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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 4, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 98 → Subpart SS


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 98—MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING


Subpart SS—Electrical Equipment Manufacture or Refurbishment


Contents
§98.450   Definition of the source category.
§98.451   Reporting threshold.
§98.452   GHGs to report.
§98.453   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.454   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.455   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.456   Data reporting requirements.
§98.457   Records that must be retained.
§98.458   Definitions.

Source: 75 FR 74859, Dec. 1, 2010, unless otherwise noted.

§98.450   Definition of the source category.

The electrical equipment manufacturing or refurbishment category consists of processes that manufacture or refurbish gas-insulated substations, circuit breakers, other switchgear, gas-insulated lines, or power transformers (including gas-containing components of such equipment) containing sulfur-hexafluoride (SF6) or perfluorocarbons (PFCs). The processes include equipment testing, installation, manufacturing, decommissioning and disposal, refurbishing, and storage in gas cylinders and other containers.

§98.451   Reporting threshold.

You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains an electrical equipment manufacturing or refurbishing process and the facility meets the requirements of §98.2(a)(1). Electrical equipment manufacturing and refurbishing facilities covered by this rule are those that have total annual purchases of SF6 and PFCs that exceed 23,000 pounds.

§98.452   GHGs to report.

(a) You must report SF6 and PFC emissions at the facility level. Annual emissions from the facility must include SF6 and PFC emissions from equipment that is installed at an off-site electric power transmission or distribution location whenever emissions from installation activities (e.g., filling) occur before the title to the equipment is transferred to the electric power transmission or distribution entity.

(b) You must report CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions from each stationary combustion unit. You must calculate and report these emissions under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources) by following the requirements of subpart C of this part.

§98.453   Calculating GHG emissions.

(a) For each electrical equipment manufacturer or refurbisher, estimate the annual SF6 and PFC emissions using the mass-balance approach in Equation SS-1 of this section:

eCFR graphic er01de10.056.gif

View or download PDF

where:

Decrease in SF6 Inventory = (Pounds of SF6 stored in containers at the beginning of the year) − (Pounds of SF6 stored in containers at the end of the year).

Acquisitions of SF6 = (Pounds of SF6 purchased from chemical producers or suppliers in bulk) + (Pounds of SF6 returned by equipment users) + (Pounds of SF6 returned to site after off-site recycling).

Disbursements of SF6 = (Pounds of SF6 contained in new equipment delivered to customers) + (Pounds of SF6 delivered to equipment users in containers) + (Pounds of SF6 returned to suppliers) + (Pounds of SF6 sent off site for recycling) + (Pounds of SF6 sent off-site for destruction).

(b) Use the mass-balance method in paragraph (a) of this section to estimate emissions of PFCs associated with the manufacture or refurbishment of power transformers, substituting the relevant PFC(s) for SF6 in Equation SS-1 of this section.

(c) Estimate the disbursements of SF6 or PFCs sent to customers in new equipment or cylinders or sent off-site for other purposes including for recycling, for destruction or to be returned to suppliers using Equation SS-2 of this section:

eCFR graphic er01de10.057.gif

View or download PDF

where:

DGHG = The annual disbursement of SF6 or PFCs sent to customers in new equipment or cylinders or sent off-site for other purposes including for recycling, for destruction or to be returned to suppliers.

Qp = The mass of the SF6 or PFCs charged into equipment or containers over the period p sent to customers or sent off-site for other purposes including for recycling, for destruction or to be returned to suppliers.

n = The number of periods in the year.

(d) Estimate the mass of SF6 or PFCs disbursed to customers in new equipment or cylinders over the period p by monitoring the mass flow of the SF6 or PFCs into the new equipment or cylinders using a flowmeter, or by weighing containers before and after gas from containers is used to fill equipment or cylinders, or by using the nameplate capacity of the equipment.

(e) If the mass of SF6 or the PFC disbursed to customers in new equipment or cylinders over the period p is estimated by weighing containers before and after gas from containers is used to fill equipment or cylinders, estimate this quantity using Equation SS-3 of this section:

eCFR graphic er01de10.058.gif

View or download PDF

where:

Qp = The mass of SF6 or the PFC charged into equipment or containers over the period p sent to customers or sent off-site for other purposes including for recycling, for destruction or to be returned to suppliers.

MB = The mass of the contents of the containers used to fill equipment or cylinders at the beginning of period p.

ME = The mass of the contents of the containers used to fill equipment or cylinders at the end of period p.

EL = The mass of SF6 or the PFC emitted during the period p downstream of the containers used to fill equipment or cylinders and in cases where a flowmeter is used, downstream of the flowmeter during the period p (e.g., emissions from hoses or other flow lines that connect the container to the equipment or cylinder that is being filled).

(f) If the mass of SF6 or the PFC disbursed to customers in new equipment or cylinders over the period p is determined using a flowmeter, estimate this quantity using Equation SS-4 of this section:

eCFR graphic er01de10.059.gif

View or download PDF

where:

Qp = The mass of SF6 or the PFC charged into equipment or containers over the period p sent to customers or sent off-site for other purposes including for recycling, for destruction or to be returned to suppliers.

Mmr = The mass of the SF6 or the PFC that has flowed through the flowmeter during the period p.

EL = The mass of SF6 or the PFC emitted during the period p downstream of the containers used to fill equipment or cylinders and in cases where a flowmeter is used, downstream of the flowmeter during the period p (e.g., emissions from hoses or other flow lines that connect the container to the equipment that is being filled).

(g) Estimate the mass of SF6 or the PFC emitted during the period p downstream of the containers used to fill equipment or cylinders (e.g., emissions from hoses or other flow lines that connect the container to the equipment or cylinder that is being filled) using Equation SS-5 of this section:

eCFR graphic er01de10.060.gif

View or download PDF

where:

EL = The mass of SF6 or the PFC emitted during the period p downstream of the containers used to fill equipment or cylinders and in cases where a flowmeter is used, downstream of the flowmeter during the period p (e.g., emissions from hoses or other flow lines that connect the container to the equipment or cylinder that is being filled)

FCi = The total number of fill operations over the period p for the valve-hose combination Ci.

EFCi = The emission factor for the valve-hose combination Ci.

n = The number of different valve-hose combinations C used during the period p.

(h) If the mass of SF6 or the PFC disbursed to customers in new equipment or cylinders over the period p is determined by using the nameplate capacity, or by using the nameplate capacity of the equipment and calculating the partial shipping charge, use the methods in either paragraph (h)(1) or (h)(2) of this section.

(1) Determine the equipment's actual nameplate capacity, by measuring the nameplate capacities of a representative sample of each make and model and calculating the mean value for each make and model as specified at §98.454(f).

(2) If equipment is shipped with a partial charge, calculate the partial shipping charge by multiplying the nameplate capacity of the equipment by the ratio of the densities of the partial charge to the full charge.

(i) Estimate the annual SF6 and PFC emissions from the equipment that is installed at an off-site electric power transmission or distribution location before the title to the equipment is transferred by using Equation SS-6 of this section:

eCFR graphic er01de10.061.gif

View or download PDF

where:

EI = Total annual SF6 or PFC emissions from equipment installation at electric transmission or distribution facilities.

MF = The total annual mass of the SF6 or PFCs, in pounds, used to fill equipment during equipment installation at electric transmission or distribution facilities.

MC = The total annual mass of the SF6 or PFCs, in pounds, used to charge the equipment prior to leaving the electrical equipment manufacturer facility.

NI = The total annual nameplate capacity of the equipment, in pounds, installed at electric transmission or distribution facilities.

[75 FR 75078, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 78 FR 71979, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.454   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

(a) For calendar year 2011 monitoring, you may follow the provisions of §98.3(d)(1) through (d)(2) for best available monitoring methods rather than follow the monitoring requirements of this section. For purposes of this subpart, any reference in §98.3(d)(1) through (d)(2) to 2010 means 2011, March 31 means June 30, and April 1 means July 1. Any reference to the effective date in §98.3(d)(1) through (d)(2) means February 28, 2011.

(b) Ensure that all the quantities required by the equations of this subpart have been measured using either flowmeters with an accuracy and precision of ±1 percent of full scale or better or scales with an accuracy and precision of ±1 percent of the filled weight (gas plus tare) of the containers of SF6 or PFCs that are typically weighed on the scale. For scales that are generally used to weigh cylinders containing 115 pounds of gas when full, this equates to ±1 percent of the sum of 115 pounds and approximately 120 pounds tare, or slightly more than ±2 pounds. Account for the tare weights of the containers. You may accept gas masses or weights provided by the gas supplier e.g., for the contents of cylinders containing new gas or for the heels remaining in cylinders returned to the gas supplier) if the supplier provides documentation verifying that accuracy standards are met; however, you remain responsible for the accuracy of these masses and weights under this subpart.

(c) All flow meters, weigh scales, and combinations of volumetric and density measures that are used to measure or calculate quantities under this subpart must be calibrated using calibration procedures specified by the flowmeter, scale, volumetric or density measure equipment manufacturer. Calibration must be performed prior to the first reporting year. After the initial calibration, recalibration must be performed at the minimum frequency specified by the manufacturer.

(d) For purposes of Equations SS-5 of this subpart, the emission factor for the valve-hose combination (EFC) must be estimated using measurements and/or engineering assessments or calculations based on chemical engineering principles or physical or chemical laws or properties. Such assessments or calculations may be based on, as applicable, the internal volume of hose or line that is open to the atmosphere during coupling and decoupling activities, the internal pressure of the hose or line, the time the hose or line is open to the atmosphere during coupling and decoupling activities, the frequency with which the hose or line is purged and the flow rate during purges. You must develop a value for EFc (or use an industry-developed value) for each combination of hose and valve fitting, to use in Equation SS-5 of this subpart. The value for EFC must be determined for each combination of hose and valve fitting of a given diameter or size. The calculation must be recalculated annually to account for changes to the specifications of the valves or hoses that may occur throughout the year.

(e) Electrical equipment manufacturers and refurbishers must account for SF6 or PFC emissions that occur as a result of unexpected events or accidental losses, such as a malfunctioning hose or leak in the flow line, during the filling of equipment or containers for disbursement by including these losses in the estimated mass of SF6 or the PFC emitted downstream of the container or flowmeter during the period p.

(f) If the mass of SF6 or the PFC disbursed to customers in new equipment over the period p is determined by assuming that it is equal to the equipment's nameplate capacity or, in cases where equipment is shipped with a partial charge, equal to its partial shipping charge, equipment samples for conducting the nameplate capacity tests must be selected using the following stratified sampling strategy in this paragraph. For each make and model, group the measurement conditions to reflect predictable variability in the facility's filling practices and conditions (e.g., temperatures at which equipment is filled). Then, independently select equipment samples at random from each make and model under each group of conditions. To account for variability, a certain number of these measurements must be performed to develop a robust and representative average nameplate capacity (or shipping charge) for each make, model, and group of conditions. A Student T distribution calculation should be conducted to determine how many samples are needed for each make, model, and group of conditions as a function of the relative standard deviation of the sample measurements. To determine a sufficiently precise estimate of the nameplate capacity, the number of measurements required must be calculated to achieve a precision of one percent of the true mean, using a 95 percent confidence interval. To estimate the nameplate capacity for a given make and model, you must use the lowest mean value among the different groups of conditions, or provide justification for the use of a different mean value for the group of conditions that represents the typical practices and conditions for that make and model. Measurements can be conducted using SF6, another gas, or a liquid. Re-measurement of nameplate capacities should be conducted every five years to reflect cumulative changes in manufacturing methods and conditions over time.

(g) Ensure the following QA/QC methods are employed throughout the year:

(1) Procedures are in place and followed to track and weigh all cylinders or other containers at the beginning and end of the year.

(h) You must adhere to the following QA/QC methods for reviewing the completeness and accuracy of reporting:

(1) Review inputs to Equation SS-1 of this subpart to ensure inputs and outputs to the company's system are included.

(2) Do not enter negative inputs and confirm that negative emissions are not calculated. However, the decrease in SF6 inventory may be calculated as negative.

(3) Ensure that beginning-of-year inventory matches end-of-year inventory from the previous year.

(4) Ensure that in addition to SF6 purchased from bulk gas distributors, SF6 returned from equipment users with or inside equipment and SF6 returned from off-site recycling are also accounted for among the total additions.

§98.455   Procedures for estimating missing data.

A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations is required. Replace missing data, if needed, based on data from similar manufacturing operations, and from similar equipment testing and decommissioning activities for which data are available.

§98.456   Data reporting requirements.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(c), each annual report must contain the following information for each chemical at the facility level:

(a) Pounds of SF6 and PFCs stored in containers at the beginning of the year.

(b) Pounds of SF6 and PFCs stored in containers at the end of the year.

(c) Pounds of SF6 and PFCs purchased in bulk.

(d) Pounds of SF6 and PFCs returned by equipment users with or inside equipment.

(e) Pounds of SF6 and PFCs returned to site from off site after recycling.

(f) Pounds of SF6 and PFCs inside new equipment delivered to customers.

(g) Pounds of SF6 and PFCs delivered to equipment users in containers.

(h) Pounds of SF6 and PFCs returned to suppliers.

(i) Pounds of SF6 and PFCs sent off site for destruction.

(j) Pounds of SF6 and PFCs sent off site to be recycled.

(k) The nameplate capacity of the equipment, in pounds, delivered to customers with SF6 or PFCs inside, if different from the quantity in paragraph (f) of this section.

(l) A description of the engineering methods and calculations used to determine emissions from hoses or other flow lines that connect the container to the equipment that is being filled.

(m) The values for EFci of Equation SS-5 of this subpart for each hose and valve combination and the associated valve fitting sizes and hose diameters.

(n) The total number of fill operations for each hose and valve combination, or, FCi of Equation SS-5 of this subpart.

(o) If the mass of SF6 or the PFC disbursed to customers in new equipment over the period p is determined according to the methods required in §98.453(h), report the mean value of nameplate capacity in pounds for each make, model, and group of conditions.

(p) If the mass of SF6 or the PFC disbursed to customers in new equipment over the period p is determined according to the methods required in §98.453(h), report the number of samples and the upper and lower bounds on the 95 percent confidence interval for each make, model, and group of conditions.

(q) Pounds of SF6 and PFCs used to fill equipment at off-site electric power transmission or distribution locations, or MF, of Equation SS-6 of this subpart.

(r) Pounds of SF6 and PFCs used to charge the equipment prior to leaving the electrical equipment manufacturer or refurbishment facility, or MC, of Equation SS-6 of this subpart.

(s) The nameplate capacity of the equipment, in pounds, installed at off-site electric power transmission or distribution locations used to determine emissions from installation, or NI, of Equation SS-6 of this subpart.

(t) For any missing data, you must report the reason the data were missing, the parameters for which the data were missing, the substitute parameters used to estimate emissions in their absence, and the quantity of emissions thereby estimated.

[75 FR 75078, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 78 FR 71979, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.457   Records that must be retained.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(g), you must retain the following records:

(a) All information reported and listed in §98.456.

(b) Accuracy certifications and calibration records for all scales and monitoring equipment, including the method or manufacturer's specification used for calibration.

(c) Certifications of the quantity of gas, in pounds, charged into equipment at the electrical equipment manufacturer or refurbishment facility as well as the actual quantity of gas, in pounds, charged into equipment at installation.

(d) Check-out and weigh-in sheets and procedures for cylinders.

(e) Residual gas amounts, in pounds, in cylinders sent back to suppliers.

(f) Invoices for gas purchases and sales.

(g) GHG Monitoring Plans, as described in §98.3(g)(5), must be completed by April 1, 2011.

§98.458   Definitions.

All terms used in this subpart have the same meaning given in the CAA and subpart A of this part.

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