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e-CFR data is current as of July 31, 2020

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter IPart 280 → Subpart A


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 280—TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST)


Subpart A—Program Scope and Installation Requirements for Partially Excluded UST Systems


Contents
§280.10   Applicability.
§280.11   Installation requirements for partially excluded UST systems.
§280.12   Definitions.

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§280.10   Applicability.

(a) The requirements of this part apply to all owners and operators of an UST system as defined in §280.12 except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.

(1) Previously deferred UST systems. Airport hydrant fuel distribution systems, UST systems with field-constructed tanks, and UST systems that store fuel solely for use by emergency power generators must meet the requirements of this part as follows:

(i) Airport hydrant fuel distribution systems and UST systems with field-constructed tanks must meet the requirements in subpart K of this part.

(ii) UST systems that store fuel solely for use by emergency power generators installed on or before October 13, 2015 must meet the subpart D requirements on or before October 13, 2018.

(iii) UST systems that store fuel solely for use by emergency power generators installed after October 13, 2015 must meet all applicable requirements of this part at installation.

(2) Any UST system listed in paragraph (c) of this section must meet the requirements of §280.11.

(b) Exclusions. The following UST systems are excluded from the requirements of this part:

(1) Any UST system holding hazardous wastes listed or identified under Subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, or a mixture of such hazardous waste and other regulated substances.

(2) Any wastewater treatment tank system that is part of a wastewater treatment facility regulated under Section 402 or 307(b) of the Clean Water Act.

(3) Equipment or machinery that contains regulated substances for operational purposes such as hydraulic lift tanks and electrical equipment tanks.

(4) Any UST system whose capacity is 110 gallons or less.

(5) Any UST system that contains a de minimis concentration of regulated substances.

(6) Any emergency spill or overflow containment UST system that is expeditiously emptied after use.

(c) Partial Exclusions. Subparts B, C, D, E, G, J, and K of this part do not apply to:

(1) Wastewater treatment tank systems not covered under paragraph (b)(2) of this section;

(2) Aboveground storage tanks associated with:

(i) Airport hydrant fuel distribution systems regulated under subpart K of this part; and

(ii) UST systems with field-constructed tanks regulated under subpart K of this part;

(3) Any UST systems containing radioactive material that are regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2011 and following); and

(4) Any UST system that is part of an emergency generator system at nuclear power generation facilities licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and subject to Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements regarding design and quality criteria, including but not limited to 10 CFR part 50.

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§280.11   Installation requirements for partially excluded UST systems.

(a) Owners and operators must install an UST system listed in §280.10(c)(1), (3), or (4) storing regulated substances (whether of single or double wall construction) that meets the following requirements:

(1) Will prevent releases due to corrosion or structural failure for the operational life of the UST system;

(2) Is cathodically protected against corrosion, constructed of non-corrodible material, steel clad with a non-corrodible material, or designed in a manner to prevent the release or threatened release of any stored substance; and

(3) Is constructed or lined with material that is compatible with the stored substance.

(b) Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this section, an UST system without corrosion protection may be installed at a site that is determined by a corrosion expert not to be corrosive enough to cause it to have a release due to corrosion during its operating life. Owners and operators must maintain records that demonstrate compliance with the requirements of this paragraph for the remaining life of the tank.

Note to paragraphs (a) and (b). The following codes of practice may be used as guidance for complying with this section:

(A) NACE International Standard Practice SP 0285, “External Corrosion Control of Underground Storage Tank Systems by Cathodic Protection”;

(B) NACE International Standard Practice SP 0169, “Control of External Corrosion on Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems”;

(C) American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 1632, “Cathodic Protection of Underground Petroleum Storage Tanks and Piping Systems”; or

(D) Steel Tank Institute Recommended Practice R892, “Recommended Practice for Corrosion Protection of Underground Piping Networks Associated with Liquid Storage and Dispensing Systems”.

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§280.12   Definitions.

Aboveground release means any release to the surface of the land or to surface water. This includes, but is not limited to, releases from the aboveground portion of an UST system and aboveground releases associated with overfills and transfer operations as the regulated substance moves to or from an UST system.

Ancillary equipment means any devices including, but not limited to, such devices as piping, fittings, flanges, valves, and pumps used to distribute, meter, or control the flow of regulated substances to and from an UST.

Belowground release means any release to the subsurface of the land and to groundwater. This includes, but is not limited to, releases from the belowground portions of an underground storage tank system and belowground releases associated with overfills and transfer operations as the regulated substance moves to or from an underground storage tank.

Beneath the surface of the ground means beneath the ground surface or otherwise covered with earthen materials.

Cathodic protection is a technique to prevent corrosion of a metal surface by making that surface the cathode of an electrochemical cell. For example, a tank system can be cathodically protected through the application of either galvanic anodes or impressed current.

Cathodic protection tester means a person who can demonstrate an understanding of the principles and measurements of all common types of cathodic protection systems as applied to buried or submerged metal piping and tank systems. At a minimum, such persons must have education and experience in soil resistivity, stray current, structure-to-soil potential, and component electrical isolation measurements of buried metal piping and tank systems.

CERCLA means the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended.

Class A operator means the individual who has primary responsibility to operate and maintain the UST system in accordance with applicable requirements established by the implementing agency. The Class A operator typically manages resources and personnel, such as establishing work assignments, to achieve and maintain compliance with regulatory requirements.

Class B operator means the individual who has day-to-day responsibility for implementing applicable regulatory requirements established by the implementing agency. The Class B operator typically implements in-field aspects of operation, maintenance, and associated recordkeeping for the UST system.

Class C operator means the individual responsible for initially addressing emergencies presented by a spill or release from an UST system. The Class C operator typically controls or monitors the dispensing or sale of regulated substances.

Compatible means the ability of two or more substances to maintain their respective physical and chemical properties upon contact with one another for the design life of the tank system under conditions likely to be encountered in the UST.

Connected piping means all underground piping including valves, elbows, joints, flanges, and flexible connectors attached to a tank system through which regulated substances flow. For the purpose of determining how much piping is connected to any individual UST system, the piping that joins two UST systems should be allocated equally between them.

Consumptive use with respect to heating oil means consumed on the premises.

Containment Sump means a liquid-tight container that protects the environment by containing leaks and spills of regulated substances from piping, dispensers, pumps and related components in the containment area. Containment sumps may be single walled or secondarily contained and located at the top of tank (tank top or submersible turbine pump sump), underneath the dispenser (under-dispenser containment sump), or at other points in the piping run (transition or intermediate sump).

Corrosion expert means a person who, by reason of thorough knowledge of the physical sciences and the principles of engineering and mathematics acquired by a professional education and related practical experience, is qualified to engage in the practice of corrosion control on buried or submerged metal piping systems and metal tanks. Such a person must be accredited or certified as being qualified by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers or be a registered professional engineer who has certification or licensing that includes education and experience in corrosion control of buried or submerged metal piping systems and metal tanks.

Dielectric material means a material that does not conduct direct electrical current. Dielectric coatings are used to electrically isolate UST systems from the surrounding soils. Dielectric bushings are used to electrically isolate portions of the UST system (e.g., tank from piping).

Dispenser means equipment located aboveground that dispenses regulated substances from the UST system.

Dispenser system means the dispenser and the equipment necessary to connect the dispenser to the underground storage tank system.

Electrical equipment means underground equipment that contains dielectric fluid that is necessary for the operation of equipment such as transformers and buried electrical cable.

Excavation zone means the volume containing the tank system and backfill material bounded by the ground surface, walls, and floor of the pit and trenches into which the UST system is placed at the time of installation.

Existing tank system means a tank system used to contain an accumulation of regulated substances or for which installation has commenced on or before December 22, 1988. Installation is considered to have commenced if:

(1) The owner or operator has obtained all federal, state, and local approvals or permits necessary to begin physical construction of the site or installation of the tank system; and if,

(2)(i) Either a continuous on-site physical construction or installation program has begun; or,

(ii) The owner or operator has entered into contractual obligations—which cannot be cancelled or modified without substantial loss—for physical construction at the site or installation of the tank system to be completed within a reasonable time.

Farm tank is a tank located on a tract of land devoted to the production of crops or raising animals, including fish, and associated residences and improvements. A farm tank must be located on the farm property. Farm includes fish hatcheries, rangeland and nurseries with growing operations.

Flow-through process tank is a tank that forms an integral part of a production process through which there is a steady, variable, recurring, or intermittent flow of materials during the operation of the process. Flow-through process tanks do not include tanks used for the storage of materials prior to their introduction into the production process or for the storage of finished products or by-products from the production process.

Free product refers to a regulated substance that is present as a nonaqueous phase liquid (e.g., liquid not dissolved in water).

Gathering lines means any pipeline, equipment, facility, or building used in the transportation of oil or gas during oil or gas production or gathering operations.

Hazardous substance UST system means an underground storage tank system that contains a hazardous substance defined in section 101(14) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (but not including any substance regulated as a hazardous waste under subtitle C) or any mixture of such substances and petroleum, and which is not a petroleum UST system.

Heating oil means petroleum that is No. 1, No. 2, No. 4—light, No. 4—heavy, No. 5—light, No. 5—heavy, and No. 6 technical grades of fuel oil; other residual fuel oils (including Navy Special Fuel Oil and Bunker C); and other fuels when used as substitutes for one of these fuel oils. Heating oil is typically used in the operation of heating equipment, boilers, or furnaces.

Hydraulic lift tank means a tank holding hydraulic fluid for a closed-loop mechanical system that uses compressed air or hydraulic fluid to operate lifts, elevators, and other similar devices.

Implementing agency means EPA, or, in the case of a state with a program approved under section 9004 (or pursuant to a memorandum of agreement with EPA), the designated state or local agency responsible for carrying out an approved UST program.

Liquid trap means sumps, well cellars, and other traps used in association with oil and gas production, gathering, and extraction operations (including gas production plants), for the purpose of collecting oil, water, and other liquids. These liquid traps may temporarily collect liquids for subsequent disposition or reinjection into a production or pipeline stream, or may collect and separate liquids from a gas stream.

Maintenance means the normal operational upkeep to prevent an underground storage tank system from releasing product.

Motor fuel means a complex blend of hydrocarbons typically used in the operation of a motor engine, such as motor gasoline, aviation gasoline, No. 1 or No. 2 diesel fuel, or any blend containing one or more of these substances (for example: motor gasoline blended with alcohol).

New tank system means a tank system that will be used to contain an accumulation of regulated substances and for which installation has commenced after December 22, 1988. (See also Existing Tank System.)

Noncommercial purposes with respect to motor fuel means not for resale.

On the premises where stored with respect to heating oil means UST systems located on the same property where the stored heating oil is used.

Operational life refers to the period beginning when installation of the tank system has commenced until the time the tank system is properly closed under subpart G.

Operator means any person in control of, or having responsibility for, the daily operation of the UST system.

Overfill release is a release that occurs when a tank is filled beyond its capacity, resulting in a discharge of the regulated substance to the environment.

Owner means:

(1) In the case of an UST system in use on November 8, 1984, or brought into use after that date, any person who owns an UST system used for storage, use, or dispensing of regulated substances; and

(2) In the case of any UST system in use before November 8, 1984, but no longer in use on that date, any person who owned such UST immediately before the discontinuation of its use.

Person means an individual, trust, firm, joint stock company, federal agency, corporation, state, municipality, commission, political subdivision of a state, or any interstate body. Person also includes a consortium, a joint venture, a commercial entity, and the United States Government.

Petroleum UST system means an underground storage tank system that contains petroleum or a mixture of petroleum with de minimis quantities of other regulated substances. Such systems include those containing motor fuels, jet fuels, distillate fuel oils, residual fuel oils, lubricants, petroleum solvents, and used oils.

Pipe or Piping means a hollow cylinder or tubular conduit that is constructed of non-earthen materials.

Pipeline facilities (including gathering lines) are new and existing pipe rights-of-way and any associated equipment, facilities, or buildings.

Regulated substance means:

(1) Any substance defined in section 101(14) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 (but not including any substance regulated as a hazardous waste under subtitle C); and

(2) Petroleum, including crude oil or any fraction thereof that is liquid at standard conditions of temperature and pressure (60 degrees Fahrenheit and 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute). The term regulated substance includes but is not limited to petroleum and petroleum-based substances comprised of a complex blend of hydrocarbons, such as motor fuels, jet fuels, distillate fuel oils, residual fuel oils, lubricants, petroleum solvents, and used oils.

Release means any spilling, leaking, emitting, discharging, escaping, leaching or disposing from an UST into groundwater, surface water or subsurface soils.

Release detection means determining whether a release of a regulated substance has occurred from the UST system into the environment or a leak has occurred into the interstitial space between the UST system and its secondary barrier or secondary containment around it.

Repair means to restore to proper operating condition a tank, pipe, spill prevention equipment, overfill prevention equipment, corrosion protection equipment, release detection equipment or other UST system component that has caused a release of product from the UST system or has failed to function properly.

Replaced means:

(1) For a tank—to remove a tank and install another tank.

(2) For piping—to remove 50 percent or more of piping and install other piping, excluding connectors, connected to a single tank. For tanks with multiple piping runs, this definition applies independently to each piping run.

Residential tank is a tank located on property used primarily for dwelling purposes.

SARA means the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986.

Secondary containment or Secondarily contained means a release prevention and release detection system for a tank or piping. This system has an inner and outer barrier with an interstitial space that is monitored for leaks. This term includes containment sumps when used for interstitial monitoring of piping.

Septic tank is a water-tight covered receptacle designed to receive or process, through liquid separation or biological digestion, the sewage discharged from a building sewer. The effluent from such receptacle is distributed for disposal through the soil and settled solids and scum from the tank are pumped out periodically and hauled to a treatment facility.

Storm water or wastewater collection system means piping, pumps, conduits, and any other equipment necessary to collect and transport the flow of surface water run-off resulting from precipitation, or domestic, commercial, or industrial wastewater to and from retention areas or any areas where treatment is designated to occur. The collection of storm water and wastewater does not include treatment except where incidental to conveyance.

Surface impoundment is a natural topographic depression, man-made excavation, or diked area formed primarily of earthen materials (although it may be lined with man-made materials) that is not an injection well.

Tank is a stationary device designed to contain an accumulation of regulated substances and constructed of non-earthen materials (e.g., concrete, steel, plastic) that provide structural support.

Training program means any program that provides information to and evaluates the knowledge of a Class A, Class B, or Class C operator through testing, practical demonstration, or another approach acceptable to the implementing agency regarding requirements for UST systems that meet the requirements of subpart J of this part.

Under-dispenser containment or UDC means containment underneath a dispenser system designed to prevent leaks from the dispenser and piping within or above the UDC from reaching soil or groundwater.

Underground area means an underground room, such as a basement, cellar, shaft or vault, providing enough space for physical inspection of the exterior of the tank situated on or above the surface of the floor.

Underground release means any belowground release.

Underground storage tank or UST means any one or combination of tanks (including underground pipes connected thereto) that is used to contain an accumulation of regulated substances, and the volume of which (including the volume of underground pipes connected thereto) is 10 percent or more beneath the surface of the ground. This term does not include any:

(1) Farm or residential tank of 1,100 gallons or less capacity used for storing motor fuel for noncommercial purposes;

(2) Tank used for storing heating oil for consumptive use on the premises where stored;

(3) Septic tank;

(4) Pipeline facility (including gathering lines):

(i) Which is regulated under 49 U.S.C. chapter 601; or

(ii) Which is an intrastate pipeline facility regulated under state laws as provided in 49 U.S.C. chapter 601, and which is determined by the Secretary of Transportation to be connected to a pipeline, or to be operated or intended to be capable of operating at pipeline pressure or as an integral part of a pipeline;

(5) Surface impoundment, pit, pond, or lagoon;

(6) Storm water or wastewater collection system;

(7) Flow-through process tank;

(8) Liquid trap or associated gathering lines directly related to oil or gas production and gathering operations; or

(9) Storage tank situated in an underground area (such as a basement, cellar, mineworking, drift, shaft, or tunnel) if the storage tank is situated upon or above the surface of the floor.

Note to the definition of Underground storage tank or UST. The term underground storage tank or UST does not include any pipes connected to any tank which is described in paragraphs (1) through (9) of this definition.

Upgrade means the addition or retrofit of some systems such as cathodic protection, lining, or spill and overfill controls to improve the ability of an underground storage tank system to prevent the release of product.

UST system or Tank system means an underground storage tank, connected underground piping, underground ancillary equipment, and containment system, if any.

Wastewater treatment tank means a tank that is designed to receive and treat an influent wastewater through physical, chemical, or biological methods.

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