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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 10, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 98 → Subpart I


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 98—MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING


Subpart I—Electronics Manufacturing


Contents
§98.90   Definition of the source category.
§98.91   Reporting threshold.
§98.92   GHGs to report.
§98.93   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.94   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.95   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.96   Data reporting requirements.
§98.97   Records that must be retained.
§98.98   Definitions.
Table I-1 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors for Threshold Applicability Determination
Table I-2 to Subpart I of Part 98—Examples of Fluorinated GHGs Used by the Electronics Industry
Table I-3 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for Semiconductor Manufacturing for 150 mm and 200 mm Wafer Sizes
Table I-4 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for Semiconductor Manufacturing for 300 mm and 450 mm Wafer Size
Table I-5 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for MEMS Manufacturing
Table I-6 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for LCD Manufacturing
Table I-7 To Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for PV Manufacturing
Table I-8 to Subpart I of Part 98— Default Emission Factors (1-UN2O,j) for N2O Utilization (UN2O,j)
Table I-9 to Subpart I of Part 98—Methods and Procedures for Conducting Emissions Test for Stack Systems
Table I-10 to Subpart I of Part 98—Maximum Field Detection Limits Applicable to Fluorinated GHG Concentration Measurements for Stack Systems
Table I-11 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for Semiconductor Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method (150 mm and 200 mm Wafers)
Table I-12 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for Semiconductor Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method (300 mm and 450 mm Wafers)
Table I-13 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for LCD Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method
Table I-14 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for PV Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method
Table I-15 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for MEMS Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method
Table I-16 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Destruction or Removal Efficiency (DRE) Factors for Electronics Manufacturing
Table I-17 to Subpart I of Part 98—Expected and Possible By-Products for Electronics Manufacturinglg
Appendix A to Subpart I of Part 98—Alternative Procedures for Measuring Point-of-Use Abatement Device Destruction or Removal Efficiency

Source: 75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, unless otherwise noted.

§98.90   Definition of the source category.

(a) The electronics manufacturing source category consists of any of the production processes listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(5) of this section that use fluorinated GHGs or N2O. Facilities that may use these processes include, but are not limited to, facilities that manufacture micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), liquid crystal displays (LCDs), photovoltaic cells (PV), and semiconductors (including light-emitting diodes (LEDs)).

(1) Any electronics production process in which the etching process uses plasma-generated fluorine atoms and other reactive fluorine-containing fragments, that chemically react with exposed thin-films (e.g., dielectric, metals) or substrate (e.g., silicon) to selectively remove portions of material.

(2) Any electronics production process in which chambers used for depositing thin films are cleaned periodically using plasma-generated fluorine atoms and other reactive fluorine-containing fragments.

(3) Any electronics production process in which wafers are cleaned using plasma generated fluorine atoms or other reactive fluorine-containing fragments to remove residual material from wafer surfaces, including the wafer edge.

(4) Any electronics production process in which the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process or other manufacturing processes use N2O.

(5) Any electronics manufacturing production process in which fluorinated heat transfer fluids are used to cool process equipment, to control temperature during device testing, to clean substrate surfaces and other parts, and for soldering (e.g., vapor phase reflow).

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 77 FR 10380, Feb. 22, 2012]

§98.91   Reporting threshold.

(a) You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if electronics manufacturing production processes, as defined in §98.90, are performed at your facility and your facility meets the requirements of either §98.2(a)(1) or (a)(2). To calculate total annual GHG emissions for comparison to the 25,000 metric ton CO2e per year emission threshold in §98.2(a)(2), follow the requirements of §98.2(b), with one exception. Rather than using the calculation methodologies in §98.93 to calculate emissions from electronics manufacturing production processes, calculate emissions of each fluorinated GHG from electronics manufacturing production processes by using paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), or (a)(3) of this section, as appropriate, and then sum the emissions of each fluorinated GHG by using paragraph (a)(4) of this section.

(1) If you manufacture semiconductors or MEMS you must calculate annual production process emissions of each input gas i for threshold applicability purposes using the default emission factors shown in Table I-1 to this subpart and Equation I-1 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er01de10.002.gif

View or download PDF

where:

Ei = Annual production process emissions of input gas i for threshold applicability purposes (metric tons CO2e).

S = 100 percent of annual manufacturing capacity of a facility as calculated using Equation I-5 of this subpart (m2).

EFi = Emission factor for input gas i (kg/m2).

GWPi = Gas-appropriate GWP as provided in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part.

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

i = Input gas.

(2) If you manufacture LCDs, you must calculate annual production process emissions of each input gas i for threshold applicability purposes using the default emission factors shown in Table I-1 to this subpart and Equation I-2 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er01de10.003.gif

View or download PDF

where:

Ei = Annual production process emissions of input gas i for threshold applicability purposes (metric tons Co2e).

S = 100 percent of annual manufacturing capacity of a facility as calculated using Equation I-5 of this subpart (m2).

EFi = Emission factor for input gas i (g/m2).

GWPi = Gas-appropriate GWP as provided in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part.

0.000001 = Conversion factor from g to metric tons.

i = Input gas.

(3) If you manufacture PVs, you must calculate annual production process emissions of each input gas i for threshold applicability purposes using gas-appropriate GWP values shown in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part and Equation I-3 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er01de10.004.gif

View or download PDF

where:

Ei = Annual production process emissions of input gas i for threshold applicability purposes (metric tons Co2e).

Ci = Annual fluorinated GHG (input gas i) purchases or consumption (kg). Only gases that are used in PV manufacturing processes listed at §98.90(a)(1) through (a)(4) that have listed GWP values in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part must be considered for threshold applicability purposes.

GWPi = Gas-appropriate GWP as provided in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part.

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

i = Input gas.

(4) You must calculate total annual production process emissions for threshold applicability purposes using Equation I-4 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er01de10.005.gif

View or download PDF

where:

ET = Annual production process emissions of all fluorinated GHGs for threshold applicability purposes (metric tons Co2e).

δ = Factor accounting for fluorinated heat transfer fluid emissions, estimated as 10 percent of total annual production process emissions at a semiconductor facility. Set equal to 1.1 when Equation I-4 of this subpart is used to calculate total annual production process emissions from semiconductor manufacturing. Set equal to 1 when Equation I-4 of this subpart is used to calculate total annual production process emissions from MEMS, LCD, or PV manufacturing.

Ei = Annual production process emissions of input gas i for threshold applicability purposes (metric tons Co2e), as calculated in Equations I-1, I-2 or I-3 of this subpart.

i = Input gas.

(b) You must calculate annual manufacturing capacity of a facility using Equation I-5 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er01de10.006.gif

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where:

S = 100 percent of annual manufacturing capacity of a facility (m2).

WX = Maximum substrate starts of fab f in month x (m2 per month).

x = Month.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 77 FR 10380, Feb. 22, 2012; 78 FR 68202, Nov. 13, 2013]

§98.92   GHGs to report.

(a) You must report emissions of fluorinated GHGs (as defined in §98.6), N2O, and fluorinated heat transfer fluids (as defined in §98.98). The fluorinated GHGs and fluorinated heat transfer fluids that are emitted from electronics manufacturing production processes include, but are not limited to, those listed in Table I-2 to this subpart. You must individually report, as appropriate:

(1) Fluorinated GHGs emitted.

(2)-(3) [Reserved]

(4) N2O emitted from chemical vapor deposition and other electronics manufacturing processes.

(5) Emissions of fluorinated heat transfer fluids.

(6) All fluorinated GHGs and N2O consumed.

(b) CO2, CH4, and N2O combustion emissions from each stationary combustion unit. You must calculate and report these emissions under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources) by following the requirements of subpart C of this part.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 77 FR 10380, Feb. 22, 2012; 78 FR 68202, Nov. 13, 2013]

§98.93   Calculating GHG emissions.

(a) You must calculate total annual emissions of each fluorinated GHG emitted by electronics manufacturing production processes from each fab (as defined in §98.98) at your facility, including each input gas and each by-product gas. You must use either default gas utilization rates and by-product formations rates according to the procedures in paragraph (a)(1), (a)(2), or (a)(6) of this section, as appropriate, or the stack test method according to paragraph (i) of this section, to calculate emissions of each input gas and each by-product gas.

(1) If you manufacture semiconductors, you must adhere to the procedures in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) through (iii) of this section. You must calculate annual emissions of each input gas and of each by-product gas using Equations I-6 and I-7 of this subpart, respectively. If your fab uses less than 50 kg of a fluorinated GHG in one reporting year, you may calculate emissions as equal to your fab's annual consumption for that specific gas as calculated in Equation I-11 of this subpart, plus any by-product emissions of that gas calculated under paragraph (a) of this section.

eCFR graphic er13no13.000.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

ProcesstypeEi = Annual emissions of input gas i from the process type on a fab basis (metric tons).

Eij = Annual emissions of input gas i from process sub-type or process type j as calculated in Equation I-8 of this subpart (metric tons).

N = The total number of process sub-types j that depends on the electronics manufacturing fab and emission calculation methodology. If Eij is calculated for a process type j in Equation I-8 of this subpart, N = 1.

i = Input gas.

j = Process sub-type or process type.

eCFR graphic er13no13.001.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

ProcesstypeBEk = Annual emissions of by-product gas k from the processes type on a fab basis (metric tons).

BEijk = Annual emissions of by-product gas k formed from input gas i used for process sub-type or process type j as calculated in Equation I-9 of this subpart (metric tons).

N = The total number of process sub-types j that depends on the electronics manufacturing fab and emission calculation methodology. If BEijk is calculated for a process type j in Equation I-9 of this subpart, N = 1.

i = Input gas.

j = Process sub-type, or process type.

k = By-product gas.

(i) You must calculate annual fab-level emissions of each fluorinated GHG used for the plasma etching/wafer cleaning process type using default utilization and by-product formation rates as shown in Table I-3 or I-4 of this subpart, and by using Equations I-8 and I-9 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er06my14.001.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Eij = Annual emissions of input gas i from process sub-type or process type j, on a fab basis (metric tons).

Cij = Amount of input gas i consumed for process sub-type or process type j, as calculated in Equation I-13 of this subpart, on a fab basis (kg).

Uij = Process utilization rate for input gas i for process sub-type or process type j (expressed as a decimal fraction).

aij = Fraction of input gas i used in process sub-type or process type j with abatement systems, on a fab basis (expressed as a decimal fraction).

dij = Fraction of input gas i destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools where process sub-type, or process type j is used, on a fab basis (expressed as a decimal fraction). This is zero unless the facility adheres to the requirements in §98.94(f).

UTij = The average uptime factor of all abatement systems connected to process tools in the fab using input gas i in process sub-type or process type j, as calculated in Equation I-15 of this subpart, on a fab basis (expressed as a decimal fraction).

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

i = Input gas.

j = Process sub-type or process type.

eCFR graphic er09de16.019.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

BEijk = Annual emissions of by-product gas k formed from input gas i from process sub-type or process type j, on a fab basis (metric tons).

Bijk = By-product formation rate of gas k created as a by-product per amount of input gas i (kg) consumed by process sub-type or process type j (kg).

Cij = Amount of input gas i consumed for process sub-type, or process type j, as calculated in Equation I-13 of this subpart, on a fab basis (kg).

aij = Fraction of input gas i used for process sub-type, or process type j with abatement systems, on a fab basis (expressed as a decimal fraction).

djk = Fraction of by-product gas k destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools where process sub-type, or process type j is used, on a fab basis (expressed as a decimal fraction). This is zero unless the facility adheres to the requirements in §98.94(f).

UTijk = The average uptime factor of all abatement systems connected to process tools in the fab emitting by-product gas k, formed from input gas i in process sub-type or process type j, on a fab basis (expressed as a decimal fraction). For this equation, UTijk is assumed to be equal to UTij as calculated in Equation I-15 of this subpart.

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

i = Input gas.

j = Process sub-type or process type.

k = By-product gas.

(ii) You must calculate annual fab-level emissions of each fluorinated GHG used for each of the process sub-types associated with the chamber cleaning process type, including in-situ plasma chamber clean, remote plasma chamber clean, and in-situ thermal chamber clean, using default utilization and by-product formation rates as shown in Table I-3 or I-4 of this subpart, and by using Equations I-8 and I-9 of this subpart.

(iii) If default values are not available for a particular input gas and process type or sub-type combination in Tables I-3 or I-4, you must follow the procedures in paragraph (a)(6) of this section.

(2) If you manufacture MEMS, LCDs, or PVs, you must calculate annual fab-level emissions of each fluorinated GHG used for the plasma etching and chamber cleaning process types using default utilization and by-product formation rates as shown in Table I-5, I-6, or I-7 of this subpart, as appropriate, and by using Equations I-8 and I-9 of this subpart. If default values are not available for a particular input gas and process type or sub-type combination in Tables I-5, I-6, or I-7, you must follow the procedures in paragraph (a)(6) of this section. If your fab uses less than 50 kg of a fluorinated GHG in one reporting year, you may calculate emissions as equal to your fab's annual consumption for that specific gas as calculated in Equation I-11 of this subpart, plus any by-product emissions of that gas calculated under this paragraph (a).

(3)-(5) [Reserved]

(6) If you are required, or elect, to perform calculations using default emission factors for gas utilization and by-product formation rates according to the procedures in paragraphs (a)(1) or (a)(2) of this section, and default values are not available for a particular input gas and process type or sub-type combination in Tables I-3, I-4, I-5, I-6, or I-7, you must use the utilization and by-product formation rates of zero and use Equations I-8 and I-9 of this subpart.

(b) You must calculate annual fab-level N2O emissions from all chemical vapor deposition processes and from the aggregate of all other electronics manufacturing production processes using Equation I-10 of this subpart and the methods in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section. If your fab uses less than 50 kg of N2O in one reporting year, you may calculate fab emissions as equal to your fab's annual consumption for N2O as calculated in Equation I-11 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er13no13.004.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

E(N2O)j = Annual emissions of N2O for N2O-using process j, on a fab basis (metric tons).

CN2O,j = Amount of N2O consumed for N2O-using process j, as calculated in Equation I-13 of this subpart and apportioned to N2O process j, on a fab basis (kg).

UN2O,j = Process utilization factor for N2O-using process j (expressed as a decimal fraction) from Table I-8 of this subpart.

aN2O,j = Fraction of N2O used in N2O-using process j with abatement systems, on a fab basis (expressed as a decimal fraction).

dN2O,j = Fraction of N2O for N2O-using process j destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools where process j is used, on a fab basis (expressed as a decimal fraction). This is zero unless the facility adheres to the requirements in §98.94(f).

UTN2O = The average uptime factor of all the abatement systems connected to process tools in the fab that use N2O, as calculated in Equation I-15 of this subpart, on a fab basis (expressed as a decimal fraction). For purposes of calculating the abatement system uptime for N2O using process tools, in Equation I-15 of this subpart, the only input gas i is N2O, j is the N2O using process, and p is the N2O abatement system connected to the N2O using tool.

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

j = Type of N2O-using process, either chemical vapor deposition or all other N2O-using manufacturing processes.

(1) You must use the factor for N2O utilization for chemical vapor deposition processes as shown in Table I-8 to this subpart.

(2) You must use the factor for N2O utilization for all other manufacturing production processes other than chemical vapor deposition as shown in Table I-8 to this subpart.

(c) You must calculate total annual input gas i consumption on a fab basis for each fluorinated GHG and N2O using Equation I-11 of this subpart. Where a gas supply system serves more than one fab, Equation I-11 is applied to that gas which has been apportioned to each fab served by that system using the apportioning factors determined in accordance with §98.94(c).

eCFR graphic er01de10.012.gif

View or download PDF

where:

Ci = Annual consumption of input gas i, on a fab basis (kg per year).

IBi = Inventory of input gas i stored in containers at the beginning of the reporting year, including heels, on a fab basis (kg). For containers in service at the beginning of a reporting year, account for the quantity in these containers as if they were full.

IEi = Inventory of input gas i stored in containers at the end of the reporting year, including heels, on a fab basis (kg). For containers in service at the end of a reporting year, account for the quantity in these containers as if they were full.

Ai = Acquisitions of input gas i during the year through purchases or other transactions, including heels in containers returned to the electronics manufacturing facility, on a fab basis (kg).

Di = Disbursements of input gas i through sales or other transactions during the year, including heels in containers returned by the electronics manufacturing facility to the chemical supplier, as calculated using Equation I-12 of this subpart, on a fab basis (kg).

i = Input gas.

(d) You must calculate disbursements of input gas i using fab-wide gas-specific heel factors, as determined in §98.94(b), and by using Equation I-12 of this subpart. Where a gas supply system serves more than one fab, Equation I-12 is applied to that gas which has been apportioned to each fab served by that system using the apportioning factors determined in accordance with §98.94(c).

eCFR graphic er01de10.013.gif

View or download PDF

where:

Di = Disbursements of input gas i through sales or other transactions during the reporting year on a fab basis, including heels in containers returned by the electronics manufacturing fab to the gas distributor (kg).

hil = Fab-wide gas-specific heel factor for input gas i and container size and type l (expressed as a decimal fraction), as determined in §98.94(b). If your fab uses less than 50 kg of a fluorinated GHG or N2O in one reporting year, you may assume that any hil for that fluorinated GHG or N2O is equal to zero.

Nil = Number of containers of size and type l used at the fab and returned to the gas distributor containing the standard heel of input gas i.

Fil = Full capacity of containers of size and type l containing input gas i (kg).

Xi = Disbursements under exceptional circumstances of input gas i through sales or other transactions during the year, on a fab basis (kg). These include returns of containers whose contents have been weighed due to an exceptional circumstance as specified in §98.94(b)(4).

i = Input gas.

l = Size and type of gas container.

M = The total number of different sized container types on a fab basis. If only one size and container type is used for an input gas i, M = 1.

(e) You must calculate the amount of input gas i consumed, on a fab basis, for each process sub-type or process type j, using Equation I-13 of this subpart. Where a gas supply system serves more than one fab, Equation I-13 is applied to that gas which has been apportioned to each fab served by that system using the apportioning factors determined in accordance with §98.94(c). If you elect to calculate emissions using the stack test method in paragraph (i) of this section, you must calculate the amount of input gas i consumed on the applicable basis by using an appropriate apportioning factor. For example, when calculating fab-level emissions of each fluorinated GHG consumed using Equation I-21 of this section, you must substitute the term fij with the appropriate apportioning factor to calculate the total consumption of each fluorinated GHG in tools that are vented to stack systems that are tested.

eCFR graphic er01de10.014.gif

View or download PDF

where:

Ci,j = The annual amount of input gas i consumed, on a fab basis, for process sub-type or process type j (kg).

fi,j = Process sub-type-specific or process type-specific j, input gas i apportioning factor (expressed as a decimal fraction), as determined in accordance with §98.94(c).

Ci = Annual consumption of input gas i, on a fab basis, as calculated using Equation I-11 of this subpart (kg).

i = Input gas.

j = Process sub-type or process type.

(f) [Reserved]

(g) If you report controlled emissions pursuant to §98.94(f), you must calculate the uptime of all the abatement systems for each combination of input gas or by-product gas, and process sub-type or process type, by using Equation I-15 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er06my14.002.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

UTij = The average uptime factor of all abatement systems connected to process tools in the fab using input gas i in process sub-type or process type j (expressed as a decimal fraction).

Tdijp = The total time, in minutes, that abatement system p, connected to process tool(s) in the fab using input gas i in process sub-type or process type j, is not in operational mode, as defined in §98.98, when at least one of the tools connected to abatement system p is in operation.

UTijp = Total time, in minutes per year, in which abatement system p has at least one associated tool in operation. For determining the amount of tool operating time, you may assume that tools that were installed for the whole of the year were operated for 525,600 minutes per year. For tools that were installed or uninstalled during the year, you must prorate the operating time to account for the days in which the tool was not installed; treat any partial day that a tool was installed as a full day (1,440 minutes) of tool operation. For an abatement system that has more than one connected tool, the tool operating time is 525,600 minutes per year if at least one tool was installed at all times throughout the year. If you have tools that are idle with no gas flow through the tool for part of the year, you may calculate total tool time using the actual time that gas is flowing through the tool.

i = Input gas.

j = Process sub-type or process type.

p = Abatement system.

(h) If you use fluorinated heat transfer fluids, you must calculate the annual emissions of fluorinated heat transfer fluids on a fab basis using the mass balance approach described in Equation I-16 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er01de10.017.gif

View or download PDF

where:

EHi = Emissions of fluorinated heat transfer fluid i, on a fab basis (metric tons/year).

Densityi = Density of fluorinated heat transfer fluid i (kg/l).

IiB = Inventory of fluorinated heat transfer fluid i, on a fab basis, in containers other than equipment at the beginning of the reporting year (in stock or storage) (l). The inventory at the beginning of the reporting year must be the same as the inventory at the end of the previous reporting year.

Pi = Acquisitions of fluorinated heat transfer fluid i, on a fab basis, during the reporting year (l), including amounts purchased from chemical suppliers, amounts purchased from equipment suppliers with or inside of equipment, and amounts returned to the facility after off-site recycling.

Ni = Total nameplate capacity (full and proper charge) of equipment that uses fluorinated heat transfer fluid i and that is newly installed in the fab during the reporting year (l).

Ri = Total nameplate capacity (full and proper charge) of equipment that uses fluorinated heat transfer fluid i and that is removed from service in the fab during the reporting year (l).

IiE = Inventory of fluorinated heat transfer fluid i, on a fab basis, in containers other than equipment at the end of the reporting year (in stock or storage) (l). The inventory at the beginning of the reporting year must be the same as the inventory at the end of the previous reporting year.

Di = Disbursements of fluorinated heat transfer fluid i, on a fab basis, during the reporting year, including amounts returned to chemical suppliers, sold with or inside of equipment, and sent off-site for verifiable recycling or destruction (l). Disbursements should include only amounts that are properly stored and transported so as to prevent emissions in transit.

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

i = Fluorinated heat transfer fluid.

(1) If you use a fluorinated chemical both as a fluorinated heat transfer fluid and in other applications, you may calculate and report either emissions from all applications or from only those specified in the definition of fluorinated heat transfer fluids in §98.98.

(2) [Reserved]

(i) Stack Test Method. As an alternative to the default emission factor method in paragraph (a) of this section, you may calculate fab-level fluorinated GHG emissions using fab-specific emission factors developed from stack testing. To use the method in this paragraph, you must first make a preliminary estimate of the fluorinated GHG emissions from each stack system in the fab under paragraph (i)(1) of this section. You must then compare the preliminary estimate for each stack system to the criteria in paragraph (i)(2) of this section to determine whether the stack system meets the criteria for using the stack test method described in paragraph (i)(3) of this section or whether the stack system meets the criteria for using the method described in paragraph (i)(4) of this section to estimate emissions from the stack systems that are not tested.

(1) Preliminary estimate of emissions by stack system in the fab. You must calculate a preliminary estimate of the total annual emissions, on a metric ton CO2e basis, of all fluorinated GHG from each stack system in the fab using default utilization and by-product formation rates as shown in Table I-11, I-12, I-13, I-14, or I-15 of this subpart, as applicable, and by using Equations I-8 and I-9 of this subpart. You must include any intermittent low-use fluorinated GHGs, as defined in §98.98 of this subpart, in any preliminary estimates. When using Equations I-8 and I-9 of this subpart for the purposes of this paragraph (i)(1), you must also adhere to the procedures in paragraphs (i)(1)(i) to (iv) of this section to calculate preliminary estimates.

(i) When you are calculating preliminary estimates for the purpose of this paragraph (i)(1), you must consider the subscript “j” in Equations I-8 and I-9, and I-13 of this subpart to mean “stack system” instead of “process sub-type or process type.” For the value of aij, the fraction of input gas i that is used in tools with abatement systems, for use in Equations I-8 and I-9, you may use the ratio of the number of tools using input gas i that have abatement systems that are vented to the stack system for which you are calculating the preliminary estimate to the total number of tools using input gas i that are vented to that stack system, expressed as a decimal fraction. In calculating the preliminary estimates, you must account for the effect of any fluorinated GHG abatement system meeting the definition of abatement system in §98.98. You may use this approach to determining aij only for this preliminary estimate.

(ii) You must use representative data from the previous reporting year to estimate the consumption of input gas i as calculated in Equation I-13 of this subpart and the fraction of input gas i and by-product gas k destroyed in abatement systems for each stack system as calculated by Equations I-24A and I-24B of this subpart. If you were not required to submit an annual report under subpart I for the previous reporting year and data from the previous reporting year are not available, you may estimate the consumption of input gas i and the fraction of input gas i destroyed in abatement systems based on representative operating data from a period of at least 30 days in the current reporting year. When calculating the consumption of input gas i using Equation I-13 of this subpart, the term “fij” is replaced with the ratio of the number of tools using input gas i that are vented to the stack system for which you are calculating the preliminary estimate to the total number of tools in the fab using input gas i, expressed as a decimal fraction. You may use this approach to determining fij only for this preliminary estimate.

(iii) You must use representative data from the previous reporting year to estimate the total uptime of all abatement systems for the stack system as calculated by Equation I-23 of this subpart, instead of using Equation I-15 of this subpart to calculate the average uptime factor. If you were not required to submit an annual report under subpart I for the previous reporting year and data from the previous reporting year are not available, you may estimate the total uptime of all abatement systems for the stack system based on representative operating data from a period of at least 30 days in the current reporting year.

(iv) If you anticipate an increase or decrease in annual consumption or emissions of any fluorinated GHG, or the number of tools connected to abatement systems greater than 10 percent for the current reporting year compared to the previous reporting year, you must account for the anticipated change in your preliminary estimate. You may account for such a change using a quantifiable metric (e.g., the ratio of the number of tools that are expected to be vented to the stack system in the current year as compared to the previous reporting year, ratio of the expected number of wafer starts in the current reporting year as compared to the previous reporting year), engineering judgment, or other industry standard practice.

(2) Method selection for stack systems in the fab. If the calculations under paragraph (i)(1) of this section, as well as any subsequent annual measurements and calculations under this subpart, indicate that the stack system meets the criteria in paragraph (i)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section, then you may comply with either paragraph (i)(3) of this section (stack test method) or paragraph (i)(4) of this section (method to estimate emissions from the stack systems that are not tested). If the stack system does not meet all three criteria in paragraph (i)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section, then you must comply with the stack test method specified in paragraph (i)(3) of this section.

(i) The sum of annual emissions of fluorinated GHGs from all of the combined stack systems that are not tested in the fab must be less than 10,000 metric ton CO2e per year.

(ii) When all stack systems in the fab are ordered from lowest to highest emitting in metric ton CO2e of fluorinated GHG per year, each of the stack systems that is not tested must be within the set of the fab's lowest emitting fluorinated GHG stack systems that together emit 15 percent or less of total CO2e fluorinated GHG emissions from the fab.

(iii) Fluorinated GHG emissions from each of the stack systems that is not tested can only be attributed to particular process tools during the test (that is, the stack system that is not tested cannot be used as an alternative emission point or bypass stack system from other process tools not attributed to the untested stack system).

(3) Stack system stack test method. For each stack system in the fab for which testing is required, measure the emissions of each fluorinated GHG from the stack system by conducting an emission test. In addition, measure the fab-specific consumption of each fluorinated GHG by the tools that are vented to the stack systems tested. Measure emissions and consumption of each fluorinated GHG as specified in §98.94(j). Develop fab-specific emission factors and calculate fab-level fluorinated GHG emissions using the procedures specified in paragraph (i)(3)(i) through (viii) of this section. All emissions test data and procedures used in developing emission factors must be documented and recorded according to §98.97.

(i) You must measure, and, if applicable, apportion the fab-specific fluorinated GHG consumption of the tools that are vented to the stack systems that are tested during the emission test as specified in §98.94(j)(3). Calculate the consumption for each fluorinated GHG for the test period.

(ii) You must calculate the emissions of each fluorinated GHG consumed as an input gas using Equation I-17 of this subpart and each fluorinated GHG formed as a by-product gas using Equation I-18 of this subpart and the procedures specified in paragraphs (i)(3)(ii)(A) through (E) of this section. If a stack system is comprised of multiple stacks, you must sum the emissions from each stack in the stack system when using Equation I-17 or Equation I-18 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er09de16.001.gif

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Where:

Eis = Total fluorinated GHG input gas i, emitted from stack system s, during the sampling period (kg).

Xism = Average concentration of fluorinated GHG input gas i in stack system s, during the time interval m (ppbv).

MWi = Molecular weight of fluorinated GHG input gas i (g/g-mole).

Qs = Flow rate of the stack system s, during the sampling period (m3/min).

SV = Standard molar volume of gas (0.0240 m3/g-mole at 68    °F and 1 atm).

Δtm = Length of time interval m (minutes). Each time interval in the FTIR sampling period must be less than or equal to 60 minutes (for example an 8 hour sampling period would consist of at least 8 time intervals).

1/103 = Conversion factor (1 kilogram/1,000 grams).

i = Fluorinated GHG input gas.

s = Stack system.

N = Total number of time intervals m in sampling period.

m = Time interval.

eCFR graphic er13no13.007.gif

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Where:

Eks = Total fluorinated GHG by-product gas k, emitted from stack system s, during the sampling period (kg).

Xks = Average concentration of fluorinated GHG by-product gas k in stack system s, during the time interval m (ppbv).

MWk = Molecular weight of the fluorinated GHG by-product gas k (g/g-mole).

Qs = Flow rate of the stack system s, during the sampling period (m3/min).

SV = Standard molar volume of gas (0.0240 m3/g-mole at 68    °F and 1 atm).

Δtm = Length of time interval m (minutes). Each time interval in the FTIR sampling period must be less than or equal to 60 minutes (for example an 8 hour sampling period would consist of at least 8 time intervals).

1/103 = Conversion factor (1 kilogram/1,000 grams).

k = Fluorinated GHG by-product gas.

s = Stack system.

N = Total number of time intervals m in sampling period.

m = Time interval.

(A) If a fluorinated GHG is consumed during the sampling period, but emissions are not detected, use one-half of the field detection limit you determined for that fluorinated GHG according to §98.94(j)(2) for the value of “Xism” in Equation I-17.

(B) If a fluorinated GHG is consumed during the sampling period and detected intermittently during the sampling period, use the detected concentration for the value of “Xism” in Equation I-17 when available and use one-half of the field detection limit you determined for that fluorinated GHG according to §98.94(j)(2) for the value of “Xism” when the fluorinated GHG is not detected.

(C) If an expected or possible by-product, as listed in Table I-17 of this subpart, is detected intermittently during the sampling period, use the measured concentration for “Xksm” in Equation I-18 when available and use one-half of the field detection limit you determined for that fluorinated GHG according to §98.94(j)(2) for the value of “Xksm” when the fluorinated GHG is not detected.

(D) If a fluorinated GHG is not consumed during the sampling period and is an expected by-product gas as listed in Table I-17 of this subpart and is not detected during the sampling period, use one-half of the field detection limit you determined for that fluorinated GHG according to §98.94(j)(2) for the value of “Xksm” in Equation I-18.

(E) If a fluorinated GHG is not consumed during the sampling period and is a possible by-product gas as listed in Table I-17 of this subpart, and is not detected during the sampling period, then assume zero emissions for that fluorinated GHG for the tested stack system.

(iii) You must calculate a fab-specific emission factor for each fluorinated GHG input gas consumed (in kg of fluorinated GHG emitted per kg of input gas i consumed) in the tools that vent to stack systems that are tested, as applicable, using Equation I-19 of this subpart. If the emissions of input gas i exceed the consumption of input gas i during the sampling period, then equate “Eis” to the consumption of input gas i and treat the difference between the emissions and consumption of input gas i as a by-product of the other input gases, using Equation I-20 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er13no13.008.gif

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Where:

EFif = Emission factor for fluorinated GHG input gas i, from fab f, representing 100 percent abatement system uptime (kg emitted/kg input gas consumed).

Eis = Mass emission of fluorinated GHG input gas i from stack system s, during the sampling period (kg emitted).

Activityif = Consumption of fluorinated GHG input gas i, for fab f, in the tools vented to the stack systems being tested, during the sampling period, as determined following the procedures specified in §98.94(j)(3) (kg consumed).

UTf = The total uptime of all abatement systems for fab f, during the sampling period, as calculated in Equation I-23 of this subpart (expressed as decimal fraction). If the stack system does not have abatement systems on the tools vented to the stack system, the value of this parameter is zero.

aif = Fraction of fluorinated GHG input gas i used in fab f in tools with abatement systems (expressed as a decimal fraction).

dif = Fraction of fluorinated GHG input gas i destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools in fab f, as calculated in Equation I-24A of this subpart (expressed as decimal fraction). If the stack system does not have abatement systems on the tools vented to the stack system, the value of this parameter is zero.

f = Fab.

i = Fluorinated GHG input gas.

s = Stack system.

(iv) You must calculate a fab-specific emission factor for each fluorinated GHG formed as a by-product (in kg of fluorinated GHG per kg of total fluorinated GHG consumed) in the tools vented to stack systems that are tested, as applicable, using Equation I-20 of this subpart. When calculating the by-product emission factor for an input gas for which emissions exceeded its consumption, exclude the consumption of that input gas from the term “∑(Activityif).”

eCFR graphic er13no13.009.gif

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Where:

EFkf = Emission factor for fluorinated GHG by-product gas k, from fab f, representing 100 percent abatement system uptime (kg emitted/kg of all input gases consumed in tools vented to stack systems that are tested).

Eks = Mass emission of fluorinated GHG by-product gas k, emitted from stack system s, during the sampling period (kg emitted).

Activityif = Consumption of fluorinated GHG input gas i for fab f in tools vented to stack systems that are tested, during the sampling period as determined following the procedures specified in §98.94(j)(3) (kg consumed).

UTf = The total uptime of all abatement systems for fab f, during the sampling period, as calculated in Equation I-23 of this subpart (expressed as decimal fraction).

af = Fraction of all fluorinated input gases used in fab f in tools with abatement systems (expressed as a decimal fraction).

dkf = Fraction of fluorinated GHG by-product gas k destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools in fab f, as calculated in Equation I-24B of this subpart (expressed as decimal fraction).

f = Fab.

i = Fluorinated GHG input gas.

k = Fluorinated GHG by-product gas.

s = Stack system.

(v) You must calculate annual fab-level emissions of each fluorinated GHG consumed using Equation I-21 of this section.

eCFR graphic er13no13.010.gif

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Where:

Eif = Annual emissions of fluorinated GHG input gas i (kg/year) from the stack systems that are tested for fab f.

EFif = Emission factor for fluorinated GHG input gas i emitted from fab f, as calculated in Equation I-19 of this subpart (kg emitted/kg input gas consumed).

Cif = Total consumption of fluorinated GHG input gas i in tools that are vented to stack systems that are tested, for fab f, for the reporting year, as calculated using Equation I-13 of this subpart (kg/year).

UTf = The total uptime of all abatement systems for fab f, during the reporting year, as calculated using Equation I-23 of this subpart (expressed as a decimal fraction).

aif = Fraction of fluorinated GHG input gas i used in fab f in tools with abatement systems (expressed as a decimal fraction).

dif = Fraction of fluorinated GHG input gas i destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools in fab f that are included in the stack testing option, as calculated in Equation I-24A of this subpart (expressed as decimal fraction).

f = Fab.

i = Fluorinated GHG input gas.

(vi) You must calculate annual fab-level emissions of each fluorinated GHG by-product formed using Equation I-22 of this section.

eCFR graphic er13no13.011.gif

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Where:

Ekf = Annual emissions of fluorinated GHG by-product k (kg/year) from the stack systems that are tested for fab f.

EFkf = Emission factor for fluorinated GHG by-product k, emitted from fab f, as calculated in Equation I-20 of this subpart (kg emitted/kg of all fluorinated input gases consumed).

Cif = Total consumption of fluorinated GHG input gas i in tools that are vented to stack systems that are tested, for fab f, for the reporting year, as calculated using Equation I-13 of this subpart.

UTf = The total uptime of all abatement systems for fab f, during the reporting year as calculated using Equation I-23 of this subpart (expressed as a decimal fraction).

af = Fraction of fluorinated input gases used in fab f in tools with abatement systems (expressed as a decimal fraction).

dkf = Fraction of fluorinated GHG by-product k destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools in fab f that are included in the stack testing option, as calculated in Equation I-24B of this subpart (expressed as decimal fraction).

f = Fab.

i = Fluorinated GHG input gas.

k = Fluorinated GHG by-product

(vii) When using the stack testing method described in this paragraph (i), you must calculate abatement system uptime on a fab basis using Equation I-23 of this subpart. When calculating abatement system uptime for use in Equation I-19 and I-20 of this subpart, you must evaluate the variables “Tdpf” and “UTpf” for the sampling period instead of the reporting year.

eCFR graphic er06my14.003.gif

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Where:

UTf = The average uptime factor for all abatement systems in fab f (expressed as a decimal fraction).

Tdpf = The total time, in minutes, that abatement system p, connected to process tool(s) in fab f, is not in operational mode as defined in §98.98.

UTpf = Total time, in minutes per year, in which the tool(s) connected at any point during the year to abatement system p, in fab f could be in operation. For determining the amount of tool operating time, you may assume that tools that were installed for the whole of the year were operated for 525,600 minutes per year. For tools that were installed or uninstalled during the year, you must prorate the operating time to account for the days in which the tool was not installed; treat any partial day that a tool was installed as a full day (1,440 minutes) of tool operation. For an abatement system that has more than one connected tool, the tool operating time is 525,600 minutes per year if there was at least one tool installed at all times throughout the year. If you have tools that are idle with no gas flow through the tool, you may calculate total tool time using the actual time that gas is flowing through the tool.

f = Fab.

p = Abatement system.

(viii) When using the stack testing option described in paragraph (i) of this section, you must calculate the weighted-average fraction of each fluorinated input gas i and each fluorinated byproduct gas k destroyed or removed in abatement systems for each fab f, as applicable, by using Equation I-24A (for input gases) and Equation I-24B (for by-product gases) of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er09de16.002.gif

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eCFR graphic er09de16.003.gif

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Where:

dif = The average weighted fraction of fluorinated GHG input gas i destroyed or removed in abatement systems in fab f (expressed as a decimal fraction).

dkf = The average weighted fraction of fluorinated GHG by-product gas k destroyed or removed in abatement systems in fab f (expressed as a decimal fraction).

Cijf = The amount of fluorinated GHG input gas i consumed for process type or sub-type j fed into abatement systems in fab f as calculated using Equation I-13 of this subpart (kg).

(1−Uij) = The default emission factor for input gas i used in process type or sub-type j, from applicable Tables I-3 through I-7 of this subpart.

Bijk = The default byproduct gas formation rate factor for by-product gas k from input gas i used in process type or sub-type j, from applicable Tables I-3 through I-7 of this subpart.

DREij = Destruction or removal efficiency for fluorinated GHG input gas i in abatement systems connected to process tools where process type or sub-type j is used (expressed as a decimal fraction) determined according to §98.94(f).

DREjk = Destruction or removal efficiency for fluorinated GHG by-product gas k in abatement systems connected to process tools where input gas i is used in process type or sub-type j (expressed as a decimal fraction) determined according to §98.94(f).

f = fab.

i = Fluorinated GHG input gas.

j = Process type or sub-type.

(4) Method to calculate emissions from stack systems that are not tested. You must calculate annual fab-level emissions of each fluorinated GHG input gas and byproduct gas for those fluorinated GHG listed in paragraphs (i)(4)(i) and (ii) of this section using default utilization and by-product formation rates as shown in Table I-11, I-12, I-13, I-14, or I-15 of this subpart, as applicable, and by using Equations I-8, I-9, and I-13 of this subpart. When using Equations I-8, I-9, and I-13 to fulfill the requirements of this paragraph, you must use, in place of the term Cij in each equation, the total consumption of each fluorinated GHG meeting the criteria in paragraph (i)(4)(i) of this section or that is used in tools vented to the stack systems that meet the criteria in paragraph (i)(4)(ii) of this section. You must use, in place of the term aij, the fraction of fluorinated GHG meeting the criteria in paragraph (i)(4)(i) of this section used in tools with abatement systems or that is used in tools with abatement systems that are vented to the stack systems that meet the criteria in paragraph (i)(4)(ii) of this section. You also must use the results of Equations I-24A and I-24B of this subpart in place of the terms dij in Equation I-8 and djk in Equation I-9, respectively, and use the results of Equation I-23 of this subpart in place of the results of Equation I-15 of this subpart for the term UTij.

(i) Calculate emissions from consumption of each intermittent low-use fluorinated GHG as defined in §98.98 of this subpart using the default utilization and by-product formation rates and equations specified in paragraph (i)(4) of this section. If a fluorinated GHG was not being used during the stack testing and does not meet the definition of intermittent low-use fluorinated GHG in §98.98, then you must test the stack systems associated with the use of that fluorinated GHG at a time when that gas is in use at a magnitude that would allow you to determine an emission factor for that gas according to the procedures specified in paragraph (i)(3) of this section.

(ii) Calculate emissions from consumption of each fluorinated GHG used in tools vented to stack systems that meet the criteria specified in paragraphs (i)(2)(i) through (i)(2)(iii) of this section, and were not tested according to the procedures in paragraph (i)(3) of this section. Calculate emissions using the default utilization and by-product formation rates and equations specified in paragraph (i)(4) of this section. If you are using a fluorinated GHG not listed in Tables I-11, I-12, I-13, I-14, or I-15 of this subpart, then you must assume utilization and by-product formation rates of zero for that fluorinated GHG.

(5) To determine the total emissions of each fluorinated GHG from each fab under this stack testing option, you must sum the emissions of each fluorinated GHG determined from the procedures in paragraph (i)(3) of this section with the emissions of the same fluorinated GHG determined from the procedures in paragraph (i)(4) of this section. Sum the total emissions of each fluorinated GHG from all fabs at your facility to determine the facility-level emissions of each fluorinated GHG.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 76 FR 59551, Sept. 27, 2011; 77 FR 10380, Feb. 22, 2012; 78 FR 68202, Nov. 13, 2013; 79 FR 25682, May 6, 2014; 79 FR 73783, Dec. 11, 2014; 79 FR 77391, Dec. 24, 2014; 81 FR 89253, Dec. 9, 2016]

§98.94   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

(a) [Reserved]

(b) For purposes of Equation I-12 of this subpart, you must estimate fab-wide gas-specific heel factors for each container type for each gas used, according to the procedures in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(5) of this section. This paragraph (b) does not apply to fluorinated GHGs or N2O that your fab uses in quantities of less than 50 kg in one reporting year and for which you calculate emissions as equal to consumption under §98.93(a)(1), (a)(2), or (b), or for any intermittent low-use fluorinated GHG for which you calculate emissions according to §98.93(i)(4)(i).

(1) Base your fab-wide gas-specific heel factors on the trigger point for change out of a container for each container size and type for each gas used. Fab-wide gas-specific heel factors must be expressed as the ratio of the trigger point for change out, in terms of mass, to the initial mass in the container, as determined by paragraphs (b)(2) and (3) of this section.

(2) The trigger points for change out you use to calculate fab-wide gas-specific heel factors in paragraph (b)(1) of this section must be determined by monitoring the mass or the pressure of your containers. If you monitor the pressure, convert the pressure to mass using the ideal gas law, as displayed in Equation I-25 of this subpart, with the appropriate Z value selected based upon the properties of the gas.

eCFR graphic er13no13.014.gif

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Where:

p = Absolute pressure of the gas (Pa).

V = Volume of the gas container (m3).

Z = Compressibility factor.

n = Amount of substance of the gas (moles).

R = Gas constant (8.314 Joule/Kelvin mole).

T = Absolute temperature (K).

(3) The initial mass you use to calculate a fab-wide gas-specific heel factor in paragraph (b)(1) of this section may be based on the weight of the gas provided to you in gas supplier documents; however, you remain responsible for the accuracy of these masses and weights under this subpart.

(4) If a container is changed in an exceptional circumstance, as specified in paragraphs (b)(4)(i) and (ii) of this section, you must weigh that container or measure the pressure of that container with a pressure gauge, in place of using a heel factor to determine the residual weight of gas. When using mass-based trigger points for change out, you must determine if an exceptional circumstance has occurred based on the net weight of gas in the container, excluding the tare weight of the container.

(i) For containers with a maximum storage capacity of less than 9.08 kg (20 lbs) of gas, an exceptional circumstance is a change out point that differs by more than 50 percent from the trigger point for change out used to calculate your fab-wide gas-specific heel factor for that gas and container type.

(ii) For all other containers, an exceptional circumstance is a change out point that differs by more than 20 percent from the trigger point for change out used to calculate your fab-wide gas-specific heel factor for that gas and container type.

(5) You must re-calculate a fab-wide gas-specific heel factor if you execute a process change to modify the trigger point for change out for a gas and container type that differs by more than 5 percent from the previously used trigger point for change out for that gas and container type.

(c) You must develop apportioning factors for fluorinated GHG and N2O consumption (including the fraction of gas consumed by process tools connected to abatement systems as in Equations I-8, I-9, I-10, I-19, I-20, I-21, and I-22 of this subpart), to use in the equations of this subpart for each input gas i, process sub-type, process type, stack system, and fab as appropriate, using a fab-specific engineering model that is documented in your site GHG Monitoring Plan as required under §98.3(g)(5). This model must be based on a quantifiable metric, such as wafer passes or wafer starts, or direct measurement of input gas consumption as specified in paragraph (c)(3) of this section. To verify your model, you must demonstrate its precision and accuracy by adhering to the requirements in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section.

(1) You must demonstrate that the fluorinated GHG and N2O apportioning factors are developed using calculations that are repeatable, as defined in §98.98.

(2) You must demonstrate the accuracy of your fab-specific model by comparing the actual amount of input gas i consumed and the modeled amount of input gas i consumed in the fab, as follows:

(i) You must analyze actual and modeled gas consumption for a period when the fab is at a representative operating level (as defined in §98.98) lasting at least 30 days but no more than the reporting year.

(ii) You must compare the actual gas consumed to the modeled gas consumed for one fluorinated GHG reported under this subpart for the fab. You must certify that the fluorinated GHG selected for comparison corresponds to the largest quantity, on a mass basis, of fluorinated GHG consumed at the fab during the reporting year for which you are required to apportion following the procedures specified in §98.93(a), (b), or (i). You may compare the actual gas consumed to the modeled gas consumed for two fluorinated GHGs and demonstrate conformance according to paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section on an aggregate use basis for both fluorinated GHGs if one of the fluorinated GHGs selected for comparison corresponds to the largest quantity, on a mass basis, of fluorinated GHGs used at each fab that requires apportionment during the reporting year.

(iii) You must demonstrate that the comparison performed for the largest quantity of gas(es), on a mass basis, consumed in the fab in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, does not result in a difference between the actual and modeled gas consumption that exceeds 20 percent relative to actual gas consumption, reported to two significant figures using standard rounding conventions.

(iv) If you are required to apportion gas consumption and you use the procedures in §98.93(i) to calculate annual emissions from a fab, you must verify your apportioning factors using the procedures in paragraphs (c)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section such that the time period specified in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section and the last day you perform the sampling events specified under §98.93(i)(3) occur in the same accounting month.

(v) If your facility has multiple fabs with a single centralized fluorinated-GHG supply system, you must verify that your apportioning model can apportion fluorinated GHG consumption among the fabs by adhering to the procedures in paragraphs (c)(2)(ii) through (c)(2)(iv) of this section.

(3) As an alternative to developing apportioning factors for fluorinated GHG and N2O consumption using a fab-specific engineering model, you may develop apportioning factors through the use of direct measurement using gas flow meters and weigh scales to measure process sub-type, process type, stack system, or fab-specific input gas consumption. You may use a combination of apportioning factors developed using a fab-specific engineering model and apportioning factors developed through the use of direct measurement, provided this is documented in your site GHG Monitoring Plan as required under 98.3(g)(5).

(d)-(e) [Reserved]

(f) If your fab employs abatement systems and you elect to reflect emission reductions due to these systems, or if your fab employs abatement systems designed for fluorinated GHG abatement and you elect to calculate fluorinated GHG emissions using the stack test method under §98.93(i), you must comply with the requirements of paragraphs (f)(1) through (3) of this section. If you use an average of properly measured destruction or removal efficiencies for a gas and process sub-type or process type combination, as applicable, in your emission calculations under §98.93(a), (b), and/or (i), you must also adhere to procedures in paragraph (f)(4) of this section.

(1) You must certify and document that the abatement systems are properly installed, operated, and maintained according to the site maintenance plan for abatement systems that is developed and maintained in your records as specified in §98.97(d)(9).

(2) You must calculate and document the uptime of abatement systems using Equation I-15 or I-23 of this subpart, as applicable.

(3) If you use default destruction and removal efficiency values in your emissions calculations under §98.93(a), (b), and/or (i), you must certify and document that the abatement systems at your facility for which you use default destruction or removal efficiency values are specifically designed for fluorinated GHG or N2O abatement, as applicable. If you elect to calculate fluorinated GHG emissions using the stack test method under §98.93(i), you must also certify that you have included and accounted for all abatement systems designed for fluorinated GHG abatement and any respective downtime in your emissions calculations under §98.93(i)(3).

(4) If you do not use the default destruction or removal efficiency values in Table I-16 of this subpart to calculate and report controlled emissions, including situations in which your fab employs abatement systems not specifically designed for fluorinated GHG or N2O abatement and you elect to reflect emission reduction due to these systems, you must use an average of properly measured destruction or removal efficiencies for each gas and process sub-type or process type combination, as applicable, determined in accordance with procedures in paragraphs (f)(4)(i) through (vi) of this section. You must not use a default value from Table I-16 of this subpart for any abatement system not specifically designed for fluorinated GHG and N2O abatement, or for any gas and process type combination for which you have measured the destruction or removal efficiency according to the requirements of paragraphs (f)(4)(i) through (vi) of this section.

(i) A properly measured destruction or removal efficiency value must be determined in accordance with EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), or according to an alternative method approved by the Administrator (or authorized representative) as specified in paragraph (k) of this section. If you are measuring destruction or removal efficiency according to EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), you may follow the alternative procedures specified in Appendix A to this subpart.

(ii) You must select and properly measure the destruction or removal efficiency for a random sample of abatement systems to include in a random sampling abatement system testing program in accordance with procedures in paragraphs (f)(4)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section.

(A) For the first 2 years for which your fab is required to report emissions of fluorinated GHG and N2O, for each abatement system gas and process sub-type or process type combination, as applicable, a random sample of a minimum of 10 percent of installed abatement systems must be tested annually for a total of a minimum of 20 percent, or a minimum of 20 percent may be tested in the first year. For every 3-year period following the initial 2-year period, a random sample of at least 15 percent of installed abatement systems must be tested for each gas and process sub-type or process type combination; you may test 15-percent in the first year of the 3-year period, but you must test at least 5 percent each year until 15 percent are tested. For each 3-year period, you must determine the number of abatement systems to be tested based on the average number of abatement systems in service over the 3-year period. If the required percent of the total number of abatement systems to be tested for each gas and process sub-type or process type combination does not equate to a whole number, the number of systems to be tested must be determined by rounding up to the nearest integer. Except as provided in paragraph (f)(4)(v) of this section, you may not retest an abatement system for any gas and process sub-type or process type combination, as applicable, until all of the abatement systems for that gas and process sub-type or process type combination have been tested.

(B) If testing of a randomly selected abatement system would be disruptive to production, you may replace that system with another randomly selected system for testing and return the system to the sampling pool for subsequent testing. Any one abatement system must not be replaced by another randomly selected system for more than three consecutive selections. When you have to replace a system in one year, you may select that specific system to be tested in one of the next two sampling years so that you may plan testing of that abatement system to avoid disrupting production.

(iii) If you elect to take credit for abatement system destruction or removal efficiency before completing testing on 20 percent of the abatement systems for that gas and process sub-type or process type combination, as applicable, you must use default destruction or removal efficiencies for a gas and process type combination. You must not use a default value from Table I-16 of this subpart for any abatement system not specifically designed for fluorinated GHG and N2O abatement, and must not take credit for abatement system destruction or removal efficiency before completing testing on 20 percent of the abatement systems for that gas and process sub-type or process type combination, as applicable. Following testing on 20 percent of abatement systems for that gas and process sub-type or process type combination, you must calculate the average destruction or removal efficiency as the arithmetic mean of all test results for that gas and process sub-type or process type combination, until you have tested at least 30 percent of all abatement systems for each gas and process sub-type or process type combination. After testing at least 30 percent of all systems for a gas and process sub-type or process type combination, you must use the arithmetic mean of the most recent 30 percent of systems tested as the average destruction or removal efficiency. You may include results of testing conducted on or after January 1, 2011 for use in determining the site-specific destruction or removal efficiency for a given gas and process sub-type or process type combination if the testing was conducted in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section.

(iv) If a measured destruction or removal efficiency is below the manufacturer-claimed fluorinated GHG or N2O destruction or removal efficiency for any abatement system specifically designed for fluorinated GHG or N2O abatement and the abatement system is installed, operated, and maintained in accordance with the site maintenance plan for abatement systems that is developed and maintained in your records as specified in §98.97(d)(9), the measured destruction or removal efficiency must be included in the calculation of the destruction or removal efficiency value for that gas and process sub-type or process type.

(v) If a measured destruction or removal efficiency is below the manufacturer-claimed fluorinated GHG or N2O destruction or removal efficiency for any abatement system specifically designed for fluorinated GHG or N2O abatement and the abatement system is not installed, operated, or maintained in accordance with the site maintenance plan for abatement systems that is developed and maintained in your records as specified in §98.97(d)(9), you must implement corrective action and perform a retest to replace the measured value within the reporting year. In lieu of retesting within the reporting year, you may use the measured value in calculating the average destruction or removal efficiency for the reporting year, implement corrective action, and then include the same system in the next abatement system testing period in addition to the testing of randomly selected systems for that next testing period. Regardless of whether you use the lower measured destruction or removal efficiency and when you perform the retest of the abatement system, you must count the time that the abatement system is not operated and maintained according to the site maintenance plan for abatement systems as not being in operational mode for purposes of calculating abatement system uptime.

(vi) If your fab uses redundant abatement systems, you may account for the total abatement system uptime (that is, the time that at least one abatement system is in operational mode) calculated for a specific exhaust stream during the reporting year.

(g) You must adhere to the QA/QC procedures of this paragraph when calculating fluorinated GHG and N2O emissions from electronics manufacturing production processes:

(1)-(2) [Reserved]

(3) Follow the QA/QC procedures in accordance with those in EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), or the applicable QA/QC procedures specified in an alternative method approved by the Administrator (or authorized representative) according to paragraph (k) of this section, when calculating abatement systems destruction or removal efficiencies. If you are measuring destruction or removal efficiency according to EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), and you elect to follow the alternative procedures specified in Appendix A to this subpart according to paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section, you must follow any additional QA/QC procedures specified in Appendix A to this subpart.

(4) As part of normal operations for each fab, the inventory of gas stored in containers at the beginning of the reporting year must be the same as the inventory of gas stored in containers at the end of the previous reporting year. You must maintain records documenting the year end and year beginning inventories under §98.97(a).

(h) You must adhere to the QA/QC procedures of this paragraph (h) when calculating annual gas consumption for each fluorinated GHG and N2O used at each fab and emissions from the use of each fluorinated heat transfer fluid on a fab basis.

(1) Review all inputs to Equations I-11 and I-16 of this subpart to ensure that all inputs and outputs are accounted for.

(2) Do not enter negative inputs into the mass balance Equations I-11 and I-16 of this subpart and ensure that no negative emissions are calculated.

(3) Ensure that the inventory at the beginning of one reporting year is identical to the inventory at the end of the previous reporting year. You must maintain records documenting the year end and year beginning inventories under §98.97(a) and (r).

(4) Ensure that the total quantity of gas i in containers in service at the end of a reporting year is accounted for as if the in-service containers were full for Equation I-11 of this subpart. Ensure also that the same quantity is accounted for in the inventory of input gas i stored in containers at the beginning of the subsequent reporting year.

(i) All flow meters, weigh scales, pressure gauges, and thermometers used to measure quantities that are monitored under this section or used in calculations under §98.93 must meet the calibration and accuracy requirements specified in §98.3(i).

(j) Stack test methodology. For each fab for which you calculate annual emissions for any fluorinated GHG emitted from your facility using the stack test method according to the procedure specified in §98.93(i)(3), you must adhere to the requirements in paragraphs (j)(1) through (8) of this section. You may request approval to use an alternative stack test method and procedure according to paragraph (k) of this section.

(1) Stack system testing. Conduct an emissions test for each applicable stack system according to the procedures in paragraphs (j)(1)(i) through (iv) of this section.

(i) You must conduct an emission test during which the fab is operating at a representative operating level, as defined in §98.98, and with the abatement systems connected to the stack system being tested operating with at least 90 percent uptime, averaged over all abatement systems, during the 8-hour (or longer) period for each stack system, or at no less than 90 percent of the abatement system uptime rate measured over the previous reporting year, averaged over all abatement systems.

(ii) You must measure for the expected and possible by-products identified in Table I-17 of this subpart and those fluorinated GHGs used as input fluorinated GHG in process tools vented to the stack system, except for any intermittent low-use fluorinated GHG as defined in §98.98. You must calculate annual emissions of intermittent low-use fluorinated GHGs by adhering to the procedures in §98.93(i)(4)(i).

(iii) If a fluorinated GHG being consumed in the reporting year was not being consumed during the stack testing and does not meet the definition of intermittent low-use fluorinated GHG in §98.98, then you must test the stack systems associated with the use of that fluorinated GHG at a time when that gas is in use at a magnitude that would allow you to determine an emission factor for that gas. If a fluorinated GHG consumed in the reporting year was not being consumed during the stack testing and is no longer in use by your fab (e.g., use of the gas has become obsolete or has been discontinued), then you must calculate annual emissions for that fluorinated GHG according to the procedure specified in §98.93(i)(4).

(iv) Although all applicable stack systems are not required to be tested simultaneously, you must certify that no significant changes in stack flow configuration occur between tests conducted for any particular fab in a reporting year. You must certify that no more than 10 percent of the total number of fluorinated GHG emitting process tools are connected or disconnected from a stack system during testing. You must also certify that no process tools that were in operation at the start of the test period have been moved to a different stack system during the test period (i.e., during or in between testing of individual stack systems) and that no point-of-use abatement systems have been permanently removed from service during the test period. You must document any changes in stack flow configuration in the emissions test data and report required to be kept as records under §98.97(i)(4).

(2) Test methods and procedures. You must adhere to the applicable test methods and procedures specified in Table I-9 to this subpart, or adhere to an alternative method approved by the Administrator (or authorized representative) according to paragraph (k) of this section. If you select Method 320 of 40 CFR part 63, Appendix A to measure the concentration of each fluorinated GHG in the stack system, you must complete a method validation according to Section 13 of Method 320 of 40 CFR part 63, Appendix A for each FTIR system (hardware and software) and each tester (testing company). Method 320 validation is necessary when any change occurs in instrumentation, tester (i.e., testing company), or stack condition (e.g., acid gas vs. base). Measurement of new compounds require validation for those compounds according to Section 13 of Method 320 of 40 CFR part 63, Appendix A. The field detection limits achieved under your test methods and procedures must fall at or below the maximum field detection limits specified in Table I-10 to this subpart.

(3) Fab-specific fluorinated GHG consumption measurements. You must determine the amount of each fluorinated GHG consumed by each fab during the sampling period for all process tools connected to the stack systems tested under §98.93(i)(3), according to the procedures in paragraphs (j)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section. This determination must include apportioning gas consumption between stack systems that are being tested and those that are not tested under §98.93(i)(2).

(i) Measure fluorinated GHG consumption using gas flow meters, scales, or pressure measurements. Measure the mass or pressure, as applicable, at the beginning and end of the sampling period and when containers are changed out. If you elect to measure gas consumption using pressure (i.e., because the gas is stored in a location above its critical temperature) you must estimate consumption as specified in paragraphs (j)(3)(i)(A) and (B) of this section.

(A) For each fluorinated GHG, you must either measure the temperature of the fluorinated GHG container(s) when the sampling periods begin and end and when containers are changed out, or measure the temperature of the fluorinated GHG container(s) every hour for the duration of the sampling period. Temperature measurements of the immediate vicinity of the containers (e.g., in the same room, near the containers) shall be considered temperature measurements of the containers.

(B) Convert the sampling period-beginning, sampling period-ending, and container change-out pressures to masses using Equation I-25 of this subpart, with the appropriate Z value selected based upon the properties of the gas (e.g., the Z value yielded by the Redlich, Kwong, Soave equation of state with appropriate values for that gas). Apply the temperatures measured at or nearest to the beginning and end of the sampling period and to the time(s) when containers are changed out, as applicable. For each gas, the consumption during the sampling period is the difference between the masses of the containers of that gas at the beginning and at the end of the sampling period, summed across containers, including containers that are changed out.

(ii) For each fluorinated GHG gas for which consumption is too low to be accurately measured during the sampling period using gas flow meters, scales, or pressure measurements as specified in paragraph (j)(3)(i) of this section, you must follow at least one of the procedures listed in paragraph (j)(3)(ii)(A) through (C) of this section to obtain a consumption measurement.

(A) Draw the gas from a single gas container if it is normally supplied from multiple containers connected by a shared manifold.

(B) Calculate consumption from pro-rated long-term consumption data (for example, calculate and use hourly consumption rates from monthly consumption data).

(C) Increase the duration of the sampling period for consumption measurement beyond the minimum duration specified in Table I-9 of this subpart.

(4) Emission test results. The results of an emission test must include the analysis of samples, number of test runs, the average emission factor for each fluorinated GHG measured, the analytical method used, calculation of emissions, the fluorinated GHGs consumed during the sampling period, an identification of the stack systems tested, and the fluorinated GHGs that were included in the test. The emissions test report must contain all information and data used to derive the fab-specific emission factor.

(5) Emissions testing frequency. You must conduct emissions testing to develop fab-specific emission factors on a frequency according to the procedures in paragraph (j)(5)(i) or (ii) of this section.

(i) Annual testing. You must conduct an annual emissions test for each stack system for which emissions testing is required under §98.93(i)(3), unless you meet the criteria in paragraph (j)(5)(ii) of this section to skip annual testing. Each set of emissions testing for a stack system must be separated by a period of at least 2 months.

(ii) Criteria to test less frequently. After the first 3 years of annual testing, you may calculate the relative standard deviation of the emission factors for each fluorinated GHG included in the test and use that analysis to determine the frequency of any future testing. As an alternative, you may conduct all three tests in less than 3 calendar years for purposes of this paragraph (j)(5)(ii), but this does not relieve you of the obligation to conduct subsequent annual testing if you do not meet the criteria to test less frequently. If the criteria specified in paragraphs (j)(5)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section are met, you may use the arithmetic average of the three emission factors for each fluorinated GHG and fluorinated GHG byproduct for the current year and the next 4 years with no further testing unless your fab operations are changed in a way that triggers the re-test criteria in paragraph (j)(8) of this section. In the fifth year following the last stack test included in the previous average, you must test each of the stack systems for which testing is required and repeat the relative standard deviation analysis using the results of the most recent three tests (i.e., the new test and the two previous tests conducted prior to the 4-year period). If the criteria specified in paragraphs (j)(5)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section are not met, you must use the emission factors developed from the most recent testing and continue annual testing. You may conduct more than one test in the same year, but each set of emissions testing for a stack system must be separated by a period of at least 2 months. You may repeat the relative standard deviation analysis using the most recent three tests, including those tests conducted prior to the 4-year period, to determine if you are exempt from testing for the next 4 years.

(B) The relative standard deviation for all single fluorinated GHGs that individually accounted for 5 percent or more of CO2e emissions were less than 20 percent.

(6) Subsequent measurements. You must make an annual determination of each stack system's exemption status under §98.93(i)(2) by March 31 each year. If a stack system that was previously not required to be tested per §98.93(i)(2), no longer meets the criteria in §98.93(i)(2), you must conduct the emissions testing for the stack system during the current reporting and develop the fab-specific emission factor from the emissions testing.

(7) Previous measurements. You may include the results of emissions testing conducted on or after January 1, 2011 for use in the relative standard deviation calculation in paragraph (j)(5)(ii) of this section if the previous results were determined using a method meeting the requirements in paragraph (j)(2) of this section. You may request approval to use results of emissions testing conducted between January 1, 2011 and January 1, 2014 using a method that deviated from the requirements in paragraph (j)(2) of this section by adhering to the requirements in paragraphs (j)(7)(i) through (j)(7)(iv) of this section.

(i) Notify the Administrator (or an authorized representative) of your intention to use the results of the previous emissions testing. You must include in the notification the data and results you intend to use for meeting either reporting or recordkeeping requirements, a description of the method, and any deviations from the requirements in paragraph (j)(2) of this section. Your description must include an explanation of how any deviations do not affect the quality of the data collected.

(ii) The Administrator will review the information submitted under paragraph (j)(7)(i) and determine whether the results of the previous emissions testing are adequate and issue an approval or disapproval of the use of the results within 120 days of the date on which you submit the notification specified in paragraph (j)(7)(i) of this section.

(iii) If the Administrator finds reasonable grounds to disapprove the results of the previous emissions testing, the Administrator may request that you provide additional information to support the use of the results of the previous emissions testing. Failure to respond to any request made by the Administrator does not affect the 120 day deadline specified in paragraph (j)(7)(ii) of this section.

(iv) Neither the approval process nor the failure to obtain approval for the use of results from previous emissions testing shall abrogate your responsibility to comply with the requirements of this subpart.

(8) Scenarios that require a stack system to be re-tested. By March 31 of each reporting year, you must evaluate and determine whether any changes to your fab operations meet the criteria specified in paragraphs (j)(8)(i) through (vi) of this section. If any of the scenarios specified in paragraph (j)(8)(i) through (vi) of this section occur, you must perform a re-test of any applicable stack system, irrespective of whether you have met the criteria for less frequent testing in paragraph (j)(5)(ii) of this section, before the end of the year in which the evaluation was completed. You must adhere to the methods and procedures specified in §98.93(i)(3) for performing a stack system emissions test and calculating emissions. If you meet the criteria for less frequent testing in paragraph (j)(5)(ii), and you are required to perform a re-test as specified in paragraph (j)(8)(i) through (vi) of this section, the requirement to perform a re-test does not extend the date of the next scheduled test that was established prior to meeting the requirement to perform a re-test. If the criteria specified in paragraph (j)(5)(ii) of this section are not met using the results from the re-test and the two most recent stack tests, you must use the emission factors developed from the most recent testing to calculate emissions and resume annual testing. You may resume testing less frequently according to your original schedule if the criteria specified in paragraph (j)(5)(ii) of this section are met using the most recent three tests.

(i) Annual consumption of a fluorinated GHG used during the most recent emissions test (expressed in CO2e) changes by more than 10 percent of the total annual fluorinated GHG consumption, relative to gas consumption in CO2e for that gas during the year of the most recent emissions test (for example, if the use of a single gas goes from 25 percent of CO2e to greater than 35 percent of CO2e, this change would trigger a re-test).

(ii) A change in the consumption of an intermittent low-use fluorinated GHG (as defined in §98.98) that was not used during the emissions test and not reflected in the fab-specific emission factor, such that it no longer meets the definition of an intermittent low-use fluorinated GHG.

(iii) A decrease by more than 10 percent in the fraction of tools with abatement systems, compared to the number during the most recent emissions test.

(iv) A change in the wafer size manufactured by the fab since the most recent emissions test.

(v) A stack system that formerly met the criteria specified under §98.93(i)(2) for not being subject to testing no longer meets those criteria.

(vi) If a fluorinated GHG being consumed in the reporting year was not being consumed during the stack test and does not meet the definition of intermittent, low-use fluorinated GHG in §98.98, then you must test the stack systems associated with the use of that fluorinated GHG at a time when that gas is in use as required in paragraph (j)(1)(iii) of this section.

(k) You may request approval to use an alternative stack test method and procedure or to use an alternative method to determine abatement system destruction or removal efficiency by adhering to the requirements in paragraphs (k)(1) through (6) of this section. An alternative method is any method of sampling and analyzing for a fluorinated GHG or N2O, or the determination of parameters other than concentration, for example, flow measurements, that is not a method specified in this subpart and that has been demonstrated to the Administrator's satisfaction, using Method 301 in appendix A of part 63, to produce results adequate for the Administrator's determination that it may be used in place of a method specified elsewhere in this subpart.

(1) You may use an alternative method from that specified in this subpart provided that you:

(i) Notify the Administrator (or an authorized representative) of your intention to use an alternative method. You must include in the notification a site-specific test plan describing the alternative method and procedures (the alternative test plan), the range of test conditions over which the validation is intended to be applicable, and an alternative means of calculating the fab-level fluorinated GHG or N2O emissions or determining the abatement system destruction or removal efficiency if the Administrator denies the use of the results of the alternative method under paragraph (k)(2) or (3) of this section.

(ii) Use Method 301 in appendix A of part 63 of this chapter to validate the alternative method. This may include the use of only portions of specific procedures of Method 301 if use of such procedures are sufficient to validate the alternative method; and

(iii) Submit the results of the Method 301 validation process along with the notification of intention and the rationale for not using the specified method.

(2) The Administrator will determine whether the validation of the proposed alternative method is adequate and issue an approval or disapproval of the alternative test plan within 120 days of the date on which you submit the notification and alternative test plan specified in paragraph (k)(1) of this section. If the Administrator approves the alternative test plan, you are authorized to use the alternative method(s) in place of the methods described in paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section for measuring destruction or removal efficiency or paragraph (j) of this section for conducting the stack test, as applicable, taking into account the Administrator's comments on the alternative test plan. Notwithstanding the requirement in the preceding sentence, you may at any time prior to the Administrator's approval or disapproval proceed to conduct the stack test using the methods specified in paragraph (j) of this section or the destruction or removal efficiency determination specified in (f)(4)(i) of this section if you use a method specified in this subpart instead of the requested alternative. If an alternative test plan is not approved and you still want to use an alternative method, you must recommence the process to have an alternative test method approved starting with the notification of intent to use an alternative test method specified in paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section.

(3) You must report the results of stack testing or destruction or removal efficiency determination using the alternative method and procedure specified in the approved alternative test plan. You must include in your report for an alternative stack test method and for an alternative abatement system destruction or removal efficiency determination the information specified in paragraph (j)(4) of this section, including all methods, calculations and data used to determine the fluorinated GHG emission factor or the abatement system destruction or removal efficiency. The Administrator will review the results of the test using the alternative methods and procedure and then approve or deny the use of the results of the alternative test method and procedure no later than 120 days after they are submitted to EPA.

(4) If the Administrator finds reasonable grounds to dispute the results obtained by an alternative method for the purposes of determining fluorinated GHG emissions or destruction or removal efficiency of an abatement system, the Administrator may require the use of another method specified in this subpart.

(5) Once the Administrator has approved the use of the alternative method for the purposes of determining fluorinated GHG emissions for specific fluorinated GHGs and types of stack systems or abatement system destruction or removal efficiency, that method may be used at any other facility for the same fluorinated GHGs and types of stack systems, or fluorinated GHGs and abatement systems, if the approved conditions apply to that facility. In granting approval, the Administrator may limit the range of test conditions and emission characteristics for which that approval is granted and under which the alternative method may be used without seeking approval under paragraphs (k)(1) through (4) of this section. The Administrator will specify those limitations, if any, in the approval of the alternative method.

(6) Neither the validation and approval process nor the failure to validate or obtain approval of an alternative method shall abrogate your responsibility to comply with the requirements of this subpart.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 76 FR 36342, June 22, 2011; 76 FR 59551, Sept. 27, 2011; 77 FR 10380, Feb. 22, 2012; 77 FR 48089, Aug. 13, 2012; 78 FR 68209, Nov. 13, 2013; 79 FR 73785, Dec. 11, 2014; 81 FR 89255, Dec. 9, 2016]

§98.95   Procedures for estimating missing data.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a complete record of all measured parameters used in the fluorinated GHG and N2O emissions calculations in §98.93 and §98.94 is required.

(b) If you use fluorinated heat transfer fluids at your facility and are missing data for one or more of the parameters in Equation I-16 of this subpart, you must estimate fluorinated heat transfer fluid emissions using the arithmetic average of the emission rates for the reporting year immediately preceding the period of missing data and the months immediately following the period of missing data. Alternatively, you may estimate missing information using records from the fluorinated heat transfer fluid supplier. You must document the method used and values used for all missing data values.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 77 FR 10381, Feb. 22, 2012]

§98.96   Data reporting requirements.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(c), you must include in each annual report the following information for each electronics manufacturing facility:

(a) Annual manufacturing capacity of each fab at your facility used to determine the annual manufacturing capacity of your facility in Equation I-5 of this subpart.

(b) For facilities that manufacture semiconductors, the diameter of wafers manufactured at each fab at your facility (mm).

(c) Annual emissions, on a fab basis as described in paragraph (c)(1) through (5) of this section.

(1) When you use the procedures specified in §98.93(a) of this subpart, each fluorinated GHG emitted from each process type for which your fab is required to calculate emissions as calculated in Equations I-6 and I-7 of this subpart.

(2) When you use the procedures specified in §98.93(a), each fluorinated GHG emitted from each process type or process sub-type as calculated in Equations I-8 and I-9 of this subpart, as applicable.

(3) N2O emitted from all chemical vapor deposition processes and N2O emitted from the aggregate of other N2O-using manufacturing processes as calculated in Equation I-10 of this subpart.

(4) Each fluorinated heat transfer fluid emitted as calculated in Equation 1-16 of this subpart.

(5) When you use the procedures specified in §98.93(i) of this subpart, annual emissions of each fluorinated GHG, on a fab basis.

(d) The method of emissions calculation used in §98.93 for each fab.

(e) Annual production in terms of substrate surface area (e.g., silicon, PV-cell, glass) for each fab, including specification of the substrate.

(f)-(l) [Reserved]

(m) For the fab-specific apportioning model used to apportion fluorinated GHG and N2O consumption under §98.94(c), the following information to determine it is verified in accordance with procedures in §98.94(c)(1) and (2):

(1) Identification of the quantifiable metric used in your fab-specific engineering model to apportion gas consumption for each fab, and/or an indication if direct measurements were used in addition to, or instead of, a quantifiable metric.

(2) The start and end dates selected under §98.94(c)(2)(i).

(3) Certification that the gas(es) you selected under §98.94(c)(2)(ii) for each fab corresponds to the largest quantity(ies) consumed, on a mass basis, of fluorinated GHG used at your fab during the reporting year for which you are required to apportion.

(4) The result of the calculation comparing the actual and modeled gas consumption under §98.94(c)(2)(iii) and (iv), as applicable.

(5) If you are required to apportion fluorinated GHG consumption between fabs as required by §98.94(c)(2)(v), certification that the gas(es) you selected under §98.94(c)(2)(ii) corresponds to the largest quantity(ies) consumed on a mass basis, of fluorinated GHG used at your facility during the reporting year for which you are required to apportion.

(n)-(o) [Reserved]

(p) Inventory and description of all abatement systems through which fluorinated GHGs or N2O flow at your facility and for which you are claiming destruction or removal efficiency, including:

(1) The number of abatement systems controlling emissions for each process sub-type, or process type, as applicable, for each gas used in the process sub-type or process type.

(2) The basis of the destruction or removal efficiency being used (default or site specific measurement according to §98.94(f)(4)(i)) for each process sub-type or process type and for each gas.

(q) For all abatement systems through which fluorinated GHGs or N2O flow at your facility, for which you are reporting controlled emissions, the following:

(1) Certification that all abatement systems at the facility have been installed, maintained, and operated in accordance with the site maintenance plan for abatement systems that is developed and maintained in your records as specified in §98.97(d)(9).

(2) If you use default destruction or removal efficiency values in your emissions calculations under §98.93(a), (b), or (i), certification that the site maintenance plan for abatement systems for which emissions are being reported contains manufacturer's recommendations and specifications for installation, operation, and maintenance for each abatement system.

(3) If you use default destruction or removal efficiency values in your emissions calculations under §98.93(a), (b), and/or (i), certification that the abatement systems for which emissions are being reported were specifically designed for fluorinated GHG or N2O abatement, as applicable. You must support this certification by providing abatement system supplier documentation stating that the system was designed for fluorinated GHG or N2O abatement, as applicable.

(4) For all stack systems for which you calculate fluorinated GHG emissions according to the procedures specified in §98.93(i)(3), certification that you have included and accounted for all abatement systems and any respective downtime in your emissions calculations under §98.93(i)(3).

(r) You must report an effective fab-wide destruction or removal efficiency value for each fab at your facility calculated using Equation I-26, I-27, and I-28 of this subpart, as appropriate.

eCFR graphic er13no13.015.gif

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Where:

DREFAB = Fab-wide effective destruction or removal efficiency value, expressed as a decimal fraction.

FGHGi = Total emissions of each fluorinated GHG i emitted from electronics manufacturing processes in the fab, calculated according to the procedures in §98.93.

N2Oj = Emissions of N2O from each N2O-emitting electronics manufacturing process j in the fab, expressed in metric ton CO2 equivalents, calculated according to the procedures in §98.93.

UAFGHG = Total unabated emissions of fluorinated GHG emitted from electronics manufacturing processes in the fab, expressed in metric ton CO2 equivalents as calculated in Equation I-27 of this subpart.

SFGHG = Total unabated emissions of fluorinated GHG emitted from electronics manufacturing processes in the fab, expressed in metric ton CO2 equivalents, as calculated in Equation I-28 of this subpart.

CN2O,j = Consumption of N2O in each N2O emitting process j, expressed in metric ton CO2 equivalents.

1-UN2O,j = N2O emission factor for each N2O emitting process j from Table I-8 of this subpart.

GWPi = GWP of emitted fluorinated GHG i from Table A-1 of this part.

GWPN2O = GWP of N2O from Table A-1 of this part.

i = Fluorinated GHG.

j = Process Type.

(1) Use Equation I-27 of this subpart to calculate total unabated emissions, in metric tons CO2e, of all fluorinated GHG emitted from electronics manufacturing processes whose emissions of fluorinated GHG you calculated according to the default utilization and by-product formation rate procedures in §98.93(a) or §98.93(i)(4). For each fluorinated GHG i in process j, use the same consumption (Cij), emission factors (1−Uij), and by-product formation rates (Bijk) to calculate unabated emissions as you used to calculate emissions in §98.93(a) or §98.93(i)(4).

eCFR graphic er13no13.016.gif

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Where:

UAFGHG = Total unabated emissions of fluorinated GHG emitted from electronics manufacturing processes in the fab, expressed in metric ton CO2e for which you calculated total emission according to the procedures in §98.93(a) or §98.93(i)(4).

Cij = Total consumption of fluorinated GHG i, apportioned to process j, expressed in metric ton CO2e, which you used to calculate total emissions according to the procedures in §98.93(a) or §98.93(i)(4).

Uij = Process utilization rate for fluorinated GHG i, process type j, which you used to calculate total emissions according to the procedures in §98.93(a) or §98.93(i)(4).

GWPi = GWP of emitted fluorinated GHG i from Table A-1 of this part.

GWPk = GWP of emitted fluorinated GHG by-product k from Table A-1 of this part.

Bijk = By-product formation rate of fluorinated GHG k created as a by-product per amount of fluorinated GHG input gas i (kg) consumed by process type j (kg).

i = Fluorinated GHG.

j = Process Type.

k = Fluorinated GHG by-product.

(2) Use Equation I-28 to calculate total unabated emissions, in metric ton CO2e, of all fluorinated GHG emitted from electronics manufacturing processes whose emissions of fluorinated GHG you calculated according to the stack testing procedures in §98.93(i)(3). For each set of processes, use the same input gas consumption (Cif), input gas emission factors (EFif), by-product gas emission factors (EFkf), fractions of tools abated (aif and af), and destruction efficiencies (dif and dkf) to calculate unabated emissions as you used to calculate emissions.

eCFR graphic er13no13.017.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

SFGHG = Total unabated emissions of fluorinated GHG emitted from electronics manufacturing processes in the fab, expressed in metric ton CO2e for which you calculated total emission according to the procedures in §98.93(i)(3).

EFif = Emission factor for fluorinated GHG input gas i, emitted from fab f, as calculated in Equation I-19 of this subpart (kg emitted/kg input gas consumed).

aif = Fraction of fluorinated GHG input gas i used in fab f in tools with abatement systems (expressed as a decimal fraction).

dif = Fraction of fluorinated GHG i destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools in fab f, as calculated from Equation I-24A of this subpart, which you used to calculate total emissions according to the procedures in §98.93(i)(3) (expressed as a decimal fraction).

Cif = Total consumption of fluorinated GHG input gas i, of tools vented to stack systems that are tested, for fab f, for the reporting year, expressed in metric ton CO2e, which you used to calculate total emissions according to the procedures in §98.93(i)(3) (expressed as a decimal fraction).

EFkf = Emission factor for fluorinated GHG by-product gas k, emitted from fab f, as calculated in Equation I-20 of this subpart (kg emitted/kg of all input gases consumed in tools vented to stack systems that are tested).

af = Fraction of input gases used in fab f in tools with abatement systems (expressed as a decimal fraction).

dkf = Fraction of fluorinated GHG byproduct k destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools in fab f, as calculated from Equation I-24B of this subpart, which you used to calculate total emissions according to the procedures in §98.93(i)(3) (expressed as a decimal fraction).

GWPi = GWP of emitted fluorinated GHG i from Table A-1 of this part.

GWPk = GWP of emitted fluorinated GHG by-product k from Table A-1 of this part.

i = Fluorinated GHG.

k = Fluorinated GHG by-product.

(s) Where missing data procedures were used to estimate inputs into the fluorinated heat transfer fluid mass balance equation under §98.95(b), the number of times missing data procedures were followed in the reporting year and the method used to estimate the missing data.

(t)-(v) [Reserved]

(w) If you elect to calculate fab-level emissions of fluorinated GHG using the stack test methods specified in §98.93(i), you must report the following in paragraphs (w)(1) and (2) for each stack system, in addition to the relevant data in paragraphs (a) through (v) of this section:

(1) The date of any stack testing conducted during the reporting year, and the identity of the stack system tested.

(2) An inventory of all stack systems from which process fluorinated GHG are emitted. For each stack system, indicate whether the stack system is among those for which stack testing was performed as per §98.93(i)(3) or not performed as per §98.93(i)(2).

(x) If the emissions you report under paragraph (c) of this section include emissions from research and development activities, as defined in §98.6, report the approximate percentage of total GHG emissions, on a metric ton CO2e basis, that are attributable to research and development activities, using the following ranges: less than 5 percent, 5 percent to less than 10 percent, 10 percent to less than 25 percent, 25 percent to less than 50 percent, 50 percent and higher.

(y) If your semiconductor manufacturing facility emits more than 40,000 metric ton CO2e of GHG emissions, based on your most recently submitted annual report (beginning with the 2015 reporting year) as required in paragraph (c) of this section, from the electronics manufacturing processes subject to reporting under this subpart, you must prepare and submit a triennial (every 3 years) technology assessment report to the Administrator (or an authorized representative) that meets the requirements specified in paragraphs (y)(1) through (6) of this section. Any other semiconductor manufacturing facility may voluntarily submit this report to the Administrator.

(1) The first report must be submitted with the annual GHG emissions report that is due no later than March 31, 2017, and subsequent reports must be delivered every 3 years no later than March 31 of the year in which it is due.

(2) The report must include the information described in paragraphs (y)(2)(i) through (v) of this section.

(i) It must describe how the gases and technologies used in semiconductor manufacturing using 200 mm and 300 mm wafers in the United States have changed in the past 3 years and whether any of the identified changes are likely to have affected the emissions characteristics of semiconductor manufacturing processes in such a way that the default utilization and by-product formation rates or default destruction or removal efficiency factors of this subpart may need to be updated.

(ii) It must describe the effect on emissions of the implementation of new process technologies and/or finer line width processes in 200 mm and 300 mm technologies, the introduction of new tool platforms, and the introduction of new processes on previously tested platforms.

(iii) It must describe the status of implementing 450 mm wafer technology and the potential need to create or update default emission factors compared to 300 mm technology.

(iv) It must provide any utilization and byproduct formation rates and/or destruction or removal efficiency data that have been collected in the previous 3 years that support the changes in semiconductor manufacturing processes described in the report. For any utilization or byproduct formation rate data submitted, the report must include the input gases used and measured, the utilization rates measured, the byproduct formation rates measured, the process type, the process subtype for chamber clean processes, the wafer size, and the methods used for the measurements. For any destruction or removal efficiency data submitted, the report must include the input gases used and measured, the destruction and removal efficiency measured, the process type, and the methods used for the measurements.

(v) It must describe the use of a new gas, use of an existing gas in a new process type or sub-type, or a fundamental change in process technology.

(3) If, on the basis of the information reported in paragraph (y)(2) of this section, the report indicates that GHG emissions from semiconductor manufacturing may have changed from those represented by the default utilization and by-product formation rates in Tables I-3 or I-4, or the default destruction or removal efficiency values in Table I-16 of this subpart, the report must lay out a data gathering and analysis plan focused on the areas of potential change. The plan must describe the elements in paragraphs (y)(3)(i) and (ii).

(i) The testing of tools to determine the potential effect on current utilization and by-product formation rates and destruction or removal efficiency values under the new conditions.

(ii) A planned analysis of the effect on overall facility emissions using a representative gas-use profile for a 200 mm, 300 mm, or 450 mm fab (depending on which technology is under consideration).

(4) Multiple semiconductor manufacturing facilities may submit a single consolidated 3-year report as long as the facility identifying information in §98.3(c)(1) and the certification statement in §98.3(c)(9) is provided for each facility for which the consolidated report is submitted.

(5) The Administrator will review the report received and determine whether it is necessary to update the default utilization rates and by-product formation rates in Tables I-3, I-4, I-11, and I-12 of this subpart and default destruction or removal efficiency values in Table I-16 of this subpart based on the following:

(i) Whether the revised default utilization and by-product formation rates and destruction or removal efficiency values will result in a projected shift in emissions of 10 percent or greater.

(ii) Whether new platforms, processes, or facilities that are not captured in current default utilization and by-product formation rates and destruction or removal efficiency values should be included in revised values.

(iii) Whether new data are available that could expand the existing data set to include new gases, tools, or processes not included in the existing data set (i.e. gases, tools, or processes for which no data are currently available).

(6) The Administrator will review the reports within 120 days and will notify you of a determination whether it is necessary to update any default utilization and by-product formation rates and/or destruction or removal efficiency values. If the Administrator determines it is necessary to update default utilization and by-product formation rates and/or destruction or removal efficiency values, you will then have 180 days from the date you receive notice of the determination to execute the data collection and analysis plan described in the report and submit those data to the Administrator.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 77 FR 10381, Feb. 22, 2010; 78 FR 68215, Nov. 13, 2013; 78 FR 71954, Nov. 29, 2013; 79 FR 73785, Dec. 11, 2014; 81 FR 9255, Dec. 9, 2016]

§98.97   Records that must be retained.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(g), you must retain the following records:

(a) All data used and copies of calculations made as part of estimating gas consumption and emissions, including all spreadsheets.

(b) [Reserved]

(c) Documentation for the fab-specific engineering model used to apportion fluorinated GHG and N2O consumption. This documentation must be part of your site GHG Monitoring Plan as required under §98.3(g)(5). At a minimum, you must retain the following:

(1) A clear, detailed description of the fab-specific model, including how it was developed; the quantifiable metric used in the model; all sources of information, equations, and formulas, each with clear definitions of terms and variables; all apportioning factors used to apportion fluorinated GHG and N2O; and a clear record of any changes made to the model while it was used to apportion fluorinated GHG and N2O consumption across process sub-types, process types, tools with and without abatement systems, stack systems, and/or fabs.

(2) Sample calculations used for developing the gas apportioning factors (fij) for the two fluorinated GHGs used at your facility in the largest quantities, on a mass basis, during the reporting year.

(3) If you develop apportioning factors through the use of direct measurement according to §98.94(c)(3), calculations and data used to develop each gas apportioning factor.

(4) Calculations and data used to determine and document that the fab was operating at representative operating levels, as defined in §98.98, during the apportioning model verification specified in §98.94(c).

(d) For all abatement systems through which fluorinated GHGs or N2O flow at your facility, and for which you are reporting controlled emissions, the following in paragraphs (d)(1) to (9) of this section:

(1) Records of the information in paragraphs (d)(1)(i) though (iv) of this section:

(i) Documentation to certify that each abatement system or group of abatement systems is installed, maintained, and operated in accordance with the site maintenance plan for abatement systems that is specified in paragraph (d)(9) of this section.

(ii) Documentation from the abatement system supplier describing the abatement system's designed purpose and emission control capabilities for fluorinated GHG and N2O for which the systems or group of systems is certified to abate, where available.

(iii) If you use default destruction or removal efficiency values in your emissions calculations under §98.93(a), (b), and/or (i), certification that the abatement systems for which emissions are being reported were specifically designed for fluorinated GHG and N2O abatement, as required under §98.94(f)(3), and certification that the site maintenance plan includes manufacturer's recommendations and specifications for installation, operation, and maintenance for all applicable abatement systems.

(iv) Certification that you have included and accounted for all abatement systems and any respective downtime in your emissions calculations under §98.93(i)(3), as required under §98.94(f)(3).

(2) Abatement system calibration and maintenance records.

(3) Where the default destruction or removal efficiency value is used, documentation from the abatement system supplier describing the equipment's designed purpose and emission control capabilities for fluorinated GHG and N2O.

(4) Where properly measured site-specific destruction or removal efficiencies are used to report emissions, the information in paragraphs (d)(4)(i) though (vi) of this section:

(i) Dated certification by the technician who made the measurement that the destruction or removal efficiency is calculated in accordance with methods in EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) and, if applicable Appendix A of this subpart, or an alternative method approved by the Administrator as specified in §98.94(k), complete documentation of the results of any initial and subsequent tests, the final report as specified in EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) and, if applicable, the records and documentation specified in Appendix A of this subpart including the information required in paragraph (b)(7) of Appendix A of this subpart, or a final report as specified in an alternative method approved by the Administrator as specified in §98.94(k).

(ii) The average destruction or removal efficiency of the abatement systems operating during the reporting year for each process type and gas combination.

(iii) A description of the calculation used to determine the average destruction or removal efficiency for each process type and gas combination, including all inputs to the calculation.

(iv) The records of destruction or removal efficiency measurements for abatement systems for all tests that have been used to determine the site-specific destruction or removal efficiencies currently being used.

(v) A description of the method used for randomly selecting abatement systems for testing.

(vi) The total number of systems for which destruction or removal efficiency was properly measured for each process type and gas combination for the reporting year.

(5) In addition to the inventory specified in §98.96(p), the information in paragraphs (d)(5)(i) through (iii) of this section:

(i) The number of abatement systems of each manufacturer, and model numbers, and the manufacturer's claimed fluorinated GHG and N2O destruction or removal efficiency, if any.

(ii) Records of destruction or removal efficiency measurements over the in-use life of each abatement system.

(iii) A description of the tool, with the process type or sub-type, for which the abatement system treats exhaust.

(6) Records of all inputs and results of calculations made accounting for the uptime of abatement systems used during the reporting year, in accordance with Equations I-15 or I-23 of this subpart, as applicable. The inputs should include an indication of whether each value for destruction or removal efficiency is a default value or a measured site-specific value.

(7) Records of all inputs and results of calculations made to determine the average weighted fraction of each gas destroyed or removed in the abatement systems for each stack system using Equations I-24A and I-24B of this subpart, if applicable. The inputs should include an indication of whether each value for destruction or removal efficiency is a default value or a measured site-specific value.

(8) Records of all inputs and the results of the calculation of the facility-wide emission destruction or removal efficiency factor calculated according to Equations I-26, I-27, and I-28 of this subpart.

(9) A site maintenance plan for abatement systems, which must be maintained on-site at the facility as part of the facility's GHG Monitoring Plan as described in §98.3(g)(5), and be developed and implemented according to paragraphs (d)(9)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) The site maintenance plan for abatement systems must be based on the abatement system manufacturer's recommendations and specifications for installation, operation, and maintenance if you use default destruction and removal efficiency values in your emissions calculations under §98.93(a), (b), and/or (i). If the manufacturer's recommendations and specifications for installation, operation, and maintenance are not available, you cannot use default destruction and removal efficiency values in your emissions calculations under §98.93(a), (b), and/or (i). If you use an average of properly measured destruction or removal efficiencies determined in accordance with the procedures in §98.94(f)(4)(i) through (vi), the site maintenance plan for abatement systems must be based on the abatement system manufacturer's recommendations and specifications for installation, operation, and maintenance, where available. If you deviate from the manufacturer's recommendations and specifications, you must include documentation that demonstrates how the deviations do not negatively affect the performance or destruction or removal efficiency of the abatement systems.

(ii) The site maintenance plan for abatement systems must include a defined preventative maintenance process and checklist.

(iii) The site maintenance plan for abatement systems must include a corrective action process that you must follow whenever an abatement system is found to be not operating properly.

(e) Purchase records for gas purchased.

(f) Invoices for gas purchases and sales.

(g) Documents and records used to monitor and calculate abatement system uptime.

(h) GHG Monitoring Plans, as described in §98.3(g)(5), must be completed by April 1, 2011. You must update your GHG Monitoring Plan to comply with §98.94(c) consistent with the requirements in §98.3(g)(5)(iii).

(i) Retain the following records for each fab for which you elect to calculate fab-level emissions of fluorinated GHG using the procedures specified in §98.93(i)(3) or (4).

(1) Document all stack systems with emissions of fluorinated GHG that are less than 10,000 metric tons of CO2e per year and all stack systems with emissions of 10,000 metric tons CO2e per year or more. Include the data and calculation used to develop the preliminary estimate of emissions for each stack system.

(2) For each stack system, identify the method used to calculate annual emissions; either §98.93(i)(3) or (4).

(3) The identity and total annual consumption of each gas identified as an intermittent low use fluorinated GHG as specified in §98.93(i)(4)(i) and defined in §98.98.

(4) The emissions test data and reports (see §98.94(j)(4)) and the calculations used to determine the fab-specific emission factor, including the actual fab-specific emission factor, the average hourly emission rate of each fluorinated GHG from the stack system during the test and the stack system activity rate during the test. The report must also contain any changes in the stack system configuration during or between tests in a reporting year.

(5) The fab-specific emission factor and the calculations and data used to determine the fab-specific emission factor for each fluorinated GHG and by-product, as calculated using Equations I-19 and I-20 of §98.93(i)(3).

(6) Calculations and data used to determine annual emissions of each fluorinated GHG for each fab.

(7) Calculations and data used to determine and document that the fab was operating at representative operating levels, as defined in §98.98, during the stack testing period.

(8) A copy of the certification that no significant changes in stack system flow configuration occurred between tests conducted for any particular fab in a reporting year, as required by §98.94(j)(1)(iv) and any calculations and data supporting the certification.

(9) The number of tools vented to each stack system in the fab.

(j) If you report the approximate percentage of total GHG emissions from research and development activities under §98.96(x), documentation for the determination of the percentage of total emissions of each fluorinated GHG and/or N2O attributable to research and development activities, as defined in §98.6.

(k) Annual gas consumption for each fluorinated GHG and N2O as calculated in Equation I-11 of this subpart, including where your fab used less than 50 kg of a particular fluorinated GHG or N2O used at your facility for which you have not calculated emissions using Equations I-6, I-7, I-8, I-9, I-10, I-21, or I-22 of this subpart, the chemical name of the GHG used, the annual consumption of the gas, and a brief description of its use.

(l) All inputs used to calculate gas consumption in Equation I-11 of this subpart, for each fluorinated GHG and N2O used.

(m) Annual amount of each fluorinated GHG consumed for process sub-type, process type, stack system, or fab, as appropriate, and the annual amount of N2O consumed for the aggregate of all chemical vapor deposition processes and for the aggregate of all other electronics manufacturing production processes, as calculated using Equation I-13 of this subpart.

(n) Disbursements for each fluorinated GHG and N2O during the reporting year, as calculated using Equation I-12 of this subpart and all inputs used to calculate disbursements for each fluorinated GHG and N2O used in Equation I-12 of this subpart, including all fab-wide gas-specific heel factors used for each fluorinated GHG and N2O. If your fab used less than 50 kg of a particular fluorinated GHG during the reporting year, fab-wide gas-specific heel factors do not need to be reported for those gases.

(o) Fraction of each fluorinated GHG or N2O fed into a process sub-type, process type, stack system, or fab that is fed into tools connected to abatement systems.

(p) Fraction of each fluorinated GHG or N2O destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools where process sub-type, process type j is used, or to process tools vented to stack system j or fab f.

(q) All inputs and results of calculations made accounting for the uptime of abatement systems used during the reporting year, or during an emissions sampling period, in accordance with Equations I-15 and/or I-23 of this subpart, as applicable.

(r) For fluorinated heat transfer fluid emissions, inputs to the fluorinated heat transfer fluid mass balance equation, Equation I-16 of this subpart, for each fluorinated heat transfer fluid used.

(s) Where missing data procedures were used to estimate inputs into the fluorinated heat transfer fluid mass balance equation under §98.95(b), the estimates of those data.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 78 FR 68218, Nov. 13, 2013; 81 FR 9255, Dec. 9, 2016]

§98.98   Definitions.

Except as provided in this section, all of the terms used in this subpart have the same meaning given in the Clean Air Act and subpart A of this part. If a conflict exists between a definition provided in this subpart and a definition provided in subpart A, the definition in this subpart takes precedence for the reporting requirements in this subpart.

Abatement system means a device or equipment that is designed to destroy or remove fluorinated GHGs or N2O in exhaust streams from one or more electronics manufacturing production processes, or for which the destruction or removal efficiency for a fluorinated GHG or N2O has been properly measured according to the procedures under §98.94(f)(4), even if that abatement system is not designed to destroy or remove fluorinated GHGs or N2O. The device or equipment is only an abatement system for the individual fluorinated GHGs or N2O that it is designed to destroy or remove or for the individual fluorinated GHGs or N2O for which destruction or removal efficiencies were properly measured according to the procedures under §98.94(f)(4).

Actual gas consumption means the quantity of gas used during wafer/substrate processing over some period based on a measured change in gas container weight or gas container pressure or on a measured volume of gas.

By-product formation means the creation of fluorinated GHGs during electronics manufacturing production processes or the creation of fluorinated GHGs by an abatement system. Where the procedures in §98.93(a) are used to calculate annual emissions, by-product formation is the ratio of the mass of the by-product formed to the mass flow of the input gas. Where the procedures in §98.93(i) are used to calculate annual emissions, by-product formation is the ratio of the mass of the by-product formed to the total mass flow of all fluorinated GHG input gases.

Chamber cleaning is a process type that consists of the process sub-types defined in paragraphs (1) through (3) of this definition.

(1) In situ plasma process sub-type consists of the cleaning of thin-film production chambers, after processing substrates, with a fluorinated GHG cleaning reagent that is dissociated into its cleaning constituents by a plasma generated inside the chamber where the film is produced.

(2) Remote plasma process sub-type consists of the cleaning of thin-film production chambers, after processing substrates, with a fluorinated GHG cleaning reagent dissociated by a remotely located plasma source.

(3) In situ thermal process sub-type consists of the cleaning of thin-film production chambers, after processing substrates, with a fluorinated GHG cleaning reagent that is thermally dissociated into its cleaning constituents inside the chamber where thin films are produced.

Controlled emissions means the quantity of emissions that are released to the atmosphere after application of an emission control device (e.g., abatement system).

Destruction or removal efficiency (DRE) means the efficiency of an abatement system to destroy or remove fluorinated GHGs, N2O, or both. The destruction or removal efficiency is equal to one minus the ratio of the mass of all relevant GHGs exiting the abatement system to the mass of GHG entering the abatement system. When GHGs are formed in an abatement system, destruction or removal efficiency is expressed as one minus the ratio of amounts of exiting GHGs to the amounts entering the system in units of CO2-equivalents (CO2e).

Fab means the portion of an electronics manufacturing facility located in a separate physical structure that began manufacturing on a certain date.

Fluorinated heat transfer fluids means fluorinated GHGs used for temperature control, device testing, cleaning substrate surfaces and other parts, and soldering in certain types of electronics manufacturing production processes. Fluorinated heat transfer fluids do not include fluorinated GHGs used as lubricants or surfactants. For fluorinated heat transfer fluids under this subpart I, the lower vapor pressure limit of 1 mm Hg in absolute at 25 °C in the definition of Fluorinated greenhouse gas in §98.6 shall not apply. Fluorinated heat transfer fluids used in the electronics manufacturing sector include, but are not limited to, perfluoropolyethers, perfluoroalkanes, perfluoroethers, tertiary perfluoroamines, and perfluorocyclic ethers.

Fully fluorinated GHGs means fluorinated GHGs that contain only single bonds and in which all available valence locations are filled by fluorine atoms. This includes, but is not limited to, saturated perfluorocarbons, SF6, NF3, SF5CF3, C4F8O, fully fluorinated linear, branched, and cyclic alkanes, fully fluorinated ethers, fully fluorinated tertiary amines, fully fluorinated aminoethers, and perfluoropolyethers.

Gas utilization means the fraction of input N2O or fluorinated GHG converted to other substances during the etching, deposition, and/or wafer and chamber cleaning processes. Gas utilization is expressed as a rate or factor for specific electronics manufacturing process sub-types or process types.

Heel means the amount of gas that remains in a gas container after it is discharged or off-loaded; heel may vary by container type.

Input gas means a fluorinated GHG or N2O used in one of the processes described in §98.90(a)(1) through (4)

Intermittent low-use fluorinated GHG, for the purposes of determining fluorinated GHG emissions using the stack testing method, means a fluorinated GHG that meets all of the following:

(1) The fluorinated GHG is used by the fab but is not used during the period of stack testing for the fab/stack system.

(2) The emissions of the fluorinated GHG, estimated using the methods in §98.93(i)(4) do not constitute more than 5 percent of the total fluorinated GHG emissions from the fab on a CO2e basis.

(3) The sum of the emissions of all fluorinated GHGs that are considered intermittent low use gases does not exceed 10,000 metric tons CO2e for the fab for that year, as calculated using the procedures specified in §98.93(i)(1) of this subpart.

(4) The fluorinated GHG is not an expected or possible by-product identified in Table I-17 of this subpart.

Maximum substrate starts means for the purposes of Equation I-5 of this subpart, the maximum quantity of substrates, expressed as surface area, that could be started each month during a reporting year based on the equipment installed in that facility and assuming that the installed equipment were fully utilized. Manufacturing equipment is considered installed when it is on the manufacturing floor and connected to required utilities.

Modeled gas consumed means the quantity of gas used during wafer/substrate processing over some period based on a verified facility-specific engineering model used to apportion gas consumption.

Nameplate capacity means the full and proper charge of chemical specified by the equipment manufacturer to achieve the equipment's specified performance. The nameplate capacity is typically indicated on the equipment's nameplate; it is not necessarily the actual charge, which may be influenced by leakage and other emissions.

Operational mode means the time in which an abatement system is properly installed, maintained, and operated according to the site maintenance plan for abatement systems as required in §98.94(f)(1) and defined in §98.97(d)(9). This includes being properly operated within the range of parameters as specified in the site maintenance plan for abatement systems.

Plasma etching is a process type that consists of any production process using fluorinated GHG reagents to selectively remove materials from a substrate during electronics manufacturing. The materials removed may include SiO2, SiOX-based or fully organic-based thin-film material, SiN, SiON, Si3N4, SiC, SiCO, SiCN, etc. (represented by the general chemical formula, SiwOXNyXz where w, x, y and z are zero or integers and X may be some other element such as carbon), substrate, or metal films (such as aluminum or tungsten).

Process sub-type is a set of similar manufacturing steps, more closely related within a broad process type. For example, the chamber cleaning process type includes in-situ plasma chamber cleaning, remote plasma chamber cleaning, and in-situ thermal chamber cleaning sub-types.

Process types are broad groups of manufacturing steps used at a facility associated with substrate (e.g., wafer) processing during device manufacture for which fluorinated GHG emissions and fluorinated GHG consumption is calculated and reported. The process types are Plasma etching/Wafer Cleaning and Chamber cleaning.

Properly measured destruction or removal efficiency means destruction or removal efficiencies measured in accordance with EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), and, if applicable, Appendix A to this subpart, or by an alternative method approved by the Administrator as specified in §98.94(k).

The Random Sampling Abatement System Testing Program (RSASTP) means the required frequency for measuring the destruction or removal efficiencies of abatement systems in order to apply properly measured destruction or removal efficiencies to report controlled emissions.

Redundant abatement systems means a system that is specifically designed, installed and operated for the purpose of destroying fluorinated GHGs and N2O gases, or for which the destruction or removal efficiency for a fluorinated GHG or N2O has been properly measured according to the procedures under §98.94(f)(4), and that is used as a backup to the main fluorinated GHGs and N2O abatement system during those times when the main system is not functioning or operating in accordance with design and operating specifications.

Repeatable means that the variables used in the formulas for the facility's engineering model for gas apportioning factors are based on observable and measurable quantities that govern gas consumption rather than engineering judgment about those quantities or gas consumption.

Representative operating levels means (for purposes of verification of the apportionment model or for determining the appropriate conditions for stack testing) operating the fab, in terms of substrate starts for the period of testing or monitoring, at no less than 50 percent of installed production capacity or no less than 70 percent of the average production rate for the reporting year, where production rate for the reporting year is represented in average monthly substrate starts. For the purposes of stack testing, the period for determining the representative operating level must be the period ending on the same date on which testing is concluded.

Stack system means one or more stacks that are connected by a common header or manifold, through which a fluorinated GHG-containing gas stream originating from one or more fab processes is, or has the potential to be, released to the atmosphere. For purposes of this subpart, stack systems do not include emergency vents or bypass stacks through which emissions are not usually vented under typical operating conditions.

Trigger point for change out means the residual weight or pressure of a gas container type that a facility uses as an indicator that operators need to change out that gas container with a full container. The trigger point is not the actual residual weight or pressure of the gas remaining in the cylinder that has been replaced.

Unabated emissions means a gas stream containing fluorinated GHG or N2O that has exited the process, but which has not yet been introduced into an abatement system to reduce the mass of fluorinated GHG or N2O in the stream. If the emissions from the process are not routed to an abatement system, or are routed to an abatement device that is not in an operational mode, unabated emissions are those fluorinated GHG or N2O released to the atmosphere.

Uptime means the ratio of the total time during which the abatement system is in an operational mode, to the total time during which production process tool(s) connected to that abatement system are normally in operation.

Wafer cleaning is a process type that consists of any production process using fluorinated GHG reagents to clean wafers at any step during production.

Wafer passes is a count of the number of times a wafer substrate is processed in a specific process sub-type, or type. The total number of wafer passes over a reporting year is the number of wafer passes per tool multiplied by the number of operational process tools in use during the reporting year.

Wafer starts means the number of fresh wafers that are introduced into the fabrication sequence each month. It includes test wafers, which means wafers that are exposed to all of the conditions of process characterization, including but not limited to actual etch conditions or actual film deposition conditions.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 77 FR 10381, Feb. 22, 2012; 78 FR 68220, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-1 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors for Threshold Applicability Determination

Product typeEmission factors EFi
CF4C2F6CHF3C3F8NF3SF6
Semiconductors (kg/m2)0.901.000.040.050.040.20
LCD (g/m2)0.50NANANA0.904.00
MEMS (kg/m2)NANANANANA1.02

Notes: NA denotes not applicable based on currently available information.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 78 FR 68221, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-2 to Subpart I of Part 98—Examples of Fluorinated GHGs Used by the Electronics Industry

Product typeFluorinated GHGs and fluorinated heat transfer fluids used during manufacture
ElectronicsCF4, C2F6, C3F8, c-C4F8, c-C4F8O, C4F6, C5F8, CHF3, CH2F2, NF3, SF6, and fluorinated HTFs (CF3-(O-CF(CF3)-CF2)n-(O-CF2)m-O-CF3, CnF2n + 2, CnF2n + 1(O)CmF2m + 1, CnF2.O, (CnF2n + 1)3N).

[77 FR 10381, Feb. 22, 2012]

Table I-3 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for Semiconductor Manufacturing for 150 mm and 200 mm Wafer Sizes

Table I-3 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for Semiconductor Manufacturing for 150 mm and 200 mm Wafer Sizes

Process type/sub-typeProcess gas i
CF4C2F6CHF3CH2F2C2HF5CH3FC3F8C4F8NF3SF6C4F6C5F8C4F8O
Etching/Wafer Cleaning
1-Ui0.810.720.510.130.0640.70NA0.140.190.550.170.072NA
BCF4NA0.100.0850.0790.077NANA0.110.00400.130.13NANA
BC2F60.046NA0.0300.0250.0240.0034NA0.0370.0250.110.110.014NA
BC4F6NANANANANANANANANANANANANA
BC4F8NANANANANANANANANANANANANA
BC3F8NANANANANANANANANANANANANA
BC5F80.0012NA0.0012NANANANA0.0086NANANANANA
BCHF30.100.047NA0.049NANANA0.040NA0.00120.0660.0039NA
Chamber Cleaning
In situ plasma cleaning:
1-Ui0.920.55NANANANA0.400.100.18NANANA0.14
BCF4NA0.21NANANANA0.200.110.050NANANA0.13
BC2F6NANANANANANANANANANANANA0.045
BC3F8NANANANANANANANANANANANANA
Remote plasma cleaning:
1-UiNANANANANANANANA0.017NANANANA
BCF4NANANANANANANANA0.015NANANANA
BC2F6NANANANANANANANANANANANANA
BC3F8NANANANANANANANANANANANANA
In situ thermal cleaning:
1-UiNANANANANANANANANANANANANA
BCF4NANANANANANANANANANANANANA
BC2F6NANANANANANANANANANANANANA
BC3F8NANANANANANANANANANANANANA

Notes: NA = Not applicable; i.e., there are no applicable default emission factor measurements for this gas. This does not necessarily imply that a particular gas is not used in or emitted from a particular process sub-type or process type.

[81 FR 9255, Dec. 9, 2016]

Table I-4 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for Semiconductor Manufacturing for 300 mm and 450 mm Wafer Size

Table I-4 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for Semiconductor Manufacturing for 300 mm and 450 mm Wafer Size

Process type/sub-typeProcess gas i
CF4C2F6CHF3CH2F2CH3FC3F8C4F8NF3SF6C4F6C5F8C4F8O
Etching/Wafer Cleaning
1-Ui0.650.800.420.210.330.300.180.150.320.150.10NA
BCF4NA0.210.0950.0490.0450.210.0450.0460.0400.0590.11NA
BC2F60.079NA0.0640.0520.000870.180.0310.0450.0440.0740.083NA
BC4F6NANA0.00010NANANA0.018NANANANANA
BC4F80.00063NA0.00080NANANANANANANANANA
BC3F8NANANANANANANANANANA0.00012NA
BCHF30.011NANA0.0500.00570.0120.0270.0250.00370.0190.0069NA
BCH2F2NANA0.0036NA0.0023NA0.00150.000860.0000290.000030NANA
BCH3F0.0080NA0.00800.0080NA0.00073NA0.0080NANANANA
Chamber Cleaning
In situ plasma cleaning:
1-UiNANANANANANANA0.23NANANANA
BCF4NANANANANANANA0.037NANANANA
BC2F6NANANANANANANANANANANANA
BC3F8NANANANANANANANANANANANA
Remote Plasma Cleaning:
1-UiNANANANANA0.063NA0.017NANANANA
BCF4NANANANANANANA0.075NANANANA
BC2F6NANANANANANANANANANANANA
BC3F8NANANANANANANANANANANANA
In Situ Thermal Cleaning:
1-UiNANANANANANANA0.28NANANANA
BCF4NANANANANANANA0.010NANANANA
BC2F6NANANANANANANANANANANANA
BC3F8NANANANANANANANANANANANA

Notes: NA = Not applicable; i.e., there are no applicable default emission factor measurements for this gas. This does not necessarily imply that a particular gas is not used in or emitted from a particular process sub-type or process type.

[81 FR 89256, Dec. 9, 2016]

Table I-5 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for MEMS Manufacturing

Process type factorsProcess gas i
CF4C2F6CHF3CH2F2C3F8c− C4F8NF3
Remote
NF3SF6C4F6aC5F8aC4F8Oa
Etch 1-Ui0.710.410.410.06NA10.2NA0.20.20.10.2NA
Etch BCF4NA10.410.0710.08NA0.2NANANA10.30.2NA
Etch BC2F6NANANANANA0.2NANANA10.20.2NA
CVD Chamber Cleaning 1-Ui0.90.6NANA0.40.10.020.2NANA0.10.1
CVD Chamber Cleaning BCF4NA0.1NANA0.10.120.0220.1NANA0.10.1
CVD Chamber Cleaning BC3F8NANANANANANANANANANANA0.4

Notes: NA = Not applicable; i.e., there are no applicable default emission factor measurements for this gas. This does not necessarily imply that a particular gas is not used in or emitted from a particular process sub-type or process type.

1Estimate includes multi-gas etch processes.

2Estimate reflects presence of low-k, carbide and multi-gas etch processes that may contain a C-containing fluorinated GHG additive.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 78 FR 68225, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-6 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for LCD Manufacturing

Process type factorsProcess gas i
CF4C2F6CHF3CH2F2C3F8c− C4F8NF3
Remote
NF3SF6
Etch 1-Ui0.6NA0.2NANA0.1NANA0.3
Etch BCF4NANA0.07NANA0.009NANANA
Etch BCHF3NANANANANA0.02NANANA
Etch BC2F4NANA0.05NANANANANANA
CVD Chamber Cleaning 1-UiNANANANANANA0.030.30.9

Notes: NA = Not applicable; i.e., there are no applicable default emission factor measurements for this gas. This does not necessarily imply that a particular gas is not used in or emitted from a particular process sub-type or process type.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 78 FR 68225, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-7 To Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for PV Manufacturing

Process type factorsProcess gas i
CF4C2F6CHF3CH2F2C3F8c− C4F8NF3
Remote
NF3SF6
Etch 1-Ui0.70.40.4NANA0.2NANA0.4
Etch BCF4NA0.2NANANA0.1NANANA
Etch BC2F6NANANANANA0.1NANANA
CVD Chamber Cleaning 1-UiNA0.6NANA0.10.1NA0.30.4
CVD Chamber Cleaning BCF4NA0.2NANA0.20.1NANANA

Notes: NA = Not applicable; i.e., there are no applicable default emission factor measurements for this gas. This does not necessarily imply that a particular gas is not used in or emitted from a particular process sub-type or process type.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 78 FR 68225, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-8 to Subpart I of Part 98— Default Emission Factors (1-UN2O,j) for N2O Utilization (UN2O,j)

Process type factorsN2O
CVD 1-Ui0.8
Other Manufacturing Process 1-Ui1.0

Table I-9 to Subpart I of Part 98—Methods and Procedures for Conducting Emissions Test for Stack Systems

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[78 FR 68227, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-10 to Subpart I of Part 98—Maximum Field Detection Limits Applicable to Fluorinated GHG Concentration Measurements for Stack Systems

Fluorinated GHG AnalyteMaximum field
detection
limit (ppbv)
CF420
C2F620
C3F820
C4F620
C5F820
c-C4F820
CH2F240
CH3F40
CHF320
NF320
SF64
Other fully fluorinated GHGs20
Other fluorinated GHGs40

ppbv—Parts per billion by volume.

[78 FR 68228, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-11 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for Semiconductor Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method (150 mm and 200 mm Wafers)

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[78 FR 68229, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-12 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for Semiconductor Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method (300 mm and 450 mm Wafers)

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[78 FR 68230, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-13 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for LCD Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method

eCFR graphic er13no13.025.gif

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[78 FR 68231, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-14 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for PV Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method

eCFR graphic er13no13.026.gif

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[78 FR 68232, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-15 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for MEMS Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method

eCFR graphic er13no13.027.gif

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[78 FR 68233, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-16 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Destruction or Removal Efficiency (DRE) Factors for Electronics Manufacturing

Manufacturing type/process type/gasDefault
DRE
(percent)
MEMS, LCDs, and PV Manufacturing60
Semiconductor Manufacturing:
Plasma Etch/Wafer Clean Process Type:
CF475
CH3F97
CHF397
CH2F297
C2F697
C3F897
C4F697
C4F897
C5F897
SF697
NF396
All other carbon-based plasma etch/wafer clean fluorinated GHG60
Chamber Clean Process Type:
NF388
All other chamber clean fluorinated GHG60
N2O Processes:
CVD and all other N2O-using processes60

[78 FR 68234, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-17 to Subpart I of Part 98—Expected and Possible By-Products for Electronics Manufacturinglg

For each stack system for which you use the “stack test method” to calculate annual emissions, you must measure the following:If emissions are detected intermittently, use the
following procedures:
If emissions are not detected, use the
following procedures:
Expected By-products:
   CF4
   C2F6
   CHF3
   CH2F2
   CH3F
Use the measured concentration for “Xksm” in Equation I-18 when available and use one-half of the field detection limit you determined for the fluorinated GHG according to §98.94(j)(2) for the value of “Xksm” when the fluorinated GHG is not detectedUse one-half of the field detection limit you determined for the fluorinated GHG according to §98.94(j)(2) for the value of “Xksm” in Equation I-18.
Possible By-products:
   C3F8
   C4F6
   c-C4F8
   C5F8
Use the measured concentration for “Xksm” in Equation I-18 when available and use one-half of the field detection limit you determined for the fluorinated GHG according to §98.94(j)(2) for the value of “Xksm” when the fluorinated GHG is not detectedAssume zero emissions for that fluorinated GHG for the tested stack system.

[78 FR 68234, Nov. 13, 2013]

Appendix A to Subpart I of Part 98—Alternative Procedures for Measuring Point-of-Use Abatement Device Destruction or Removal Efficiency

If you are measuring destruction or removal efficiency of a point-of-use abatement device according to EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) as specified in §98.94(f)(4), you may follow the alternative procedures specified in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this appendix.

(a) In place of the Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry protocol requirements specified in section 2.2.4 of EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), you must conduct mass spectrometry testing in accordance with the provisions in paragraph (a)(1) through (a)(15) of this appendix.

(1) Detection limits. The mass spectrometer chosen for this application must have the necessary sensitivity to detect the selected effluent species at or below the maximum field detection limits specified in Table 3 of section 2.2.7 of EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(2) Sampling location. The sample at the inlet of the point-of-use abatement device must be taken downstream of the process tool and pump package. The sample exhaust must be vented back into the corrosive house ventilation system at a point downstream of the sample inlet location.

(3) Sampling conditions. For etch processes, destruction or removal efficiencies must be determined while etching a substrate (product, dummy, or test). For chemical vapor deposition processes, destruction or removal efficiencies must be determined during a chamber clean after deposition (destruction or removal efficiencies must not be determined in a clean chamber). All sampling must be performed non-intrusively during wafer processing. Samples must be drawn through the mass spectrometer source by an external sample pump. Because of the volatility, vapor pressure, stability and inertness of CF4, C2F6, C3F8, CHF3, NF3, and SF6, the sample lines do not need to be heated.

(4) Mass spectrometer parameters. The specific mass spectrometer operating conditions such as electron energy, secondary electron multiplier voltage, emission current, and ion focusing voltage must be selected according to the specifications provided by the mass spectrometer manufacturer, the mass spectrometer system manual, basic mass spectrometer textbook, or other such sources. The mass spectrometer responses to each of the target analytes must all be calibrated under the same mass spectrometer operating conditions.

(5) Flow rates. A sample flow rate of 0.5-1.5 standard liters per minute (slm) must be drawn from the process tool exhaust stream under study.

(6) Sample frequency. The mass spectrometer sampling frequency for etch processes must be in the range of 0.5 to 1 cycles per second, and for chemical vapor deposition processes must be in the range of 0.25 to 0.5 cycles per second. As an alternative you may use the sampling frequencies specified in section 2.2.4 of EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(7) Dynamic dilution calibration parameters. The quadrupole mass spectrometer must be calibrated for both mass location and response to analytes. A dynamic dilution calibration system may be used to perform both types of mass spectrometer system calibrations using two mass flow controllers. Use one mass flow controller to regulate the flow rate of the standard component used to calibrate the system and the second mass flow controller to regulate the amount of diluent gas used to mix with the standard to generate the calibration curve for each compound of interest. The mass flow controller must be calibrated using the single component gas being used with them, for example, nitrogen (N2) for the diluent. A mass flow controller used with calibration mixtures must be calibrated with the calibration mixture balance gas (for example, N2 or He) if the analyte components are 2 percent or less of the volume of the sample. All calibration mixtures must be National Institute of Standards and Technology Traceable gases or equivalent. They must be calibrated over their range of use and must be operated in their experimentally determined dynamic linear range. If compressed gas standards cannot be brought into the fab, metered gas flows of target compounds into the process chamber, under no thermal or plasma conditions and with no wafer(s) present, and with no process emissions from other tools contributing to the sample location, must then be performed throughout the appropriate concentration ranges to derive calibration curves for the subsequent destruction or removal efficiency tests.

(8) Mass location calibration. A mixture containing 1 percent He, Ar, Kr, and Xe in a balance gas of nitrogen must be used to assure the alignment of the quadrupole mass filter (see EPA Method 205 at 40 CFR part 51, appendix M as reference). The mass spectrometer must be chosen so that the mass range is sufficient to detect the predominant peaks of the components under study.

(9) Quadrupole mass spectrometer response calibration. A calibration curve must be generated for each compound of interest.

(10) Calibration frequency. The mass spectrometer must be calibrated at the start of testing a given process. The calibration must be checked at the end of testing.

(11) Calibration range. The mass spectrometer must be calibrated over the expected concentration range of analytes using a minimum of five concentrations including a zero. The zero point is defined as diluent containing no added analyte.

(12) Operating procedures. You must follow the operating procedures specified in paragraphs (a)(12)(i) through (v) of this appendix.

(i) You must perform a qualitative mass calibration by running a standard (or by flowing chamber gases under non-process conditions) containing stable components such as Ar, Kr, and Xe that provide predominant signals at m/e values distributed throughout the mass range to be used. You must adjust the quadrupole mass filter as needed to align with the inert gas fragments.

(ii) You must quantitatively calibrate the quadrupole mass spectrometer for each analyte of interest. The analyte concentrations during calibration must include the expected concentrations in the process effluent. The calibration must be performed under the same operating conditions, such as inlet pressure, as when sampling process exhaust. If the calibration inlet pressure differs from the sampling inlet pressure then the relationship between inlet pressure and quadrupole mass spectrometer signal response must be empirically determined and applied to correct for any differences between calibration and process emissions monitoring data.

(iii) To determine the response time of the instrument to changes in a process, a process gas such as C2F6 must be turned on at the process tool for a fixed period of time (for example, 20 seconds), after which the gas is shut off. The sample flow rate through the system must be adjusted so that the signal increases to a constant concentration within a few seconds and decreases to background levels also within a few seconds.

(iv) You must sample the process effluent through the quadrupole mass spectrometer and acquire data for the required amount of time to track the process, as determined in paragraph (a)(12)(iii) of this appendix. You must set the sample frequency to monitor the changes in the process as specified in paragraph (a)(6) of this appendix. You must repeat this for at least five substrates on the same process and calculate the average and standard deviation of the analyte concentration.

(v) You must repeat the quantitative calibration at the conclusion of sampling to identify any drifts in quadrupole mass spectrometer sensitivity. If drift is observed, you must use an internal standard to correct for changes in sensitivity.

(13) Sample analysis. To determine the concentration of a specific component in the sample, you must divide the ion intensity of the sample response by the calibrated response factor for each component.

(14) Deconvolution of interfering peaks. The effects of interfering peaks must be deconvoluted from the mass spectra for each target analyte.

(15) Calculations. Plot ion intensity versus analyte concentration for a given compound obtained when calibrating the analytical system. Determine the slope and intercept for each calibrated species to obtain response factors with which to calculate concentrations in the sample. For an acceptable calibration, the R2 value of the calibration curve must be at least 0.98.

(b) In place of the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy protocol requirements specified in section 2.2.4 of EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), you may conduct Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy testing in accordance with the provisions in paragraph (b)(1) through (17) of this appendix, including the laboratory study phase described in paragraphs (b)(1) through (7), and the field study phase described in paragraphs (b)(8) through (17) of this appendix.

(1) Conformance with provisions associated with the Calibration Transfer Standard. This procedure calls for the use of a calibration transfer standard in a number of instances. The use of a calibration transfer standard is necessary to validate optical pathlength and detector response for spectrometers where cell temperature, cell pressure, and cell optical pathlength are potentially variable. For fixed pathlength spectrometers capable of controlling cell temperature and pressure to within ±10 percent of a desired set point, the use of a calibration transfer standard, as described in paragraphs (b)(2) to (17) this appendix is not required.

(2) Defining spectroscopic conditions. Define a set of spectroscopic conditions under which the field studies and subsequent field applications are to be carried out. These include the minimum instrumental line-width, spectrometer wave number range, sample gas temperature, sample gas pressure, absorption pathlength, maximum sampling system volume (including the absorption cell), minimum sample flow rate, and maximum allowable time between consecutive infrared analyses of the effluent.

(3) Criteria for reference spectral libraries. On the basis of previous emissions test results and/or process knowledge (including the documentation of results of any initial and subsequent tests, and the final reports required in §98.97(d)(4)(i)), estimate the maximum concentrations of all of the analytes in the effluent and their minimum concentrations of interest (those concentrations below which the measurement of the compounds is of no importance to the analysis). Values between the maximum expected concentration and the minimum concentration of interest are referred to below as the “expected concentration range.” A minimum of three reference spectra is sufficient for a small expected concentration range (e.g., a difference of 30 percent of the range between the low and high ends of the range), but a minimum of four spectra are needed where the range is greater, especially for concentration ranges that may differ by orders of magnitude. If the measurement method is not linear then multiple linear ranges may be necessary. If this approach is adopted, then linear range must be demonstrated to pass the required quality control. When the set of spectra is ordered according to absorbance, the absorbance levels of adjacent reference spectra should not differ by more than a factor of six. Reference spectra for each analyte should be available at absorbance levels that bracket the analyte's expected concentration range; minimally, the spectrum whose absorbance exceeds each analyte's expected maximum concentration or is within 30 percent of it must be available. The reference spectra must be collected at or near the same temperature and pressure at which the sample is to be analyzed under. The gas sample pressure and temperature must be continuously monitored during field testing and you must correct for differences in temperature and pressure between the sample and reference spectra. Differences between the sample and reference spectra conditions must not exceed 50 percent for pressure and 40 °C for temperature.

(4) Spectra without reference libraries. If reference spectral libraries meeting the criteria in paragraph (b)(3) of this appendix do not exist for all the analytes and interferants or cannot be accurately generated from existing libraries exhibiting lower minimum instrumental line-width values than those proposed for the testing, prepare the required spectra according to the procedures specified in paragraphs (b)(4)(i) and (ii) of this appendix.

(i) Reference spectra at the same absorbance level (to within 10 percent) of independently prepared samples must be recorded. The reference samples must be prepared from neat forms of the analyte or from gas standards of the highest quality commonly available from commercial sources. Either barometric or volumetric methods may be used to dilute the reference samples to the required concentrations, and the equipment used must be independently calibrated to ensure suitable accuracy. Dynamic and static reference sample preparation methods are acceptable, but dynamic preparations must be used for reactive analytes. Any well characterized absorption pathlength may be employed in recording reference spectra, but the temperature and pressure of the reference samples should match as closely as possible those of the proposed spectroscopic conditions.

(ii) If a mercury cadmium telluride or other potentially non-linear detector (i.e., a detector whose response vs. total infrared power is not a linear function over the range of responses employed) is used for recording the reference spectra, you must correct for the effects of this type of response on the resulting concentration values. As needed, spectra of a calibration transfer standard must be recorded with the laboratory spectrometer system to verify the absorption pathlength and other aspects of the system performance. All reference spectral data must be recorded in interferometric form and stored digitally.

(5) Sampling system preparation. Construct a sampling system suitable for delivering the proposed sample flow rate from the effluent source to the infrared absorption cell. For the compounds of interest, the surfaces of the system exposed to the effluent stream may need to be stainless steel or Teflon; because of the potential for generation of inorganic automated gases, glass surfaces within the sampling system and absorption cell may need to be Teflon-coated. The sampling system should be able to deliver a volume of sample that results in a necessary response time.

(6) Preliminary analytical routines. For the proposed absorption pathlength to be used in actual emissions testing, you must prepare an analysis method containing of all the effluent compounds at their expected maximum concentrations plus the field calibration transfer standard compound at 20 percent of its full concentration as needed.

(7) Documentation. The laboratory techniques used to generate reference spectra and to convert sample spectral information to compound concentrations must be documented. The required level of detail for the documentation is that which allows an independent analyst to reproduce the results from the documentation and the stored interferometric data.

(8) Spectroscopic system performance. The performance of the proposed spectroscopic system, sampling system, and analytical method must be rigorously examined during and after a field study. Several iterations of the analysis method may need to be applied depending on observed concentrations, absorbance intensities, and interferences. During the field study, all the sampling and analytical procedures envisioned for future field applications must be documented. Additional procedures not required during routine field applications, notably dynamic spiking studies of the analyte gases, may be performed during the field study. These additional procedures need to be performed only once if the results are acceptable and if the effluent sources in future field applications prove suitably similar to those chosen for the field study. If changes in the effluent sources in future applications are noted and require substantial changes to the analytical equipment and/or conditions, a separate field study must be performed for the new set of effluent source conditions. All data recorded during the study must be retained and documented, and all spectral information must be permanently stored in interferometric form.

(9) System installation. The spectroscopic and sampling sub-systems must be assembled and installed according to the manufacturers' recommendations. For the field study, the length of the sample lines used must not be less than the maximum length envisioned for future field applications. The system must be given sufficient time to stabilize before testing begins.

(10) Pre-Test calibration. Record a suitable background spectrum using pure nitrogen gas; alternatively, if the analytes of interest are in a sample matrix consistent with ambient air, it is beneficial to use an ambient air background to control interferences from water and carbon dioxide. For variable pathlength Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometers, introduce a sample of the calibration transfer standard gas directly into the absorption cell at the expected sample pressure and record its absorbance spectrum (the “initial field calibration transfer standard spectrum”). Compare it to the laboratory calibration transfer standard spectra to determine the effective absorption pathlength. If possible, record spectra of field calibration gas standards (single component standards of the analyte compounds) and determine their concentrations using the reference spectra and analytical routines developed in paragraphs (b)(2) through (7) of this appendix; these spectra may be used instead of the reference spectra in actual concentration and uncertainty calculations.

(11) Deriving the calibration transfer standard gas from tool chamber gases. The calibration transfer standard gas may be derived by flowing appropriate semiconductor tool chamber gases under non-process conditions (no thermal or plasma conditions and with no wafer(s) present) if compressed gas standards cannot be brought on-site.

(12) Reactivity and response time checks. While sampling ambient air and continuously recording absorbance spectra, suddenly replace the ambient air flow with calibration transfer standard gas introduced as close as possible to the probe tip. Examine the subsequent spectra to determine whether the flow rate and sample volume allow the system to respond quickly enough to changes in the sampled gas. Should a corrosive or reactive gas be of interest in the sample matrix it would be beneficial to determine the reactivity in a similar fashion, if practical. Examine the subsequent spectra to ensure that the reactivities of the analytes with the exposed surfaces of the sampling system do not limit the time response of the analytical system. If a pressure correction routine is not automated, monitor the absorption cell temperature and pressure; verify that the (absolute) pressure remains within 2 percent of the pressure specified in the proposed system conditions.

(13) Analyte spiking. Analyte spiking must be performed. While sampling actual source effluent, introduce a known flow rate of calibration transfer standard gas into the sample stream as close as possible to the probe tip or between the probe and extraction line. Measure and monitor the total sample flow rate, and adjust the spike flow rate until it represents 10 percent to 20 percent of the total flow rate. After waiting until at least four absorption cell volumes have been sampled, record four spectra of the spiked effluent, terminate the calibration transfer standard spike flow, pause until at least four cell volumes are sampled, and then record four (unspiked) spectra. Repeat this process until 12 spiked and 12 unspiked spectra have been obtained. If a pressure correction routine is not automated, monitor the absorption cell temperature and pressure; verify that the pressure remains within 2 percent of the pressure specified in the proposed system conditions. Calculate the expected calibration transfer standard compound concentrations in the spectra and compare them to the values observed in the spectrum. This procedure is best performed using a spectroscopic tracer to calculate dilution (as opposed to measured flow rates) of the injected calibration transfer standard (or analyte). The spectroscopic tracer should be a component not in the gas matrix that is easily detectable and maintains a linear absorbance over a large concentration range. Repeat this spiking process with all effluent compounds that are potentially reactive with either the sampling system components or with other effluent compounds. The gas spike is delivered by a mass flow controller, and the expected concentration of analyte of interest (AOITheoretical) is calculated as follows:

eCFR graphic er13no13.028.gif

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Where:

AOITheoretical = Theoretical analyte of interest concentration (parts per million (ppm)).

Tracersample = Tracer concentration (ppm) as seen by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer during spiking.

Tracercylinder = The concentration (ppm) of tracer recorded during direct injection of the cylinder to the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer cell.

AOIcylinder = The supplier-certified concentration (ppm) of the analyte of interest gas standard.

AOInative = The native AOI concentration (ppm) of the effluent during stable conditions.

(14) Post-test calibration. At the end of a sampling run and at the end of the field study, record the spectrum of the calibration transfer standard gas. The resulting “final field calibration transfer standard spectrum” must be compared to the initial field calibration transfer standard spectrum to verify suitable stability of the spectroscopic system throughout the course of the field study.

(15) Amendment of analytical routines. The presence of unanticipated interferant compounds and/or the observation of compounds at concentrations outside their expected concentration ranges may necessitate the repetition of portions of the procedures in paragraphs (b)(2) through (14) of this appendix. Such amendments are allowable before final analysis of the data, but must be represented in the documentation required in paragraph (b)(16) of this appendix.

(16) Documentation. The sampling and spiking techniques used to generate the field study spectra and to convert sample spectral information to concentrations must be documented at a level of detail that allows an independent analyst to reproduce the results from the documentation and the stored interferometric data.

(17) Method application. When the required laboratory and field studies have been completed and if the results indicate a suitable degree of accuracy, the methods developed may be applied to practical field measurement tasks. During field applications, the procedures demonstrated in the field study specified in paragraphs (b)(8) through (16) of this appendix must be adhered to as closely as possible, with the following exceptions specified in paragraphs (b)(17)(i) through (iii) of this appendix:

(i) The sampling lines employed should be as short as practically possible and not longer than those used in the field study.

(ii) Analyte spiking and reactivity checks are required after the installation of or major repair to the sampling system or major change in sample matrix. In these cases, perform three spiked/unspiked samples with calibration transfer standard or a surrogate analyte on a daily basis if time permits and gas standards are easy to obtain and get on-site.

(iii) Sampling and other operational data must be recorded and documented as during the field study, but only the interferometric data needed to sufficiently reproduce actual test and spiking data must be stored permanently. The format of this data does not need to be interferograms but may be absorbance spectra or single beams.

(c) When using the flow and dilution measurement protocol specified in section 2.2.6 of EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), you may determine point-of-use abatement device total volume flow with the modifications specified in paragraphs (c)(1) through (3) of this appendix.

(1) You may introduce the non-reactive, non-native gas used for determining total volume flow and dilution across the point-of-use abatement device at a location in the exhaust of the point-of-use abatement device. For abatement systems operating in a mode where specific F-GHG are not readily abated, you may introduce the non-reactive, non-native gas used for determining total volume flow and dilution across the point-of-use abatement device prior to the point-of-use abatement system; in this case, the tracer must be more difficult to destroy than the target compounds being measured based on the thermal stability of the tracer and target.

(2) You may select a location for downstream non-reactive, non-native gas analysis that complies with the requirements in this paragraph (c)(2) of this appendix. The sampling location should be traversed with the sampling probe measuring the non-reactive, non-native gas concentrations to ensure homogeneity of the non-reactive gas and point-of-use abatement device effluent (i.e., stratification test). To test for stratification, measure the non-reactive, non-native gas concentrations at three points on a line passing through the centroidal area. Space the three points at 16.7, 50.0, and 83.3 percent of the measurement line. Sample for a minimum of twice the system response time, determined according to paragraph (c)(3) of this appendix, at each traverse point. Calculate the individual point and mean non-reactive, non-native gas concentrations. If the non-reactive, non-native gas concentration at each traverse point differs from the mean concentration for all traverse points by no more than ±5.0 percent of the mean concentration, the gas stream is considered unstratified and you may collect samples from a single point that most closely matches the mean. If the 5.0 percent criterion is not met, but the concentration at each traverse point differs from the mean concentration for all traverse points by no more than ±10.0 percent of the mean, you may take samples from two points and use the average of the two measurements. Space the two points at 16.7, 50.0, or 83.3 percent of the measurement line. If the concentration at each traverse point differs from the mean concentration for all traverse points by more than ±10.0 percent of the mean but less than 20.0 percent, take samples from three points at 16.7, 50.0, and 83.3 percent of the measurement line and use the average of the three measurements. If the gas stream is found to be stratified because the 20.0 percent criterion for a 3-point test is not met, locate and sample the non-reactive, non-native gas from traverse points for the test in accordance with Sections 11.2 and 11.3 of EPA Method 1 in 40 CFR part 60, Appendix A-1. A minimum of 40 non-reactive gas concentration measurements will be collected at three to five different injected non-reactive gas flow rates for determination of point-of-use abatement device effluent flow. The total volume flow of the point-of-use abatement device exhaust will be calculated consistent with the EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) Equations 1 through 7.

(3) You must determine the measurement system response time according to paragraphs (c)(3)(i) through (iii) of this appendix.

(i) Before sampling begins, introduce ambient air at the probe upstream of all sample condition components in system calibration mode. Record the time it takes for the measured concentration of a selected compound (for example, carbon dioxide) to reach steady state.

(ii) Introduce nitrogen in the system calibration mode and record the time required for the concentration of the selected compound to reach steady state.

(iii) Observe the time required to achieve 95 percent of a stable response for both nitrogen and ambient air. The longer interval is the measurement system response time.

[78 FR 68234, Nov. 13, 2013]

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