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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 12, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 98 → Subpart TT


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 98—MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING


Subpart TT—Industrial Waste Landfills


Contents
§98.460   Definition of the source category.
§98.461   Reporting threshold.
§98.462   GHGs to report.
§98.463   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.464   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.465   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.466   Data reporting requirements.
§98.467   Records that must be retained.
§98.468   Definitions.
Table TT-1 to Subpart TT of Part 98—Default DOC and Decay Rate Values for Industrial Waste Landfills

Source: 75 FR 39773, July 12, 2010, unless otherwise noted.

§98.460   Definition of the source category.

(a) This source category applies to industrial waste landfills that accepted waste on or after January 1, 1980, and that are located at a facility whose total landfill design capacity is greater than or equal to 300,000 metric tons.

(b) An industrial waste landfill is a landfill other than a municipal solid waste landfill, a RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste landfill, or a TSCA hazardous waste landfill, in which industrial solid waste, such as RCRA Subtitle D wastes (non-hazardous industrial solid waste, defined in 40 CFR 257.2), commercial solid wastes, or conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes, is placed. An industrial waste landfill includes all disposal areas at the facility.

(c) This source category does not include:

(1) Construction and demolition waste landfills.

(2) Industrial waste landfills that only receive one or more of the following inert waste materials:

(i) Coal combustion or incinerator ash (e.g., fly ash).

(ii) Cement kiln dust.

(iii) Rocks and/or soil from excavation and construction and similar activities.

(iv) Glass.

(v) Non-chemically bound sand (e.g., green foundry sand).

(vii) Clay, gypsum, or pottery cull.

(viii) Bricks, mortar, or cement.

(ix) Furnace slag.

(x) Materials used as refractory (e.g., alumina, silicon, fire clay, fire brick).

(xi) Plastics (e.g., polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride).

(xii) Other waste material that has a volatile solids concentration of 0.5 weight percent (on a dry basis) or less.

(xiii) Other waste material that has a DOC value of 0.3 weight percent (on a wet basis) or less. DOC value must be determined using a 60-day anaerobic biodegradation test procedure identified in §98.464(b)(4)(i).

(d) This source category consists of the following sources at industrial waste landfills: Landfills, gas collection systems at landfills, and destruction devices for landfill gases (including flares).

[75 FR 39773, July 12, 2010, as amended at 76 FR 73907, Nov. 29, 2011, 77 FR 51495, Aug. 24, 2012; 78 FR 71979, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.461   Reporting threshold.

You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains an industrial waste landfill meeting the criteria in §98.460 and the facility meets the requirements of §98.2(a)(2). For the purposes of §98.2(a)(2), the emissions from the industrial waste landfill are to be determined using the methane generation corrected for oxidation as determined using Equation TT-6 of this subpart times the global warming potential for methane in Table A-1 of subpart A of this part.

§98.462   GHGs to report.

(a) You must report CH4 generation and CH4 emissions from industrial waste landfills.

(b) You must report CH4 destruction resulting from landfill gas collection and destruction devices, if present.

(c) You must report under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources) the emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O from each stationary combustion unit associated with the landfill gas destruction device, if present, by following the requirements of subpart C of this part.

§98.463   Calculating GHG emissions.

(a) For each industrial waste landfill subject to the reporting requirements of this subpart, calculate annual modeled CH4 generation according to the applicable requirements in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section. Apply Equation TT-1 of this section for each waste stream disposed of in the landfill and sum the CH4 generation rates for all waste streams disposed of in the landfill to calculate the total annual modeled CH4 generation rate for the landfill.

(1) Calculate annual modeled CH4 generation using Equation TT-1 of this section.

eCFR graphic er29no11.004.gif

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Where:

GCH4 = Modeled methane generation in reporting year T (metric tons CH4).

X = Year in which waste was disposed.

S = Start year of calculation. Use the year 1960 or the opening year of the landfill, whichever is more recent.

T = Reporting year for which emissions are calculated.

WX = Quantity of waste disposed in the industrial waste landfill in year X from measurement data and/or other company records (metric tons, as received (wet weight)).

DOCX = Degradable organic carbon for waste disposed in year X from Table TT-1 to this subpart or from measurement data [as specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this section], if available [fraction (metric tons C/metric ton waste)].

DOCF = Fraction of DOC dissimilated (fraction); use the default value of 0.5. If measured values of DOC are available using the 60-day anaerobic biodegradation test procedure identified in §98.464(b)(4)(i), use a default value of 1.0.

MCF = Methane correction factor (fraction). Use the default value of 1 unless there is active aeration of waste within the landfill during the reporting year. If there is active aeration of waste within the landfill during the reporting year, use either the default value of 1 or select an alternative value no less than 0.5 based on site-specific aeration parameters.

F = Fraction by volume of CH4 in landfill gas (fraction, dry basis, corrected to 0% oxygen). If you have a gas collection system, use the annual average CH4 concentration from measurement data for the current reporting year; otherwise, use the default value of 0.5.

k = Decay rate constant from Table TT-1 to this subpart (yr−1). Select the most applicable k value for the majority of the past 10 years (or operating life, whichever is shorter).

(2) Waste stream quantities. Determine annual waste quantities as specified in paragraphs (a)(2)(i) through (ii) of this section for each year starting with January 1, 1960 or the year the landfills first accepted waste if after January 1, 1960, up until the most recent reporting year. The choice of method for determining waste quantities will vary according to the availability of historical data. Beginning in the first emissions reporting year (2011 or later) and for each year thereafter, use the procedures in paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section to determine waste stream quantities. These procedures should also be used for any year prior to the first emissions reporting year for which the data are available. For other historical years, use paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section, where waste disposal records are available, and use the procedures outlined in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section when waste disposal records are unavailable, to determine waste stream quantities. Historical disposal quantities deposited (i.e., prior to the first year in which monitoring begins) should only be determined once, as part of the first annual report, and the same values should be used for all subsequent annual reports, supplemented by the next year's data on new waste disposal.

(i) Determine the quantity of waste (in metric tons as received, i.e., wet weight) disposed of in the landfill separately for each waste stream by any one or a combination of the following methods.

(A) Direct mass measurements.

(B) Direct volume measurements multiplied by waste stream density determined from periodic density measurement data or process knowledge.

(C) Mass balance procedures, determining the mass of waste as the difference between the mass of the process inputs and the mass of the process outputs.

(D) The number of loads (e.g., trucks) multiplied by the mass of waste per load based on the working capacity of the container or vehicle.

(ii) Determine the historical disposal quantities for landfills using the Waste Disposal Factor approach in paragraphs (a)(2)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section when historical production or processing data are available. If production or processing data are available for a given year, you must use Equation TT-3 of this section for that year. Determine historical disposal quantities using the method specified in paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(C) of this section when historical production or processing data are not available, and for waste streams received from an off-site facility when historical disposal quantities cannot be determined using the methods specified in paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section.

(A) Determining Waste Disposal Factor: For each waste stream disposed of in the landfill, calculate the average waste disposal rate per unit of production or unit throughput using all available waste quantity data and corresponding production or processing rates for the process generating that waste or, if appropriate, the facility, using Equation TT-2 of this section.

eCFR graphic er12jy10.021.gif

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Where:

WDF = Average waste disposal factor as determined for the first annual report required for this industrial waste landfill (metric tons per production unit).

X = Year in which waste was disposed. Include only those years for which disposal and production data are both available; the years do not need to be sequential.

Y1 = First year in which disposal and production/throughput data are both available.

Y2 = First year for which GHG emissions from this industrial waste landfill must be reported.

N = Number of years for which disposal and production/throughput data are both available.

Wx = Quantity of waste placed in the industrial waste landfill in year X from measurement data and/or other company records (metric tons, as received (wet weight)).

Px = Quantity of product produced or feedstock entering the process or facility in year X from measurement data and/or other company records (production units). You must use the same basis for all years in the calculation. That is, Px must be determined based on production (quantity of product produced) for all “N” years or Px must be determined based on throughput (quantity of feedstock) for all “N” years.

(B) Calculate waste: For each waste stream disposed of in the landfill, calculate the waste disposal quantities for historic years in which direct waste disposal measurements are not available using historical production data and Equation TT-3 of this section.

eCFR graphic er12jy10.022.gif

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Where:

X = Historic year in which waste was disposed.

Wx = Calculated quantity of waste placed in the landfill in year X (metric tons).

WDF = Average waste disposal factor from Equation TT-2 of this section (metric tons per production unit).

Px = Quantity of product produced or feedstock entering the process or facility in year X from measurement data and/or other company records (production units). You must use the same basis for Px (either production only or throughput only) as used to determine WDF in Equation TT-2 of this section.

(C) For any year in which historic production or processing data are not available such that historic waste quantities cannot be estimated using Equation TT-3 of this section, calculate an average annual bulk waste disposal quantity using either Equation TT-4a of this section when data are available consecutively for the most recent disposal years or Equation TT-4b of this section when data are available for sporadic (non-consecutive) years.

eCFR graphic er29no11.005.gif

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Where:

WX = Quantity of waste placed in the landfill in year X (metric tons, wet basis). This annual bulk waste disposal quantity applies for all years from “YrOpen” to “YrData” inclusive.

LFC = Capacity of the landfill used (or the total quantity of waste-in-place) at the end of the “YrData” from design drawings or engineering estimates (metric tons). For closed landfills for which waste quantity data are not available, use the landfill's design capacity.

YrData = The year prior to the year when waste disposal data are first available for all subsequent years from company records or from Equation TT-3 of this section. For landfills for which waste quantity data are not available, the year in which the landfill last received waste.

YrOpen = Year 1960 or the year in which the landfill first received waste from company records, whichever is more recent. If no data are available for estimating YrOpen for a closed landfill, use 1960 as the default “YrOpen” for the landfill.

eCFR graphic er29no11.006.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

WX = Quantity of waste placed in the landfill in year X (metric tons, wet basis). This annual bulk waste disposal quantity applies for all years for which waste quantity data are not available from company records or from Equation TT-3 of this section.

WIP = Quantity of waste in-place at the start of the reporting year from design drawings or engineering estimates (metric tons). For closed landfills for which waste in-place quantities are not available, use the landfill's design capacity.

Wmeas,n = Annual quantity of waste placed in the landfill for the nth measurement year from company records or from Equation TT-3 of this section.

YrLast = The last year, prior to the reporting year, that the landfill received waste.

YrOpen = Year 1960 or the year in which the landfill first received waste from company records, whichever is more recent. If no data are available for estimating YrOpen for a closed landfill, use 1960 as the default “YrOpen” for the landfill.

NYrData = The number of years for which annual waste disposal quantities are available from company records or from Equation TT-3 of this section from YrOpen to YrLast inclusive.

(3) Degradable organic content (DOC). For any year, X, in Equation TT-1 of this section, use either the applicable default DOC values provided in Table TT-1 of this subpart or determine values for DOCx as specified in paragraphs (a)(3)(i) through (iv) of this section. When developing historical waste quantity data, you may use default DOC values from Table TT-1 of this subpart for certain years and determined values for DOCx for other years. The historical values for DOC or DOCx must be developed only for the first annual report required for the industrial waste landfill; and used for all subsequent annual reports (e.g., if DOC for year x = 1990 was determined to be 0.15 in the first reporting year, you must use 0.15 for the 1990 DOC value for all subsequent annual reports).

(i) For the first year in which GHG emissions from this industrial waste landfill must be reported, determine the DOCx value of each waste stream disposed of in the landfill no less frequently than once per quarter using the methods specified in §98.464(b). Calculate annual DOCx for each waste stream as the arithmetic average of all DOCx values for that waste stream that were measured during the year.

(ii) For subsequent years (after the first year in which GHG emissions from this industrial waste landfill must be reported), either use the DOCx of each waste stream calculated for the most recent reporting year for which DOC values were determined according to paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section, or determine new DOC values for that year following the requirements in paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section. You must determine new DOC values following the requirements in paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section if changes in the process operations occurred during the previous reporting year that can reasonably be expected to alter the characteristics of the waste stream, such as the water content or volatile solids concentration. Should changes to the waste stream occur, you must revise the GHG Monitoring Plan as required in §98.3(g)(5)(iii) and report the new DOCx value according to the requirements of §98.466.

(iii) If DOCx measurement data for each waste stream are available according to the methods specified in §98.464(b) for years prior to the first year in which GHG emissions from this industrial waste landfill must be reported, determine DOCx for each waste stream as the arithmetic average of all DOCx values for that waste stream that were measured in Year X. A single measurement value is acceptable for determining DOCx for years prior to the first reporting year.

(iv) For historical years for which DOCx measurement data, determined according to the methods specified in §98.464(b), are not available, determine the historical values for DOCx using the applicable methods specified in paragraphs (a)(3)(iv)(A) and (B) of this section. Determine these historical values for DOCx only for the first annual report required for this industrial waste landfill; historical values for DOCx calculated for this first annual report should be used for all subsequent annual reports.

(A) For years in which waste stream-specific disposal quantities are determined (as required in paragraphs (a)(2) (ii)(A) and (B) of this section), calculate the average DOC value for a given waste stream as the arithmetic average of all DOC measurements of that waste stream that follow the methods provided in §98.464(b), including any measurement values for years prior to the first reporting year and the four measurement values required in the first reporting year. Use the resulting waste-specific average DOC value for all applicable years (i.e., years in which waste stream-specific disposal quantities are determined) for which direct DOC measurement data are not available.

(B) For years for which bulk waste disposal quantities are determined according to paragraphs (a)(2)(ii)(C) of this section, calculate the weighted average bulk DOC value according to the following: Calculate the average DOC value for each waste stream as the arithmetic average of all DOC measurements of that waste stream that follows the methods provided in §98.464(b) (generally, this will include only the DOC values determined in the first year in which GHG emissions from this industrial waste landfill must be reported); calculate the average annual disposal quantity for each waste stream as the arithmetic average of the annual disposal quantities for each year in which waste stream-specific disposal quantities have been determined; and calculate the bulk waste DOC value using Equation TT-5 of this section. Use the bulk waste DOC value as DOCx for all years for which bulk waste disposal quantities are determined according to paragraphs (a)(2)(ii)(C) of this section.

eCFR graphic er12jy10.024.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

DOCbulk = Degradable organic content value for bulk historical waste placed in the landfill (mass fraction).

N = Number of different waste streams placed in the landfill.

n = Index for waste stream.

DOCave,n = Average degradable organic content value for waste stream “n” based on available measurement data (mass fraction).

Wave,n = Average annual quantity of waste stream “n” placed in the landfill for years in which waste stream-specific disposal quantities have been determined (metric tons per year, wet basis).

(b) For each landfill, calculate CH4 generation (adjusted for oxidation in cover materials) and CH4 emissions (taking into account any CH4 recovery, if applicable, and oxidation in cover materials) according to the applicable methods in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(3) of this section.

(1) For each landfill, calculate CH4 generation, adjusted for oxidation, from the modeled CH4 (GCH4 from Equation TT-1 of this section) using Equation TT-6 of this section.

eCFR graphic er12jy10.025.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

MG = Methane generation, adjusted for oxidation, from the landfill in the reporting year (metric tons CH4).

GCH4 = Modeled methane generation rate in reporting year from Equation TT-1 of this section (metric tons CH4).

OX = Oxidation fraction from Table HH-4 of subpart HH of this part.

(2) For landfills that do not have landfill gas collection systems operating during the reporting year, the CH4 emissions are equal to the CH4 generation (MG) calculated in Equation TT-6 of this section.

(3) For landfills with landfill gas collection systems in operation during any portion of the reporting year, perform all of the calculations specified in paragraphs (b)(3)(i) through (iv) of this section.

(i) Calculate the quantity of CH4 recovered according to the requirements at §98.343(b).

(ii) Calculate CH4 emissions using the Equation HH-6 of §98.343(c)(3)(i), except use GCH4 determined using Equation TT-1 of this section in Equation HH-6 of §98.343(c)(3)(i).

(iii) Calculate CH4 generation (MG) from the quantity of CH4 recovered using Equation HH-7 of §98.343(c)(3)(ii).

(iv) Calculate CH4 emissions from the quantity of CH4 recovered using Equation HH-8 of §98.343(c)(3)(ii).

[75 FR 39773, July 12, 2010, as amended at 76 FR 73907, Nov. 29, 2011; 78 FR 71979, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.464   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

(a) For calendar year 2011 monitoring, the facility may submit a request to the Administrator to use one or more best available monitoring methods as listed in §98.3(d)(1)(i) through (iv). The request must be submitted no later than October 12, 2010 and must contain the information in §98.3(d)(2)(ii). To obtain approval, the request must demonstrate to the Administrator's satisfaction that it is not reasonably feasible to acquire, install, and operate a required piece of monitoring equipment by January 1, 2011. The use of best available monitoring methods will not be approved beyond December 31, 2011.

(b) For each waste stream placed in the landfill during the reporting year for which you choose to determine volatile solids concentration and/or a waste stream-specific DOCX, you must collect and test a representative sample of that waste stream using the methods specified in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(4) of this section, as applicable.

(1) Develop and follow a sampling plan to collect a representative sample (in terms of composition and moisture content) of each waste stream placed in the landfill for which testing is elected.

(2) Determine the percent total solids and the percent volatile solids of each sample following Standard Method 2540G “Total, Fixed, and Volatile Solids in Solid and Semisolid Samples” (incorporated by reference; see §98.7).

(3) For the purposes of §98.460(c)(2)(xii), the volatile solids concentration (weight percent on a dry basis) is the percent volatile solids determined using Standard Method 2540G “Total, Fixed, and Volatile Solids in Solid and Semisolid Samples” (incorporated by reference; see §98.7).

(4) Determine DOC value of a waste stream by either using at least a 60-day anaerobic biodegradation test as specified in paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section or by estimating the DOC value based on the total and volatile solids measurements as specified in paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section.

(i) Perform an anaerobic biodegradation test and determine the DOC value of a waste stream following the procedures and requirements in paragraphs (b)(4)(i)(A) through (E) of this section.

(A) You may use the procedures published by a consensus-based standards organization to conduct a minimum of a 60-day anaerobic biodegradation test. Consensus-based standards organizations include, but are not limited to, the following: ASTM International (100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box CB700, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428-B2959, (800) 262-1373, http://www.astm.org), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI, 1819 L Street, NW., 6th floor, Washington, DC 20036, (202) 293-8020, http://www.ansi.org), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990, (800) 843-2763, http://www.asme.org), and the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB, 801 Travis Street, Suite 1675, Houston, TX 77002, (713) 356-0060, http://www.api.org).

(B) Use a minimum of four samples: Two waste stream samples, a control sample using a known substrate (such as ethanol), and a digester sludge blank sample. Each waste stream sample must be appropriately ground to ensure the waste material is fully exposed to the anaerobic digester sludge.

(C) Determine the net mass of carbon degraded in the control sample as the difference in the results of the control sample and the digester sludge blank sample. Determine the net mass of carbon degraded in each waste stream sample as the difference in the results of each waste stream sample and the digester sludge blank sample.

(D) Determine the fraction of carbon degraded in the control sample as the net mass of carbon degraded in the control sample divided by the mass of carbon added via the substrate material in the control sample. If less than 50 percent of the theoretical mass of carbon in the control sample is degraded, the test run is invalid.

(E) Determine the DOC of each waste sample using Equation TT-7 of this section. If the DOC values for the two waste stream samples differ by more than 20 percent, the test run is invalid. The DOC of the waste stream is determined as the average DOC value of the two waste stream samples determined during a valid test.

eCFR graphic er29no13.026.gif

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Where:

DOCX = Degradable organic content of the waste stream in Year X (weight fraction, wet basis)

MCDsample,x = Mass of carbon degraded in the waste stream sample in Year X as determined in paragraph (b)(4)(i)(C) of this section [milligrams (mg)].

Msample,x = Mass of waste stream sample used in the anaerobic degradation test in Year X (mg, wet basis).

(ii) Calculate the waste stream-specific DOCX value using Equation TT-8 of this section.

eCFR graphic er29no11.008.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

DOCX = Degradable organic content of waste stream in Year X (weight fraction, wet basis)

FDOC = Fraction of the volatile residue that is degradable organic carbon (weight fraction). Use a default value of 0.6.

% Volatile SolidsX = Percent volatile solids determined using Standard Method 2540G Total, “Fixed, and Volatile Solids in Solid and Semisolid Samples” (incorporated by reference; see §98.7) for Year X [milligrams (mg) volatile solids per 100 mg dried solids].

% Total SolidsX = Percent total solids determined using Standard Method 2540G “Total, Fixed, and Volatile Solids in Solid and Semisolid Samples” (incorporated by reference; see §98.7) for Year X (mg dried solids per 100 mg wet waste).

(c) For each waste stream that was historically managed in the landfill for which you choose to determine volatile solids concentration and/or a waste stream-specific DOCX, you must determine volatile solids concentration or DOCX of the waste stream as initially placed in the landfill using the methods specified in paragraph (c)(1) or (2) of this section, as applicable.

(1) If you can identify a similar waste stream to the waste stream that was historically managed in the landfill, you must determine the volatile solids concentration or DOCX of the similar waste stream using the applicable procedures in paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this section.

(2) If you cannot identify a similar waste stream to the waste stream that was historically managed in the landfill, you may determine the volatile solids concentration or DOCX of the historically managed waste stream using process knowledge. You must document the basis for the volatile solids concentration or DOCX value as determined through process knowledge.

(d) For landfills with gas collection systems, operate, maintain, and calibrate a gas composition monitor capable of measuring the concentration of CH4 according to the requirements specified at §98.344(b).

(e) For landfills with gas collection systems, install, operate, maintain, and calibrate a gas flow meter capable of measuring the volumetric flow rate of the recovered landfill gas according to the requirements specified at §98.344(c).

(f) For landfills with gas collection systems, all temperature, pressure, and if applicable, moisture content monitors must be calibrated using the procedures and frequencies specified by the manufacturer.

(g) For landfills electing to measure the fraction by volume of CH4 in landfill gas (F), follow the requirements in paragraphs (g)(1) and (g)(2) of this section.

(1) Use a gas composition monitor capable of measuring the concentration of CH4 on a dry basis that is properly operated, calibrated, and maintained according to the requirements specified at §98.344(b). You must either use a gas composition monitor that is also capable of measuring the O2 concentration correcting for excess (infiltration) air or you must operate, maintain, and calibrate a second monitor capable of measuring the O2 concentration on a dry basis according to the manufacturer's specifications.

(2) Use Equation TT-9 of this section to correct the measured CH4 concentration to 0% oxygen. If multiple CH4 concentration measurements are made during the reporting year, determine F separately for each measurement made during the reporting year, and use the results to determine the arithmetic average value of F for use in Equation TT-1 of this part.

eCFR graphic er29no11.009.gif

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Where:

F = Fraction by volume of CH4 in landfill gas (fraction, dry basis, corrected to 0% oxygen).

CCH4 = Measured CH4 concentration in landfill gas (volume %, dry basis).

20.9c = Defined O2 correction basis, (volume %, dry basis).

20.9 = O2 concentration in air (volume %, dry basis).

%O2 = Measured O2 concentration in landfill gas (volume %, dry basis).

(h) The facility shall document the procedures used to ensure the accuracy of the estimates of disposal quantities and, if the industrial waste landfill has a gas collection system, gas flow rate, gas composition, temperature, pressure, and moisture content measurements. These procedures include, but are not limited to, calibration of weighing equipment, fuel flow meters, and other measurement devices. The estimated accuracy of measurements made with these devices shall also be recorded, and the technical basis for these estimates shall be provided.

[75 FR 39773, July 12, 2010, as amended at 76 FR 73908, Nov. 29, 2011; 77 FR 51495, Aug. 24, 2012; 78 FR 71979, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.465   Procedures for estimating missing data.

(a) A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations is required. Therefore, whenever a quality-assured value of a required parameter is unavailable (e.g., if a meter malfunctions during unit operation or if a required fuel sample is not taken), a substitute data value for the missing parameter shall be used in the calculations, in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) For industrial waste landfills with gas collection systems, follow the procedures for estimating missing data specified in §98.345(a) and (b).

§98.466   Data reporting requirements.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(c), each annual report must contain the following information for each landfill.

(a) Report the following general landfill information:

(1) A classification of the landfill as “open” (actively received waste in the reporting year) or “closed” (no longer receiving waste).

(2) The year in which the landfill first started accepting waste for disposal.

(3) The last year the landfill accepted waste (for open landfills, enter the estimated year of landfill closure).

(4) The capacity (in metric tons) of the landfill.

(5) An indication of whether leachate recirculation is used during the reporting year and its typical frequency of use over the past 10 years (e.g., used several times a year for the past 10 years, used at least once a year for the past 10 years, used occasionally but not every year over the past 10 years, not used).

(b) Report the following waste characterization and modeling information:

(1) The number of waste steams (including “Other Industrial Solid Waste (not otherwise listed)” and “Inerts”) for which Equation TT-1 of this subpart is used to calculate modeled CH4 generation.

(2) A description of each waste stream (including the types of materials in each waste stream) for which Equation TT-1 of this subpart is used to calculate modeled CH4 generation.

(3) The fraction of CH4 in the landfill gas, F, (volume fraction, dry basis, corrected to 0% oxygen) for the reporting year and an indication as to whether this was the default value or a value determined through measurement data.

(4) The methane correction factor (MCF) value used in the calculations. If an MCF value other than the default of 1 is used, provide a description of the aeration system, including aeration blower capacity, the fraction of the landfill containing waste affected by the aeration, the total number of hours during the year the aeration blower was operated, and other factors used as a basis for the selected MCF value.

(5) For each waste stream, the decay rate (k) value used in the calculations.

(c) Report the following historical waste information:

(1) [Reserved]

(2) For each waste stream identified in paragraph (b) of this section, the method(s) for estimating historical waste disposal quantities and the range of years for which each method applies.

(3) For each waste stream identified in paragraph (b) of this section for which Equation TT-2 of this subpart is used, provide:

(i) [Reserved]

(ii) The year of the data used in Equation TT-2 of §98.463 for the waste disposal quantity and production quantity, for each year used in Equation TT-2 to calculate the average waste disposal factor (WDF).

(iii) [Reserved]

(4) If Equation TT-4a of this subpart is used, provide:

(i) The value of landfill capacity (LFC).

(ii) YrData.

(iii) YrOpen.

(5) If Equation TT-4b of this subpart is used, provide:

(i) WIP (i.e., the quantity of waste in-place at the start of the reporting year from design drawings or engineering estimates (metric tons) or, for closed landfills for which waste in-place quantities are not available, the landfill's design capacity).

(ii) The cumulative quantity of waste placed in the landfill for the years for which disposal quantities are available from company record or from Equation TT-3 of this part.

(iii) YrLast.

(iv) YrOpen.

(v) NYrData.

(d) For each year of landfilling starting with the “Start Year” (S) and each year thereafter up to the current reporting year, report the following information:

(1) The calendar year for which the following data elements apply.

(2) The quantity of waste (WX) disposed of in the landfill (metric tons, wet weight) for the specified year for each waste stream identified in paragraph (b) of this section.

(3) For each waste stream, the degradable organic carbon (DOCX) value (mass fraction) for the specified year and an indication as to whether this was the default value from Table TT-1 to this subpart, a measured value using a 60-day anaerobic biodegradation test as specified in §98.464(b)(4)(i), or a value based on total and volatile solids measurements as specified in §98.464(b)(4)(ii). If DOCX was determined by a 60-day anaerobic biodegradation test, specify the test method used.

(e) Report the following information describing the landfill cover material:

(1) The type of cover material used (as either organic cover, clay cover, sand cover, or other soil mixtures).

(2) For each type of cover material used, the surface area (in square meters) at the start of the reporting year for the landfill sections that contain waste and that are associated with the selected cover type.

(f) The modeled annual methane generation (GCH4) for the reporting year (metric tons CH4) calculated using Equation TT-1 of this subpart.

(g) For landfills without gas collection systems, provide:

(1) The annual methane emissions (i.e., the methane generation (MG), adjusted for oxidation, calculated using Equation TT-6 of this subpart), reported in metric tons CH4.

(2) An indication of whether passive vents and/or passive flares (vents or flares that are not considered part of the gas collection system as defined in §98.6) are present at this landfill.

(h) For landfills with gas collection systems, in addition to the reporting requirements in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, provide:

(1) The annual methane generation, adjusted for oxidation, calculated using Equation TT-6 of this subpart, reported in metric tons CH4.

(2) The oxidation factor used in Equation TT-6 of this subpart.

(3) All information required under 40 CFR 98.346(i)(1) through (7) and 40 CFR 98.346(i)(9) through (12).

[75 FR 39773, July 12, 2010, as amended at 76 FR 73909, Nov. 29, 2011; 78 FR 71980, Nov. 29, 2013; 79 FR 63799, Oct. 24, 2014]

§98.467   Records that must be retained.

(a) The calibration records for all monitoring equipment, including the method or manufacturer's specification used for calibration, and all measurement data used for the purposes of §98.460(c)(2)(xii) or (xiii) or used to determine waste stream-specific DOCX values for use in Equation TT-1 of §98.463.

(b) Verification software records. You must keep a record of the file generated by the verification software specified in §98.5(b) for the applicable data specified in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section. Retention of this file satisfies the recordkeeping requirement for the data in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section.

(1) Quantity of each product produced or feedstock entering the process or facility per waste stream per year, from measurement data and/or other company records. You must use the same basis for all years in the calculation (i.e., based on production or based on quantity of feedstock) (metric tons) (Equation TT-2 of §98.463).

(2) [Reserved]

[79 FR 63799, Oct. 24, 2014]

§98.468   Definitions.

Except as provided below, all terms used in this subpart have the same meaning given in the CAA and subpart A of this part.

Construction and demolition (C&D) waste landfill means a solid waste disposal facility subject to the requirements of subparts A or B of part 257 of this chapter that receives construction and demolition waste and does not receive hazardous waste (defined in §261.3 of this chapter) or industrial solid waste (defined in §258.2 of this chapter) or municipal solid waste (defined in §98.6 of this part) other than residential lead-based paint waste. A C&D waste landfill typically receives any one or more of the following types of solid wastes: roadwork material, excavated material, demolition waste, construction/renovation waste, and site clearance waste.

Design capacity means the maximum amount of solid waste a landfill can accept. For the purposes of this subpart, for landfills that have a permit, the design capacity can be determined in terms of volume or mass in the most recent permit issued by the state, local, or Tribal agency responsible for regulating the landfill, plus any in-place waste not accounted for in the most recent permit. If the owner or operator chooses to convert the design capacity from volume to mass to determine its design capacity, the calculation must include a site-specific density. If the design capacity is within 10 percent of the applicability threshold in §98.460(a) and there is a change in the production process that can reasonably be expected to change the site-specific waste density, the site-specific waste density must be redetermined and the design capacity must be recalculated based on the new waste density.

Industrial sludge means the residual, semi-solid material left from industrial wastewater treatment processes or wet air pollution control devices (e.g., wet scrubbers). Industrial sludge includes underflow material collected in primary or secondary clarifiers, settling basins, or precipitation tanks as well as dredged materials from wastewater tanks or impoundments. Industrial sludge also includes the semi-solid materials remaining after these materials are dewatered via a belt process, centrifuge, or similar dewatering process.

Solid waste has the meaning established by the Administrator pursuant to the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C.A. 6901 et seq.).

Waste stream means industrial solid waste material that is generated by a specific manufacturing process or client. For wastes generated at the facility that includes the industrial waste landfill, a waste stream is the industrial solid waste material generated by a specific processing unit at that facility. For industrial solid wastes that are received from off-site facilities, a waste stream can be defined as each waste shipment or group of waste shipments received from a single client or group of clients that produce industrial solid wastes with similar waste properties.

[75 FR 39773, July 12, 2010, as amended at 76 FR 73910, Nov. 29, 2011; 78 FR 71980, Nov. 29, 2013]

Table TT-1 to Subpart TT of Part 98—Default DOC and Decay Rate Values for Industrial Waste Landfills

Industry/Waste TypeDOC
(weight fraction, wet basis)
k
[dry climatea]
(yr−1)
k
[moderate climatea]
(yr−1)
k
[wet climatea]
(yr−1)
Food Processing (other than industrial sludge)0.220.060.120.18
Pulp and Paper Industry:
Pulp and paper wastes segregated into separate streams:
Boiler Ash0.060.020.030.04
Wastewater Sludge0.120.020.040.06
Kraft Recovery Wastesb0.0250.020.030.04
Other Pulp and Paper Wastes (not otherwise listed)0.200.020.030.04
Pulp and paper wastes not segregated into separate streams:
Pulp and paper manufacturing wastes, general (other than industrial sludge)0.150.020.030.04
Wood and Wood Product (other than industrial sludge)0.430.020.030.04
Construction and Demolition0.080.020.030.04
Industrial Sludgec0.090.020.040.06
Inert Waste [i.e., wastes listed in §98.460(c)(2)]0000
Other Industrial Solid Waste (not otherwise listed)0.200.020.040.06

aThe applicable climate classification is determined based on the annual rainfall plus the recirculated leachate application rate. Recirculated leachate application rate (in inches/year) is the total volume of leachate recirculated from company records or engineering estimates and applied to the landfill divided by the area of the portion of the landfill containing waste [with appropriate unit conversions].

Dry climate = precipitation plus recirculated leachate less than 20 inches/year;

Moderate climate = precipitation plus recirculated leachate from 20 to 40 inches/year (inclusive);

Wet climate = precipitation plus recirculated leachate greater than 40 inches/year.

Alternatively, landfills that use leachate recirculation can elect to use the k value for wet climate rather than calculating the recirculated leachate rate.

bKraft Recovery Wastes include green liquor dregs, slaker grits, and lime mud, which may also be referred to collectively as causticizing or recausticizing wastes.

cA facility that can segregate out pulp and paper industry wastewater sludge must apply the 0.12 DOC value to that portion of the sludge.

[75 FR 39773, July 12, 2010, as amended at 76 FR 73910, Nov. 29, 2011; 78 FR 71981, Nov. 29, 2013; 81 FR 89274, Dec. 9, 2016]

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