(c); or

(iii) Known or likely questioned costs that exceed five percent of the total Federal awards expended for the program.

(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1) of this section, OMB may approve an HHS awarding agency's request that a Type A program may not be considered low risk for a certain recipient. For example, it may be necessary for a large Type A program to be audited as a major program each year at a particular recipient to allow the HHS awarding agency to comply with 31 U.S.C. 3515. The HHS awarding agency must notify the recipient and, if known, the auditor of OMB's approval at least 180 calendar days prior to the end of the fiscal year to be audited.

(d) Step three. (1) The auditor must identify Type B programs which are high-risk using professional judgment and the criteria in §75.519. However, the auditor is not required to identify more high-risk Type B programs than at least one fourth the number of low-risk Type A programs identified as low-risk under Step 2 (paragraph (c) of this section). Except for known material weakness in internal control or compliance problems as discussed in §75.519(b)(1), (b)(2), and (c)(1), a single criteria in risk would seldom cause a Type B program to be considered high-risk. When identifying which Type B programs to risk assess, the auditor is encouraged to use an approach which provides an opportunity for different high-risk Type B programs to be audited as major over a period of time.

(2) The auditor is not expected to perform risk assessments on relatively small Federal programs. Therefore, the auditor is only required to perform risk assessments on Type B programs that exceed twenty-five percent (0.25) of the Type A threshold determined in Step 1 (paragraph (b) of this section).

(e) Step four. At a minimum, the auditor must audit all of the following as major programs:

(1) All Type A programs not identified as low risk under step two (paragraph (c)(1) of this section).

(2) All Type B programs identified as high-risk under step three (paragraph (d) of this section).

(3) Such additional programs as may be necessary to comply with the percentage of coverage rule discussed in paragraph (f) of this section. This may require the auditor to audit more programs as major programs than the number of Type A programs.

(f) Percentage of coverage rule. If the auditee meets the criteria in §75.520, the auditor need only audit the major programs identified in Step 4 (paragraph (e)(1) and (2) of this section) and such additional Federal programs with Federal awards expended that, in aggregate, all major programs encompass at least 20 percent (0.20) of total Federal awards expended. Otherwise, the auditor must audit the major programs identified in Step 4 (paragraphs (e)(1) and (2) of this section) and such additional Federal programs with Federal awards expended that, in aggregate, all major programs encompass at least 40 percent (0.40) of total Federal awards expended.

(g) Documentation of risk. The auditor must include in the audit documentation the risk analysis process used in determining major programs.

(h) Auditor's judgment. When the major program determination was performed and documented in accordance with this subpart, the auditor's judgment in applying the risk-based approach to determine major programs must be presumed correct. Challenges by Federal agencies and pass-through entities must only be for clearly improper use of the requirements in this part. However, Federal agencies and pass-through entities may provide auditors guidance about the risk of a particular Federal program and the auditor must consider this guidance in determining major programs in audits not yet completed.

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§75.519   Criteria for Federal program risk.

(a) General. The auditor's determination should be based on an overall evaluation of the risk of noncompliance occurring that could be material to the Federal program. The auditor must consider criteria, such as described in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, to identify risk in Federal programs. Also, as part of the risk analysis, the auditor may wish to discuss a particular Federal program with auditee management and the Federal agency or pass-through entity.

(b) Current and prior audit experience. (1) Weaknesses in internal control over Federal programs would indicate higher risk. Consideration should be given to the control environment over Federal programs and such factors as the expectation of management's adherence to Federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of Federal awards and the competence and experience of personnel who administer the Federal programs.

(i) A Federal program administered under multiple internal control structures may have higher risk. When assessing risk in a large single audit, the auditor must consider whether weaknesses are isolated in a single operating unit (e.g., one college campus) or pervasive throughout the entity.

(ii) When significant parts of a Federal program are passed through to subrecipients, a weak system for monitoring subrecipients would indicate higher risk.

(2) Prior audit findings would indicate higher risk, particularly when the situations identified in the audit findings could have a significant impact on a Federal program or have not been corrected.

(3) Federal programs not recently audited as major programs may be of higher risk than Federal programs recently audited as major programs without audit findings.

(c) Oversight exercised by Federal agencies and pass-through entities. (1) Oversight exercised by Federal agencies or pass-through entities could be used to assess risk. For example, recent monitoring or other reviews performed by an oversight entity that disclosed no significant problems would indicate lower risk, whereas monitoring that disclosed significant problems would indicate higher risk.

(2) Federal agencies, with the concurrence of OMB, may identify Federal programs that are higher risk. OMB will provide this identification in the compliance supplement.

(d) Inherent risk of the Federal program. (1) The nature of a Federal program may indicate risk. Consideration should be given to the complexity of the program and the extent to which the Federal program contracts for goods and services. For example, Federal programs that disburse funds through third party contracts or have eligibility criteria may be of higher risk. Federal programs primarily involving staff payroll costs may have high risk for noncompliance with requirements of §75.430, but otherwise be at low risk.

(2) The phase of a Federal program in its life cycle at the Federal agency may indicate risk. For example, a new Federal program with new or interim regulations may have higher risk than an established program with time-tested regulations. Also, significant changes in Federal programs, statutes, regulations, or the terms and conditions of Federal awards may increase risk.

(3) The phase of a Federal program in its life cycle at the auditee may indicate risk. For example, during the first and last years that an auditee participates in a Federal program, the risk may be higher due to start-up or closeout of program activities and staff.

(4) Type B programs with larger Federal awards expended would be of higher risk than programs with substantially smaller Federal awards expended.

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§75.520   Criteria for a low-risk auditee.

An auditee that meets all of the following conditions for each of the preceding two audit periods must qualify as a low-risk auditee and be eligible for reduced audit coverage in accordance with §75.518.

(a) Single audits were performed on an annual basis in accordance with the provisions of this subpart, including submitting the data collection form and the reporting package to the FAC within the timeframe specified in §75.512 . A non-Federal entity that has biennial audits does not qualify as a low-risk auditee.

(b) The auditor's opinion on whether the financial statements were prepared in accordance with GAAP, or a basis of accounting required by state law, and the auditor's in relation to opinion on the schedule of expenditures of Federal awards were unmodified.

(c) There were no deficiencies in internal control which were identified as material weaknesses under the requirements of GAGAS.

(d) The auditor did not report a substantial doubt about the auditee's ability to continue as a going concern.

(e) None of the Federal programs had audit findings from any of the following in either of the preceding two audit periods in which they were classified as Type A programs:

(1) Internal control deficiencies that were identified as material weaknesses in the auditor's report on internal control for major programs as required under §75.515(c);

(2) A modified opinion on a major program in the auditor's report on major programs as required under §75.515(c); or

(3) Known or likely questioned costs that exceeded five percent of the total Federal awards expended for a Type A program during the audit period.

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Management Decisions

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§75.521   Management decision.

(a) General. The management decision must clearly state whether or not the audit finding is sustained, the reasons for the decision, and the expected auditee action to repay disallowed costs, make financial adjustments, or take other action. If the auditee has not completed corrective action, a timetable for follow-up should be given. Prior to issuing the management decision, the Federal agency or pass-through entity may request additional information or documentation from the auditee, including a request for auditor assurance related to the documentation, as a way of mitigating disallowed costs. The management decision should describe any appeal process available to the auditee. While not required, the Federal agency or pass-through entity may also issue a management decision on findings relating to the financial statements which are required to be reported in accordance with GAGAS.

(b) Federal agency. As provided in §75.513(a)(3)(vii), the cognizant agency for audit must be responsible for coordinating a management decision for audit findings that affect the programs of more than one Federal agency. As provided in §75.513(c)(3), a Federal awarding agency is responsible for issuing a management decision for findings that relate to Federal awards it makes to non-Federal entities.

(c) Pass-through entity. As provided in §75.352(d), the pass-through entity must be responsible for issuing a management decision for audit findings that relate to Federal awards it makes to subrecipients.

(d) Time requirements. The HHS awarding agency or pass-through entity responsible for issuing a management decision must do so within six months of acceptance of the audit report by the FAC. The auditee must initiate and proceed with corrective action as rapidly as possible and corrective action should begin no later than upon receipt of the audit report.

(e) Reference numbers. Management decisions must include the reference numbers the auditor assigned to each audit finding in accordance with §75.516(c).

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Appendix I to Part 75—Full Text of Notice of Funding Opportunity

The full text of the notice of funding opportunity is organized in sections. The required format outlined in this appendix indicates immediately following the title of each section whether that section is required in every announcement or is an HHS awarding agency option. The format is designed so that similar types of information will appear in the same sections in announcements of different Federal funding opportunities. Toward that end, there is text in each of the following sections to describe the types of information that an HHS awarding agency would include in that section of an actual announcement.

An HHS awarding agency that wishes to include information that the format does not specifically discuss may address that subject in whatever section(s) is most appropriate. For example, if an HHS awarding agency chooses to address performance goals in the announcement, it might do so in the funding opportunity description, the application content, or the reporting requirements.

Similarly, when this format calls for a type of information to be in a particular section, an HHS awarding agency wishing to address that subject in other sections may elect to repeat the information in those sections or use cross references between the sections (there should be hyperlinks for cross-references in any electronic versions of the announcement). For example, an HHS awarding agency may want to include in Section A information about the types of non-Federal entities who are eligible to apply. The format specifies a standard location for that information in Section C.1 but that does not preclude repeating the information in Section I or creating a cross reference between Sections A and C.1, as long as a potential applicant can find the information quickly and easily from the standard location.

The sections of the full text of the announcement are described in the following paragraphs.

A. Program Description—Required

This section contains the full program description of the funding opportunity. It may be as long as needed to adequately communicate to potential applicants the areas in which funding may be provided. It describes the HHS awarding agency's funding priorities or the technical or focus areas in which the HHS awarding agency intends to provide assistance. As appropriate, it may include any program history (e.g., whether this is a new program or a new or changed area of program emphasis). This section may communicate indicators of successful projects (e.g., if the program encourages collaborative efforts) and may include examples of projects that have been funded previously. This section also may include other information the HHS awarding agency deems necessary, and must at a minimum include citations for authorizing statutes and regulations for the funding opportunity.

B. Federal Award Information—Required

This section provides sufficient information to help an applicant make an informed decision about whether to submit a proposal. Relevant information could include the total amount of funding that the HHS awarding agency expects to award through the announcement; the anticipated number of Federal awards; the expected amounts of individual Federal awards (which may be a range); the amount of funding per Federal award, on average, experienced in previous years; and the anticipated start dates and periods of performance for new Federal awards. This section also should address whether applications for renewal or supplementation of existing projects are eligible to compete with applications for new Federal awards.

This section also must indicate the type(s) of assistance instrument (e.g., grant, cooperative agreement) that may be awarded if applications are successful. If cooperative agreements may be awarded, this section either should describe the “substantial involvement” that the HHS awarding agency expects to have or should reference where the potential applicant can find that information (e.g., in the funding opportunity description in section A. or Federal award administration information in Section D. If procurement contracts also may be awarded, this must be stated.

C. Eligibility Information

This section addresses the considerations or factors that determine applicant or application eligibility. This includes the eligibility of particular types of applicant organizations, any factors affecting the eligibility of the principal investigator or project director, and any criteria that make particular projects ineligible. HHS agencies should make clear whether an applicant's failure to meet an eligibility criterion by the time of an application deadline will result in the HHS awarding agency returning the application without review or, even though an application may be reviewed, will preclude the HHS awarding agency from making a Federal award. Key elements to be addressed are:

1. Eligible Applicants—Required. Announcements must clearly identify the types of entities that are eligible to apply. If there are no restrictions on eligibility, this section may simply indicate that all potential applicants are eligible. If there are restrictions on eligibility, it is important to be clear about the specific types of entities that are eligible, not just the types that are ineligible. For example, if the program is limited to nonprofit organizations subject to 26 U.S.C. 501(c)(3) of the tax code (26 U.S.C. 501(c)(3)), the announcement should say so. Similarly, it is better to state explicitly that Native American tribal organizations are eligible than to assume that they can unambiguously infer that from a statement that nonprofit organizations may apply. Eligibility also can be expressed by exception, (e.g., open to all types of domestic applicants other than individuals). This section should refer to any portion of Section D. specifying documentation that must be submitted to support an eligibility determination (e.g., proof of 501(c)(3) status as determined by the Internal Revenue Service or an authorizing tribal resolution). To the extent that any funding restriction in Section D.6 could affect the eligibility of an applicant or project, the announcement must either restate that restriction in this section or provide a cross-reference to its description in Section D.6.

2. Cost Sharing or Matching—Required. Announcements must state whether there is required cost sharing, matching, or cost participation without which an application would be ineligible (if cost sharing is not required, the announcement must explicitly say so). Required cost sharing may be a certain percentage or amount, or may be in the form of contributions of specified items or activities (e.g., provision of equipment). It is important that the announcement be clear about any restrictions on the types of cost (e.g., in-kind contributions) that are acceptable as cost sharing. Cost sharing as an eligibility criterion includes requirements based in statute or regulation, as described in §75.306. This section should refer to the appropriate portion(s) of section D. stating any pre-award requirements for submission of letters or other documentation to verify commitments to meet cost-sharing requirements if a Federal award is made.

3. Other—Required, if applicable. If there are other eligibility criteria (i.e., criteria that have the effect of making an application or project ineligible for Federal awards, whether referred to as “responsiveness” criteria, “go-no go” criteria, “threshold” criteria, or in other ways), must be clearly stated and must include a reference to the regulation of requirement that describes the restriction, as applicable. For example, if entities that have been found to be in violation of a particular Federal statute are ineligible, it is important to say so. This section must also state any limit on the number of applications an applicant may submit under the announcement and make clear whether the limitation is on the submitting organization, individual investigator/program director, or both. This section should also address any eligibility criteria for beneficiaries or for program participants other than Federal award recipients.

D. Application and Submission Information

1. Address to Request Application Package—Required. Potential applicants must be told how to get application forms, kits, or other materials needed to apply (if this announcement contains everything needed, this section need only say so). An Internet address where the materials can be accessed is acceptable. However, since high-speed Internet access is not yet universally available for downloading documents, and applicants may have additional accessibility requirements, there also should be a way for potential applicants to request paper copies of materials, such as a U.S. Postal Service mailing address, telephone or FAX number, Telephone Device for the Deaf (TDD), Text Telephone (TTY) number, and/or Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) number.

2. Content and Form of Application Submission—Required. This section must identify the required content of an application and the forms or formats that an applicant must use to submit it. If any requirements are stated elsewhere because they are general requirements that apply to multiple programs or funding opportunities, this section should refer to where those requirements may be found. This section also should include required forms or formats as part of the announcement or state where the applicant may obtain them.

This section should specifically address content and form or format requirements for:

i. Pre-applications, letters of intent, or white papers required or encouraged (see Section D.4), including any limitations on the number of pages or other formatting requirements similar to those for full applications.

ii. The application as a whole. For all submissions, this would include any limitations on the number of pages, font size and typeface, margins, paper size, number of copies, and sequence or assembly requirements. If electronic submission is permitted or required, this could include special requirements for formatting or signatures.

iii. Component pieces of the application (e.g., if all copies of the application must bear original signatures on the face page or the program narrative may not exceed 10 pages). This includes any pieces that may be submitted separately by third parties (e.g., references or letters confirming commitments from third parties that will be contributing a portion of any required cost sharing).

iv. Information that successful applicants must submit after notification of intent to make a Federal award, but prior to a Federal award. This could include evidence of compliance with requirements relating to human subjects or information needed to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (42 U.S.C. 4321-4370h).

3. Unique Entity Identifier and System for Award Management (SAM)—Required.

This paragraph must state clearly that each applicant (unless the applicant is an individual or Federal awarding agency that is excepted from those requirements under 2 CFR 25.110(b) or (c), or has an exception approved by the Federal awarding agency under 2 CFR 25.110(d)) is required to:

(i) Be registered in SAM before submitting its application;

(ii) provide a valid unique entity identifier in its application; and

(iii) continue to maintain an active SAM registration with current information at all times during which it has an active Federal award or an application or plan under consideration by a Federal awarding agency.

It also must state that the Federal awarding agency may not make a Federal award to an applicant until the applicant has complied with all applicable unique entity identifier and SAM requirements and, if an applicant has not fully complied with the requirements by the time the Federal awarding agency is ready to make a Federal award, the Federal awarding agency may determine that the applicant is not qualified to receive a Federal award and use that determination as a basis for making a Federal award to another applicant.

4. Submission Dates and Times—Required. Announcements must identify due dates and times for all submissions. This includes not only the full applications but also any preliminary submissions (e.g., letters of intent, white papers, or pre-applications). It also includes any other submissions of information before Federal award that are separate from the full application. If the funding opportunity is a general announcement that is open for a period of time with no specific due dates for applications, this section should say so. Note that the information on dates that is included in this section also must appear with other overview information in a location preceding the full text of the announcement (see §75.203).

Each type of submission should be designated as encouraged or required and, if required, any deadline date (or dates, if the Federal awarding agency plans more than one cycle of application submission, review, and Federal award under the announcement) should be specified. The announcement must state (or provide a reference to another document that states):

i. Any deadline in terms of a date and local time. If the due date falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or Federal holiday, the reporting package is due the next business day.

ii. What the deadline means (e.g., whether it is the date and time by which the Federal awarding agency must receive the application, the date by which the application must be postmarked, or something else) and how that depends, if at all, on the submission method (e.g., mail, electronic, or personal/courier delivery).

iii. The effect of missing a deadline (e.g., whether late applications are neither reviewed nor considered or are reviewed and considered under some circumstances).

iv. How the receiving Federal office determines whether an application or pre-application has been submitted before the deadline. This includes the form of acceptable proof of mailing or system-generated documentation of receipt date and time.

This section also may indicate whether, when, and in what form the applicant will receive an acknowledgement of receipt. This information should be displayed in ways that will be easy to understand and use. It can be difficult to extract all needed information from narrative paragraphs, even when they are well written. A tabular form for providing a summary of the information may help applicants for some programs and give them what effectively could be a checklist to verify the completeness of their application package before submission.

5. Intergovernmental Review—Required, if applicable. If the funding opportunity is subject to Executive Order 12372, “Intergovernmental Review of Federal Programs,” the notice must say so. In alerting applicants that they must contact their state's Single Point of Contact (SPOC) to find out about and comply with the state's process under Executive Order 12372, it may be useful to inform potential applicants that the names and addresses of the SPOCs are listed in the Office of Management and Budget's Web site. www.whitehouse.gov/omb/grants/spoc.html.

6. Funding Restrictions—Required. Notices must include information on funding restrictions in order to allow an applicant to develop an application and budget consistent with program requirements. Examples are whether construction is an allowable activity, if there are any limitations on direct costs such as foreign travel or equipment purchases, and if there are any limits on indirect costs (or facilities and administrative costs). Applicants must be advised if Federal awards will not allow reimbursement of pre-Federal award costs.

7. Other Submission Requirements— Required. This section must address any other submission requirements not included in the other paragraphs of this section. This might include the format of submission, i.e., paper or electronic, for each type of required submission. Applicants should not be required to submit in more than one format and this section should indicate whether they may choose whether to submit applications in hard copy or electronically, may submit only in hard copy, or may submit only electronically.

This section also must indicate where applications (and any pre-applications) must be submitted if sent by postal mail, electronic means, or hand-delivery. For postal mail submission, this must include the name of an office, official, individual or function (e.g., application receipt center) and a complete mailing address. For electronic submission, this must include the URL or email address; whether a password(s) is required; whether particular software or other electronic capabilities are required; what to do in the event of system problems and a point of contact who will be available in the event the applicant experiences technical difficulties.1

1With respect to electronic methods for providing information about funding opportunities or accepting applicants' submissions of information, each HHS awarding agency is responsible for compliance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794d).

E. Application Review Information

1. Criteria—Required. This section must address the criteria that the Federal awarding agency will use to evaluate applications. This includes the merit and other review criteria that evaluators will use to judge applications, including any statutory, regulatory, or other preferences (e.g., minority status or Native American tribal preferences) that will be applied in the review process. These criteria are distinct from eligibility criteria that are addressed before an application is accepted for review and any program policy or other factors that are applied during the selection process, after the review process is completed. The intent is to make the application process transparent so applicants can make informed decisions when preparing their applications to maximize fairness of the process. The announcement should clearly describe all criteria, including any sub-criteria. If criteria vary in importance, the announcement should specify the relative percentages, weights, or other means used to distinguish among them. For statutory, regulatory, or other preferences, the announcement should provide a detailed explanation of those preferences with an explicit indication of their effect (e.g., whether they result in additional points being assigned).

If an applicant's proposed cost sharing will be considered in the review process (as opposed to being an eligibility criterion described in Section C.2), the announcement must specifically address how it will be considered (e.g., to assign a certain number of additional points to applicants who offer cost sharing, or to break ties among applications with equivalent scores after evaluation against all other factors). If cost sharing will not be considered in the evaluation, the announcement should say so, so that there is no ambiguity for potential applicants. Vague statements that cost sharing is encouraged, without clarification as to what that means, are unhelpful to applicants. It also is important that the announcement be clear about any restrictions on the types of cost (e.g., in-kind contributions) that are acceptable as cost sharing.

2. Review and Selection Process—Required. This section may vary in the level of detail provided. The announcement must list any program policy or other factors or elements, other than merit criteria, that the selecting official may use in selecting applications for Federal award (e.g., geographical dispersion, program balance, or diversity). The HHS awarding agency may also include other appropriate details. For example, this section may indicate who is responsible for evaluation against the merit criteria (e.g., peers external to the HHS awarding agency or HHS awarding agency personnel) and/or who makes the final selections for Federal awards. If there is a multi-phase review process (e.g., an external panel advising internal HHS awarding agency personnel who make final recommendations to the deciding official), the announcement may describe the phases. It also may include: the number of people on an evaluation panel and how it operates, the way reviewers are selected, reviewer qualifications, and the way that conflicts of interest are avoided. With respect to electronic methods for providing information about funding opportunities or accepting applicants' submissions of information, each HHS awarding agency is responsible for compliance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794d).

In addition, if the HHS awarding agency permits applicants to nominate suggested reviewers of their applications or suggest those they feel may be inappropriate due to a conflict of interest, that information should be included in this section.

3. For any Federal award under a notice of funding opportunity, if the HHS awarding agency anticipates that the total Federal share will be greater than the simplified acquisition threshold on any Federal award under a notice of funding opportunity may include, over the period of performance (see §75.2 Simplified Acquisition Threshold), this section must also inform applicants:

i. That the HHS awarding agency, prior to making a Federal award with a total amount of Federal share greater than the simplified acquisition threshold, is required to review and consider any information about the applicant that is in the designated integrity and performance system accessible through SAM (currently FAPIIS) (see 41 U.S.C. 2313);

ii. That an applicant, at its option, may review information in the designated integrity and performance systems accessible through SAM and comment on any information about itself that the HHS awarding agency previously entered and is currently in the designated integrity and performance system accessible through SAM;

iii. That the HHS awarding agency will consider any comments by the applicant, in addition to the other information in the designated integrity and performance system, in making a judgment about the applicant's integrity, business ethics, and record of performance under Federal awards when completing the review of risk posed by applicants as described in §75.205.

4. Anticipated Announcement and Federal Award Dates—Optional. This section is intended to provide applicants with information they can use for planning purposes. If there is a single application deadline followed by the simultaneous review of all applications, the HHS awarding agency can include in this section information about the anticipated dates for announcing or notifying successful and unsuccessful applicants and for having Federal awards in place. If applications are received and evaluated on a “rolling” basis at different times during an extended period, it may be appropriate to give applicants an estimate of the time needed to process an application and notify the applicant of the HHS awarding agency's decision.

F. Federal Award Administration Information

1. Federal Award Notices—Required. This section must address what a successful applicant can expect to receive following selection. If the HHS awarding agency's practice is to provide a separate notice stating that an application has been selected before it actually makes the Federal award, this section would be the place to indicate that the letter is not an authorization to begin performance (to the extent that it allows charging to Federal awards of pre-award costs at the non-Federal entity's own risk). This section should indicate that the notice of Federal award signed by the grants officer (or equivalent) is the authorizing document, and whether it is provided through postal mail or by electronic means and to whom. It also may address the timing, form, and content of notifications to unsuccessful applicants. See also §75.210.

2. Administrative and National Policy Requirements—Required. This section must identify the usual administrative and national policy requirements the HHS awarding agency's Federal awards may include. Providing this information lets a potential applicant identify any requirements with which it would have difficulty complying if its application is successful. In those cases, early notification about the requirements allows the potential applicant to decide not to apply or to take needed actions before receiving the Federal award. The announcement need not include all of the terms and conditions of the Federal-award, but may refer to a document (with information about how to obtain it) or Internet site where applicants can see the terms and conditions. If this funding opportunity will lead to Federal awards with some specific terms and conditions that differ from the HHS awarding agency's usual (sometimes called “general”) terms and conditions, this section should highlight those specific terms and conditions. Doing so will alert applicants that have received Federal awards from the HHS awarding agency previously and might not otherwise expect different terms and conditions. For the same reason, the announcement should inform potential applicants about special requirements that could apply to particular Federal awards after the review of applications and other information, based on the particular circumstances of the effort to be supported (e.g., if human subjects were to be involved or if some situations may justify special terms on intellectual property, data sharing or security requirements).

3. Reporting—Required. This section must include general information about the type (e.g., financial or performance), frequency, and means of submission (paper or electronic) of post-Federal award reporting requirements. Highlight any special reporting requirements for Federal awards under this funding opportunity that differ (e.g., by report type, frequency, form/format, or circumstances for use) from what the HHS awarding agency's Federal awards usually require. HHS agencies must also describe in this section all relevant requirements such as those at 2 CFR 180.335 and 2 CFR 180.350. If the Federal share of any Federal award may include more than $500,000 over the period of performance, this section must inform potential applicants about the post award reporting requirements in Appendix XII.

G. HHS Awarding Agency Contact(s)—Required

The announcement must give potential applicants a point(s) of contact for answering questions or helping with problems while the funding opportunity is open. The intent of this requirement is to be as helpful as possible to potential applicants, so the HHS awarding agency should consider approaches such as giving:

1. Points of contact who may be reached in multiple ways (e.g., by telephone, FAX, and/or email, as well as regular mail).

2. A fax or email address that multiple people access, so that someone will respond even if others are unexpectedly absent during critical periods.

3. Different contacts for distinct kinds of help (e.g., one for questions of programmatic content and a second for administrative questions).

H. Other Information—Optional

This section may include any additional information that will assist a potential applicant. For example, the section might:

1. Indicate whether this is a new program or a one-time initiative.

2. Mention related programs or other upcoming or ongoing HHS awarding agency funding opportunities for similar activities.

3. Include current Internet addresses for the HHS awarding agency Web sites that may be useful to an applicant in understanding the program.

4. Alert applicants to the need to identify proprietary information and inform them about the way the HHS awarding agency will handle it.

5. Include certain routine notices to applicants (e.g., that the Federal Government is not obligated to make any Federal award as a result of the announcement or that only grants officers can bind the Federal Government to the expenditure of funds).

[79 FR 75889, Dec. 19, 2014, as amended at 81 FR 3018, Jan. 20, 2016]

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Appendix II to Part 75—Contract Provisions for Non-Federal Entity Contracts Under Federal Awards

In addition to other provisions required by the HHS agency or non-Federal entity, all contracts made by the non-Federal entity under the Federal award must contain provisions covering the following, as applicable.

A. Contracts for more than the simplified acquisition threshold currently set at $150,000, which is the inflation adjusted amount determined by the Civilian Agency Acquisition Council and the Defense Acquisition Regulations Council (Councils) as authorized by 41 U.S.C. 1908, must address administrative, contractual, or legal remedies in instances where contractors violate or breach contract terms, and provide for such sanctions and penalties as appropriate.

B. All contracts in excess of $10,000 must address termination for cause and for convenience by the non-Federal entity including the manner by which it will be effected and the basis for settlement.

C. Equal Employment Opportunity. Except as otherwise provided under 41 CFR part 60, all contracts that meet the definition of “federally assisted construction contract” in 41 CFR part 60-1.3 must include the equal opportunity clause provided under 41 CFR 60-1.4(b), in accordance with Executive Order 11246, Equal Employment Opportunity (30 FR 12319, 12935, 3 CFR 1964-1965 Comp., p. 339) as amended by Executive Order 11375 amending Executive Order 11246 Relating to Equal Employment Opportunity, and implementing regulations at 41 CFR part 60.

D. Davis-Bacon Act, as amended (40 U.S.C. 3141-3148). When required by Federal program legislation, all prime construction contracts in excess of $2,000 awarded by non-Federal entities must include a provision for compliance with the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 3141-3144, and 3146-3148) as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29 CFR part 5). In accordance with the statute, contractors must be required to pay wages to laborers and mechanics at a rate not less than the prevailing wages specified in a wage determination made by the Secretary of Labor. In addition, contractors must be required to pay wages not less than once a week. The non-Federal entity must place a copy of the current prevailing wage determination issued by the Department of Labor in each solicitation. The decision to award a contract or subcontract must be conditioned upon the acceptance of the wage determination. The non-Federal entity must report all suspected or reported violations to the Federal awarding agency. The contracts must also include a provision for compliance with the Copeland “Anti-Kickback” Act (40 U.S.C. 3145), as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29 CFR part 3). The Act provides that each contractor or subrecipient must be prohibited from inducing, by any means, any person employed in the construction, completion, or repair of public work, to give up any part of the compensation to which he or she is otherwise entitled. The non-Federal entity must report all suspected or reported violations to the Federal awarding agency.

E. Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 3701-3708). Where applicable, all contracts awarded by the non-Federal entity in excess of $100,000 that involve the employment of mechanics or laborers must include a provision for compliance with 40 U.S.C. 3702 and 3704, as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29 CFR part 5). Under 40 U.S.C. 3702 of the Act, each contractor must be required to compute the wages of every mechanic and laborer on the basis of a standard work week of 40 hours. Work in excess of the standard work week is permissible provided that the worker is compensated at a rate of not less than one and a half times the basic rate of pay for all hours worked in excess of 40 hours in the work week. The requirements of 40 U.S.C. 3704 are applicable to construction work and provide that no laborer or mechanic must be required to work in surroundings or under working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous or dangerous. These requirements do not apply to the purchases of supplies or materials or articles ordinarily available on the open market, or contracts for transportation or transmission of intelligence.

F. Rights to Inventions Made Under a Contract or Agreement. If the Federal award meets the definition of “funding agreement” under 37 CFR 401.2 (a) and the recipient or subrecipient wishes to enter into a contract with a small business firm or nonprofit organization regarding the substitution of parties, assignment or performance of experimental, developmental, or research work under that “funding agreement,” the recipient or subrecipient must comply with the requirements of 37 CFR part 401 and any implementing regulations issued by the awarding agency.

G. Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q.) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251-1387), as amended—Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $150,000 must contain a provision that requires the non-Federal award to agree to comply with all applicable standards, orders or regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251-1387). Violations must be reported to the Federal awarding agency and the Regional Office of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

H. Debarment and Suspension (Executive Orders 12549 and 12689)—A contract award (see 2 CFR 180.220) must not be made to parties listed on the government-wide exclusions in the System for Award Management (SAM), in accordance with the OMB guidelines at 2 CFR part 180 that implement Executive Orders 12549 (3 CFR part 1986 Comp., p. 189) and 12689 (3 CFR part 1989 Comp., p. 235), “Debarment and Suspension.” SAM Exclusions contains the names of parties debarred, suspended, or otherwise excluded by agencies, as well as parties declared ineligible under statutory or regulatory authority other than Executive Order 12549.

I. Byrd Anti-Lobbying Amendment (31 U.S.C. 1352)—Contractors that apply or bid for an award exceeding $100,000 must file the required certification. Each tier certifies to the tier above that it will not and has not used Federal appropriated funds to pay any person or organization for influencing or attempting to influence an officer or employee of any agency, a member of Congress, officer or employee of Congress, or an employee of a member of Congress in connection with obtaining any Federal contract, grant or any other award covered by 31 U.S.C. 1352. Each tier must also disclose any lobbying with non-Federal funds that takes place in connection with obtaining any Federal award. Such disclosures are forwarded from tier to tier up to the non-Federal award.

J. See §75.331 Procurement of recovered materials.

[79 FR 75889, Dec. 19, 2014, as amended at 81 FR 19044, Apr. 4, 2016]

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Appendix III to Part 75—Indirect (F&A) Costs Identification and Assignment, and Rate Determination for Institutions of Higher Education (IHEs)

A. General

This appendix provides criteria for identifying and computing indirect (or indirect (F&A)) rates at IHEs (institutions). Indirect (F&A) costs are those that are incurred for common or joint objectives and therefore cannot be identified readily and specifically with a particular sponsored project, an instructional activity, or any other institutional activity. See subsection B.1, for a discussion of the components of indirect (F&A) costs.

1. Major Functions of an Institution

Refers to instruction, organized research, other sponsored activities and other institutional activities as defined in this section:

a. Instruction means the teaching and training activities of an institution. Except for research training as provided in subsection b, this term includes all teaching and training activities, whether they are offered for credits toward a degree or certificate or on a non-credit basis, and whether they are offered through regular academic departments or separate divisions, such as a summer school division or an extension division. Also considered part of this major function are departmental research, and, where agreed to, university research.

(1) Sponsored instruction and training means specific instructional or training activity established by grant, contract, or cooperative agreement. For purposes of the cost principles, this activity may be considered a major function even though an institution's accounting treatment may include it in the instruction function.

(2) Departmental research means research, development and scholarly activities that are not organized research and, consequently, are not separately budgeted and accounted for. Departmental research, for purposes of this document, is not considered as a major function, but as a part of the instruction function of the institution.

(3) Only mandatory cost sharing or cost sharing specifically committed in the project budget must be included in the organized research base for computing the indirect (F&A) cost rate or reflected in any allocation of indirect costs. Salary costs above statutory limits are not considered cost sharing.

b. Organized research means all research and development activities of an institution that are separately budgeted and accounted for. It includes:

(1) Sponsored research means all research and development activities that are sponsored by Federal and non-Federal agencies and organizations. This term includes activities involving the training of individuals in research techniques (commonly called research training) where such activities utilize the same facilities as other research and development activities and where such activities are not included in the instruction function.

(2) University research means all research and development activities that are separately budgeted and accounted for by the institution under an internal application of institutional funds. University research, for purposes of this document, must be combined with sponsored research under the function of organized research.

c. Other sponsored activities means programs and projects financed by Federal and non-Federal agencies and organizations which involve the performance of work other than instruction and organized research. Examples of such programs and projects are health service projects and community service programs. However, when any of these activities are undertaken by the institution without outside support, they may be classified as other institutional activities.

d. Other institutional activities means all activities of an institution except for instruction, departmental research, organized research, and other sponsored activities, as defined in this section; indirect (F&A) cost activities identified in this Appendix paragraph B, Identification and assignment of indirect (F&A) costs; and specialized services facilities described in §75.468 of this part.

Examples of other institutional activities include operation of residence halls, dining halls, hospitals and clinics, student unions, intercollegiate athletics, bookstores, faculty housing, student apartments, guest houses, chapels, theaters, public museums, and other similar auxiliary enterprises. This definition also includes any other categories of activities, costs of which are “unallowable” to Federal awards, unless otherwise indicated in an award.

2. Criteria for Distribution

a. Base period. A base period for distribution of indirect (F&A) costs is the period during which the costs are incurred. The base period normally should coincide with the fiscal year established by the institution, but in any event the base period should be so selected as to avoid inequities in the distribution of costs.

b. Need for cost groupings. The overall objective of the indirect (F&A) cost allocation process is to distribute the indirect (F&A) costs described in Section B, Identification and assignment of indirect (F&A) costs, to the major functions of the institution in proportions reasonably consistent with the nature and extent of their use of the institution's resources. In order to achieve this objective, it may be necessary to provide for selective distribution by establishing separate groupings of cost within one or more of the indirect (F&A) cost categories referred to in subsection B.1. In general, the cost groupings established within a category should constitute, in each case, a pool of those items of expense that are considered to be of like nature in terms of their relative contribution to (or degree of remoteness from) the particular cost objectives to which distribution is appropriate. Cost groupings should be established considering the general guides provided in subsection c of this section. Each such pool or cost grouping should then be distributed individually to the related cost objectives, using the distribution base or method most appropriate in light of the guidelines set forth in subsection d of this section.

c. General considerations on cost groupings. The extent to which separate cost groupings and selective distribution would be appropriate at an institution is a matter of judgment to be determined on a case-by-case basis. Typical situations which may warrant the establishment of two or more separate cost groupings (based on account classification or analysis) within an indirect (F&A) cost category include but are not limited to the following:

(1) If certain items or categories of expense relate solely to one of the major functions of the institution or to less than all functions, such expenses should be set aside as a separate cost grouping for direct assignment or selective allocation in accordance with the guides provided in subsections b and d.

(2) If any types of expense ordinarily treated as general administration or departmental administration are charged to Federal awards as direct costs, expenses applicable to other activities of the institution when incurred for the same purposes in like circumstances must, through separate cost groupings, be excluded from the indirect (F&A) costs allocable to those Federal awards and included in the direct cost of other activities for cost allocation purposes.

(3) If it is determined that certain expenses are for the support of a service unit or facility whose output is susceptible of measurement on a workload or other quantitative basis, such expenses should be set aside as a separate cost grouping for distribution on such basis to organized research, instructional, and other activities at the institution or within the department.

(4) If activities provide their own purchasing, personnel administration, building maintenance or similar service, the distribution of general administration and general expenses, or operation and maintenance expenses to such activities should be accomplished through cost groupings which include only that portion of central indirect (F&A) costs (such as for overall management) which are properly allocable to such activities.

(5) If the institution elects to treat fringe benefits as indirect (F&A) charges, such costs should be set aside as a separate cost grouping for selective distribution to related cost objectives.

(6) The number of separate cost groupings within a category should be held within practical limits, after taking into consideration the materiality of the amounts involved and the degree of precision attainable through less selective methods of distribution.

d. Selection of distribution method.

(1) Actual conditions must be taken into account in selecting the method or base to be used in distributing individual cost groupings. The essential consideration in selecting a base is that it be the one best suited for assigning the pool of costs to cost objectives in accordance with benefits derived; with a traceable cause-and-effect relationship; or with logic and reason, where neither benefit nor a cause-and-effect relationship is determinable.

(2) If a cost grouping can be identified directly with the cost objective benefitted, it should be assigned to that cost objective.

(3) If the expenses in a cost grouping are more general in nature, the distribution may be based on a cost analysis study which results in an equitable distribution of the costs. Such cost analysis studies may take into consideration weighting factors, population, or space occupied if appropriate. Cost analysis studies, however, must (a) be appropriately documented in sufficient detail for subsequent review by the cognizant agency for indirect costs, (b) distribute the costs to the related cost objectives in accordance with the relative benefits derived, (c) be statistically sound, (d) be performed specifically at the institution at which the results are to be used, and (e) be reviewed periodically, but not less frequently than rate negotiations, updated if necessary, and used consistently. Any assumptions made in the study must be stated and explained. The use of cost analysis studies and periodic changes in the method of cost distribution must be fully justified.

(4) If a cost analysis study is not performed, or if the study does not result in an equitable distribution of the costs, the distribution must be made in accordance with the appropriate base cited in Section B, unless one of the following conditions is met:

(a) It can be demonstrated that the use of a different base would result in a more equitable allocation of the costs, or that a more readily available base would not increase the costs charged to Federal awards, or

(b) The institution qualifies for, and elects to use, the simplified method for computing indirect (F&A) cost rates described in Section D.

(5) Notwithstanding subsection (3), effective July 1, 1998, a cost analysis or base other than that in Section B must not be used to distribute utility or student services costs. Instead, subsections B.4.c may be used in the recovery of utility costs.

e. Order of distribution.

(1) Indirect (F&A) costs are the broad categories of costs discussed in Section B.1.

(2) Depreciation, interest expenses, operation and maintenance expenses, and general administrative and general expenses should be allocated in that order to the remaining indirect (F&A) cost categories as well as to the major functions and specialized service facilities of the institution. Other cost categories may be allocated in the order determined to be most appropriate by the institutions. When cross allocation of costs is made as provided in subsection (3), this order of allocation does not apply.

(3) Normally an indirect (F&A) cost category will be considered closed once it has been allocated to other cost objectives, and costs may not be subsequently allocated to it. However, a cross allocation of costs between two or more indirect (F&A) cost categories may be used if such allocation will result in a more equitable allocation of costs. If a cross allocation is used, an appropriate modification to the composition of the indirect (F&A) cost categories described in Section B is required.

B. Identification and Assignment of Indirect (F&A) Costs

1. Definition of Facilities and Administration

See §75.414 which provides the basis for these indirect cost requirements.

2. Depreciation

a. The expenses under this heading are the portion of the costs of the institution's buildings, capital improvements to land and buildings, and equipment which are computed in accordance with §75.436.

b. In the absence of the alternatives provided for in Section A.2.d, the expenses included in this category must be allocated in the following manner:

(1) Depreciation on buildings used exclusively in the conduct of a single function, and on capital improvements and equipment used in such buildings, must be assigned to that function.

(2) Depreciation on buildings used for more than one function, and on capital improvements and equipment used in such buildings, must be allocated to the individual functions performed in each building on the basis of usable square feet of space, excluding common areas such as hallways, stairwells, and rest rooms.

(3) Depreciation on buildings, capital improvements and equipment related to space (e.g., individual rooms, laboratories) used jointly by more than one function (as determined by the users of the space) must be treated as follows. The cost of each jointly used unit of space must be allocated to benefitting functions on the basis of:

(a) The employee full-time equivalents (FTEs) or salaries and wages of those individual functions benefitting from the use of that space; or

(b) Institution-wide employee FTEs or salaries and wages applicable to the benefitting major functions (see Section A.1) of the institution.

(4) Depreciation on certain capital improvements to land, such as paved parking areas, fences, sidewalks, and the like, not included in the cost of buildings, must be allocated to user categories of students and employees on a full-time equivalent basis. The amount allocated to the student category must be assigned to the instruction function of the institution. The amount allocated to the employee category must be further allocated to the major functions of the institution in proportion to the salaries and wages of all employees applicable to those functions.

3. Interest

Interest on debt associated with certain buildings, equipment and capital improvements, as defined in §75.449, must be classified as an expenditure under the category Facilities. These costs must be allocated in the same manner as the depreciation on the buildings, equipment and capital improvements to which the interest relates.

4. Operation and Maintenance Expenses

a. The expenses under this heading are those that have been incurred for the administration, supervision, operation, maintenance, preservation, and protection of the institution's physical plant. They include expenses normally incurred for such items as janitorial and utility services; repairs and ordinary or normal alterations of buildings, furniture and equipment; care of grounds; maintenance and operation of buildings and other plant facilities; security; earthquake and disaster preparedness; environmental safety; hazardous waste disposal; property, liability and all other insurance relating to property; space and capital leasing; facility planning and management; and central receiving. The operation and maintenance expense category should also include its allocable share of fringe benefit costs, depreciation, and interest costs.

b. In the absence of the alternatives provided for in Section A.2.d, the expenses included in this category must be allocated in the same manner as described in subsection 2.b for depreciation.

c. A utility cost adjustment of up to 1.3 percentage points may be included in the negotiated indirect cost rate of the IHE for organized research, per the computation alternatives in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section:

(1) Where space is devoted to a single function and metering allows unambiguous measurement of usage related to that space, costs must be assigned to the function located in that space.

(2) Where space is allocated to different functions and metering does not allow unambiguous measurement of usage by function, costs must be allocated as follows:

(i) Utilities costs should be apportioned to functions in the same manner as depreciation, based on the calculated difference between the site or building actual square footage for monitored research laboratory space (site, building, floor, or room), and a separate calculation prepared by the IHE using the “effective square footage” described in subsection (c)(2)(ii) of this section.

(ii) “Effective square footage” allocated to research laboratory space must be calculated as the actual square footage times the relative energy utilization index (REUI) posted on the OMB Web site at the time of a rate determination.

A. This index is the ratio of a laboratory energy use index (lab EUI) to the corresponding index for overall average college or university space (college EUI).

B. In July 2012, values for these two indices (taken respectively from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory “Labs for the 21st Century” benchmarking tool http://labs21benchmarking.lbl.gov/CompareData.php and the US Department of Energy “Buildings Energy Databook” and http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/CBECS.aspx) were 310 kBtu/sq ft-yr. and 155 kBtu/sq ft-yr., so that the adjustment ratio is 2.0 by this methodology. To retain currency, OMB will adjust the EUI numbers from time to time (no more often than annually nor less often than every 5 years), using reliable and publicly disclosed data. Current values of both the EUIs and the REUI will be posted on the OMB Web site.

5. General Administration and General Expenses

a. The expenses under this heading are those that have been incurred for the general executive and administrative offices of educational institutions and other expenses of a general character which do not relate solely to any major function of the institution; i.e., solely to (1) instruction, (2) organized research, (3) other sponsored activities, or (4) other institutional activities. The general administration and general expense category should also include its allocable share of fringe benefit costs, operation and maintenance expense, depreciation, and interest costs. Examples of general administration and general expenses include: Those expenses incurred by administrative offices that serve the entire university system of which the institution is a part; central offices of the institution such as the President's or Chancellor's office, the offices for institution-wide financial management, business services, budget and planning, personnel management, and safety and risk management; the office of the General Counsel; and the operations of the central administrative management information systems. General administration and general expenses must not include expenses incurred within non-university-wide deans' offices, academic departments, organized research units, or similar organizational units. (See subsection 6.)

b. In the absence of the alternatives provided for in Section A.2.d, the expenses included in this category must be grouped first according to common major functions of the institution to which they render services or provide benefits. The aggregate expenses of each group must then be allocated to serviced or benefitted functions on the modified total cost basis. Modified total costs consist of the same elements as those in Section C.2. When an activity included in this indirect (F&A) cost category provides a service or product to another institution or organization, an appropriate adjustment must be made to either the expenses or the basis of allocation or both, to assure a proper allocation of costs.

6. Departmental Administration Expenses

a. The expenses under this heading are those that have been incurred for administrative and supporting services that benefit common or joint departmental activities or objectives in academic deans' offices, academic departments and divisions, and organized research units. Organized research units include such units as institutes, study centers, and research centers. Departmental administration expenses are subject to the following limitations.

(1) Academic deans' offices. Salaries and operating expenses are limited to those attributable to administrative functions.

(2) Academic departments:

(a) Salaries and fringe benefits attributable to the administrative work (including bid and proposal preparation) of faculty (including department heads) and other professional personnel conducting research and/or instruction, must be allowed at a rate of 3.6 percent of modified total direct costs. This category does not include professional business or professional administrative officers. This allowance must be added to the computation of the indirect (F&A) cost rate for major functions in Section C; the expenses covered by the allowance must be excluded from the departmental administration cost pool. No documentation is required to support this allowance.

(b) Other administrative and supporting expenses incurred within academic departments are allowable provided they are treated consistently in like circumstances. This would include expenses such as the salaries of secretarial and clerical staffs, the salaries of administrative officers and assistants, travel, office supplies, stockrooms, and the like.

(3) Other fringe benefit costs applicable to the salaries and wages included in subsections (1) and (2) are allowable, as well as an appropriate share of general administration and general expenses, operation and maintenance expenses, and depreciation.

(4) Federal agencies may authorize reimbursement of additional costs for department heads and faculty only in exceptional cases where an institution can demonstrate undue hardship or detriment to project performance.

b. The following guidelines apply to the determination of departmental administrative costs as direct or indirect (F&A) costs.

(1) In developing the departmental administration cost pool, special care should be exercised to ensure that costs incurred for the same purpose in like circumstances are treated consistently as either direct or indirect (F&A) costs. For example, salaries of technical staff, laboratory supplies (e.g., chemicals), telephone toll charges, animals, animal care costs, computer costs, travel costs, and specialized shop costs must be treated as direct costs wherever identifiable to a particular cost objective. Direct charging of these costs may be accomplished through specific identification of individual costs to benefitting cost objectives, or through recharge centers or specialized service facilities, as appropriate under the circumstances. See §§75.413(c) and 75.468.

(2) Items such as office supplies, postage, local telephone costs, and memberships must normally be treated as indirect (F&A) costs.

c. In the absence of the alternatives provided for in Section A.2.d, the expenses included in this category must be allocated as follows:

(1) The administrative expenses of the dean's office of each college and school must be allocated to the academic departments within that college or school on the modified total cost basis.

(2) The administrative expenses of each academic department, and the department's share of the expenses allocated in subsection (1) must be allocated to the appropriate functions of the department on the modified total cost basis.

7. Sponsored Projects Administration

a. The expenses under this heading are limited to those incurred by a separate organization(s) established primarily to administer sponsored projects, including such functions as grant and contract administration (Federal and non-Federal), special security, purchasing, personnel, administration, and editing and publishing of research and other reports. They include the salaries and expenses of the head of such organization, assistants, and immediate staff, together with the salaries and expenses of personnel engaged in supporting activities maintained by the organization, such as stock rooms, print shops, and the like. This category also includes an allocable share of fringe benefit costs, general administration and general expenses, operation and maintenance expenses, and depreciation. Appropriate adjustments will be made for services provided to other functions or organizations.

b. In the absence of the alternatives provided for in Section A.2.d, the expenses included in this category must be allocated to the major functions of the institution under which the sponsored projects are conducted on the basis of the modified total cost of sponsored projects.

c. An appropriate adjustment must be made to eliminate any duplicate charges to Federal awards when this category includes similar or identical activities as those included in the general administration and general expense category or other indirect (F&A) cost items, such as accounting, procurement, or personnel administration.

8. Library Expenses

a. The expenses under this heading are those that have been incurred for the operation of the library, including the cost of books and library materials purchased for the library, less any items of library income that qualify as applicable credits under §75.406. The library expense category should also include the fringe benefits applicable to the salaries and wages included therein, an appropriate share of general administration and general expense, operation and maintenance expense, and depreciation. Costs incurred in the purchases of rare books (museum-type books) with no value to Federal awards should not be allocated to them.

b. In the absence of the alternatives provided for in Section A.2.d, the expenses included in this category must be allocated first on the basis of primary categories of users, including students, professional employees, and other users.

(1) The student category must consist of full-time equivalent students enrolled at the institution, regardless of whether they earn credits toward a degree or certificate.

(2) The professional employee category must consist of all faculty members and other professional employees of the institution, on a full-time equivalent basis. This category may also include post-doctorate fellows and graduate students.

(3) The other users category must consist of a reasonable factor as determined by institutional records to account for all other users of library facilities.

c. Amount allocated in paragraph b of this section must be assigned further as follows:

(1) The amount in the student category must be assigned to the instruction function of the institution.

(2) The amount in the professional employee category must be assigned to the major functions of the institution in proportion to the salaries and wages of all faculty members and other professional employees applicable to those functions.

(3) The amount in the other users category must be assigned to the other institutional activities function of the institution.

9. Student Administration and Services

a. The expenses under this heading are those that have been incurred for the administration of student affairs and for services to students, including expenses of such activities as deans of students, admissions, registrar, counseling and placement services, student advisers, student health and infirmary services, catalogs, and commencements and convocations. The salaries of members of the academic staff whose responsibilities to the institution require administrative work that benefits sponsored projects may also be included to the extent that the portion charged to student administration is determined in accordance with Subpart E of this part. This expense category also includes the fringe benefit costs applicable to the salaries and wages included therein, an appropriate share of general administration and general expenses, operation and maintenance, interest expense, and depreciation.

b. In the absence of the alternatives provided for in Section A.2.d, the expenses in this category must be allocated to the instruction function, and subsequently to Federal awards in that function.

10. Offset for Indirect (F&A) Expenses Otherwise Provided for by the Federal Government

a. The items to be accumulated under this heading are the reimbursements and other payments from the Federal Government which are made to the institution to support solely, specifically, and directly, in whole or in part, any of the administrative or service activities described in subsections 2 through 9.

b. The items in this group must be treated as a credit to the affected individual indirect (F&A) cost category before that category is allocated to benefitting functions.

C. Determination and Application of Indirect (F&A) Cost Rate or Rates

1. Indirect (F&A) Cost Pools

a. (1) Subject to subsection b, the separate categories of indirect (F&A) costs allocated to each major function of the institution as prescribed in Section B of this paragraph C.1-, must be aggregated and treated as a common pool for that function. The amount in each pool must be divided by the distribution base described in subsection 2 to arrive at a single indirect (F&A) cost rate for each function.

(2) The rate for each function is used to distribute indirect (F&A) costs to individual Federal awards of that function. Since a common pool is established for each major function of the institution, a separate indirect (F&A) cost rate would be established for each of the major functions described in Section A.1 under which Federal awards are carried out.

(3) Each institution's indirect (F&A) cost rate process must be appropriately designed to ensure that Federal sponsors do not in any way subsidize the indirect (F&A) costs of other sponsors, specifically activities sponsored by industry and foreign governments. Accordingly, each allocation method used to identify and allocate the indirect (F&A) cost pools, as described in Sections A.2, and B.2 through B.9, must contain the full amount of the institution's modified total costs or other appropriate units of measurement used to make the computations. In addition, the final rate distribution base (as defined in subsection 2) for each major function (organized research, instruction, etc., as described in Section A.1) must contain all the programs or activities which utilize the indirect (F&A) costs allocated to that major function. At the time an indirect (F&A) cost proposal is submitted to a cognizant agency for indirect costs, each institution must describe the process it uses to ensure that Federal funds are not used to subsidize industry and foreign government funded programs.

b. In some instances a single rate basis for use across the board on all work within a major function at an institution may not be appropriate. A single rate for research, for example, might not take into account those different environmental factors and other conditions which may affect substantially the indirect (F&A) costs applicable to a particular segment of research at the institution. A particular segment of research may be that performed under a single sponsored agreement or it may consist of research under a group of Federal awards performed in a common environment. The environmental factors are not limited to the physical location of the work. Other important factors are the level of the administrative support required, the nature of the facilities or other resources employed, the scientific disciplines or technical skills involved, the organizational arrangements used, or any combination thereof. If a particular segment of a sponsored agreement is performed within an environment which appears to generate a significantly different level of indirect (F&A) costs, provisions should be made for a separate indirect (F&A) cost pool applicable to such work. The separate indirect (F&A) cost pool should be developed during the regular course of the rate determination process and the separate indirect (F&A) cost rate resulting therefrom should be utilized; provided it is determined that (1) such indirect (F&A) cost rate differs significantly from that which would have been obtained under subsection a, and (2) the volume of work to which such rate would apply is material in relation to other Federal awards at the institution.

2. The Distribution Basis

Indirect (F&A) costs must be distributed to applicable Federal awards and other benefitting activities within each major function (see section A.1, Major functions of an institution) on the basis of modified total direct costs (MTDC), consisting of all salaries and wages, fringe benefits, materials and supplies, services, travel, and up to the first $25,000 of each subaward (regardless of the period covered by the subaward). MTDC is defined in §75.2. For this purpose, an indirect (F&A) cost rate should be determined for each of the separate indirect (F&A) cost pools developed pursuant to subsection 1. The rate in each case should be stated as the percentage which the amount of the particular indirect (F&A) cost pool is of the modified total direct costs identified with such pool.

3. Negotiated Lump Sum for Indirect (F&A) Costs

A negotiated fixed amount in lieu of indirect (F&A) costs may be appropriate for self-contained, off-campus, or primarily subcontracted activities where the benefits derived from an institution's indirect (F&A) services cannot be readily determined. Such negotiated indirect (F&A) costs will be treated as an offset before allocation to instruction, organized research, other sponsored activities, and other institutional activities. The base on which such remaining expenses are allocated should be appropriately adjusted.

4. Predetermined Rates for Indirect (F&A) Costs

Public Law 87-638 (76 Stat. 437) as amended (41 U.S.C. 4708) authorizes the use of predetermined rates in determining the “indirect costs” (indirect (F&A) costs) applicable under research agreements with educational institutions. The stated objectives of the law are to simplify the administration of cost-type research and development contracts (including grants) with educational institutions, to facilitate the preparation of their budgets, and to permit more expeditious closeout of such contracts when the work is completed. In view of the potential advantages offered by this procedure, negotiation of predetermined rates for indirect (F&A) costs for a period of two to four years should be the norm in those situations where the cost experience and other pertinent facts available are deemed sufficient to enable the parties involved to reach an informed judgment as to the probable level of indirect (F&A) costs during the ensuing accounting periods.

5. Negotiated Fixed Rates and Carry-Forward Provisions

When a fixed rate is negotiated in advance for a fiscal year (or other time period), the over- or under-recovery for that year may be included as an adjustment to the indirect (F&A) cost for the next rate negotiation. When the rate is negotiated before the carry-forward adjustment is determined, the carry-forward amount may be applied to the next subsequent rate negotiation. When such adjustments are to be made, each fixed rate negotiated in advance for a given period will be computed by applying the expected indirect (F&A) costs allocable to Federal awards for the forecast period plus or minus the carry-forward adjustment (over- or under-recovery) from the prior period, to the forecast distribution base. Unrecovered amounts under lump-sum agreements or cost-sharing provisions of prior years must not be carried forward for consideration in the new rate negotiation. There must, however, be an advance understanding in each case between the institution and the cognizant agency for indirect costs as to whether these differences will be considered in the rate negotiation rather than making the determination after the differences are known. Further, institutions electing to use this carry-forward provision may not subsequently change without prior approval of the cognizant agency for indirect costs. In the event that an institution returns to a post-determined rate, any over- or under-recovery during the period in which negotiated fixed rates and carry-forward provisions were followed will be included in the subsequent post-determined rates. Where multiple rates are used, the same procedure will be applicable for determining each rate.

6. Provisional and Final Rates for Indirect (F&A) Costs

Where the cognizant agency for indirect costs determines that cost experience and other pertinent facts do not justify the use of predetermined rates, or a fixed rate with a carry-forward, or if the parties cannot agree on an equitable rate, a provisional rate must be established. To prevent substantial overpayment or underpayment, the provisional rate may be adjusted by the cognizant agency for indirect costs during the institution's fiscal year. Predetermined or fixed rates may replace provisional rates at any time prior to the close of the institution's fiscal year. If a provisional rate is not replaced by a predetermined or fixed rate prior to the end of the institution's fiscal year, a final rate will be established and upward or downward adjustments will be made based on the actual allowable costs incurred for the period involved.

7. Fixed Rates for the Life of the Sponsored Agreement

a. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(1) of §75.414 Federal agencies must use the negotiated rates for indirect (F&A) costs in effect at the time of the initial award throughout the life of the Federal award. Award levels for Federal awards may not be adjusted in future years as a result of changes in negotiated rates. “Negotiated rates” per the rate agreement include final, fixed, and predetermined rates and exclude provisional rates. “Life” for the purpose of this subsection means each competitive segment of a project. A competitive segment is a period of years approved by the Federal awarding agency at the time of the Federal award. If negotiated rate agreements do not extend through the life of the Federal award at the time of the initial award, then the negotiated rate for the last year of the Federal award must be extended through the end of the life of the Federal award.

b. Except as provided in §75.414, when an educational institution does not have a negotiated rate with the Federal Government at the time of an award (because the educational institution is a new recipient or the parties cannot reach agreement on a rate), the provisional rate used at the time of the award must be adjusted once a rate is negotiated and approved by the cognizant agency for indirect costs.

8. Limitation on Reimbursement of Administrative Costs

a. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection C.1.a, the administrative costs charged to Federal awards awarded or amended (including continuation and renewal awards) with effective dates beginning on or after the start of the institution's first fiscal year which begins on or after October 1, 1991, must be limited to 26% of modified total direct costs (as defined in subsection 2) for the total of General Administration and General Expenses, Departmental Administration, Sponsored Projects Administration, and Student Administration and Services (including their allocable share of depreciation, interest costs, operation and maintenance expenses, and fringe benefits costs, as provided by Section B, Identification and assignment of indirect (F&A) costs, and all other types of expenditures not listed specifically under one of the subcategories of facilities in Section B.

b. Institutions should not change their accounting or cost allocation methods if the effect is to change the charging of a particular type of cost from F&A to direct, or to reclassify costs, or increase allocations from the administrative pools identified in paragraph B.1 of this Appendix to the other F&A cost pools or fringe benefits. Cognizant agencies for indirect cost are authorized to allow changes where an institution's charging practices are at variance with acceptable practices followed by a substantial majority of other institutions.

9. Alternative Method for Administrative Costs

a. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection C.1.a, an institution may elect to claim a fixed allowance for the “Administration” portion of indirect (F&A) costs. The allowance could be either 24% of modified total direct costs or a percentage equal to 95% of the most recently negotiated fixed or predetermined rate for the cost pools included under “Administration” as defined in Section B.1, whichever is less. Under this alternative, no cost proposal need be prepared for the “Administration” portion of the indirect (F&A) cost rate nor is further identification or documentation of these costs required (see subsection c). Where a negotiated indirect (F&A) cost agreement includes this alternative, an institution must make no further charges for the expenditure categories described in Section B.5, Section B.6, Section B.7, and Section B.9.

b. In negotiations of rates for subsequent periods, an institution that has elected the option of subsection a may continue to exercise it at the same rate without further identification or documentation of costs.

c. If an institution elects to accept a threshold rate as defined in subsection a of this section, it is not required to perform a detailed analysis of its administrative costs. However, in order to compute the facilities components of its indirect (F&A) cost rate, the institution must reconcile its indirect (F&A) cost proposal to its financial statements and make appropriate adjustments and reclassifications to identify the costs of each major function as defined in Section A.1, as well as to identify and allocate the facilities components. Administrative costs that are not identified as such by the institution's accounting system (such as those incurred in academic departments) will be classified as instructional costs for purposes of reconciling indirect (F&A) cost proposals to financial statements and allocating facilities costs.

10. Individual Rate Components

In order to provide mutually agreed-upon information for management purposes, each indirect (F&A) cost rate negotiation or determination must include development of a rate for each indirect (F&A) cost pool as well as the overall indirect (F&A) cost rate.

11. Negotiation and Approval of Indirect (F&A) Rate

a. Cognizant agency for indirect costs is defined in §75.2.

(1) Cost negotiation cognizance is assigned to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) or the Department of Defense's Office of Naval Research (DOD), normally depending on which of the two agencies (HHS or DOD) provides more funds to the educational institution for the most recent three years. Information on funding must be derived from relevant data gathered by the National Science Foundation. In cases where neither HHS nor DOD provides Federal funding to an educational institution, the cognizant agency for indirect costs assignment must default to HHS. Notwithstanding the method for cognizance determination described in this section, other arrangements for cognizance of a particular educational institution may also be based in part on the types of research performed at the educational institution and must be decided based on mutual agreement between HHS and DOD. Where a non-Federal entity only receives funds as a subrecipient, see the requirements of §75.352.

(2) After cognizance is established, it must continue for a five-year period.

b. Acceptance of rates. See §75.414.

c. Correcting deficiencies. The cognizant agency for indirect costs must negotiate changes needed to correct systems deficiencies relating to accountability for Federal awards. Cognizant agencies for indirect costs must address the concerns of other affected agencies, as appropriate, and must negotiate special rates for Federal agencies that are required to limit recovery of indirect costs by statute.

d. Resolving questioned costs. The cognizant agency for indirect costs must conduct any necessary negotiations with an educational institution regarding amounts questioned by audit that are due the Federal Government related to costs covered by a negotiated agreement.

e. Reimbursement. Reimbursement to cognizant agencies for indirect costs for work performed under this Part may be made by reimbursement billing under the Economy Act, 31 U.S.C. 1535.

f. Procedure for establishing facilities and administrative rates must be established by one of the following methods:

(1) Formal negotiation. The cognizant agency for indirect costs is responsible for negotiating and approving rates for an educational institution on behalf of all Federal agencies. Federal awarding agencies that do not have cognizance for indirect costs must notify the cognizant agency for indirect costs of specific concerns (i.e., a need to establish special cost rates) which could affect the negotiation process. The cognizant agency for indirect costs must address the concerns of all interested agencies, as appropriate. A pre-negotiation conference may be scheduled among all interested agencies, if necessary. The cognizant agency for indirect costs must then arrange a negotiation conference with the educational institution.

(2) Other than formal negotiation. The cognizant agency for indirect costs and educational institution may reach an agreement on rates without a formal negotiation conference; for example, through correspondence or use of the simplified method described in this section D of this Appendix.

g. Formalizing determinations and agreements. The cognizant agency for indirect costs must formalize all determinations or agreements reached with an educational institution and provide copies to other agencies having an interest. Determinations should include a description of any adjustments, the actual amount, both dollar and percentage adjusted, and the reason for making adjustments.

h. Disputes and disagreements. Where the cognizant agency for indirect costs is unable to reach agreement with an educational institution with regard to rates or audit resolution, the appeal system of the cognizant agency for indirect costs must be followed for resolution of the disagreement.

12. Standard Format for Submission

For facilities and administrative (indirect (F&A)) rate proposals, educational institutions must use the standard format, shown in section E of this appendix, to submit their indirect (F&A) rate proposal to the cognizant agency for indirect costs. The cognizant agency for indirect costs may, on an institution-by-institution basis, grant exceptions from all or portions of Part II of the standard format requirement. This requirement does not apply to educational institutions that use the simplified method for calculating indirect (F&A) rates, as described in Section D of this Appendix.

As provided in section C.10, each F&A cost rate negotiation or determination must include development of a rate for each F&A cost pool as well as the overall F&A rate.

D. Simplified Method for Small Institutions

1. General

a. Where the total direct cost of work covered by this part 75 at an institution does not exceed $10 million in a fiscal year, the simplified procedure described in subsections 2 or 3 may be used in determining allowable indirect (F&A) costs. Under this simplified procedure, the institution's most recent annual financial report and immediately available supporting information must be utilized as a basis for determining the indirect (F&A) cost rate applicable to all Federal awards. The institution may use either the salaries and wages (see subsection 2) or modified total direct costs (see subsection 3) as the distribution basis.

b. The simplified procedure should not be used where it produces results which appear inequitable to the Federal Government or the institution. In any such case, indirect (F&A) costs should be determined through use of the regular procedure.

2. Simplified Procedure—Salaries and Wages Base

a. Establish the total amount of salaries and wages paid to all employees of the institution.

b. Establish an indirect (F&A) cost pool consisting of the expenditures (exclusive of capital items and other costs specifically identified as unallowable) which customarily are classified under the following titles or their equivalents:

(1) General administration and general expenses (exclusive of costs of student administration and services, student activities, student aid, and scholarships).

(2) Operation and maintenance of physical plant and depreciation (after appropriate adjustment for costs applicable to other institutional activities).

(3) Library.

(4) Department administration expenses, which will be computed as 20 percent of the salaries and expenses of deans and heads of departments.

In those cases where expenditures classified under subsection (1) have previously been allocated to other institutional activities, they may be included in the indirect (F&A) cost pool. The total amount of salaries and wages included in the indirect (F&A) cost pool must be separately identified.

c. Establish a salary and wage distribution base, determined by deducting from the total of salaries and wages as established in subsection a. from the amount of salaries and wages included under subsection b.

d. Establish the indirect (F&A) cost rate, determined by dividing the amount in the indirect (F&A) cost pool, subsection b, by the amount of the distribution base, subsection c.

e. Apply the indirect (F&A) cost rate to direct salaries and wages for individual agreements to determine the amount of indirect (F&A) costs allocable to such agreements.

3. Simplified Procedure—Modified Total Direct Cost Base

a. Establish the total costs incurred by the institution for the base period.

b. Establish an indirect (F&A) cost pool consisting of the expenditures (exclusive of capital items and other costs specifically identified as unallowable) which customarily are classified under the following titles or their equivalents:

(1) General administration and general expenses (exclusive of costs of student administration and services, student activities, student aid, and scholarships).

(2) Operation and maintenance of physical plant and depreciation (after appropriate adjustment for costs applicable to other institutional activities).

(3) Library.

(4) Department administration expenses, which will be computed as 20 percent of the salaries and expenses of deans and heads of departments. In those cases where expenditures classified under subsection (1) have previously been allocated to other institutional activities, they may be included in the indirect (F&A) cost pool. The modified total direct costs amount included in the indirect (F&A) cost pool must be separately identified.

c. Establish a modified total direct cost distribution base, as defined in Section C.2, that consists of all institution's direct functions.

d. Establish the indirect (F&A) cost rate, determined by dividing the amount in the indirect (F&A) cost pool, subsection b, by the amount of the distribution base, subsection c.

e. Apply the indirect (F&A) cost rate to the modified total direct costs for individual agreements to determine the amount of indirect (F&A) costs allocable to such agreements.

E. Documentation Requirements

The standard format for documentation requirements for indirect (indirect (F&A)) rate proposals for claiming costs under the regular method is available on the OMB Web site here: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/grants__forms.

F. Certification

1. Certification of Charges

To assure that expenditures for Federal awards are proper and in accordance with the agreement documents and approved project budgets, the annual and/or final fiscal reports or vouchers requesting payment under the agreements will include a certification, signed by an authorized official of the university, which reads “By signing this report, I certify to the best of my knowledge and belief that the report is true, complete, and accurate, and the expenditures, disbursements and cash receipts are for the purposes and intent set forth in the award documents. I am aware that any false, fictitious, or fraudulent information, or the omission of any material fact, may subject me to criminal, civil or administrative penalties for fraud, false statements, false claims or otherwise. (U.S. Code, Title 18, Section 1001 and Title 31, Sections 3729-3733 and 3801-3812)”.

2. Certification of Indirect (F&A) Costs

a. Policy. Cognizant agencies must not accept a proposed indirect cost rate unless such costs have been certified by the educational institution using the Certificate of indirect (F&A) Costs set forth in subsection F.2.c

b. The certificate must be signed on behalf of the institution by the chief financial officer or an individual designated by an individual at a level no lower than vice president or chief financial officer.

An indirect (F&A) cost rate is not binding upon the Federal Government if the most recent required proposal from the institution has not been certified. Where it is necessary to establish indirect (F&A) cost rates, and the institution has not submitted a certified proposal for establishing such rates in accordance with the requirements of this section, the Federal Government must unilaterally establish such rates. Such rates may be based upon audited historical data or such other data that have been furnished to the cognizant agency for indirect costs and for which it can be demonstrated that all unallowable costs have been excluded. When indirect (F&A) cost rates are unilaterally established by the Federal Government because of failure of the institution to submit a certified proposal for establishing such rates in accordance with this section, the rates established will be set at a level low enough to ensure that potentially unallowable costs will not be reimbursed.

c. Certificate. The certificate required by this section must be in the following form:

Certificate of Indirect (F&A) Costs

This is to certify that to the best of my knowledge and belief:

(1) I have reviewed the indirect (F&A) cost proposal submitted herewith;

(2) All costs included in this proposal [identify date] to establish billing or final indirect (F&A) costs rate for [identify period covered by rate] are allowable in accordance with the requirements of the Federal agreement(s) to which they apply and with the cost principles applicable to those agreements.

(3) This proposal does not include any costs which are unallowable under applicable cost principles such as (without limitation): public relations costs, contributions and donations, entertainment costs, fines and penalties, lobbying costs, and defense of fraud proceedings; and

(4) All costs included in this proposal are properly allocable to Federal agreements on the basis of a beneficial or causal relationship between the expenses incurred and the agreements to which they are allocated in accordance with applicable requirements.

I declare that the foregoing is true and correct.

Institution of Higher Education:

Signature:

Name of Official:

Title:

Date of Execution:

[79 FR 75889, Dec. 19, 2014, as amended at 81 FR 3018, Jan. 20, 2016]

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Appendix IV to Part 75—Indirect (F&A) Costs Identification and Assignment, and Rate Determination for Nonprofit Organizations

A. General

1. Indirect costs are those that have been incurred for common or joint objectives and cannot be readily identified with a particular final cost objective. Direct cost of minor amounts may be treated as indirect costs under the conditions described in §75.413(d). After direct costs have been determined and assigned directly to awards or other work as appropriate, indirect costs are those remaining to be allocated to benefitting cost objectives. A cost may not be allocated to a Federal award as an indirect cost if any other cost incurred for the same purpose, in like circumstances, has been assigned to a Federal award as a direct cost.

2. “Major nonprofit organizations” are defined in §75.414(a). See indirect cost rate reporting requirements in sections B.2.e and B.3.g. of this appendix.

B. Allocation of Indirect Costs and Determination of Indirect Cost Rates

1. General

a. If a nonprofit organization has only one major function, or where all its major functions benefit from its indirect costs to approximately the same degree, the allocation of indirect costs and the computation of an indirect cost rate may be accomplished through simplified allocation procedures, as described in section B.2 of this Appendix.

b. If an organization has several major functions which benefit from its indirect costs in varying degrees, allocation of indirect costs may require the accumulation of such costs into separate cost groupings which then are allocated individually to benefitting functions by means of a base which best measures the relative degree of benefit. The indirect costs allocated to each function are then distributed to individual Federal awards and other activities included in that function by means of an indirect cost rate(s).

c. The determination of what constitutes an organization's major functions will depend on its purpose in being; the types of services it renders to the public, its clients, and its members; and the amount of effort it devotes to such activities as fundraising, public information and membership activities.

d. Specific methods for allocating indirect costs and computing indirect cost rates along with the conditions under which each method should be used are described in section B.2 through B.5 of this Appendix.

e. The base period for the allocation of indirect costs is the period in which such costs are incurred and accumulated for allocation to work performed in that period. The base period normally should coincide with the organization's fiscal year but, in any event, must be so selected as to avoid inequities in the allocation of the costs.

2. Simplified Allocation Method

a. Where an organization's major functions benefit from its indirect costs to approximately the same degree, the allocation of indirect costs may be accomplished by (i) separating the organization's total costs for the base period as either direct or indirect, and (ii) dividing the total allowable indirect costs (net of applicable credits) by an equitable distribution base. The result of this process is an indirect cost rate which is used to distribute indirect costs to individual Federal awards. The rate should be expressed as the percentage which the total amount of allowable indirect costs bears to the base selected. This method should also be used where an organization has only one major function encompassing a number of individual projects or activities, and may be used where the level of Federal awards to an organization is relatively small.

b. Both the direct costs and the indirect costs must exclude capital expenditures and unallowable costs. However, unallowable costs which represent activities must be included in the direct costs under the conditions described in §75.413(e).

c. The distribution base may be total direct costs (excluding capital expenditures and other distorting items, such as subawards for $25,000 or more), direct salaries and wages, or other base which results in an equitable distribution. The distribution base must exclude participant support costs as defined in §75.2.

d. Except where a special rate(s) is required in accordance with section B.5 of this Appendix, the indirect cost rate developed under the above principles is applicable to all Federal awards of the organization. If a special rate(s) is required, appropriate modifications must be made in order to develop the special rate(s).

e. For an organization that receives more than $10 million in direct Federal funding in a fiscal year, a breakout of the indirect cost component into two broad categories, Facilities and Administration as defined in §75.414(a), is required. The rate in each case must be stated as the percentage which the amount of the particular indirect cost category (i.e., Facilities or Administration) is of the distribution base identified with that category.

3. Multiple Allocation Base Method

a. General. Where an organization's indirect costs benefit its major functions in varying degrees, indirect costs must be accumulated into separate cost groupings, as described in subparagraph b. Each grouping must then be allocated individually to benefitting functions by means of a base which best measures the relative benefits. The default allocation bases by cost pool are described in section B.3.c of this Appendix.

b. Identification of indirect costs. Cost groupings must be established so as to permit the allocation of each grouping on the basis of benefits provided to the major functions. Each grouping must constitute a pool of expenses that are of like character in terms of functions they benefit and in terms of the allocation base which best measures the relative benefits provided to each function. The groupings are classified within the two broad categories: “Facilities” and “Administration,” as described in section A.3 of this Appendix. The indirect cost pools are defined as follows:

(1) Depreciation. The expenses under this heading are the portion of the costs of the organization's buildings, capital improvements to land and buildings, and equipment which are computed in accordance with §75.436 .

(2) Interest. Interest on debt associated with certain buildings, equipment and capital improvements are computed in accordance with §75.449.

(3) Operation and maintenance expenses. The expenses under this heading are those that have been incurred for the administration, operation, maintenance, preservation, and protection of the organization's physical plant. They include expenses normally incurred for such items as: janitorial and utility services; repairs and ordinary or normal alterations of buildings, furniture and equipment; care of grounds; maintenance and operation of buildings and other plant facilities; security; earthquake and disaster preparedness; environmental safety; hazardous waste disposal; property, liability and other insurance relating to property; space and capital leasing; facility planning and management; and central receiving. The operation and maintenance expenses category must also include its allocable share of fringe benefit costs, depreciation, and interest costs.

(4) General administration and general expenses. The expenses under this heading are those that have been incurred for the overall general executive and administrative offices of the organization and other expenses of a general nature which do not relate solely to any major function of the organization. This category must also include its allocable share of fringe benefit costs, operation and maintenance expense, depreciation, and interest costs. Examples of this category include central offices, such as the director's office, the office of finance, business services, budget and planning, personnel, safety and risk management, general counsel, management information systems, and library costs.

In developing this cost pool, special care should be exercised to ensure that costs incurred for the same purpose in like circumstances are treated consistently as either direct or indirect costs. For example, salaries of technical staff, project supplies, project publication, telephone toll charges, computer costs, travel costs, and specialized services costs must be treated as direct costs wherever identifiable to a particular program. The salaries and wages of administrative and pooled clerical staff should normally be treated as indirect costs. Direct charging of these costs may be appropriate as described in §75.413. Items such as office supplies, postage, local telephone costs, periodicals and memberships should normally be treated as indirect costs.

c. Allocation bases. Actual conditions must be taken into account in selecting the base to be used in allocating the expenses in each grouping to benefitting functions. The essential consideration in selecting a method or a base is that it is the one best suited for assigning the pool of costs to cost objectives in accordance with benefits derived; a traceable cause and effect relationship; or logic and reason, where neither the cause nor the effect of the relationship is determinable. When an allocation can be made by assignment of a cost grouping directly to the function benefitted, the allocation must be made in that manner. When the expenses in a cost grouping are more general in nature, the allocation must be made through the use of a selected base which produces results that are equitable to both the Federal Government and the organization. The distribution must be made in accordance with the bases described herein unless it can be demonstrated that the use of a different base would result in a more equitable allocation of the costs, or that a more readily available base would not increase the costs charged to Federal awards. The results of special cost studies (such as an engineering utility study) must not be used to determine and allocate the indirect costs to Federal awards.

(1) Depreciation. Depreciation expenses must be allocated in the following manner:

(a) Depreciation on buildings used exclusively in the conduct of a single function, and on capital improvements and equipment used in such buildings, must be assigned to that function.

(b) Depreciation on buildings used for more than one function, and on capital improvements and equipment used in such buildings, must be allocated to the individual functions performed in each building on the basis of usable square feet of space, excluding common areas, such as hallways, stairwells, and restrooms.

(c) Depreciation on buildings, capital improvements and equipment related space (e.g., individual rooms, and laboratories) used jointly by more than one function (as determined by the users of the space) must be treated as follows. The cost of each jointly used unit of space must be allocated to the benefitting functions on the basis of:

(i) the employees and other users on a full-time equivalent (FTE) basis or salaries and wages of those individual functions benefitting from the use of that space; or

(ii) organization-wide employee FTEs or salaries and wages applicable to the benefitting functions of the organization.

(d) Depreciation on certain capital improvements to land, such as paved parking areas, fences, sidewalks, and the like, not included in the cost of buildings, must be allocated to user categories on a FTE basis and distributed to major functions in proportion to the salaries and wages of all employees applicable to the functions.

(2) Interest. Interest costs must be allocated in the same manner as the depreciation on the buildings, equipment and capital equipment to which the interest relates.

(3) Operation and maintenance expenses. Operation and maintenance expenses must be allocated in the same manner as the depreciation.

(4) General administration and general expenses. General administration and general expenses must be allocated to benefitting functions based on modified total costs (MTC). The MTC is the modified total direct costs (MTDC), as described in §75.2, plus the allocated indirect cost proportion. The expenses included in this category could be grouped first according to major functions of the organization to which they render services or provide benefits. The aggregate expenses of each group must then be allocated to benefitting functions based on MTC.

d. Order of distribution.

(1) Indirect cost categories consisting of depreciation, interest, operation and maintenance, and general administration and general expenses must be allocated in that order to the remaining indirect cost categories as well as to the major functions of the organization. Other cost categories should be allocated in the order determined to be most appropriate by the organization. This order of allocation does not apply if cross allocation of costs is made as provided in section B.3.d.2 of this Appendix.

(2) Normally, an indirect cost category will be considered closed once it has been allocated to other cost objectives, and costs must not be subsequently allocated to it. However, a cross allocation of costs between two or more indirect costs categories could be used if such allocation will result in a more equitable allocation of costs. If a cross allocation is used, an appropriate modification to the composition of the indirect cost categories is required.

e. Application of indirect cost rate or rates. Except where a special indirect cost rate(s) is required in accordance with section B.5 of this Appendix, the separate groupings of indirect costs allocated to each major function must be aggregated and treated as a common pool for that function. The costs in the common pool must then be distributed to individual Federal awards included in that function by use of a single indirect cost rate.

f. Distribution basis. Indirect costs must be distributed to applicable Federal awards and other benefitting activities within each major function on the basis of MTDC (see definition in §75.2).

g. Individual Rate Components. An indirect cost rate must be determined for each separate indirect cost pool developed. The rate in each case must be stated as the percentage which the amount of the particular indirect cost pool is of the distribution base identified with that pool. Each indirect cost rate negotiation or determination agreement must include development of the rate for each indirect cost pool as well as the overall indirect cost rate. The indirect cost pools must be classified within two broad categories: “Facilities” and “Administration,” as described in §75.414(a).

4. Direct Allocation Method

a. Some nonprofit organizations treat all costs as direct costs except general administration and general expenses. These organizations generally separate their costs into three basic categories: (i) General administration and general expenses, (ii) fundraising, and (iii) other direct functions (including projects performed under Federal awards). Joint costs, such as depreciation, rental costs, operation and maintenance of facilities, telephone expenses, and the like are prorated individually as direct costs to each category and to each Federal award or other activity using a base most appropriate to the particular cost being prorated.

b. This method is acceptable, provided each joint cost is prorated using a base which accurately measures the benefits provided to each Federal award or other activity. The bases must be established in accordance with reasonable criteria, and be supported by current data. This method is compatible with the Standards of Accounting and Financial Reporting for Voluntary Health and Welfare Organizations issued jointly by the National Health Council, Inc., the National Assembly of Voluntary Health and Social Welfare Organizations, and the United Way of America.

c. Under this method, indirect costs consist exclusively of general administration and general expenses. In all other respects, the organization's indirect cost rates must be computed in the same manner as that described in section B.2 of this Appendix.

5. Special Indirect Cost Rates

In some instances, a single indirect cost rate for all activities of an organization or for each major function of the organization may not be appropriate, since it would not take into account those different factors which may substantially affect the indirect costs applicable to a particular segment of work. For this purpose, a particular segment of work may be that performed under a single Federal award or it may consist of work under a group of Federal awards performed in a common environment. These factors may include the physical location of the work, the level of administrative support required, the nature of the facilities or other resources employed, the scientific disciplines or technical skills involved, the organizational arrangements used, or any combination thereof. When a particular segment of work is performed in an environment which appears to generate a significantly different level of indirect costs, provisions should be made for a separate indirect cost pool applicable to such work. The separate indirect cost pool should be developed during the course of the regular allocation process, and the separate indirect cost rate resulting therefrom should be used, provided it is determined that (i) the rate differs significantly from that which would have been obtained under sections B.2, B.3, and B.4 of this Appendix, and (ii) the volume of work to which the rate would apply is material.

C. Negotiation and Approval of Indirect Cost Rates

1. Definitions

As used in this section, the following terms have the meanings set forth in this section:

a. Cognizant agency for indirect costs means the Federal agency responsible for negotiating and approving indirect cost rates for a nonprofit organization on behalf of all Federal agencies.

b. Predetermined rate means an indirect cost rate, applicable to a specified current or future period, usually the organization's fiscal year. The rate is based on an estimate of the costs to be incurred during the period. A predetermined rate is not subject to adjustment.

c. Fixed rate means an indirect cost rate which has the same characteristics as a predetermined rate, except that the difference between the estimated costs and the actual costs of the period covered by the rate is carried forward as an adjustment to the rate computation of a subsequent period.

d. Final rate means an indirect cost rate applicable to a specified past period which is based on the actual costs of the period. A final rate is not subject to adjustment.

e. Provisional rate or billing rate means a temporary indirect cost rate applicable to a specified period which is used for funding, interim reimbursement, and reporting indirect costs on Federal awards pending the establishment of a final rate for the period.

f. Indirect cost proposal means the documentation prepared by an organization to substantiate its claim for the reimbursement of indirect costs. This proposal provides the basis for the review and negotiation leading to the establishment of an organization's indirect cost rate.

g. Cost objective means a function, organizational subdivision, contract, Federal award, or other work unit for which cost data are desired and for which provision is made to accumulate and measure the cost of processes, projects, jobs and capitalized projects.

2. Negotiation and Approval of Rates

a. Unless different arrangements are agreed to by the Federal agencies concerned, the Federal agency with the largest dollar value of Federal awards with an organization will be designated as the cognizant agency for indirect costs for the negotiation and approval of the indirect cost rates and, where necessary, other rates such as fringe benefit and computer charge-out rates. Once an agency is assigned cognizance for a particular nonprofit organization, the assignment will not be changed unless there is a shift in the dollar volume of the Federal awards to the organization for at least three years. All concerned Federal agencies must be given the opportunity to participate in the negotiation process but, after a rate has been agreed upon, it will be accepted by all Federal agencies. When a Federal agency has reason to believe that special operating factors affecting its Federal awards necessitate special indirect cost rates in accordance with section B.5 of this Appendix, it will, prior to the time the rates are negotiated, notify the cognizant agency for indirect costs. (See also §75.414.) Where a non-Federal entity only receives funds as a subrecipient, see the requirements of §75.352.

b. Except as otherwise provided in §75.414(f), a nonprofit organization which has not previously established an indirect cost rate with a Federal agency must submit its initial indirect cost proposal immediately after the organization is advised that a Federal award will be made and, in no event, later than three months after the effective date of the Federal award.

c. Unless approved by the cognizant agency for indirect costs in accordance with §75.414(g), organizations that have previously established indirect cost rates must submit a new indirect cost proposal to the cognizant agency for indirect costs within six months after the close of each fiscal year.

d. A predetermined rate may be negotiated for use on Federal awards where there is reasonable assurance, based on past experience and reliable projection of the organization's costs, that the rate is not likely to exceed a rate based on the organization's actual costs.

e. Fixed rates may be negotiated where predetermined rates are not considered appropriate. A fixed rate, however, must not be negotiated if (i) all or a substantial portion of the organization's Federal awards are expected to expire before the carry-forward adjustment can be made; (ii) the mix of Federal and non-Federal work at the organization is too erratic to permit an equitable carry-forward adjustment; or (iii) the organization's operations fluctuate significantly from year to year.

f. Provisional and final rates must be negotiated where neither predetermined nor fixed rates are appropriate. Predetermined or fixed rates may replace provisional rates at any time prior to the close of the organization's fiscal year. If that event does not occur, a final rate will be established and upward or downward adjustments will be made based on the actual allowable costs incurred for the period involved.

g. The results of each negotiation must be formalized in a written agreement between the cognizant agency for indirect costs and the nonprofit organization. The cognizant agency for indirect costs must make available copies of the agreement to all concerned Federal agencies.

h. If a dispute arises in a negotiation of an indirect cost rate between the cognizant agency for indirect costs and the nonprofit organization, the dispute must be resolved in accordance with the appeals procedures of the cognizant agency for indirect costs.

i. To the extent that problems are encountered among the Federal agencies in connection with the negotiation and approval process, OMB will lend assistance as required to resolve such problems in a timely manner.

D. Certification of Indirect (F&A) Costs

1. Required Certification. No proposal to establish indirect (F&A) cost rates must be acceptable unless such costs have been certified by the non-profit organization using the Certificate of Indirect (F&A) Costs set forth in subsection 2., below. The certificate must be signed on behalf of the organization by an individual at a level no lower than vice president or chief financial officer for the organization.

2. Each indirect cost rate proposal must be accompanied by a certification in the following form:

Certificate of Indirect (F&A) Costs

This is to certify that to the best of my knowledge and belief:

(1) I have reviewed the indirect (F&A) cost proposal submitted herewith;

(2) All costs included in this proposal [identify date] to establish billing or final indirect (F&A) costs rate for [identify period covered by rate] are allowable in accordance with the requirements of the Federal awards to which they apply and with Subpart E of part 75.

(3) This proposal does not include any costs which are unallowable under Subpart E of part 75 such as (without limitation): public relations costs, contributions and donations, entertainment costs, fines and penalties, lobbying costs, and defense of fraud proceedings; and

(4) All costs included in this proposal are properly allocable to Federal awards on the basis of a beneficial or causal relationship between the expenses incurred and the Federal awards to which they are allocated in accordance with applicable requirements.

I declare that the foregoing is true and correct.

Nonprofit Organization:

Signature:

Name of Official:

Title:

Date of Execution:

[79 FR 75889, Dec. 19, 2014, as amended at 81 FR 3018, Jan. 20, 2016]

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Appendix V to Part 75—State/Local Governmentwide Central Service Cost Allocation Plans

A. General

1. Most governmental units provide certain services, such as motor pools, computer centers, purchasing, accounting, etc., to operating agencies on a centralized basis. Since federally-supported awards are performed within the individual operating agencies, there needs to be a process whereby these central service costs can be identified and assigned to benefitted activities on a reasonable and consistent basis. The central service cost allocation plan provides that process. All costs and other data used to distribute the costs included in the plan should be supported by formal accounting and other records that will support the propriety of the costs assigned to Federal awards.

2. Guidelines and illustrations of central service cost allocation plans are provided in a brochure published by the Department of Health and Human Services entitled “A Guide for State, Local and Indian Tribal Governments: Cost Principles and Procedures for Developing Cost Allocation Plans and Indirect Cost Rates for Agreements with the Federal Government.” A copy of this brochure may be obtained from the HHS' Cost Allocation Services or at their Web site at https://rates.psc.gov.

B. Definitions

1. Agency or operating agency means an organizational unit or sub-division within a governmental unit that is responsible for the performance or administration of Federal awards or activities of the governmental unit.

2. Allocated central services means central services that benefit operating agencies but are not billed to the agencies on a fee-for-service or similar basis. These costs are allocated to benefitted agencies on some reasonable basis. Examples of such services might include general accounting, personnel administration, purchasing, etc.

3. Billed central services means central services that are billed to benefitted agencies or programs on an individual fee-for-service or similar basis. Typical examples of billed central services include computer services, transportation services, insurance, and fringe benefits.

4. Cognizant agency for indirect costs is defined in §75.2. The determination of cognizant agency for indirect costs for states and local governments is described in section F.1.

5. Major local government means local government that receives more than $100 million in direct Federal awards subject to this part.

C. Scope of the Central Service Cost Allocation Plans

The central service cost allocation plan will include all central service costs that will be claimed (either as a billed or an allocated cost) under Federal awards and will be documented as described in section E. Costs of central services omitted from the plan will not be reimbursed.

D. Submission Requirements

1. Each state will submit a plan to the Department of Health and Human Services for each year in which it claims central service costs under Federal awards. The plan should include (a) a projection of the next year's allocated central service cost (based either on actual costs for the most recently completed year or the budget projection for the coming year), and (b) a reconciliation of actual allocated central service costs to the estimated costs used for either the most recently completed year or the year immediately preceding the most recently completed year.

2. Each major local government is also required to submit a plan to its cognizant agency for indirect costs annually.

3. All other local governments claiming central service costs must develop a plan in accordance with the requirements described in this Part and maintain the plan and related supporting documentation for audit. These local governments are not required to submit their plans for Federal approval unless they are specifically requested to do so by the cognizant agency for indirect costs. Where a local government only receives funds as a subrecipient, the pass-through entity will be responsible for monitoring the subrecipient's plan.

4. All central service cost allocation plans will be prepared and, when required, submitted within six months prior to the beginning of each of the governmental unit's fiscal years in which it proposes to claim central service costs. Extensions may be granted by the cognizant agency for indirect costs on a case-by-case basis.

E. Documentation Requirements for Submitted Plans

The documentation requirements described in this section may be modified, expanded, or reduced by the cognizant agency for indirect costs on a case-by-case basis. For example, the requirements may be reduced for those central services which have little or no impact on Federal awards. Conversely, if a review of a plan indicates that certain additional information is needed, and will likely be needed in future years, it may be routinely requested in future plan submissions. Items marked with an asterisk (*) should be submitted only once; subsequent plans should merely indicate any changes since the last plan.

1. General

All proposed plans must be accompanied by the following: An organization chart sufficiently detailed to show operations including the central service activities of the state/local government whether or not they are shown as benefitting from central service functions; a copy of the Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (or a copy of the Executive Budget if budgeted costs are being proposed) to support the allowable costs of each central service activity included in the plan; and, a certification (see subsection 4.) that the plan was prepared in accordance with this Part, contains only allowable costs, and was prepared in a manner that treated similar costs consistently among the various Federal awards and between Federal and non-Federal awards/activities.

2. Allocated Central Services

For each allocated central service*, the plan must also include the following: a brief description of the service, an identification of the unit rendering the service and the operating agencies receiving the service, the items of expense included in the cost of the service, the method used to distribute the cost of the service to benefitted agencies, and a summary schedule showing the allocation of each service to the specific benefitted agencies. If any self-insurance funds or fringe benefits costs are treated as allocated (rather than billed) central services, documentation discussed in subsections 3.b. and c. must also be included.

3. Billed Services

a. General. The information described in this section must be provided for all billed central services, including internal service funds, self-insurance funds, and fringe benefit funds.

b. Internal service funds.

(1) For each internal service fund or similar activity with an operating budget of $5 million or more, the plan must include: A brief description of each service; a balance sheet for each fund based on individual accounts contained in the governmental unit's accounting system; a revenue/expenses statement, with revenues broken out by source, e.g., regular billings, interest earned, etc.; a listing of all non-operating transfers (as defined by Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)) into and out of the fund; a description of the procedures (methodology) used to charge the costs of each service to users, including how billing rates are determined; a schedule of current rates; and, a schedule comparing total revenues (including imputed revenues) generated by the service to the allowable costs of the service, as determined under this Part, with an explanation of how variances will be handled.

(2) Revenues must consist of all revenues generated by the service, including unbilled and uncollected revenues. If some users were not billed for the services (or were not billed at the full rate for that class of users), a schedule showing the full imputed revenues associated with these users must be provided. Expenses must be broken out by object cost categories (e.g., salaries, supplies, etc.).

c. Self-insurance funds. For each self-insurance fund, the plan must include: The fund balance sheet; a statement of revenue and expenses including a summary of billings and claims paid by agency; a listing of all non-operating transfers into and out of the fund; the type(s) of risk(s) covered by the fund (e.g., automobile liability, workers' compensation, etc.); an explanation of how the level of fund contributions are determined, including a copy of the current actuarial report (with the actuarial assumptions used) if the contributions are determined on an actuarial basis; and, a description of the procedures used to charge or allocate fund contributions to benefitted activities. Reserve levels in excess of claims (1) submitted and adjudicated but not paid, (2) submitted but not adjudicated, and (3) incurred but not submitted must be identified and explained.

d. Fringe benefits. For fringe benefit costs, the plan must include: A listing of fringe benefits provided to covered employees, and the overall annual cost of each type of benefit; current fringe benefit policies; and procedures used to charge or allocate the costs of the benefits to benefitted activities. In addition, for pension and post-retirement health insurance plans, the following information must be provided: the governmental unit's funding policies, e.g., legislative bills, trust agreements, or state-mandated contribution rules, if different from actuarially determined rates; the pension plan's costs accrued for the year; the amount funded, and date(s) of funding; a copy of the current actuarial report (including the actuarial assumptions); the plan trustee's report; and, a schedule from the activity showing the value of the interest cost associated with late funding.

4. Required Certification

Each central service cost allocation plan will be accompanied by a certification in the following form:

Certificate of Cost Allocation Plan

This is to certify that I have reviewed the cost allocation plan submitted herewith and to the best of my knowledge and belief:

(1) All costs included in this proposal [identify date] to establish cost allocations or billings for [identify period covered by plan] are allowable in accordance with the requirements of this Part and the Federal award(s) to which they apply. Unallowable costs have been adjusted for in allocating costs as indicated in the cost allocation plan.

(2) All costs included in this proposal are properly allocable to Federal awards on the basis of a beneficial or causal relationship between the expenses incurred and the Federal awards to which they are allocated in accordance with applicable requirements. Further, the same costs that have been treated as indirect costs have not been claimed as direct costs. Similar types of costs have been accounted for consistently.

I declare that the foregoing is true and correct.

Governmental Unit:

Signature:

Name of Official:

Title:

Date of Execution:

F. Negotiation and Approval of Central Service Plans

1. Federal Cognizant Agency for Indirect Costs Assignments for Cost Negotiation

In general, unless different arrangements are agreed to by the concerned Federal agencies, for central service cost allocation plans, the cognizant agency responsible for review and approval is the Federal agency with the largest dollar value of total Federal awards with a governmental unit. For indirect cost rates and departmental indirect cost allocation plans, the cognizant agency is the Federal agency with the largest dollar value of direct Federal awards with a governmental unit or component, as appropriate. Once designated as the cognizant agency for indirect costs, the Federal agency must remain so for a period of five years. In addition, the following Federal agencies continue to be responsible for the indicated governmental entities:

Department of Health and Human Services—Public assistance and state-wide cost allocation plans for all states (including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico), state and local hospitals, libraries and health districts.

Department of the Interior—Indian tribal governments, territorial governments, and state and local park and recreational districts.

Department of Labor—State and local labor departments.

Department of Education—School districts and state and local education agencies.

Department of Agriculture—State and local agriculture departments.

Department of Transportation—State and local airport and port authorities and transit districts.

Department of Commerce—State and local economic development districts.

Department of Housing and Urban Development—State and local housing and development districts.

Environmental Protection Agency—State and local water and sewer districts.

2. Review

All proposed central service cost allocation plans that are required to be submitted will be reviewed, negotiated, and approved by the cognizant agency for indirect costs on a timely basis. The cognizant agency for indirect costs will review the proposal within six months of receipt of the proposal and either negotiate/approve the proposal or advise the governmental unit of the additional documentation needed to support/evaluate the proposed plan or the changes required to make the proposal acceptable. Once an agreement with the governmental unit has been reached, the agreement will be accepted and used by all Federal agencies, unless prohibited or limited by statute. Where a Federal awarding agency has reason to believe that special operating factors affecting its Federal awards necessitate special consideration, the funding agency will, prior to the time the plans are negotiated, notify the cognizant agency for indirect costs.

3. Agreement

The results of each negotiation must be formalized in a written agreement between the cognizant agency for indirect costs and the governmental unit. This agreement will be subject to re-opening if the agreement is subsequently found to violate a statute or the information upon which the plan was negotiated is later found to be materially incomplete or inaccurate. The results of the negotiation must be made available to all Federal agencies for their use.

4. Adjustments

Negotiated cost allocation plans based on a proposal later found to have included costs that: (a) Are unallowable (i) as specified by law or regulation, (ii) as identified in subpart F, General Provisions for selected Items of Cost of this Part, or (iii) by the terms and conditions of Federal awards, or (b) are unallowable because they are clearly not allocable to Federal awards, must be adjusted, or a refund must be made at the option of the cognizant agency for indirect costs, including earned or imputed interest from the date of transfer and debt interest, if applicable, chargeable in accordance with applicable Federal cognizant agency for indirect costs regulations. Adjustments or cash refunds may include, at the option of the cognizant agency for indirect costs, earned or imputed interest from the date of expenditure and delinquent debt interest, if applicable, chargeable in accordance with applicable cognizant agency claims collection regulations. These adjustments or refunds are designed to correct the plans and do not constitute a reopening of the negotiation.

G. Other Policies

1. Billed Central Service Activities

Each billed central service activity must separately account for all revenues (including imputed revenues) generated by the service, expenses incurred to furnish the service, and profit/loss.

2. Working Capital Reserves

Internal service funds are dependent upon a reasonable level of working capital reserve to operate from one billing cycle to the next. Charges by an internal service activity to provide for the establishment and maintenance of a reasonable level of working capital reserve, in addition to the full recovery of costs, are allowable. A working capital reserve as part of retained earnings of up to 60 calendar days cash expenses for normal operating purposes is considered reasonable. A working capital reserve exceeding 60 calendar days may be approved by the cognizant agency for indirect costs in exceptional cases.

3. Carry-Forward Adjustments of Allocated Central Service Costs

Allocated central service costs are usually negotiated and approved for a future fiscal year on a “fixed with carry-forward” basis. Under this procedure, the fixed amounts for the future year covered by agreement are not subject to adjustment for that year. However, when the actual costs of the year involved become known, the differences between the fixed amounts previously approved and the actual costs will be carried forward and used as an adjustment to the fixed amounts established for a later year. This “carry-forward” procedure applies to all central services whose costs were fixed in the approved plan. However, a carry-forward adjustment is not permitted, for a central service activity that was not included in the approved plan, or for unallowable costs that must be reimbursed immediately.

4. Adjustments of Billed Central Services

Billing rates used to charge Federal awards must be based on the estimated costs of providing the services, including an estimate of the allocable central service costs. A comparison of the revenue generated by each billed service (including total revenues whether or not billed or collected) to the actual allowable costs of the service will be made at least annually, and an adjustment will be made for the difference between the revenue and the allowable costs. These adjustments will be made through one of the following adjustment methods: (a) A cash refund including earned or imputed interest from the date of transfer and debt interest, if applicable, chargeable in accordance with applicable Federal cognizant agency for indirect costs regulations to the Federal Government for the Federal share of the adjustment, (b) credits to the amounts charged to the individual programs, (c) adjustments to future billing rates, or (d) adjustments to allocated central service costs. Adjustments to allocated central services will not be permitted where the total amount of the adjustment for a particular service (Federal share and non-Federal) share exceeds $500,000. Adjustment methods may include, at the option of the cognizant agency, earned or imputed interest from the date of expenditure and delinquent debt interest, if applicable, chargeable in accordance with applicable cognizant agency claims collection regulations.

5. Records Retention

All central service cost allocation plans and related documentation used as a basis for claiming costs under Federal awards must be retained for audit in accordance with the records retention requirements contained in Subpart D of part 75.

6. Appeals

If a dispute arises in the negotiation of a plan between the cognizant agency for indirect costs and the governmental unit, the dispute must be resolved in accordance with the appeals procedures of the cognizant agency for indirect costs.

7. OMB Assistance

To the extent that problems are encountered among the Federal agencies or governmental units in connection with the negotiation and approval process, OMB will lend assistance, as required, to resolve such problems in a timely manner.

[79 FR 75889, Dec. 19, 2014, as amended at 81 FR 3019, Jan. 20, 2016]

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Appendix VI to Part 75—Public Assistance Cost Allocation Plans

A. General

Federally-financed programs administered by state public assistance agencies are funded predominately by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). In support of its stewardship requirements, HHS has published requirements for the development, documentation, submission, negotiation, and approval of public assistance cost allocation plans in Subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. All administrative costs (direct and indirect) are normally charged to Federal awards by implementing the public assistance cost allocation plan. This Appendix extends these requirements to all Federal awarding agencies whose programs are administered by a state public assistance agency. Major federally-financed programs typically administered by state public assistance agencies include: Temporary Aid for Needy Families (TANF), Medicaid, Food Stamps, Child Support Enforcement, Adoption Assistance and Foster Care, and Social Services Block Grant.

B. Definitions

1. State public assistance agency means a state agency administering or supervising the administration of one or more public assistance programs operated by the state as identified in Subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. For the purpose of this Appendix, these programs include all programs administered by the state public assistance agency.

2. State public assistance agency costs means all costs incurred by, or allocable to, the state public assistance agency, except expenditures for financial assistance, medical contractor payments, food stamps, and payments for services and goods provided directly to program recipients.

C. Policy

State public assistance agencies will develop, document and implement, and the Federal Government will review, negotiate, and approve, public assistance cost allocation plans in accordance with Subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. The plan will include all programs administered by the state public assistance agency. Where a letter of approval or disapproval is transmitted to a state public assistance agency in accordance with Subpart E, the letter will apply to all Federal agencies and programs. The remaining sections of this Appendix (except for the requirement for certification) summarize the provisions of Subpart E of 45 CFR part 95.

D. Submission, Documentation, and Approval of Public Assistance Cost Allocation Plans

1. State public assistance agencies are required to promptly submit amendments to the cost allocation plan to HHS for review and approval.

2. Under the coordination process outlined in section E, Review of Implementation of Approved Plans, affected Federal agencies will review all new plans and plan amendments and provide comments, as appropriate, to HHS. The effective date of the plan or plan amendment will be the first day of the calendar quarter following the event that required the amendment, unless another date is specifically approved by HHS. HHS, as the cognizant agency for indirect costs acting on behalf of all affected Federal agencies, will, as necessary, conduct negotiations with the state public assistance agency and will inform the state agency of the action taken on the plan or plan amendment.

E. Review of Implementation of Approved Plans

1. Since public assistance cost allocation plans are of a narrative nature, the review during the plan approval process consists of evaluating the appropriateness of the proposed groupings of costs (cost centers) and the related allocation bases. As such, the Federal Government needs some assurance that the cost allocation plan has been implemented as approved. This is accomplished by reviews by the Federal awarding agencies, single audits, or audits conducted by the cognizant agency for indirect costs.

2. Where inappropriate charges affecting more than one Federal awarding agency are identified, the cognizant HHS cost negotiation office will be advised and will take the lead in resolving the issue(s) as provided for in Subpart E of 45 CFR part 95.

3. If a dispute arises in the negotiation of a plan or from a disallowance involving two or more Federal awarding agencies, the dispute must be resolved in accordance with the appeals procedures set out in 45 CFR part 16. Disputes involving only one Federal awarding agency will be resolved in accordance with the Federal awarding agency's appeal process.

4. To the extent that problems are encountered among the Federal awarding agencies or governmental units in connection with the negotiation and approval process, the Office of Management and Budget will lend assistance, as required, to resolve such problems in a timely manner.

F. Unallowable Costs

Claims developed under approved cost allocation plans will be based on allowable costs as identified in this Part. Where unallowable costs have been claimed and reimbursed, they will be refunded to the program that reimbursed the unallowable cost using one of the following methods: (a) A cash refund, (b) offset to a subsequent claim, or (c) credits to the amounts charged to individual Federal awards. Cash refunds, offsets, and credits may include at the option of the cognizant agency for indirect cost, earned or imputed interest from the date of expenditure and delinquent debt interest, if applicable, chargeable in accordance with applicable cognizant agency for indirect cost claims collection regulations.

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Appendix VII to Part 75—States and Local Government and Indian Tribe Indirect Cost Proposals

A. General

1. Indirect costs are those that have been incurred for common or joint purposes. These costs benefit more than one cost objective and cannot be readily identified with a particular final cost objective without effort disproportionate to the results achieved. After direct costs have been determined and assigned directly to Federal awards and other activities as appropriate, indirect costs are those remaining to be allocated to benefitted cost objectives. A cost may not be allocated to a Federal award as an indirect cost if any other cost incurred for the same purpose, in like circumstances, has been assigned to a Federal award as a direct cost.

2. Indirect costs include (a) the indirect costs originating in each department or agency of the governmental unit carrying out Federal awards and (b) the costs of central governmental services distributed through the central service cost allocation plan (as described in Appendix V to part) and not otherwise treated as direct costs.

3. Indirect costs are normally charged to Federal awards by the use of an indirect cost rate. A separate indirect cost rate(s) is usually necessary for each department or agency of the governmental unit claiming indirect costs under Federal awards. Guidelines and illustrations of indirect cost proposals are provided in a brochure published by the Department of Health and Human Services entitled “A Guide for States and Local Government Agencies: Cost Principles and Procedures for Establishing Cost Allocation Plans and Indirect Cost Rates for Grants and Contracts with the Federal Government.” A copy of this brochure may be obtained from the HHS' Cost Allocation Services or at their Web site at https://rates.psc.gov.

4. Because of the diverse characteristics and accounting practices of governmental units, the types of costs which may be classified as indirect costs cannot be specified in all situations. However, typical examples of indirect costs may include certain state/local-wide central service costs, general administration of the non-Federal entity accounting and personnel services performed within the non-Federal entity, depreciation on buildings and equipment, the costs of operating and maintaining facilities.

5. This Appendix does not apply to state public assistance agencies. These agencies should refer instead to Appendix VI to part 75.

B. Definitions

1. Base means the accumulated direct costs (normally either total direct salaries and wages or total direct costs exclusive of any extraordinary or distorting expenditures) used to distribute indirect costs to individual Federal awards. The direct cost base selected should result in each Federal award bearing a fair share of the indirect costs in reasonable relation to the benefits received from the costs.

2. Base period for the allocation of indirect costs is the period in which such costs are incurred and accumulated for allocation to activities performed in that period. The base period normally should coincide with the governmental unit's fiscal year, but in any event, must be so selected as to avoid inequities in the allocation of costs.

3. Cognizant agency for indirect costs means the Federal agency responsible for reviewing and approving the governmental unit's indirect cost rate(s) on the behalf of the Federal Government. The cognizant agency for indirect costs assignment is described in Appendix V, section F.

4. Final rate means an indirect cost rate applicable to a specified past period which is based on the actual allowable costs of the period. A final audited rate is not subject to adjustment.

5. Fixed rate means an indirect cost rate which has the same characteristics as a predetermined rate, except that the difference between the estimated costs and the actual, allowable costs of the period covered by the rate is carried forward as an adjustment to the rate computation of a subsequent period.

6. Indirect cost pool is the accumulated costs that jointly benefit two or more programs or other cost objectives.

7. Indirect cost rate is a device for determining in a reasonable manner the proportion of indirect costs each program should bear. It is the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the indirect costs to a direct cost base.

8. Indirect cost rate proposal means the documentation prepared by a governmental unit or subdivision thereof to substantiate its request for the establishment of an indirect cost rate.

9. Predetermined rate means an indirect cost rate, applicable to a specified current or future period, usually the governmental unit's fiscal year. This rate is based on an estimate of the costs to be incurred during the period. Except under very unusual circumstances, a predetermined rate is not subject to adjustment. (Because of legal constraints, predetermined rates are not permitted for Federal contracts; they may, however, be used for grants or cooperative agreements.) Predetermined rates may not be used by governmental units that have not submitted and negotiated the rate with the cognizant agency for indirect costs. In view of the potential advantages offered by this procedure, negotiation of predetermined rates for indirect costs for a period of two to four years should be the norm in those situations where the cost experience and other pertinent facts available are deemed sufficient to enable the parties involved to reach an informed judgment as to the probable level of indirect costs during the ensuing accounting periods.

10. Provisional rate means a temporary indirect cost rate applicable to a specified period which is used for funding, interim reimbursement, and reporting indirect costs on Federal awards pending the establishment of a “final” rate for that period.

C. Allocation of Indirect Costs and Determination of Indirect Cost Rates

1. General

a. Where a governmental unit's department or agency has only one major function, or where all its major functions benefit from the indirect costs to approximately the same degree, the allocation of indirect costs and the computation of an indirect cost rate may be accomplished through simplified allocation procedures as described in subsection 2.

b. Where a governmental unit's department or agency has several major functions which benefit from its indirect costs in varying degrees, the allocation of indirect costs may require the accumulation of such costs into separate cost groupings which then are allocated individually to benefitted functions by means of a base which best measures the relative degree of benefit. The indirect costs allocated to each function are then distributed to individual Federal awards and other activities included in that function by means of an indirect cost rate(s).

c. Specific methods for allocating indirect costs and computing indirect cost rates along with the conditions under which each method should be used are described in subsections 2, 3 and 4.

2. Simplified Method

a. Where a non-Federal entity's major functions benefit from its indirect costs to approximately the same degree, the allocation of indirect costs may be accomplished by (1) classifying the non-Federal entity's total costs for the base period as either direct or indirect, and (2) dividing the total allowable indirect costs (net of applicable credits) by an equitable distribution base. The result of this process is an indirect cost rate which is used to distribute indirect costs to individual Federal awards. The rate should be expressed as the percentage which the total amount of allowable indirect costs bears to the base selected. This method should also be used where a governmental unit's department or agency has only one major function encompassing a number of individual projects or activities, and may be used where the level of Federal awards to that department or agency is relatively small.

b. Both the direct costs and the indirect costs must exclude capital expenditures and unallowable costs. However, unallowable costs must be included in the direct costs if they represent activities to which indirect costs are properly allocable.

c. The distribution base may be (1) total direct costs (excluding capital expenditures and other distorting items, such as pass-through funds, subawards in excess of $25,000, participant support costs, etc.), (2) direct salaries and wages, or (3) another base which results in an equitable distribution.

3. Multiple Allocation Base Method

a. Where a non-Federal entity's indirect costs benefit its major functions in varying degrees, such costs must be accumulated into separate cost groupings. Each grouping must then be allocated individually to benefitted functions by means of a base which best measures the relative benefits.

b. The cost groupings should be established so as to permit the allocation of each grouping on the basis of benefits provided to the major functions. Each grouping should constitute a pool of expenses that are of like character in terms of the functions they benefit and in terms of the allocation base which best measures the relative benefits provided to each function. The number of separate groupings should be held within practical limits, taking into consideration the materiality of the amounts involved and the degree of precision needed.

c. Actual conditions must be taken into account in selecting the base to be used in allocating the expenses in each grouping to benefitted functions. When an allocation can be made by assignment of a cost grouping directly to the function benefitted, the allocation must be made in that manner. When the expenses in a grouping are more general in nature, the allocation should be made through the use of a selected base which produces results that are equitable to both the Federal Government and the governmental unit. In general, any cost element or related factor associated with the governmental unit's activities is potentially adaptable for use as an allocation base provided that: (1) It can readily be expressed in terms of dollars or other quantitative measures (total direct costs, direct salaries and wages, staff hours applied, square feet used, hours of usage, number of documents processed, population served, and the like), and (2) it is common to the benefitted functions during the base period.

d. Except where a special indirect cost rate(s) is required in accordance with paragraph (C)(4) of this Appendix, the separate groupings of indirect costs allocated to each major function must be aggregated and treated as a common pool for that function. The costs in the common pool must then be distributed to individual Federal awards included in that function by use of a single indirect cost rate.

e. The distribution base used in computing the indirect cost rate for each function may be (1) total direct costs (excluding capital expenditures and other distorting items such as pass-through funds, subawards in excess of $25,000, participant support costs, etc.), (2) direct salaries and wages, or (3) another base which results in an equitable distribution. An indirect cost rate should be developed for each separate indirect cost pool developed. The rate in each case should be stated as the percentage relationship between the particular indirect cost pool and the distribution base identified with that pool.

4. Special Indirect Cost Rates

a. In some instances, a single indirect cost rate for all activities of a non-Federal entity or for each major function of the agency may not be appropriate. It may not take into account those different factors which may substantially affect the indirect costs applicable to a particular program or group of programs. The factors may include the physical location of the work, the level of administrative support required, the nature of the facilities or other resources employed, the organizational arrangements used, or any combination thereof. When a particular Federal award is carried out in an environment which appears to generate a significantly different level of indirect costs, provisions should be made for a separate indirect cost pool applicable to that Federal award. The separate indirect cost pool should be developed during the course of the regular allocation process, and the separate indirect cost rate resulting therefrom should be used, provided that: (1) The rate differs significantly from the rate which would have been developed under paragraphs (C)(2) and (C)(3) of this Appendix, and (2) the Federal award to which the rate would apply is material in amount.

b. Where Federal statutes restrict the reimbursement of certain indirect costs, it may be necessary to develop a special rate for the affected Federal award. Where a “restricted rate” is required, the same procedure for developing a non-restricted rate will be used except for the additional step of the elimination from the indirect cost pool those costs for which the law prohibits reimbursement.

D. Submission and Documentation of Proposals

1. Submission of Indirect Cost Rate Proposals

a. All departments or agencies of the governmental unit desiring to claim indirect costs under Federal awards must prepare an indirect cost rate proposal and related documentation to support those costs. The proposal and related documentation must be retained for audit in accordance with the records retention requirements contained in §75.361.

b. A governmental department or agency unit that receives more than $35 million in direct Federal funding must submit its indirect cost rate proposal to its cognizant agency for indirect costs. Other governmental department or agency must develop an indirect cost proposal in accordance with the requirements of this Part and maintain the proposal and related supporting documentation for audit. These governmental departments or agencies are not required to submit their proposals unless they are specifically requested to do so by the cognizant agency for indirect costs. Where a non-Federal entity only receives funds as a subrecipient, the pass-through entity will be responsible for negotiating and/or monitoring the subrecipient's indirect costs.

c. Each Indian tribal government desiring reimbursement of indirect costs must submit its indirect cost proposal to the Department of the Interior (its cognizant agency for indirect costs).

d. Indirect cost proposals must be developed (and, when required, submitted) within six months after the close of the governmental unit's fiscal year, unless an exception is approved by the cognizant agency for indirect costs. If the proposed central service cost allocation plan for the same period has not been approved by that time, the indirect cost proposal may be prepared including an amount for central services that is based on the latest federally-approved central service cost allocation plan. The difference between these central service amounts and the amounts ultimately approved will be compensated for by an adjustment in a subsequent period.

2. Documentation of Proposals

The following must be included with each indirect cost proposal:

a. The rates proposed, including subsidiary work sheets and other relevant data, cross referenced and reconciled to the financial data noted in subsection b. Allocated central service costs will be supported by the summary table included in the approved central service cost allocation plan. This summary table is not required to be submitted with the indirect cost proposal if the central service cost allocation plan for the same fiscal year has been approved by the cognizant agency for indirect costs and is available to the funding agency.

b. A copy of the financial data (financial statements, comprehensive annual financial report, executive budgets, accounting reports, etc.) upon which the rate is based. Adjustments resulting from the use of unaudited data will be recognized, where appropriate, by the Federal cognizant agency for indirect costs in a subsequent proposal.

c. The approximate amount of direct base costs incurred under Federal awards. These costs should be broken out between salaries and wages and other direct costs.

d. A chart showing the organizational structure of the agency during the period for which the proposal applies, along with a functional statement(s) noting the duties and/or responsibilities of all units that comprise the agency. (Once this is submitted, only revisions need be submitted with subsequent proposals.)

3. Required Certification.

Each indirect cost rate proposal must be accompanied by a certification in the following form:

Certificate of Indirect Costs

This is to certify that I have reviewed the indirect cost rate proposal submitted herewith and to the best of my knowledge and belief:

(1) All costs included in this proposal [identify date] to establish billing or final indirect costs rates for [identify period covered by rate] are allowable in accordance with the requirements of the Federal award(s) to which they apply and the provisions of this 45 CFR part 75. Unallowable costs have been adjusted for in allocating costs as indicated in the indirect cost proposal.

(2) All costs included in this proposal are properly allocable to Federal awards on the basis of a beneficial or causal relationship between the expenses incurred and the agreements to which they are allocated in accordance with applicable requirements. Further, the same costs that have been treated as indirect costs have not been claimed as direct costs. Similar types of costs have been accounted for consistently and the Federal Government will be notified of any accounting changes that would affect the predetermined rate.

I declare that the foregoing is true and correct.

Governmental Unit:

Signature:

Name of Official:

Title:

Date of Execution:

E. Negotiation and Approval of Rates

1. Indirect cost rates will be reviewed, negotiated, and approved by the cognizant agency on a timely basis. Once a rate has been agreed upon, it will be accepted and used by all Federal agencies unless prohibited or limited by statute. Where a Federal awarding agency has reason to believe that special operating factors affecting its Federal awards necessitate special indirect cost rates, the funding agency will, prior to the time the rates are negotiated, notify the cognizant agency for indirect costs.

2. The use of predetermined rates, if allowed, is encouraged where the cognizant agency for indirect costs has reasonable assurance based on past experience and reliable projection of the non-Federal entity's costs, that the rate is not likely to exceed a rate based on actual costs. Long-term agreements utilizing predetermined rates extending over two or more years are encouraged, where appropriate.

3. The results of each negotiation must be formalized in a written agreement between the cognizant agency for indirect costs and the governmental unit. This agreement will be subject to re-opening if the agreement is subsequently found to violate a statute, or the information upon which the plan was negotiated is later found to be materially incomplete or inaccurate. The agreed upon rates must be made available to all Federal agencies for their use.

4. Refunds must be made if proposals are later found to have included costs that (a) are unallowable (i) as specified by law or regulation, (ii) as identified in §75.420 of this part, or (iii) by the terms and conditions of Federal awards, or (b) are unallowable because they are clearly not allocable to Federal awards. These adjustments or refunds will be made regardless of the type of rate negotiated (predetermined, final, fixed, or provisional).

F. Other Policies

1. Fringe Benefit Rates

If overall fringe benefit rates are not approved for the governmental unit as part of the central service cost allocation plan, these rates will be reviewed, negotiated and approved for individual recipient agencies during the indirect cost negotiation process. In these cases, a proposed fringe benefit rate computation should accompany the indirect cost proposal. If fringe benefit rates are not used at the recipient agency level (i.e., the agency specifically identifies fringe benefit costs to individual employees), the governmental unit should so advise the cognizant agency for indirect costs.

2. Billed Services Provided by the Recipient Agency

In some cases, governmental departments or agencies (components of the governmental unit) provide and bill for services similar to those covered by central service cost allocation plans (e.g., computer centers). Where this occurs, the governmental departments or agencies (components of the governmental unit) should be guided by the requirements in Appendix V relating to the development of billing rates and documentation requirements, and should advise the cognizant agency for indirect costs of any billed services. Reviews of these types of services (including reviews of costing/billing methodology, profits or losses, etc.) will be made on a case-by-case basis as warranted by the circumstances involved.

3. Indirect Cost Allocations Not Using Rates

In certain situations, governmental departments or agencies (components of the governmental unit), because of the nature of their Federal awards, may be required to develop a cost allocation plan that distributes indirect (and, in some cases, direct) costs to the specific funding sources. In these cases, a narrative cost allocation methodology should be developed, documented, maintained for audit, or submitted, as appropriate, to the cognizant agency for indirect costs for review, negotiation, and approval.

4. Appeals

If a dispute arises in a negotiation of an indirect cost rate (or other rate) between the cognizant agency for indirect costs and the governmental unit, the dispute must be resolved in accordance with the appeals procedures of the cognizant agency for indirect costs.

5. Collection of Unallowable Costs and Erroneous Payments

Costs specifically identified as unallowable and charged to Federal awards either directly or indirectly will be refunded (including interest chargeable in accordance with applicable Federal cognizant agency for indirect costs regulations).

6. OMB Assistance

To the extent that problems are encountered among the Federal agencies or governmental units in connection with the negotiation and approval process, OMB will lend assistance, as required, to resolve such problems in a timely manner.

[79 FR 75889, Dec. 19, 2014, as amended at 81 FR 3019, Jan. 20, 2016]

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Appendix VIII to Part 75—Nonprofit Organizations Exempted from Subpart E of Part 75

1. Advance Technology Institute (ATI), Charleston, South Carolina

2. Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, California

3. American Institutes of Research (AIR), Washington, DC

4. Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, Illinois

5. Atomic Casualty Commission, Washington, DC

6. Battelle Memorial Institute, Headquartered in Columbus, Ohio

7. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

8. Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Incorporated, Cambridge, Massachusetts

9. CNA Corporation (CNAC), Alexandria, Virginia

10. Environmental Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

11. Georgia Institute of Technology/Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation/Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, Georgia

12. Hanford Environmental Health Foundation, Richland, Washington

13. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois

14. Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, Illinois

15. Institute for Defense Analysis, Alexandria, Virginia

16. LMI, McLean, Virginia

17. Mitre Corporation, Bedford, Massachusetts

18. Noblis, Inc., Falls Church, Virginia

19. National Radiological Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, West Virginia

20. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

21. Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

22. Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, California

23. Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

24. Riverside Research Institute, New York, New York

25. South Carolina Research Authority (SCRA), Charleston, South Carolina

26. Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, Alabama

27. Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas

28. SRI International, Menlo Park, California

29. Syracuse Research Corporation, Syracuse, New York

30. Universities Research Association, Incorporated (National Acceleration Lab), Argonne, Illinois

31. Urban Institute, Washington DC

32. Non-profit insurance companies, such as Blue Cross and Blue Shield Organizations

33. Other non-profit organizations as negotiated with Federal awarding agencies

[79 FR 75889, Dec. 19, 2014, as amended at 81 FR 3019, Jan. 20, 2016]

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Appendix IX to Part 75—Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals

A. Purpose and Scope

1. Objectives

This appendix provides principles for determining the costs applicable to research and development work performed by hospitals under grants and contracts with the Department of Health and Human Services. These principles are confined to the subject of cost determination and make no attempt to identify the circumstances or dictate the extent of hospital participation in the financing of a particular research or development project. The principles are designed to provide recognition of the full allocated costs of such research work under generally accepted accounting principles. These principles will be applicable to both proprietary and non-profit hospitals. No provision for profit or other increment above cost is provided for in these principles. However, this is not to be interpreted as precluding a negotiated fee between contracting parties when a fee is appropriate.

2. Policy Guides

The successful application of these principles requires development of mutual understanding between representatives of hospitals and of the Department of Health and Human Services as to their scope, applicability and interpretation. It is recognized that:

a. The arrangements for hospital participation in the financing of a research and development project are properly subject to negotiation between the agency and the hospital concerned in accordance with such Government-wide criteria as may be applicable.

b. Each hospital, possessing its own unique combination of staff, facilities and experience, should be encouraged to conduct research in a manner consonant with its own institutional philosophies and objectives.

c. Each hospital in the fulfillment of its contractual obligations should be expected to employ sound management practices.

d. The application of the principles established herein shall be in conformance with the generally accepted accounting practices of hospitals.

e. Hospitals receive reimbursements from the Federal Government for differing types of services under various programs such as support of Research and Development (including discrete clinical centers) Health Services Projects, Medicare, etc. It is essential that consistent procedures for determining reimbursable costs for similar services be employed without regard to program differences. Therefore, both the direct and indirect costs of research programs must be identified as a cost center(s) for the cost finding and step-down requirements of the Medicare program, or in its absence the Medicaid program.

3. Application

All operating agencies within the Department of Health and Human Services that sponsor research and development work in hospitals will apply these principles and related policy guides in determining the costs incurred for such work under grants and cost-reimbursement type contracts and subcontracts. These principles will also be used as a guide in the pricing of fixed-price contracts and subcontracts.

B. Definition of Terms

1. Organized research means all research activities of a hospital that may be identified whether the support for such research is from a federal, non-federal or internal source.

2. Departmental research means research activities that are not separately budgeted and accounted for. Such work, which includes all research activities not encompassed under the term organized research, is regarded for purposes of this document as a part of the patient care activities of the hospital.

3. Research agreement means any valid arrangement to perform federally-sponsored research or development including grants, cost-reimbursement type contracts, cost-reimbursement type subcontracts, and fixed-price contracts and subcontracts.

4. Instruction and training means the formal or informal programs of educating and training technical and professional health services personnel, primarily medical and nursing training. This activity, if separately budgeted or identifiable with specific costs, should be considered as a cost objective for purposes of indirect cost allocations and the development of patient care costs.

5. Other hospital activities means all organized activities of a hospital not immediately related to the patient care, research, and instructional and training functions which produce identifiable revenue from the performance of these activities. If a non-related activity does not produce identifiable revenue, it may be necessary to allocate this expense using an appropriate basis. In such a case, the activity may be included as an allocable cost (See paragraph C.4 below.) Also included under this definition is any category of cost treated as “Unallowable,” provided such category of cost identifies a function or activity to which a portion of the institution's indirect cost (as defined in paragraph E.1.) are properly allocable.

6. Patient care means those departments or cost centers which render routine or ancillary services to in-patients and/or out-patients. As used in paragraph I.2.w, it means the cost of these services applicable to patients involved in research programs.

7. Allocation means the process by which the indirect costs are assigned as between:

a. Organized research,

b. Patient care including departmental research.

c. Instruction and training, and

d. Other hospital activities.

8. Cost center means an identifiable department or area (including research) within the hospital which has been assigned an account number in the hospital accounting system for the purpose of accumulating expense by department or area.

9. Cost finding is the process of recasting the data derived from the accounts ordinarily kept by a hospital to ascertain costs of the various types of services rendered. It is the determination of direct costs by specific identification and the proration of indirect costs by allocation.

10. Step down is a cost finding method that recognizes that services rendered by certain nonrevenue-producing departments or centers are utilized by certain other nonrevenue producing centers as well as by the revenue-producing centers. All costs of nonrevenue-producing centers are allocated to all centers which they serve, regardless of whether or not these centers produce revenue. Following the apportionment of the cost of the nonrevenue-producing center, that center will be considered closed and no further costs are apportioned to that center.

11. Scatter bed is a bed assigned to a research patient based on availability. Research patients occupying these beds are not physically segregated from nonresearch patients occupying beds. Scatter beds are geographically dispersed among all the beds available for use in the hospital. There are no special features attendant to a scatter bed that distinguishes it from others that could just as well have been occupied.

12. Discrete bed is a bed or beds that have been set aside for occupancy by research patients and are physically segregated from other hospital beds in an environment that permits an easily ascertainable allocation of costs associated with the space they occupy and the services they generate.

C. Basic Considerations

1. Composition of Total Costs

The cost of a research agreement is comprised of the allowable direct costs incident to its performance plus the allocable portion of the allowable indirect costs of the hospital less applicable credits. (See paragraph C.5.)

2. Factors Affecting Allowability of Costs

The tests of allowability of costs under these principles are:

a. They must be reasonable.

b. They must be assigned to research agreements under the standards and methods provided herein.

c. They must be accorded consistent treatment through application of those generally accepted accounting principles appropriate to the circumstances (See paragraph A.2.e.) and

d. They must conform to any limitations or exclusions set forth in these principles or in the research agreement as to types or amounts of cost items.

3. Reasonable Costs

A cost may be considered reasonable if the nature of the goods or services acquired or applied, and the amount involved therefor reflect the action that a prudent person would have taken under the circumstances prevailing at the time the decision to incur the cost was made. Major considerations involved in the determination of the reasonableness of a cost are:

a. Whether or not the cost is of a type generally recognized as necessary for the operation of the hospital or the performance of the research agreement,

b. The restraints or requirements imposed by such factors as arm's length bargaining, federal and state laws and regulations, and research agreement terms and conditions,

c. Whether or not the individuals concerned acted with due prudence in the circumstances, considering their responsibilities to the hospital, its patients, its employees, its students, the Government, and the public at large, and

d. The extent to which the actions taken with respect to the incurrence of the cost are consistent with established hospital policies and practices applicable to the work of the hospital generally, including Government research.

4. Allocable Costs

a. A cost is allocable to a particular cost center (i.e., a specific function, project, research agreement, department, or the like) if the goods or services involved are chargeable or assignable to such cost center in accordance with relative benefits received or other equitable relationship. Subject to the foregoing, a cost is allocable to a research agreement if it is incurred solely to advance the work under the research agreement; or it benefits both the research agreement and other work of the hospital in proportions that can be approximated through use of reasonable methods; or it is necessary to the overall operation of the hospital and, in light of the standards provided in this chapter, is deemed to be assignable in part to organized research. Where the purchase of equipment or other capital items are specifically authorized under a research agreement, the amounts thus authorized for such purchases are allocable to the research agreement regardless of the use that may subsequently be made of the equipment or other capital items involved.

b. Any costs allocable to a particular research agreement under the standards provided in these principles may not be shifted to other research agreements in order to meet deficiencies caused by overruns or other fund considerations, to avoid restrictions imposed by law or by terms of the research agreement, or for other reasons of convenience.

5. Applicable Credits

a. The term applicable credits refers to those receipts or negative expenditure types of transactions which operate to offset or reduce expense items that are allocable to research agreements as direct or indirect costs as outlined in paragraph E.1. Typical examples of such transactions are: Purchase discounts, rebates, or allowances; recoveries or indemnities on losses; sales of scrap or incidental services; tuition; adjustments of overpayments or erroneous charges; and services rendered to patients admitted to federally funded clinical research centers, primarily for care though also participating in research protocols.

b. In some instances, the amounts received from the Federal Government to finance hospital activities or service operations should be treated as applicable credits. Specifically, the concept of netting such credit items against related expenditures should be applied by the hospital in determining the rates or amounts to be charged to government research for services rendered whenever the facilities or other resources used in providing such services have been financed directly, in whole or in part, by federal funds. Thus, where such items are provided for or benefit a particular hospital activity, i.e., patient care, research, instruction and training, or other, they should be treated as an offset to the indirect costs apportioned to that activity. Where the benefits are common to all hospital activities they should be treated as a credit to the total indirect cost pool before allocation to the various cost objectives.

D. Direct Costs

1. General

Direct costs are those that can be identified specifically with a particular cost center. For this purpose, the term cost center refers not only to the ultimate centers against which costs are finally lodged such as research agreements, but also to other established cost centers such as the individual accounts for recording particular objects or items of expense, and the separate account groupings designed to record the expenses incurred by individual organizational units, functions, projects and the like. In general, the administrative functions and service activities described in paragraph VI are identifiable as separate cost centers, and the expenses associated with such centers become eligible in due course for distribution as indirect costs of research agreements and other ultimate cost centers.

2. Application to Research Agreements

Identifiable benefit to the research work rather than the nature of the goods and services involved is the determining factor in distinguishing direct from indirect costs of research agreements. Typical of transactions chargeable to a research agreement as direct costs are the compensation of employees for the time or effort devoted to the performance of work under the research agreement, including related staff benefit and pension plan costs to the extent that such items are consistently accorded to all employees and treated by the hospital as direct rather than indirect costs (see paragraph E.2.d(2)); the costs of materials consumed or expended in the performance of such work; and other items of expense incurred for the research agreement, such as extraordinary utility consumption. The cost of materials supplied from stock or services rendered by specialized facilities or other institutional service operations may be included as direct costs of research agreements provided such items are consistently treated by the institution as direct rather than indirect costs and are charged under a recognized method of costing or pricing designed to recover only the actual direct and indirect costs of such material or service and conforming to generally accepted cost accounting practices consistently followed by the institution.

E. Indirect Costs

1. General

Indirect costs are those that have been incurred for common or joint objectives, and thus are not readily subject to treatment as direct costs of research agreements or other ultimate or revenue producing cost centers. In hospitals such costs normally are classified but not necessarily restricted to the following functional categories: Depreciation; Administrative and General (including fringe benefits if not charged directly); Operation of Plant; Maintenance of Plant; Laundry and Linen Service; Housekeeping; Dietary; Maintenance of Personnel; and Medical Records and Library.

2. Criteria for Distribution

a. Base period.

A base period for distribution of indirect costs is the period during which such costs are incurred and accumulated for distribution to work performed within that period. The base period normally should coincide with the fiscal year established by the hospital, but in any event the base period should be so selected as to avoid inequities in the distribution of costs.

b. Need for cost groupings.

The overall objective of the allocation process is to distribute the indirect costs described in paragraph F. to organized research, patient care, instruction and training, and other hospital activities in reasonable proportions consistent with the nature and extent of the use of the hospital's resources by research personnel, medical staff, patients, students, and other personnel or organizations. In order to achieve this objective with reasonable precision, it may be necessary to provide for selective distribution by establishing separate groupings of cost within one or more of the functional categories of indirect costs referred to in paragraph E.1. In general, the cost groupings established within a functional category should constitute, in each case, a pool of those items of expense that are considered to be of like character in terms of their relative contribution to (or degree of remoteness from) the particular cost centers to which distribution is appropriate. Each such pool or cost grouping should then be distributed individually to the related cost centers, using the distribution base or method most appropriate in the light of the guides set out in 2.c. below. While this paragraph places primary emphasis on a step-down method of indirect cost computation, paragraph H. provides an alternate method which may be used under certain conditions.

c. Selection of distribution method.

Actual conditions must be taken into account in selecting the method or base to be used in distributing to related cost centers the expenses assembled under each of the individual cost groups established as indicated under 2.b. above. Where a distribution can be made by assignment of a cost grouping directly to the area benefited, the distribution should be made in that manner. Care should be given, however, to eliminate similar or duplicative costs from any other distribution made to this area. Where the expenses under a cost grouping are more general in nature, the distribution to related cost centers should be made through use of a selected base which will produce results which are equitable to both the Government and the hospital. In general, any cost element or cost-related factor associated with the hospital's work is potentially adaptable for use as a distribution base provided:

(1) It can readily be expressed in terms of dollars or other quantitative measure (total direct expenditures, direct salaries, man-hours applied, square feet utilized, hours of usage, number of documents processed, population served, and the like); and

(2) It is common to the related cost centers during the base period. The essential consideration in selection of the distribution base in each instance is that it be the one best suited for assigning the pool of costs to related cost centers in accord with the relative benefits derived; the traceable cause and effect relationship; or logic and reason, where neither benefit nor cause and effect relationship is determinable.

d. General consideration on cost groupings.

The extent to which separate cost groupings and selective distribution would be appropriate at a hospital is a matter of judgment to be determined on a case-by-case basis. Typical situations which may warrant the establishment of two or more separate cost groups (based on account classification or analysis) within a functional category include but are not limited to the following:

(1) Where certain items or categories of expense relate solely to one of the major divisions of the hospital (patient care, sponsored research, instruction and training, or other hospital activities) or to any two but not all, such expenses should be set aside as a separate cost grouping for direct assignment or selective distribution in accordance with the guides provided in 2.b. and 2.c.above.

(2) Where any types of expense ordinary treated as indirect cost as outlined in paragraph are charged to research agreements as direct costs, the similar type expenses applicable to other activities of the institution must through separate cost grouping be excluded from the indirect costs allocable to research agreements.

(3) Where it is determined that certain expenses are for the support of a service unit or facility whose output is susceptible of measurement on a workload or other quantitative basis, such expenses should be set aside as a separate cost grouping for distribution on such basis to organized research and other hospital activities.

(4) Where organized activities (including identifiable segments of organized research as well as the activities cited inB.5.) provide their own purchasing, personnel administration, building maintenance, or housekeeping or similar service, the distribution of such elements of indirect cost to such activities should be accomplished through cost grouping which includes only that portion of central indirect costs (such as for overall management) which are properly allocable to such activities.

(5) Where the hospital elects to treat as indirect charges the costs of pension plans and other staff benefits, such costs should be set aside as a separate cost grouping for selective distribution to related cost centers, including organized research.

(6) Where the hospital is affiliated with a medical school or some other institution which performs organized research on the hospital's premises, every effort should be made to establish separate cost groupings in the Administrative and General or other applicable category which will reasonably reflect the use of services and facilities by such research. (See also paragraph.)

e. Materiality.

Where it is determined that the use of separate cost groupings and selective distribution are necessary to produce equitable results, the number of such separate cost groupings within a functional category should be held within practical limits, after taking into consideration the materiality of the amounts involved and the degree of precision attainable through less selective methods of distribution.

3. Administration of Limitations on Allowances for Indirect Costs

a. Research grants may be subject to laws and/or administrative regulations that limit the allowance for indirect costs under each such grant to a stated percentage of the direct costs allowed. Agencies that sponsor such grants will establish procedures which will assure that:

(1) The terms and amount authorized in each case conform with the provisions of paragraphs C, E, and I of these principles as they apply to matters involving the consistent treatment and allowability of individual items of cost; and

(2) The amount actually allowed for indirect costs under each such research grant does not exceed the maximum allowable under the limitation or the amount otherwise allowable under these principles, whichever is the smaller.

b. Where the actual allowance for indirect costs on any research grant must be restricted to the smaller of the two alternative amounts referred to in 3.a. above, such alternative amounts should be determined in accordance with the following guides:

(1) The maximum allowable under the limitation should be established by applying the stated percentage to a direct cost base which shall include all items of expenditure authorized by the sponsoring agency for inclusion as part of the total cost for the direct benefit of the work under the grant; and

(2) The amount otherwise allowable under these principles should be established by applying the current institutional indirect cost rate to those elements of direct cost which were included in the base on which the rate was computed.

c. When the maximum amount allowable under a statutory limitation or the terms of a research agreement is less than the amount otherwise allocable as indirect costs under these principles, the amount not recoverable as indirect costs under the research agreement involved may not be shifted to other research agreements.

F. Identification and Assignment of Indirect Costs

1. Depreciation or Use Charge

a. The expenses under this heading should include depreciation (as defined in paragraph I.2.i(1)) on buildings, fixed equipment, and movable equipment, except to the extent purchased through federal funds. Where adequate records for the recording of depreciation are not available, a use charge may be substituted for depreciation (See paragraph I.2.)

b. The expenses included in this category should be allocated to applicable cost centers in a manner consistent with the guides set forth in paragraph E.2., on a basis that gives primary emphasis to (a) space utilization with respect to depreciation on buildings and fixed equipment; and (b) specific identification of assets and their use with respect to movable equipment as it relates to patient care, organized research, instruction and training, and other hospital activities. Where such records are not sufficient for the purpose of the foregoing, reasonable estimates will suffice as a means for effecting distribution of the amounts involved.

2. Administration and General Expenses

a. The expenses under this heading are those that have been incurred for the administrative offices of the hospital including accounting, personnel, purchasing, information centers, telephone expense, and the like which do not relate solely to any major division of the institution, i.e., solely to patient care, organized research, instruction and training, or other hospital activities.

b. The expenses included in this category may be allocated on the basis of total expenditures exclusive of capital expenditures, or salaries and wages in situations where the results of the distribution made on this basis are deemed to be equitable both to the Government and the hospital; otherwise the distribution of Administration and General expenses should be made through use of selected bases, applied to separate cost groupings established within this category of expenses in accordance with the guides set out in paragraph E.2.

3. Operation of Plant

a. The expenses under this heading are those that have been incurred by a central service organization or at the departmental level for the administration, supervision, and provision of utilities (exclusive of telephone expense) and protective services to the physical plant. They include expenses incurred for such items as power plant operations, general utility costs, elevator operations, protection services, and general parking lots.

b. The expenses included in this category should be allocated to applicable cost centers in a manner consistent with the guides provided in paragraph E.2., on a basis that gives primary emphasis to space utilization. The allocations should be developed as follows:

(1) Where actual space and related cost records are available or can readily be developed and maintained without significant change in the accounting practices, the amount distributed should be based on such records;

(2) Where the space and related cost records maintained are not sufficient for purposes of the foregoing, a reasonable estimate of the proportion of total space assigned to the various costs centers normally will suffice as a means for effecting distribution of the amounts involved; or

(3) Where it can be demonstrated that an area or volume or space basis of allocation is impractical or inequitable, other bases may be used provided consideration is given to the use of facilities by research personnel and others, including patients.

4. Maintenance of Plant

a. The expenses under this heading should include:

(1) All salaries and wages pertaining to ordinary repair and maintenance work performed by employees on the payroll of the hospital;

(2) All supplies and parts used in the ordinary repairing and maintaining of buildings and general equipment; and

(3) Amounts paid to outside concerns for the ordinary repairing and maintaining of buildings and general equipment.

b. The expenses included in this category should be allocated to applicable cost centers in a manner consistent with the guides provided in paragraph E.2. on a basis that gives primary emphasis to space utilization. The allocations and apportionments should be developed as follows:

(1) Where actual space and related cost records are available and can readily be developed and maintained without significant change in the accounting practices, the amount distributed should be based on such records;

(2) Where the space and related cost records maintained are not sufficient for purposes of the foregoing, a reasonable estimate of the proportion of total space assigned to the various cost centers normally will suffice as a means for effecting distribution of the amounts involved; or

(3) Where it can be demonstrated that an area or volume of space basis of allocation is impractical or inequitable, other basis may be used provided consideration is given to the use of facilities by research personnel and others, including patients.

5. Laundry and Linen

a. The expenses under this heading should include:

(1) Salaries and wages of laundry department employees, seamstresses, clean linen handlers, linen delivery men, etc.;

(2) Supplies used in connection with the laundry operation and all linens purchased; and

(3) Amounts paid to outside concerns for purchased laundry and/or linen service.

b. The expense included in this category should be allocated to related cost centers in a manner consistent with the guides provided in paragraph E.2. on a basis that gives primary emphasis to actual pounds of linen used. The allocations should be developed as follows:

(1) Where actual poundage and related cost records are available or can readily be developed and maintained without significant change in the accounting practices, the amount distributed should be based on such records;

(2) Where it can be demonstrated that a poundage basis of allocation is impractical or inequitable other bases may be used provided consideration is given to the use of linen by research personnel and others, including patients.

6. Housekeeping

a. The expenses under this heading should include:

(1) All salaries and wages of the department head, foreman, maids, porters, janitors, wall washers, and other housekeeping employees;

(2) All supplies used in carrying out the housekeeping functions; and

(3) Amounts paid to outside concerns for purchased services such as window washing, insect extermination, etc.

b. The expenses included in this category should be allocated to related cost centers in a manner consistent with the guides provided in paragraph E.2. on a basis that gives primary emphasis to space actually serviced by the housekeeping department. The allocations and apportionments should be developed as follows:

(1) Where actual space serviced and related cost records are available or can readily be developed and maintained without significant change in the accounting practices, the amount distributed should be based on such records;

(2) Where the space serviced and related cost records maintained are not sufficient for purposes of the foregoing, a reasonable estimate of the proportion of total space assigned to the various cost centers normally will suffice as a means for effecting distribution of the amounts of housekeeping expenses involved; or

(3) Where it can be demonstrated that the space serviced basis of allocation is impractical or inequitable, other bases may be used provided consideration is given to the use of housekeeping services by research personnel and others, including patients.

7. Dietary

a. These expenses, as used herein, shall mean only the subsidy provided by the hospital to its employees including research personnel through its cafeteria operation. The hospital must be able to demonstrate through the use of proper cost accounting techniques that the cafeteria operates at a loss to the benefit of employees.

b. The reasonable operating loss of a subsidized cafeteria operation should be allocated to related cost centers in a manner consistent with the guides provided in paragraph E.2. on a basis that gives primary emphasis to number of employees.

8. Maintenance (Housing) of Personnel

a. The expenses under this heading should include:

(1) The salaries and wages of matrons, clerks, and other employees engaged in work in nurses' residences and other employees' quarters;

(2) All supplies used in connection with the operation of such dormitories; and

(3) Payments to outside agencies for the rental of houses, apartments, or rooms used by hospital personnel.

b. The expenses included in this category should be allocated to related cost centers in a manner consistent with the guides provided in paragraph E.2. on a basis that gives primary emphasis to employee utilization of housing facilities. The allocation should be developed as follows:

(1) Appropriate credit should be given for all payments received from employees or otherwise to reduce the expense to be allocated;

(2) A net cost per housed employee may then be computed; and

(3) Allocation should be made on a departmental basis based on the number of housed employees in each respective department.

9. Medical Records and Library

a. The expenses under this heading should include:

(1) The salaries and wages of the records librarian, medical librarian, clerks, stenographers, etc.; and

(2) All supplies such as medical record forms, chart covers, filing supplies, stationery, medical library books, periodicals, etc.

b. The expenses included in this category should be allocated to related cost centers in a manner consistent with the guides provided in paragraph E.2. on a basis that gives primary emphasis to a special time survey of medical records personnel. If this appears to be impractical or inequitable, other bases may be used provided consideration is given to the use of these facilities by research personnel and others, including patients.

G. Determination and Application of Indirect Cost Rate or Rates

1. Indirect Cost Pools

a. Subject to b. below, indirect costs allocated to organized research should be treated as a common pool, and the costs in such common pool should be distributed to individual research agreements benefiting therefrom on a single rate basis.

b. In some instances a single rate basis for use on all government research at a hospital may not be appropriate since it would not take into account those different environmental factors which may affect substantially the indirect costs applicable to a particular segment of government research at the institution. For this purpose, a particular segment of government research may be that performed under a single research agreement or it may consist of research under a group of research agreements performed in a common environment. The environmental factors are not limited to the physical location of the work. Other important factors are the level of the administrative support required, the nature of the facilities or other resources employed, the scientific disciplines or technical skills involved, the organizational arrangements used, or any combination thereof. Where a particular segment of government research is performed within an environment which appears to generate a significantly different level of indirect costs, provision should be made for a separate indirect cost pool applicable to such work. An example of this differential may be in the development of a separate indirect cost pool for a clinical research center grant. The separate indirect cost pool should be developed during the course of the regular distribution process, and the separate indirect cost rate resulting therefrom should be utilized provided it is determined that:

(1) Such indirect cost rate differs significantly from that which would have obtained under a. above; and

(2) The volume of research work to which such rate would apply is material in relation to other government research at the institution.

c. It is a common practice for grants or contracts awarded to other institutions, typically University Schools of Medicine, to be performed on hospital premises. In these cases the hospital should develop a separate indirect cost pool applicable to the work under such grants or contracts. This pool should be developed by a selective distribution of only those indirect cost categories which benefit the work performed by the other institution, within the practical limits dictated by available data and the materiality of the amounts involved. Hospital costs determined to be allocable to grants or contracts awarded to another institution may not be recovered as a cost of grants or contracts awarded directly to the hospital.

2. The Distribution Base

Preferably, indirect costs allocated to organized research should be distributed to applicable research agreements on the basis of direct salaries and wages. However, where the use of salaries and wages results in an inequitable allocation of costs to the research agreements, total direct costs or a variation thereof, may be used in lieu of salaries and wages. Regardless of the base used, an indirect cost rate should be determined for each of the separate indirect cost pools developed pursuant to paragraph G.1. The rate in each case should be stated as the percentage which the amount of the particular indirect cost pool is of the total direct salaries and wages (or other base selected) for all research agreements identified with such a pool.

3. Negotiated Lump Sum for Overhead

A negotiated fixed amount in lieu of indirect costs may be appropriate for self-contained or off-campus research activities where the benefits derived from a hospital's indirect services cannot be readily determined. Such amount negotiated in lieu of indirect costs will be treated as an offset to the appropriate indirect cost pool after allocation to patient care, organized research, instruction and training, and other hospital activities. The base on which such remaining expenses are allocated should be appropriately adjusted.

4. Predetermined Overhead Rates

The utilization of predetermined fixed overhead rates may offer potential advantages in the administration of research agreements by facilitating the preparation of research budgets and permitting more expeditious close out of the agreements when the work is completed. Therefore, to the extent allowed by law, consideration may be given to the negotiation of predetermined fixed rates in those situations where the cost experience and other pertinent factors available are deemed sufficient to enable the Government and the hospital to reach a reasonable conclusion as to the probable level of the indirect cost rate for the ensuing accounting period.

H. Simplified Method for Small Institutions

1. General

a. Where the total direct cost of all government-sponsored research and development work at a hospital in a year is minimal, the use of the abbreviated procedure described in paragraph H.2. below may be acceptable in the determination of allowable indirect costs. This method may also be used to initially determine a provisional indirect cost rate for hospitals that have not previously established a rate. Under this abbreviated procedure, data taken directly from the institution's most recent annual financial report and immediately available supporting information will be utilized as a basis for determining the indirect cost rate applicable to research agreements at the institution.

b. The rigid formula approach provided under the abbreviated procedure has limitations which may preclude its use at some hospitals either because the minimum data required for this purpose are not readily available or because the application of the abbreviated procedure to the available data produces results which appear inequitable to the Government or the hospital. In any such case, indirect costs should be determined through use of the regular procedure rather than the abbreviated procedure.

c. In certain instances where the total direct cost of all government-sponsored research and development work at the hospital is more than minimal, the abbreviated procedure may be used if prior permission is obtained. This alternative will be granted only in those cases where it can be demonstrated that the step-down technique cannot be followed.

2. Abbreviated Procedure

a. Total expenditures as taken from the most recent annual financial report will be adjusted by eliminating from further consideration expenditures for capital items as defined in paragraph I.2.d. and unallowable costs as defined under various headings in paragraph I. and paragraph C.5.

b. Total expenditures as adjusted under the foregoing will then be distributed among (1) expenditures applicable to administrative and general overhead functions, (2) expenditures applicable to all other overhead functions, and (3) expenditures for all other purposes. The first group shall include amounts associated with the functional categories, Administration and General, and Dietary, as defined in paragraphs F.2. and 7. The second group shall include Depreciation, Operation of Plant, Maintenance of Plant, and Housekeeping. The third group—expenditures for all other purposes—shall include the amounts applicable to all other activities, namely, patient care, organized research, instruction and training, and other hospital activities as defined under paragraph B.5. For the purposes of this section, the functional categories of Laundry and Linen, Maintenance of Personnel, and Medical Records and Library as defined in paragraph E. shall be considered as expenditures for all other purposes.

c. The expenditures distributed to the first two groups in paragraph H.2.b. should then be adjusted by those receipts or negative expenditure types of transactions which tend to reduce expense items allocable to research agreements as indirect costs. Examples of such receipts or negative expenditures are itemized in paragraph C.5.a.

d. In applying the procedures in paragraphs H.2.a and 2.b, the cost of unallowable activities such as Gift Shop, Investment Property Management, Fund Raising, and Public Relations, when they benefit from the hospital's indirect cost services, should be treated as expenditures for all other purposes. Such activities are presumed to benefit from the hospital's indirect cost services when they include salaries of personnel working in the hospital. When they do not include such salaries, they should be eliminated from the indirect cost rate computation.

e. The indirect cost rate will then be computed in two stages. The first stage requires the computation of an Administrative and General rate component. This is done by applying a ratio of research direct costs over total direct costs to the Administrative and General pool developed under paragraphs H.2.b and 2.c. above. The resultant amount—that which is allocable to research—is divided by the direct research cost base. The second stage requires the computation of an All Other Indirect Cost rate component. This is done by applying a ratio of research direct space over total direct space to All Other Indirect Cost pool developed under paragraphs H.2.b. and 2.c. above. The resultant amount—that which is allocable to research—is divided by the direct research cost base.

The total of the two rate components will be the institution's indirect cost rate. For the purposes of this section, the research direct cost or space and total direct cost or space will be that cost or space identified with the functional categories classified under Expenditures for all other purposes under paragraph H.2.b.

I. General Standards for Selected Items of Cost

1. General

This section provides standards to be applied in establishing the allowability of certain items involved in determining cost. These standards should apply irrespective of whether a particular item of cost is properly treated as direct cost or indirect cost. Failure to mention a particular item of cost in the standards is not intended to imply that it is either allowable or unallowable; rather, determination as to allowability in each case should be based on the treatment or standards provided for similar or related items of cost. In case of discrepancy between the provisions of a specific research agreement and the applicable standards provided, the provisions of the research agreement should govern. However, in some cases advance understandings should be reached on particular cost items in order that the full costs of research be supported. The extent of allowability of the selected items of cost covered in this section has been stated to apply broadly to many accounting systems in varying environmental situations. Thus, as to any given research agreement, the reasonableness and allocability of certain items of costs may be difficult to determine, particularly in connection with hospitals which have medical school or other affiliations. In order to avoid possible subsequent disallowance or dispute based on unreasonableness or nonallocability, it is important that prospective recipients of federal funds, particularly those whose work is predominantly or substantially with the Government, seek agreement with the Government in advance of the incurrence of special or unusual costs in categories where reasonableness or allocability are difficult to determine. Such agreement may also be initiated by the Government. Any such agreement should be incorporated in the research agreement itself. However, the absence of such an advance agreement on any element of cost will not in itself serve to make that element either allowable or unallowable. Examples of costs on which advance agreements may be particularly important are:

a. Facilities costs, such as;

(1) Depreciation

(2) Rental

(3) Use charges for fully depreciated assets

(4) Idle facilities and idle capacity

(5) Plant reconversion

(6) Extraordinary or deferred maintenance and repair

(7) Acquisition of automatic data processing equipment.

b. Pre-award costs

c. Non-hospital professional activities

d. Self-insurance

e. Support services charged directly (computer services, printing and duplicating services, etc.)

f. Employee compensation, travel, and other personnel costs, including:

(1) Compensation for personal service, including wages and salaries, bonuses and incentives, premium payments, pay for time not worked, and supplementary compensation and benefits, such as pension and retirement, group insurance, severance pay plans, and other forms of compensation;

(2) Morale, health, welfare, and food service and dormitory costs.

(3) Training and education costs.

(4) Relocation costs, including special or mass personnel movement.

2. Selected Items

a. Advertising costs. The term advertising costs means the costs of advertising media and corollary administrative costs. Advertising media include magazines, newspapers, radio and television programs, direct mail, exhibits, and the like. The only advertising costs allowable are those which are solely for:

(1) The recruitment of persons required for the performance by the institution of obligations arising under the research agreement, when considered in conjunction with all other recruitment costs as set forth in paragraph I.2.hh;

(2) The procurement of scarce items for the performance of the research agreement; or

(3) The disposal of scrap or surplus materials acquired in the performance of the research agreement.

Costs of this nature, if incurred for more than one research agreement or for both research agreement work and other work of the institution, are allowable to the extent that the principles in paragraphs D. and E. are observed.

b. Bad debts. Losses arising from uncollectible accounts and other claims and related collection and legal costs are unallowable except that a bad debt may be included as a direct cost of the research agreement to the extent that it is caused by a research patient and approved by the awarding agency. This inclusion is only intended to cover the situation of the patient admitted for research purposes who subsequently or in conjunction with the research receives clinical care for which a charge is made to the patient. If, after exhausting all means of collecting these charges, a bad debt results, it may be considered an appropriate charge to the research agreement.

c. Bonding costs.

(1) Bonding costs arise when the Government requires assurance against financial loss to itself or others by reason of the act or default of the hospital. They arise also in instances where the hospital requires similar assurance.

Included are such types as bid, performance, payment, advance payment, infringement, and fidelity bonds.

(2) Costs of bonding required pursuant to the terms of the research agreement are allowable.

(3) Costs of bonding required by the hospital in the general conduct of its business are allowable to the extent that such bonding is in accordance with sound business practice and the rates and premiums are reasonable under the circumstances.

d. Capital expenditures. The costs of equipment, buildings, and repairs which materially increase the value or useful life of buildings or equipment should be capitalized and are unallowable except as provided for in the research agreement.

e. Civil defense costs. Civil defense costs are those incurred in planning for, and the protection of life and property against the possible effects of enemy attack. Reasonable costs of civil defense measures (including costs in excess of normal plant protection costs, first-aid training and supplies, fire-fighting training, posting of additional exit notices and directions, and other approved civil defense measures) undertaken on the institution's premises pursuant to suggestions or requirements of civil defense authorities are allowable when distributed to all activities of the institution. Capital expenditures for civil defense purposes will not be allowed, but a use allowance or depreciation may be permitted in accordance with provisions set forth elsewhere. Costs of local civil defense projects not on the institution's premises are unallowable.

f. Communication costs. Costs incurred for telephone services, local and long distance telephone calls, telegrams, radiograms, postage, and the like are allowable.

g. Compensation for personal services.

(1) General

Compensation for personal services covers all remuneration paid currently or accrued to employees of the hospital for services rendered during the period of performance under government research agreements. Such remuneration includes salaries, wages, staff benefits (see paragraph I.2.j.), and pension plan costs (see paragraph I.2.y.). The costs of such remuneration are allowable to the extent that the total compensation to individual employees is reasonable for the services rendered and conforms to the established policy of the institution consistently applied, and provided that the charges for work performed directly on government research agreements and for other work allocable as indirect costs to sponsored research are determined and supported as hereinafter provided. For non-profit, non-proprietary institutions, where federally supported programs constitute less than a preponderance of the activity at the institution the primary test of reasonableness will be to require that the institution's compensation policies be applied consistently both to federally-sponsored and non-sponsored activities alike. However, where special circumstances so dictate a contractual clause may be utilized which calls for application of the test of comparability in determining the reasonableness of compensation.

(2) Payroll Distribution

Amounts charged to organized research for personal services, regardless of whether treated as direct costs or allocated as indirect costs, will be based on hospital payrolls which have been approved and documented in accordance with generally accepted hospital practices. In order to develop necessary direct and indirect allocations of cost, supplementary data on time or effort as provided in paragraph (3) below, normally need be required only for individuals whose compensation is properly chargeable to two or more research agreements or to two or more of the following broad functional categories: (i) Patient care; (ii) organized research; (iii) instruction and training; (iv) indirect activities as defined in paragraph E.1.; or (v) other hospital activities as defined in paragraph B.5.

(3) Reporting Time or Effort

Charges for salaries and wages of individuals other than members of the professional staff will be supported by daily time and attendance and payroll distribution records. For members of the professional staff, current and reasonable estimates of the percentage distribution of their total effort may be used as support in the absence of actual time records. The term professional staff for purposes of this section includes physicians, research associates, and other personnel performing work at responsible levels of activities. These personnel normally fulfill duties, the competent performance of which usually requires persons possessing degrees from accredited institutions of higher learning and/or state licensure. In order to qualify as current and reasonable, estimates must be made no later than one month (though not necessarily a calendar month) after the month in which the services were performed.

(4) Preparation of Estimates of Effort

Where required under paragraph (3) above, estimates of effort spent by a member of the professional staff on each research agreement should be prepared by the individual who performed the services or by a responsible individual such as a department head or supervisor having first-hand knowledge of the services performed on each research agreement. Estimates must show the allocation of effort between organized research and all other hospital activities in terms of the percentage of total effort devoted to each of the broad functional categories referred to in (2) above. The estimate of effort spent on a research agreement may include a reasonable amount of time spent in activities contributing and intimately related to work under the agreement, such as preparing and delivering special lectures about specific aspects of the ongoing research, writing research reports and articles, participating in appropriate research seminars, consulting with colleagues with respect to related research, and attending appropriate scientific meetings and conferences. The term “all other hospital activities” would include departmental research, administration, committee work, and public services undertaken on behalf of the hospital.

(5) Application of Budget Estimates

Estimates determined before the performance of services, such as budget estimates on a monthly, quarterly, or yearly basis do not qualify as estimates of effort spent.

(6) Non-Hospital Professional Activities

A hospital must not alter or waive hospital-wide policies and practices dealing with the permissible extent of professional services over and above those traditionally performed without extra hospital compensation, unless such arrangements are specifically authorized by the sponsoring agency. Where hospital-wide policies do not adequately define the permissible extent of consultantships or other non-hospital activities undertaken for extra pay, the Government may require that the effort of professional staff working under research agreements be allocated as between (i) hospital activities, and (ii) non-hospital professional activities. If the sponsoring agency should consider the extent of non-hospital professional effort excessive, appropriate arrangements governing compensation will be negotiated on a case by case basis.

(7) Salary Rates for Part-Time Appointments

Charges for work performed on government research by staff members having only part-time appointments will be determined at a rate not in excess of that for which he is regularly paid for his part-time staff assignment.

h. Contingency provisions.

Contributions to a contingency reserve or any similar provisions made for events the occurrence of which cannot be foretold with certainty as to time, intensity, or with an assurance of their happening, are unallowable.

i. Depreciation and use allowances.

(1) Hospitals may be compensated for the use of buildings, capital improvements and usable equipment on hand through depreciation or use allowances. Depreciation is a charge to current operations which distributes the cost of a tangible capital asset, less estimated residual value, over the estimated useful life of the asset in a systematic and logical manner. It does not involve a process of valuation. Useful life has reference to the prospective period of economic usefulness in the particular hospital's operations as distinguished from physical life. Use allowances are the means of allowing compensation when depreciation or other equivalent costs are not considered.

(2) Due consideration will be given to government-furnished research facilities utilized by the institution when computing use allowances and/or depreciation if the government-furnished research facilities are material in amount. Computation of the use allowance and/or depreciation will exclude both the cost or any portion of the cost of grounds, buildings and equipment borne by or donated by the Federal Government, irrespective of where title was originally vested or where it presently resides, and secondly, the cost of grounds. Capital expenditures for land improvements (paved areas, fences, streets, sidewalks, utility conduits, and similar improvements not already included in the cost of buildings) are allowable provided the systematic amortization of such capital expenditures has been provided in the institution's books of accounts, based on reasonable determinations of the probable useful lives of the individual items involved, and the share allocated to organized research is developed from the amount thus amortized for the base period involved.

(3) Normal depreciation on a hospital's plant, equipment, and other capital facilities, except as excluded by (4) below, is an allowable element of research cost provided that the amount thereof is computed:

i. Upon the property cost basis used by the hospital for Federal Income Tax purposes (See section 167 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954); or

ii. In the case of non-profit or tax exempt organizations, upon a property cost basis which could have been used by the hospital for Federal Income Tax purposes, had such hospital been subject to the payment of income tax; and in either case

iii. By the consistent application to the assets concerned of any generally accepted accounting method, and subject to the limitations of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 as amended, including—

(a) The straight line method;

(b) The declining balance method, using a rate not exceeding twice the rate which would have been used had the annual allowance been computed under the method described in (a) above;

(c) The sum of the years-digits method; and

(d) Any other consistent method productive of an annual allowance which, when added to all allowances for the period commencing with the use of the property and including the current year, does not during the first two-thirds of the useful life of the property exceed the total of such allowances which would have been used had such allowances been computed under the method described in (b) above.

(4) Where the depreciation method is followed, adequate property records must be maintained. The period of useful service (service life) established in each case for usable capital assets must be determined on a realistic basis which takes into consideration such factors as type of construction, nature of the equipment used, technological developments in the particular research area, and the renewal and replacement policies followed for the individual items or classes of assets involved. Where the depreciation method is introduced for application to assets acquired in prior years, the annual charges therefrom must not exceed the amounts that would have resulted had the depreciation method been in effect from the date of acquisition of such assets.

(5) Depreciation on idle or excess facilities shall not be allowed except on such facilities as are reasonably necessary for standby purposes.

(6) Where an institution elects to go on a depreciation basis for a particular class of assets, no depreciation, rental or use charge may be allowed on any such assets that would be viewed as fully depreciated; provided, however, that reasonable use charges may be negotiated for any such assets if warranted after taking into consideration the cost of the facility or item involved, the estimated useful life remaining at time of negotiation, the actual replacement policy followed in the light of service lives used for calculating depreciation, the effect of any increased maintenance charges or decreased efficiency due to age, and any other factors pertinent to the utilization of the facility or item for the purpose contemplated.

(7) Hospitals which choose a depreciation allowance for assets purchased prior to 1966 based on a percentage of operating costs in lieu of normal depreciation for purposes of reimbursement under Pub. L. 89-97 (Medicare) shall utilize that method for determining depreciation applicable to organized research.

The operating costs to be used are the lower of the hospital's 1965 operating costs or the hospital's current year's allowable costs. The percent to be applied is 5 percent starting with the year 1966-67, with such percentage being uniformity reduced by one-half percent each succeeding year. The allowance based on operating costs is in addition to regular depreciation on assets acquired after 1965. However, the combined amount of such allowance on pre-1966 assets and the allowance for actual depreciation on assets acquired after 1965 may not exceed 6 percent of the hospital's allowable cost for the current year. After total depreciation has been computed, allocation methods are used to determine the share attributable to organized research.

For purposes of this section, Operating Costs means the total costs incurred by the hospital in operating the institution, and includes patient care, research, and other activities. Allowable Costs means operating costs less unallowable costs as defined in these principles; by the application of allocation methods to the total amount of such allowable costs, the share attributable to Federally-sponsored research is determined.

A hospital which elects to use this procedure under Pub. L. 89-97 and subsequently changes to an actual depreciation basis on pre-1966 assets in accordance with the option afforded under the Medicare program shall simultaneously change to an actual depreciation basis for organized research.

Where the hospital desires to change to actual depreciation but either has no historical cost records or has incomplete records, the determination of historical cost could be made through appropriate means involving expert consultation with the determination being subject to review and approval by the Department of Health and Human Services.

(8) Where the use allowance method is followed, the use allowance for buildings and improvements will be computed at an annual rate not exceeding two percent of acquisition cost. The use allowance for equipment will be computed at an annual rate not exceeding six and two-thirds percent of acquisition cost of usable equipment in those cases where the institution maintains current records with respect to such equipment on hand. Where the institution's records reflect only the cost (actual or estimated) of the original complement of equipment, the use allowance will be computed at an annual rate not exceeding ten percent of such cost. Original complement for this purpose means the complement of equipment initially placed in buildings to perform the functions currently being performed in such buildings; however, where a permanent change in the function of a building takes place, a redetermination of the original complement of equipment may be made at that time to establish a new original complement. In those cases where no equipment records are maintained, the institution will justify a reasonable estimate of the acquisition cost of usable equipment which may be used to compute the use allowance at an annual rate not exceeding six and two-thirds percent of such estimate.

(9) Depreciation and/or use charges should usually be allocated to research and other activities as an indirect cost.

j. Employee morale, health, and welfare costs and credits.

The costs of house publications, health or first-aid benefits, recreational activities, employees' counseling services, and other expenses incurred in accordance with the hospital's established practice or custom for the improvement of working conditions, employer-employee relations, employee morale, and employee performance, are allowable. Such costs will be equitably apportioned to all activities of the hospital. Income generated from any of these activities will be credited to the cost thereof unless such income has been irrevocably set over to employee welfare organizations.

k. Entertainment costs.

Except as pertains to j. above, costs incurred for amusement, social activities, entertainment, and any items relating thereto, such as meals, lodging, rentals, transportation, and gratuities are unallowable.

l. Equipment and other facilities.

The cost of equipment or other facilities are allowable on a direct charge basis where such purchases are approved by the sponsoring agency concerned or provided for by the terms of the research agreement.

m. Fines and penalties.

Costs resulting from violations of, or failure of the institution to comply with federal, state and local laws and regulations are unallowable except when incurred as a result of compliance with specific provisions of the research agreement, or instructions in writing from the awarding agency.

n. Insurance and indemnification.

(1) Costs of insurance required or approved and maintained pursuant to the research agreement are allowable.

(2) Costs of other insurance maintained by the hospital in connection with the general conduct of its activities are allowable subject to the following limitations: (i) Types and extent and cost of coverage must be in accordance with sound institutional practice; (ii) costs of insurance or of any contributions to any reserve covering the risk of loss of or damage to government owned property are unallowable except to the extent that the Government has specifically required or approved such costs; and (iii) costs of insurance on the lives of officers or trustees are unallowable except where such insurance is part of an employee plan which is not unduly restricted.

(3) Contributions to a reserve for an approved self-insurance program are allowable to the extent that the types of coverage, extent of coverage, and the rates and premiums would have been allowed had insurance been purchased to cover the risks. Such contributions are subject to prior approval of the Government.

(4) Actual losses which could have been covered by permissible insurance (through an approved self-insurance program or otherwise) are unallowable unless expressly provided for in the research agreement, except that costs incurred because of losses not covered under nominal deductible insurance coverage provided in keeping with sound management practice as well as minor losses not covered by insurance such as spoilage, breakage and disappearance of small hand tools which occur in the ordinary course of operations are allowable.

o. Interest, fund raising and investment management costs.

(1) Costs incurred for interest on borrowed capital or temporary use of endowment funds, however represented, are unallowable.

(2) Costs of organized fund raising, including financial campaigns, endowment drives, solicitation of gifts and bequests, and similar expenses incurred solely to raise capital or obtain contributions are not allowable.

(3) Costs of investment counsel and staff and similar expenses incurred solely to enhance income from investments are not allowable.

(4) Costs related to the physical custody and control of monies and securities are allowable.

p. Labor relations costs.

Costs incurred in maintaining satisfactory relations between the hospital and its employees, including costs of labor management committees, employees' publications, and other related activities are allowable.

q. Losses on research agreements or contracts.

Any excess of costs over income under any agreement or contract of any nature is unallowable. This includes, but is not limited to, the hospital's contributed portion by reason of cost-sharing agreements, under-recoveries through negotiation of flat amounts for overhead, or legal or administrative limitations.

r. Maintenance and repair costs.

(1) Costs necessary for the upkeep of property (including government property unless otherwise provided for), which neither add to the permanent value of the property nor appreciably prolong its intended life, but keep it in an efficient operating condition, are to be treated as follows:

i. Normal maintenance and repair costs are allowable;

ii. Extraordinary maintenance and repair costs are allowable, provided they are allocated to the periods to which applicable for purposes of determining research costs.

(2) Expenditures for plant and equipment, including rehabilitation thereof, which according to generally accepted accounting principles as applied under the hospital's established policy, should be capitalized and subjected to depreciation, are allowable only on a depreciation basis.

s. Material costs.

Costs incurred for purchased materials, supplies and fabricated parts directly or indirectly related to the research agreement, are allowable. Purchases made specifically for the research agreement should be charged thereto at their actual prices after deducting all cash discounts, trade discounts, rebates, and allowances received by the institution. Withdrawals from general stores or stockrooms should be charged at their cost under any recognized method of pricing stores withdrawals conforming to sound accounting practices consistently followed by the hospital. Incoming transportation charges are a proper part of material cost. Direct material cost should include only the materials and supplies actually used for the performance of the research agreement, and due credit should be given for any excess materials retained or returned to vendors. Due credit should be given for all proceeds or value received for any scrap resulting from work under the research agreement. Where government donated or furnished material is used in performing the research agreement, such material will be used without charge.

t. Memberships, subscriptions and professional activity costs.

(1) Costs of the hospital's membership in civic, business, technical and professional organizations are allowable.

(2) Costs of the hospital's subscriptions to civic, business, professional and technical periodicals are allowable.

(3) Costs of meetings and conferences, when the primary purpose is the dissemination of technical information, are allowable. This includes costs of meals, transportation, rental of facilities, and other items incidental to such meetings or conferences.

u. Organization costs.

Expenditures such as incorporation fees, attorneys' fees, accountants' fees, brokers' fees, fees to promoters and organizers in connection with (1) organization or reorganization of a hospital, or (2) raising capital, are unallowable.

v. Other business expenses.

Included in this item are such recurring expenses as registry and transfer charges resulting from changes in ownership of securities issued by the hospital, cost of shareholders meetings preparation and publication of reports to shareholders, preparation and submission of required reports and forms to taxing and other regulatory bodies, and incidental costs of directors and committee meetings. The above and similar costs are allowable when allocated on an equitable basis.

w. Patient care.

The cost of routine and ancillary or special services to research patients is an allowable direct cost of research agreements.

(1) Routine services shall include the costs of the regular room, dietary and nursing services, minor medical and surgical supplies and the use of equipment and facilities for which a separate charge is not customarily made.

(2) Ancillary or special services are the services for which charges are customarily made in addition to routine services, such as operating rooms, anesthesia, laboratory, BMR-EKG, etc.

(3) Patient care, whether expressed as a rate or an amount, shall be computed in a manner consistent with the procedures used to determine reimbursable costs under Pub. L. 89-97 (Medicare Program) as defined under the “Principles of Reimbursement For Provider Costs” published by the Social Security Administration of the Department of Health and Human Services. The allowability of specific categories of cost shall be in accordance with those principles rather than the principles for research contained herein. In the absence of participation in the Medicare program by a hospital, all references to the Medicare program in these principles shall be construed as meaning the Medicaid program.

i. Once costs have been recognized as allowable, the indirect costs or general service center's cost shall be allocated (stepped-down) to special service centers, and all patient and nonpatient costs centers based upon actual services received or benefiting these centers.

ii. After allocation, routine and ancillary costs shall be apportioned to scatter-bed research patients on the same basis as is used to apportion costs to Medicare patients, i.e. using either the departmental method or the combination method, as those methods are defined by the Social Security Administration; except that final settlement shall be on a grant-by-grant basis. However, to the extent that the Social Security Administration has recognized any other method of cost apportionment, that method generally shall also be recognized as applicable to the determination of research patient care costs.

iii. A cost center must be established on Medicare reimbursement forms for each discrete-bed unit grant award received by a hospital. Routine costs should be stepped-down to this line item(s) in the normal course of stepping-down costs under Medicare/Medicaid requirements. However, in stepping-down routine costs, consideration must be given to preventing a step-down of those costs to discrete-bed unit line items that have already been paid for directly by the grant, such as bedside nursing costs. Ancillary costs allocable to research discrete-bed units shall be determined and proposed in accordance with paragraph w.(3).ii.

(4) Where federally sponsored research programs provide specifically for the direct reimbursement of nursing, dietary, and other services, appropriate adjustment must be made to patient care costs to preclude duplication and/or misallocation of costs.

x. Patent costs.

Costs of preparing disclosures, reports and other documents required by the research agreement and of searching the art to the extent necessary to make such invention disclosures are allowable. In accordance with the clauses of the research agreement relating to patents, costs of preparing documents and any other patent costs, in connection with the filing of a patent application where title is conveyed to the Government, are allowable. (See also paragraph I.2.jj.)

y. Pension plan costs.

Costs of the hospital's pension plan which are incurred in accordance with the established policies of the institution are allowable, provided such policies meet the test of reasonableness and the methods of cost allocation are not discriminatory, and provided appropriate adjustments are made for credits or gains arising out of normal and abnormal employee turnover or any other contingencies that can result in forfeitures by employees which inure to the benefit of the hospital.

z. Plan security costs.

Necessary expenses incurred to comply with government security requirements including wages, uniforms and equipment of personnel engaged in plant protection are allowable.

aa. Pre-research agreement costs.

Costs incurred prior to the effective date of the research agreement, whether or not they would have been allowable thereunder if incurred after such date, are unallowable unless specifically set forth and identified in the research agreement.

bb. Professional services costs.

(1) Costs of professional services rendered by the members of a particular profession who are not employees of the hospital are allowable subject to (2) and (3) below when reasonable in relation to the services rendered and when not contingent upon recovery of the costs from the Government. Retainer fees to be allowable must be reasonably supported by evidence of services rendered.

(2) Factors to be considered in determining the allowability of costs in a particular case include (i) the past pattern of such costs, particularly in the years prior to the award of government research agreements on the institution's total activity; (ii) the nature and scope of managerial services expected of the institution's own organizations; and (iii) whether the proportion of government work to the hospital's total activity is such as to influence the institution in favor of incurring the cost, particularly where the services rendered are not of a continuing nature and have little relationship to work under government research agreements.

(3) Costs of legal, accounting and consulting services, and related costs incurred in connection with organization and reorganization or the prosecution of claims against the Government are unallowable. Costs of legal, accounting and consulting services, and related costs incurred in connection with patent infringement litigation are unallowable unless otherwise provided for in the research agreement.

cc. Profits and losses on disposition of plant equipment, or other assets.

Profits or losses of any nature arising from the sale or exchange of plant, equipment, or other capital assets, including sales or exchange of either short- or long-term investments, shall be excluded in computing research agreement costs.

dd. Proposal costs.

Proposal costs are the costs of preparing bids or proposals on potential government and non-government research agreements or projects, including the development of technical data and cost data necessary to support the institution's bids or proposals. Proposal costs of the current accounting period of both successful and unsuccessful bids and proposals normally should be treated as indirect costs and allocated currently to all activities of the institution, and no proposal costs of past accounting periods will be allocable in the current period to the government research agreement. However, the institution's established practices may be to treat proposal costs by some other recognized method. Regardless of the methods used, the results obtained may be accepted only if found to be reasonable and equitable.

ee. Public information services costs.

Costs of news releases pertaining to specific research or scientific accomplishment are unallowable unless specifically authorized by the sponsoring agency.

ff. Rearrangement and alteration costs.

Costs incurred for ordinary or normal rearrangement and alteration of facilities are allowable. Special rearrangement and alteration costs incurred specifically for a project are allowable only as a direct charge when such work has been approved in advance by the sponsoring agency concerned.

gg. Reconversion costs.

Costs incurred in the restoration or rehabilitation of the institution's facilities to approximately the same condition existing immediately prior to commencement of government research agreement work, fair wear and tear excepted, are allowable.

hh. Recruiting costs.

(1) Subject to (2), (3), and (4) below, and provided that the size of the staff recruited and maintained is in keeping with workload requirements, costs of “help wanted” advertising, operating costs of an employment office necessary to secure and maintain an adequate staff, costs of operating an aptitude and educational testing program, travel costs of employees while engaged in recruiting personnel, travel costs of applicants for interviews for prospective employment, and relocation costs incurred incident to recruitment of new employees are allowable to the extent that such costs are incurred pursuant to a well-managed recruitment program. Where an institution uses employment agencies, costs not in excess of standard commercial rates for such services are allowable.

(2) In publications, costs of help wanted advertising that includes color, includes advertising material for other than recruitment purposes, or is excessive in size (taking into consideration recruitment purposes for which intended and normal institutional practices in this respect) are unallowable.

(3) Costs of help wanted advertising, special emoluments; fringe benefits, and salary allowances incurred to attract professional personnel from other institutions that do not meet the test of reasonableness or do not conform with the established practices of the institution are unallowable.

(4) Where relocation costs incurred incident to recruitment of a new employee have been allowed either as an allocable direct or indirect cost, and the newly hired employee resigns for reasons within his control within twelve months after hire, the institution will be required to refund or credit such relocations costs as were charged to the Government.

ii. Rental costs (including sale and lease-back of facilities).

(1) Rental costs of land, building, and equipment and other personal property are allowable if the rates are reasonable in light of such factors as rental costs of comparable facilities and market conditions in the area, the type, life expectancy, condition, and value of the facilities leased, options available, and other provisions of the rental agreement. Application of these factors, in situations where rentals are extensively used, may involve among other considerations comparison of rental costs with the amount which the hospital would have received had it owned the facilities.

(2) Charges in the nature of rent between organizations having a legal or other affiliation or arrangement such as hospitals, medical schools, foundations, etc., are allowable to the extent such charges do not exceed the normal costs of ownership such as depreciation, taxes, insurance, and maintenance, provided that no part of such costs shall duplicate any other allowed costs.

(3) Unless otherwise specifically provided in the agreement, rental costs specified in sale and lease-back agreements incurred by hospitals through selling plant facilities to investment organizations such as insurance companies or to private investors, and concurrently leasing back the same facilities are allowable only to the extent that such rentals do not exceed the amount which the hospital would have received had it retained legal title to the facilities.

jj. Royalties and other costs for use of patents.

Royalties on a patent or amortization of the cost of acquiring a patent or invention or rights thereto necessary for the proper performance of the research agreement and applicable to tasks or processes thereunder are allowable unless the Government has a license or the right to free use of the patent, the patent has been adjudicated to be invalid, or has been administratively determined to be invalid, the patent is considered to be unenforceable, or the patent has expired.

kk. Severance pay.

(1) Severance pay is compensation in addition to regular salaries and wages which is paid by a hospital to employees whose services are being terminated. Costs of severance pay are allowable only to the extent that such payments are required by law, by employer-employee agreement, by established policy that constitutes in effect an implied agreement on the institution's part, or by circumstances of the particular employment.

(2) Severance payments that are due to normal, recurring turnover, and which otherwise meet the conditions of (a) above may be allowed provided the actual costs of such severance payments are regarded as expenses applicable to the current fiscal year and are equitably distributed among the institution's activities during that period.

(3) Severance payments that are due to abnormal or mass terminations are of such conjectural nature that allowability must be determined on a case-by-case basis. However, the Government recognizes its obligation to participate to the extent of its fair share in any specific payment.

ll. Specialized service facilities operated by a hospital.

(1) The costs of institutional services involving the use of highly complex and specialized facilities such as electronic computers and reactors are allowable provided the charges therefor meet the conditions of (2) or (3) below, and otherwise take into account any items of income or federal financing that qualify as applicable credits under paragraph C.5.

(2) The costs of such hospital services normally will be charged directly to applicable research agreements based on actual usage or occupancy of the facilities at rates that (i) are designed to recover only actual costs of providing such services, and (ii) are applied on a nondiscriminatory basis as between organized research and other work of the hospital including commercial or accommodation sales and usage by the hospital for internal purposes. This would include use of such facilities as radiology, laboratories, maintenance men used for a special purpose, medical art, photography, etc.

(3) In the absence of an acceptable arrangement for direct costing as provided in (2) above, the costs incurred for such institutional services may be assigned to research agreements as indirect costs, provided the methods used achieve substantially the same results. Such arrangements should be worked out in coordination with all government users of the facilities in order to assure equitable distribution of the indirect costs.

mm. Special administrative costs.

Costs incurred for general public relations activities, catalogs, alumni activities, and similar services are unallowable.

nn. Staff and/or employee benefits.

(1) Staff and/or employee benefits in the form of regular compensation paid to employees during periods of authorized absences from the job such as for annual leave, sick leave, military leave and the like are allowable provided such costs are absorbed by all hospital activities including organized research in proportion to the relative amount of time or effort actually devoted to each.

(2) Staff benefits in the form of employer contributions or expenses for Social Security taxes, employee insurance, Workmen's Compensation insurance, the Pension Plan (see paragraph I.2.y.), hospital costs or remission of hospital charges to the extent of costs for individual employees or their families, and the like are allowable provided such benefits are granted in accordance with established hospital policies, and provided such contributions and other expenses whether treated as indirect costs or an increment of direct labor costs are distributed to particular research agreements and other activities in a manner consistent with the pattern of benefits accruing to the individuals or groups of employees whose salaries and wages are chargeable to such research agreements and other activities.

oo. Taxes.

(1) In general, taxes which the hospital is required to pay and which are paid or accrued in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and payments made to local governments in lieu of taxes which are commensurate with the local government services received are allowable except for (i) taxes from which exemptions are available to the hospital directly or which are available to the hospital based on an exemption afforded the Government and in the latter case when the sponsoring agency makes available the necessary exemption certificates, (ii) special assessments on land which represent capital improvements, and (iii) Federal Income Taxes.

(2) Any refund of taxes, interest, or penalties, and any payment to the hospital of interest thereon attributable to taxes, interest or penalties, which were allowed as research agreement costs will be credited or paid to the Government in the manner directed by the Government provided any interest actually paid or credited to a hospital incident to a refund of tax, interest, and penalty will be paid or credited to the Government only to the extent that such interest accrued over the period during which the hospital had been reimbursed by the Government for the taxes, interest, and penalties.

pp. Transportation costs.

Costs incurred for inbound freight, express, cartage, postage and other transportation services relating either to goods purchased, in process, or delivered are allowable. When such costs can readily be identified with the items involved, they may be charged directly as transportation costs or added to the cost of such items. Where identification with the material received cannot readily be made, inbound transportation costs may be charged to the appropriate indirect cost accounts if the institution follows a consistent equitable procedure in this respect. Outbound freight, if reimbursable under the terms of the research agreement, should be treated as a direct cost.

qq. Travel costs.

(1) Travel costs are the expenses for transportation, lodging, subsistence, and related items incurred by employees who are in travel status on official business of the hospital. Such costs may be charged on an actual basis, on a per diem or mileage basis in lieu of actual costs incurred, or on a combination of the two provided the method used is applied to an entire trip and not to selected days of the trip, and results in charges consistent with those normally allowed by the institution in its regular operations.

(2) Travel costs are allowable subject to (3) and (4) below when they are directly attributable to specific work under a research agreement or when they are incurred in the normal course of administration of the hospital or a department or research program thereof.

(3) The difference in cost between first class air accommodations and less than first class air accommodations is unallowable except when less than first class air accommodations are not reasonably available to meet necessary mission requirements such as where less than first class accommodations would (i) require circuitous routing, (ii) require travel during unreasonable hours, (iii) greatly increase the duration of the flight, (iv) result in additional costs which would offset the transportation savings, or (v) offer accommodations which are not reasonably adequate for the medical needs of the traveler.

(4) Costs of personnel movements of a special or mass nature are allowable only when authorized or approved in writing by the sponsoring agency or its authorized representative.

rr. Termination costs applicable to contracts.

(1) Contract terminations generally give rise to the incurrence of costs or to the need for special treatment of costs which would not have arisen had the contract not been terminated. Items peculiar to termination are set forth below. They are to be used in conjunction with all other provisions of these principles in the case of contract termination.

(2) The cost of common items of material reasonably usable on the hospital's other work will not be allowable unless the hospital submits evidence that it could not retain such items at cost without sustaining a loss. In deciding whether such items are reasonably usable on other work of the institution, consideration should be given to the hospital's plans for current scheduled work or activities including other research agreements. Contemporaneous purchases of common items by the hospital will be regarded as evidence that such items are reasonably usable on the hospital's other work. Any acceptance of common items as allowable to the terminated portion of the contract should be limited to the extent that the quantities of such items on hand, in transit, and on order are in excess of the reasonable quantitative requirement of other work.

(3) If in a particular case, despite all reasonable efforts by the hospital, certain costs cannot be discontinued immediately after the effective date of termination, such costs are generally allowable within the limitations set forth in these principles, except that any such costs continuing after termination due to the negligent or willful failure of the hospital to discontinue such costs will be considered unacceptable.

(4) Loss of useful value of special tooling and special machinery and equipment is generally allowable, provided (i) such special tooling, machinery or equipment is not reasonably capable of use in the other work of the hospital; (ii) the interest of the Government is protected by transfer of title or by other means deemed appropriate by the contracting officer; and (iii) the loss of useful value as to any one terminated contract is limited to that portion of the acquisition cost which bears the same ratio to the total acquisition cost as the terminated portion of the contract bears to the entire terminated contract and other government contracts for which the special tooling, special machinery or equipment was acquired.

(5) Rental costs under unexpired leases are generally allowable where clearly shown to have been reasonably necessary for the performance of the terminated contract, less the residual value of such leases, if (i) the amount of such rental claimed does not exceed the reasonable use value of the property leased for the period of the contract and such further period as may be reasonable; and (ii) the hospital makes all reasonable efforts to terminate, assign, settle, or otherwise reduce the cost of such lease. There also may be included the cost of alterations of such leased property, provided such alterations were necessary for the performance of the contract and of reasonable restoration required by the provisions of the lease.

(6) Settlement expenses including the following are generally allowable: (i) Accounting, legal, clerical, and similar costs reasonably necessary for the preparation and presentation to contracting officers of settlement claims and supporting data with respect to the terminated portion of the contract and the termination and settlement of subcontracts; and (ii) reasonable costs for the storage, transportation, protection, and disposition of property provided by the Government or acquired or produced by the institution for the contract.

(7) Subcontractor claims including the allocable portion of claims which are common to the contract and to other work of the contractor are generally allowable.

ss. Voluntary services.

The value of voluntary services provided by sisters or other members of religious orders is allowable provided that amounts do not exceed that paid other employees for similar work. Such amounts must be identifiable in the records of the hospital as a legal obligation of the hospital. This may be reflected by an agreement between the religious order and the hospital supported by evidence of payments to the order.

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Appendix X to Part 75—Data Collection Form (SF-SAC)

The Data Collection Form SF-SAC is available on the FAC Web site.

[79 FR 75889, Dec. 19, 2014, as amended at 81 FR 3019, Jan. 20, 2016]

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Appendix XI to Part 75—Compliance Supplement

The compliance supplement is available on the OMB Web site: (e.g., for 2013 here: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/circulars/)

[79 FR 75889, Dec. 19, 2014, as amended at 81 FR 3019, Jan. 20, 2016]

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Appendix XII to Part 75—Award Term and Conditions for Recipient Integrity and Performance Matters

A. Reporting of Matters Related to Recipient Integrity and Performance

1. General Reporting Requirement

If the total value of your currently active grants, cooperative agreements, and procurement contracts from all Federal awarding agencies exceeds $10,000,000 for any period of time during the period of performance of this Federal award, then you as the recipient during that period of time must maintain the currency of information reported to the System for Award Management (SAM) that is made available in the designated integrity and performance system (currently the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS)) about civil, criminal, or administrative proceedings described in paragraph 2 of this award term and condition. This is a statutory requirement under section 872 of Public Law 110-417, as amended (41 U.S.C. 2313). As required by section 3010 of Public Law 111-212, all information posted in the designated integrity and performance system on or after April 15, 2011, except past performance reviews required for Federal procurement contracts, will be publicly available.

2. Proceedings About Which You Must Report

Submit the information required about each proceeding that:

a. Is in connection with the award or performance of a grant, cooperative agreement, or procurement contract from the Federal Government;

b. Reached its final disposition during the most recent five year period; and

c. If one of the following:

(1) A criminal proceeding that resulted in a conviction, as defined in paragraph 5 of this award term and condition;

(2) A civil proceeding that resulted in a finding of fault and liability and payment of a monetary fine, penalty, reimbursement, restitution, or damages of $5,000 or more;

(3) An administrative proceeding, as defined in paragraph 5 of this award term and condition, that resulted in a finding of fault and liability and your payment of either a monetary fine or penalty of $5,000 or more or reimbursement, restitution, or damages in excess of $100,000; or

(4) Any other criminal, civil, or administrative proceeding if:

(i) It could have led to an outcome described in paragraph 2.c.(1), (2), or (3) of this award term and condition;

(ii) It had a different disposition arrived at by consent or compromise with an acknowledgement of fault on your part; and

(iii) The requirement in this award term and condition to disclose information about the proceeding does not conflict with applicable laws and regulations.

3. Reporting Procedures

Enter in the SAM Entity Management area the information that SAM requires about each proceeding described in paragraph 2 of this award term and condition. You do not need to submit the information a second time under assistance awards that you received if you already provided the information through SAM because you were required to do so under Federal procurement contracts that you were awarded.

4. Reporting Frequency

During any period of time when you are subject to this requirement in paragraph 1 of this award term and condition, you must report proceedings information through SAM for the most recent five year period, either to report new information about any proceeding(s) that you have not reported previously or affirm that there is no new information to report. Recipients that have Federal contract, grant, and cooperative agreement awards with a cumulative total value greater than $10,000,000 must disclose semiannually any information about the criminal, civil, and administrative proceedings.

5. Definitions

For purposes of this award term and condition:

a. Administrative proceeding means a non-judicial process that is adjudicatory in nature in order to make a determination of fault or liability (e.g., Securities and Exchange Commission Administrative proceedings, Civilian Board of Contract Appeals proceedings, and Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals proceedings). This includes proceedings at the Federal and State level but only in connection with performance of a Federal contract or grant. It does not include audits, site visits, corrective plans, or inspection of deliverables.

b. Conviction, for purposes of this award term and condition, means a judgment or conviction of a criminal offense by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether entered upon a verdict or a plea, and includes a conviction entered upon a plea of nolo contendere.

c. Total value of currently active grants, cooperative agreements, and procurement contracts includes—

(1) Only the Federal share of the funding under any Federal award with a recipient cost share or match; and

(2) The value of all expected funding increments under a Federal award and options, even if not yet exercised

B. [Reserved]

[81 FR 3019, Jan. 20, 2016]

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