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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of September 19, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 98 → Subpart HH


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 98—MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING


Subpart HH—Municipal Solid Waste Landfills


Contents
§98.340   Definition of the source category.
§98.341   Reporting threshold.
§98.342   GHGs to report.
§98.343   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.344   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.345   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.346   Data reporting requirements.
§98.347   Records that must be retained.
§98.348   Definitions.
Table HH-1 to Subpart HH of Part 98—Emissions Factors, Oxidation Factors and Methods
Table HH-2 to Subpart HH of Part 98—U.S. Per Capita Waste Disposal Rates
Table HH-3 to Subpart HH of Part 98—Landfill Gas Collection Efficiencies
Table HH-4 to Subpart HH of Part 98—Landfill Methane Oxidation Fractions

§98.340   Definition of the source category.

(a) This source category applies to municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills that accepted waste on or after January 1, 1980, unless all three of the following conditions apply.

(1) The MSW landfill did not receive waste on or after January 1, 2013.

(2) The MSW landfill had CH4 generation as determined using Equation HH-5 and, if applicable, Equation HH-7 of this subpart of less than 1,190 metric tons of CH4 in the 2013 reporting year.

(3) The owner or operator of the MSW landfill was not required to submit an annual report under any requirement of this part in any reporting year prior to 2013.

(b) This source category does not include Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C or Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste landfills, construction and demolition waste landfills, or industrial waste landfills.

(c) This source category consists of the following sources at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills: Landfills, landfill gas collection systems, and landfill gas destruction devices (including flares).

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66470, Oct. 28, 2010; 78 FR 71968, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.341   Reporting threshold.

You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains a MSW landfill and the facility meets the requirements of §98.2(a)(1).

§98.342   GHGs to report.

(a) You must report CH4 generation and CH4 emissions from landfills.

(b) You must report CH4 destruction resulting from landfill gas collection and combustion systems.

(c) You must report under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources) the emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O from each stationary combustion unit following the requirements of subpart C.

§98.343   Calculating GHG emissions.

(a) For all landfills subject to the reporting requirements of this subpart, calculate annual modeled CH4 generation according to the applicable requirements in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section.

(1) Calculate annual modeled CH4 generation using Equation HH-1 of this section.

eCFR graphic er28oc10.033.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

GCH4 = Modeled methane generation rate in reporting year T (metric tons CH4).

x = Year in which waste was disposed.

S = Start year of calculation. Use the year 1960 or the opening year of the landfill, whichever is more recent.

T = Reporting year for which emissions are calculated.

WX = Quantity of waste disposed in the landfill in year × from measurement data, tipping fee receipts, or other company records (metric tons, as received (wet weight)).

MCF = Methane correction factor (fraction). Use the default value of 1 unless there is active aeration of waste within the landfill during the reporting year. If there is active aeration of waste within the landfill during the reporting year, use either the default value of 1 or select an alternative value no less than 0.5 based on site-specific aeration parameters.

DOC = Degradable organic carbon from Table HH-1 of this subpart [fraction (metric tons C/metric ton waste)].

DOCF = Fraction of DOC dissimilated (fraction). Use the default value of 0.5.

F = Fraction by volume of CH4 in landfill gas from measurement data for the current reporting year, if available (fraction, dry basis, corrected to 0% oxygen); otherwise, use the default of 0.5.

k = Rate constant from Table HH-1 to this subpart (yr−1). Select the most applicable k value for the majority of the past 10 years (or operating life, whichever is shorter).

(2) For years when material-specific waste quantity data are available, apply Equation HH-1 of this section for each waste quantity type and sum the CH4 generation rates for all waste types to calculate the total modeled CH4 generation rate for the landfill. Use the appropriate parameter values for k, DOC, MCF, DOCF, and F shown in Table HH-1 of this subpart. The annual quantity of each type of waste disposed must be calculated as the sum of the daily quantities of waste (of that type) disposed. You may use the bulk waste parameters for a portion of your waste materials when using the material-specific modeling approach for mixed waste streams that cannot be designated to a specific material type. For years when waste composition data are not available, use the bulk waste parameter values for k and DOC in Table HH-1 to this subpart for the total quantity of waste disposed in those years.

(3) Beginning in the first emissions reporting year and for each year thereafter, if scales are in place, you must determine the annual quantity of waste (in metric tons as received, i.e., wet weight) disposed of in the landfill using paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section for all containers and for all vehicles used to haul waste to the landfill, except for passenger cars, light duty pickup trucks, or waste loads that cannot be measured using the scales due to physical limitations (load cannot physically access or fit on the scale) and/or operational limitations of the scale (load exceeding the limits or sensitivity range of the scale). If scales are not in place, you must use paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section to determine the annual quantity of waste disposed. For waste hauled to the landfill in passenger cars or light duty pickup trucks, you may use either paragraph (a)(3)(i) or paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section to determine the annual quantity of waste disposed. For loads that cannot be measured using the scales due to physical and/or operational limitations of the scale, you must use paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section or similar engineering calculations to determine the annual quantity of waste disposed. The approach used to determine the annual quantity of waste disposed of must be documented in the monitoring plan.

(i) Use direct mass measurements of each individual load received at the landfill using either of the following methods:

(A) Weigh using mass scales each vehicle or container used to haul waste as it enters the landfill or disposal area; weigh using mass scales each vehicle or container after it has off-loaded the waste; determine the quantity of waste received from the individual load as the difference in the two mass measurements; and determine the annual quantity of waste received as the sum of all waste loads received during the year. Alternatively, you may determine annual quantity of waste by summing the weights of all vehicles and containers entering the landfill and subtracting from it the sum of all the weights of vehicles and containers after they have off-loaded the waste in the landfill.

(B) Weigh using mass scales each vehicle or container used to haul waste as it enters the landfill or disposal area; determine a representative tare weight by vehicle or container type by weighing no less than 5 of each type of vehicle or container after it has off-loaded the waste; determine the quantity of waste received from the individual load as the difference between the measured weight in and the tare weight determined for that container/vehicle type; and determine the annual quantity of waste received as the sum of all waste loads received during the year.

(ii) Determine the working capacity in units of mass for each type of container or vehicle used to haul waste to the landfill (e.g., using volumetric capacity and waste density measurements; direct measurement of a selected number of passenger vehicles and light duty pick-up trucks; or similar methods); record the number of loads received at the landfill by vehicle/container type; calculate the annual mass per vehicle/container type as the mass product of the number of loads of that vehicle/container multiplied by its working capacity; and calculate the annual quantity of waste received as the sum of the annual mass per vehicle/container type across all of the vehicle/container types used to haul waste to the landfill.

(4) For years prior to the first emissions reporting year, use methods in paragraph (a)(3) of this section when waste disposal quantity data are readily available. When waste disposal quantity data are not readily available, WX shall be estimated using one of the applicable methods in paragraphs (a)(4)(i) through (a)(4)(iii) of this section. You must determine which method is most applicable to the conditions and disposal history of your facility. Historical waste disposal quantities should only be determined once, as part of the first annual report, and the same values should be used for all subsequent annual reports, supplemented by the next year's data on new waste disposal.

(i) Assume all prior years waste disposal quantities are the same as the waste quantity in the first year for which waste quantities are available.

(ii) Use the estimated population served by the landfill in each year, the values for national average per capita waste disposal rates found in Table HH-2 to this subpart, and calculate the waste quantity landfilled using Equation HH-2 of this section.

eCFR graphic er28oc10.034.gif

View or download PDF

where:

WX = Quantity of waste placed in the landfill in year x (metric tons, wet basis).

POPX = Population served by the landfill in year x from city population, census data, or other estimates (capita).

WDRX = Average per capita waste disposal rate for year x from Table HH-2 to this subpart (metric tons per capita per year, wet basis; tons/cap/yr).

(iii) Use a constant average waste disposal quantity calculated using Equation HH-3 of this section for each year the landfill was in operation (i.e., from the first year accepting waste until the last year for which waste disposal data is unavailable, inclusive).

eCFR graphic er28oc10.035.gif

View or download PDF

where:

WX = Quantity of waste placed in the landfill in year x (metric tons, wet basis).

LFC = Landfill capacity or, for operating landfills, capacity of the landfill used (or the total quantity of waste-in-place) at the end of the year prior to the year when waste disposal data are available from design drawings or engineering estimates (metric tons).

YrData = Year in which the landfill last received waste or, for operating landfills, the year prior to the first reporting year when waste disposal data is first available from company records, or best available data.

YrOpen = Year in which the landfill first received waste from company records or best available data. If no data are available for estimating YrOpen for a closed landfill, use 30 years as the default operating life of the landfill.

(b) For landfills with gas collection systems, calculate the quantity of CH4 destroyed according to the requirements in paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section.

(1) If you continuously monitor the flow rate, CH4 concentration, temperature, pressure, and, if necessary, moisture content of the landfill gas that is collected and routed to a destruction device (before any treatment equipment) using a monitoring meter specifically for CH4 gas, as specified in §98.344, you must use this monitoring system and calculate the quantity of CH4 recovered for destruction using Equation HH-4 of this section. A fully integrated system that directly reports CH4 content requires no other calculation than summing the results of all monitoring periods for a given year.

eCFR graphic er29no13.020.gif

View or download PDF

where:

R = Annual quantity of recovered CH4 (metric tons CH4).

N = Total number of measurement periods in a year. Use daily averaging periods for a continuous monitoring system and N = 365 (or N = 366 for leap years). For monthly sampling, as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, use N = 12.

n = Index for measurement period.

(V)n = Cumulative volumetric flow for the measurement period in actual cubic feet (acf). If the flow rate meter automatically corrects for temperature and pressure, replace “520°R/(T)n × (P)n/1 atm” with “1”.

(KMC)n = Moisture correction term for the measurement period, volumetric basis, as follows: (KMC)n = 1 when (V)n and (C)n are both measured on a dry basis or if both are measured on a wet basis; (KMC)n = [1-(fH2O)n] when (V)n is measured on a wet basis and (C)n is measured on a dry basis; and (KMC)n = 1/[1-(fH2O)n] when (V)n is measured on a dry basis and (C)n is measured on a wet basis.

(fH2O)n = Average moisture content of landfill gas during the measurement period, volumetric basis (cubic feet water per cubic feet landfill gas)

(CCH4)n = Average CH4 concentration of landfill gas for the measurement period (volume %).

0.0423 = Density of CH4 lb/cf at 520°R or 60 degrees Fahrenheit and 1 atm.

(T)n = Average temperature at which flow is measured for the measurement period (°R).

(P)n = Average pressure at which flow is measured for the measurement period (atm).

0.454/1,000 = Conversion factor (metric ton/lb).

(2) If you do not continuously monitor according to paragraph (b)(1) of this section, you must determine the flow rate, CH4 concentration, temperature, pressure, and moisture content of the landfill gas that is collected and routed to a destruction device (before any treatment equipment) according to the requirements in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) through (b)(2)(iii) of this section and calculate the quantity of CH4 recovered for destruction using Equation HH-4 of this section.

(i) Continuously monitor gas flow rate and determine the cumulative volume of landfill gas each month and the cumulative volume of landfill gas each year that is collected and routed to a destruction device (before any treatment equipment). Under this option, the gas flow meter is not required to automatically correct for temperature, pressure, or, if necessary, moisture content. If the gas flow meter is not equipped with automatic correction for temperature, pressure, or, if necessary, moisture content, you must determine these parameters as specified in paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section.

(ii) Determine the CH4 concentration in the landfill gas that is collected and routed to a destruction device (before any treatment equipment) in a location near or representative of the location of the gas flow meter at least once each calendar month; if only one measurement is made each calendar month, there must be at least fourteen days between measurements.

(iii) If the gas flow meter is not equipped with automatic correction for temperature, pressure, or, if necessary, moisture content:

(A) Determine the temperature and pressure in the landfill gas that is collected and routed to a destruction device (before any treatment equipment) in a location near or representative of the location of the gas flow meter at least once each calendar month; if only one measurement is made each calendar month, there must be at least fourteen days between measurements.

(B) If the CH4 concentration is determined on a dry basis and flow is determined on a wet basis or CH4 concentration is determined on a wet basis and flow is determined on a dry basis, and the flow meter does not automatically correct for moisture content, determine the moisture content in the landfill gas that is collected and routed to a destruction device (before any treatment equipment) in a location near or representative of the location of the gas flow meter at least once each calendar month; if only one measurement is made each calendar month, there must be at least fourteen days between measurements.

(c) For all landfills, calculate CH4 generation (adjusted for oxidation in cover materials) and actual CH4 emissions (taking into account any CH4 recovery, and oxidation in cover materials) according to the applicable methods in paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(3) of this section.

(1) Calculate CH4 generation, adjusted for oxidation, from the modeled CH4 (GCH4 from Equation HH-1 of this section) using Equation HH-5 of this section.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.132.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

MG = Methane generation, adjusted for oxidation, from the landfill in the reporting year (metric tons CH4).

GCH4 = Modeled methane generation rate in reporting year from Equation HH-1 of this section (metric tons CH4).

OX = Oxidation fraction. Use the appropriate oxidation fraction default value from Table HH-4 of this subpart.

(2) For landfills that do not have landfill gas collection systems, the CH4 emissions are equal to the CH4 generation (MG) calculated in Equation HH-5 of this section.

(3) For landfills with landfill gas collection systems, calculate CH4 emissions using the methodologies specified in paragraphs (c)(3)(i) and (c)(3)(ii) of this section.

(i) Calculate CH4 emissions from the modeled CH4 generation and measured CH4 recovery using Equation HH-6 of this section.

eCFR graphic er29no13.021.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Emissions = Methane emissions from the landfill in the reporting year (metric tons CH4).

GCH4 = Modeled methane generation rate in reporting year from Equation HH-1 of this section or the quantity of recovered CH4 from Equation HH-4 of this section, whichever is greater (metric tons CH4).

N = Number of landfill gas measurement locations (associated with a destruction device or gas sent off-site). If a single monitoring location is used to monitor volumetric flow and CH4 concentration of the recovered gas sent to one or multiple destruction devices, then N = 1.

Rn = Quantity of recovered CH4 from Equation HH-4 of this section for the nth measurement location (metric tons).

OX = Oxidation fraction. Use the appropriate oxidation fraction default value from Table HH-4 of this subpart.

DEn = Destruction efficiency (lesser of manufacturer's specified destruction efficiency and 0.99) for the nth measurement location. If the gas is transported off-site for destruction, use DE = 1. If the volumetric flow and CH4 concentration of the recovered gas is measured at a single location providing landfill gas to multiple destruction devices (including some gas destroyed on-site and some gas sent off-site for destruction), calculate DEn as the arithmetic average of the DE values determined for each destruction device associated with that measurement location.

fDest,n = Fraction of hours the destruction device associated with the nth measurement location was operating during active gas flow calculated as the annual operating hours for the destruction device divided by the annual hours flow was sent to the destruction device as measured at the nth measurement location. If the gas is transported off-site for destruction, use fDest,n= 1. If the volumetric flow and CH4 concentration of the recovered gas is measured at a single location providing landfill gas to multiple destruction devices (including some gas destroyed on-site and some gas sent off-site for destruction), calculate fDest,n as the arithmetic average of the fDest values determined for each destruction device associated with that measurement location.

(ii) Calculate CH4 generation and CH4 emissions using measured CH4 recovery and estimated gas collection efficiency and Equations HH-7 and HH-8 of this section.

eCFR graphic er29no13.022.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

MG = Methane generation, adjusted for oxidation, from the landfill in the reporting year (metric tons CH4).

Emissions = Methane emissions from the landfill in the reporting year (metric tons CH4).

N = Number of landfill gas measurement locations (associated with a destruction device or gas sent off-site). If a single monitoring location is used to monitor volumetric flow and CH4 concentration of the recovered gas sent to one or multiple destruction devices, then N = 1.

Rn = Quantity of recovered CH4 from Equation HH-4 of this section for the nth measurement location (metric tons CH4).

CE = Collection efficiency estimated at landfill, taking into account system coverage, operation, and cover system materials from Table HH-3 of this subpart. If area by soil cover type information is not available, use default value of 0.75 (CE4 in table HH-3 of this subpart) for all areas under active influence of the collection system.

fRec,n = Fraction of hours the recovery system associated with the nth measurement location was operating (annual operating hours/8760 hours per year or annual operating hours/8784 hours per year for a leap year).

OX = Oxidation fraction. Use appropriate oxidation fraction default value from Table HH-4 of this subpart.

DEn = Destruction efficiency, (lesser of manufacturer's specified destruction efficiency and 0.99) for the nth measurement location. If the gas is transported off-site for destruction, use DE = 1. If the volumetric flow and CH4 concentration of the recovered gas is measured at a single location providing landfill gas to multiple destruction devices (including some gas destroyed on-site and some gas sent off-site for destruction), calculate DEn as the arithmetic average of the DE values determined for each destruction device associated with that measurement location.

fDest,n = Fraction of hours the destruction device associated with the nth measurement location was operating during active gas flow calculated as the annual operating hours for the destruction device divided by the annual hours flow was sent to the destruction device as measured at the nth measurement location. If the gas is transported off-site for destruction, use fDest,n= 1. If the volumetric flow and CH4 concentration of the recovered gas is measured at a single location providing landfill gas to multiple destruction devices (including some gas destroyed on-site and some gas sent off-site for destruction), calculate fDest,n as the arithmetic average of the fDest values determined for each destruction device associated with that measurement location.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66470, Oct. 28, 2010; 78 FR 71968, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.344   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

(a) Mass measurement equipment used to determine the quantity of waste landfilled on or after January 1, 2010 must meet the requirements for weighing equipment as described in “Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements For Weighing and Measuring Devices” NIST Handbook 44 (2009) (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(b) For landfills with gas collection systems, operate, maintain, and calibrate a gas composition monitor capable of measuring the concentration of CH4 in the recovered landfill gas using one of the methods specified in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(6) of this section or as specified by the manufacturer. Gas composition monitors shall be calibrated prior to the first reporting year and recalibrated either annually or at the minimum frequency specified by the manufacturer, whichever is more frequent, or whenever the error in the midrange calibration check exceeds ±10 percent.

(1) Method 18 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-6.

(2) ASTM D1945-03, Standard Test Method for Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas Chromatography (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(3) ASTM D1946-90 (Reapproved 2006), Standard Practice for Analysis of Reformed Gas by Gas Chromatography (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(4) GPA Standard 2261-00, Analysis for Natural Gas and Similar Gaseous Mixtures by Gas Chromatography.

(5) UOP539-97 Refinery Gas Analysis by Gas Chromatography (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(6) As an alternative to the gas chromatography methods provided in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(5) of this section, you may use total gaseous organic concentration analyzers and calculate the methane concentration following the requirements in paragraphs (b)(6)(i) through (b)(6)(iii) of this section.

(i) Use Method 25A or 25B at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7 to determine total gaseous organic concentration. You must calibrate the instrument with methane and determine the total gaseous organic concentration as carbon (or as methane; K = 1 in Equation 25A-1 of Method 25A at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7).

(ii) Determine a non-methane organic carbon correction factor at the routine sampling location no less frequently than once a reporting year following the requirements in paragraphs (b)(6)(ii)(A) through (b)(6)(ii)(C) of this section.

(A) Take a minimum of three grab samples of the landfill gas with a minimum of 20 minutes between samples and determine the methane composition of the landfill gas using one of the methods specified in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(5) of this section.

(B) As soon as practical after each grab sample is collected and prior to the collection of a subsequent grab sample, determine the total gaseous organic concentration of the landfill gas using either Method 25A or 25B at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7 as specified in paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section.

(C) Determine the arithmetic average methane concentration and the arithmetic average total gaseous organic concentration of the samples analyzed according to paragraphs (b)(6)(ii)(A) and (b)(6)(ii)(B) of this section, respectively, and calculate the non-methane organic carbon correction factor as the ratio of the average methane concentration to the average total gaseous organic concentration. If the ratio exceeds 1, use 1 for the non-methane organic carbon correction factor.

(iii) Calculate the methane concentration as specified in Equation HH-9 of this section.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.136.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

CCH4 = Methane concentration in the landfill gas (volume %) for use in Equation HH-4 of this subpart.

fNMOC = Non-methane organic carbon correction factor from the most recent determination of the non-methane organic carbon correction factor as specified in paragraph (b)(6)(ii) of this section (unitless).

CTGOC = Total gaseous organic carbon concentration measured using Method 25A or 25B at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7 during routine monitoring of the landfill gas (volume %).

(c) For landfills with gas collection systems, install, operate, maintain, and calibrate a gas flow meter capable of measuring the volumetric flow rate of the recovered landfill gas using one of the methods specified in paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(8) of this section or as specified by the manufacturer. Each gas flow meter shall be recalibrated either biennially (every 2 years) or at the minimum frequency specified by the manufacturer. Except as provided in §98.343(b)(2)(i), each gas flow meter must be capable of correcting for the temperature and pressure and, if necessary, moisture content.

(1) ASME MFC-3M-2004, Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipes Using Orifice, Nozzle, and Venturi (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(2) ASME MFC-4M-1986 (Reaffirmed 1997), Measurement of Gas Flow by Turbine Meters (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(3) ASME MFC-6M-1998, Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipes Using Vortex Flowmeters (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(4) ASME MFC-7M-1987 (Reaffirmed 1992), Measurement of Gas Flow by Means of Critical Flow Venturi Nozzles (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(5) ASME MFC-11M-2006 Measurement of Fluid Flow by Means of Coriolis Mass Flowmeters (incorporated by reference, see §98.7). The mass flow must be corrected to volumetric flow based on the measured temperature, pressure, and gas composition.

(6) ASME MFC-14M-2003 Measurement of Fluid Flow Using Small Bore Precision Orifice Meters (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(7) ASME MFC-18M-2001 Measurement of Fluid Flow using Variable Area Meters (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(8) Method 2A or 2D at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-1.

(d) All temperature, pressure, and if necessary, moisture content monitors must be calibrated using the procedures and frequencies specified by the manufacturer.

(e) For landfills electing to measure the fraction by volume of CH4 in landfill gas (F), follow the requirements in paragraphs (e)(1) and (2) of this section. (1) Use a gas composition monitor capable of measuring the concentration of CH4 on a dry basis that is properly operated, calibrated, and maintained according to the requirements specified in paragraph (b) of this section. You must either use a gas composition monitor that is also capable of measuring the O2 concentration correcting for excess (infiltration) air or you must operate, maintain, and calibrate a second monitor capable of measuring the O2 concentration on a dry basis according to the manufacturer's specifications.

(2) Use Equation HH-10 of this section to correct the measured CH4 concentration to 0% oxygen. If multiple CH4 concentration measurements are made during the reporting year, determine F separately for each measurement made during the reporting year, and use the results to determine the arithmetic average value of F for use in Equation HH-1 of this part.

eCFR graphic er29no13.023.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

F = Fraction by volume of CH4 in landfill gas (fraction, dry basis, corrected to 0% oxygen).

CCH4 = Measured CH4 concentration in landfill gas (volume %, dry basis).

20.9c = Defined O2 correction basis, (volume %, dry basis).

20.9 = O2 concentration in air (volume %, dry basis).

%O2 = Measured O2 concentration in landfill gas (volume %, dry basis).

(f) The owner or operator shall document the procedures used to ensure the accuracy of the estimates of disposal quantities and, if applicable, gas flow rate, gas composition, temperature, pressure, and moisture content measurements. These procedures include, but are not limited to, calibration of weighing equipment, fuel flow meters, and other measurement devices. The estimated accuracy of measurements made with these devices, and the technical basis for these estimates shall be recorded.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66472, Oct. 28, 2010; 78 FR 71969, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.345   Procedures for estimating missing data.

A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations is required. Therefore, whenever a quality-assured value of a required parameter is unavailable (e.g., if a meter malfunctions during unit operation or if a required fuel sample is not taken), a substitute data value for the missing parameter shall be used in the calculations, according to the requirements in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section.

(a) For each missing value of the CH4 content, the substitute data value shall be the arithmetic average of the quality-assured values of that parameter immediately preceding and immediately following the missing data incident. If the “after” value is not obtained by the end of the reporting year, you may use the “before” value for the missing data substitution. If, for a particular parameter, no quality-assured data are available prior to the missing data incident, the substitute data value shall be the first quality-assured value obtained after the missing data period.

(b) For missing gas flow rates, the substitute data value shall be the arithmetic average of the quality-assured values of that parameter immediately preceding and immediately following the missing data incident. If the “after” value is not obtained by the end of the reporting year, you may use the “before” value for the missing data substitution. If, for a particular parameter, no quality-assured data are available prior to the missing data incident, the substitute data value shall be the first quality-assured value obtained after the missing data period.

(c) For missing daily waste disposal quantity data for disposal in the reporting year, the substitute value shall be the average daily waste disposal quantity for that day of the week as measured on the week before and week after the missing daily data.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 78 FR 71970, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.346   Data reporting requirements.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(c), each annual report must contain the following information for each landfill.

(a) A classification of the landfill as “open” (actively received waste in the reporting year) or “closed” (no longer receiving waste), the year in which the landfill first started accepting waste for disposal, the last year the landfill accepted waste (for open landfills, enter the estimated year of landfill closure), the capacity (in metric tons) of the landfill, an indication of whether leachate recirculation is used during the reporting year and its typical frequency of use over the past 10 years (e.g., used several times a year for the past 10 years, used at least once a year for the past 10 years, used occasionally but not every year over the past 10 years, not used), an indication as to whether scales are present at the landfill, and the waste disposal quantity for each year of landfilling required to be included when using Equation HH-1 of this subpart (in metric tons, wet weight).

(b) Method for estimating reporting year and historical waste disposal quantities, reason for its selection, and the range of years it is applied. For years when waste quantity data are determined using the methods in §98.343(a)(3), report separately the quantity of waste determined using the methods in §98.343(a)(3)(i) and the quantity of waste determined using the methods in §98.343(a)(3)(ii). For historical waste disposal quantities that were not determined using the methods in §98.343(a)(3), provide the population served by the landfill for each year the Equation HH-2 of this subpart is applied, if applicable, or, for open landfills using Equation HH-3 of this subpart, provide the value of landfill capacity (LFC) used in the calculation.

(c) Waste composition for each year required for Equation HH-1 of this subpart, in percentage by weight, for each waste category listed in Table HH-1 to this subpart that is used in Equation HH-1 of this subpart to calculate the annual modeled CH4 generation.

(d) For each waste type used to calculate CH4 generation using Equation HH-1 of this subpart, you must report:

(1) Degradable organic carbon (DOC) and fraction of DOC dissimilated (DOCF) values used in the calculations.

(2) Decay rate (k) value used in the calculations.

(e) Fraction of CH4 in landfill gas (F), an indication of whether the fraction of CH4 was determined based on measured values or the default value, and the methane correction factor (MCF) used in the calculations. If an MCF other than the default of 1 is used, provide an indication of whether active aeration of the waste in the landfill was conducted during the reporting year, a description of the aeration system, including aeration blower capacity, the fraction of the landfill containing waste affected by aeration, the total number of hours during the year the aeration blower was operated, and other factors used as a basis for the selected MCF value.

(f) The surface area of the landfill containing waste (in square meters), identification of the type(s) of cover material used (as either organic cover, clay cover, sand cover, or other soil mixtures).

(g) The modeled annual methane generation rate for the reporting year (metric tons CH4) calculated using Equation HH-1 of this subpart.

(h) For landfills without gas collection systems, the annual methane emissions (i.e., the methane generation, adjusted for oxidation, calculated using Equation HH-5 of this subpart), reported in metric tons CH4, the oxidation fraction used in the calculation, and an indication of whether passive vents and/or passive flares (vents or flares that are not considered part of the gas collection system as defined in §98.6) are present at this landfill.

(i) For landfills with gas collection systems, you must report:

(1) Total volumetric flow of landfill gas collected for destruction for the reporting year (cubic feet at 520 °R or 60 degrees Fahrenheit and 1 atm).

(2) Annual average CH4 concentration of landfill gas collected for destruction (percent by volume).

(3) Monthly average temperature and pressure for each month at which flow is measured for landfill gas collected for destruction, or statement that temperature and/or pressure is incorporated into internal calculations run by the monitoring equipment.

(4) An indication as to whether flow was measured on a wet or dry basis, an indication as to whether CH4 concentration was measured on a wet or dry basis, and if required for Equation HH-4 of this subpart, monthly average moisture content for each month at which flow is measured for landfill gas collected for destruction.

(5) An indication of whether destruction occurs at the landfill facility, off-site, or both. If destruction occurs at the landfill facility, also report for each measurement location:

(i) The number of destruction devices associated with the measurement location.

(ii) The annual operating hours of the gas collection system associated with the measurement location.

(iii) For each destruction device associated with the measurement location, report:

(A) The destruction efficiency (decimal).

(B) The annual operating hours where active gas flow was sent to the destruction device.

(6) Annual quantity of recovered CH4 (metric tons CH4) calculated using Equation HH-4 of this subpart for each measurement location.

(7) A description of the gas collection system (manufacturer, capacity, and number of wells), the surface area (square meters) and estimated waste depth (meters) for each area specified in Table HH-3 to this subpart, the estimated gas collection system efficiency for landfills with this gas collection system and an indication of whether passive vents and/or passive flares (vents or flares that are not considered part of the gas collection system as defined in §98.6) are present at the landfill.

(8) Methane generation corrected for oxidation calculated using Equation HH-5 of this subpart, reported in metric tons CH4, and the oxidation fraction used in the calculation.

(9) Methane generation (GCH4) value used as an input to Equation HH-6 of this subpart. Specify whether the value is modeled (GCH4 from HH-1 of this subpart) or measured (R from Equation HH-4 of this subpart).

(10) Methane generation corrected for oxidation calculated using Equation HH-7 of this subpart, reported in metric tons CH4, and the oxidation fraction used in the calculation.

(11) Methane emissions calculated using Equation HH-6 of this subpart, reported in metric tons CH4, and the oxidation fraction used in the calculation.

(12) Methane emissions calculated using Equation HH-8 of this subpart, reported in metric tons CH4, and the oxidation fraction used in the calculation.

(13) Methane emissions for the landfill (i.e., the subpart HH total methane emissions). Choose the methane emissions from either Equation HH-6 or Equation HH-8 of this subpart that best represents the emissions from the landfill. If the quantity of recovered CH4 from Equation HH-4 of this subpart is used as the value of GCH4 in Equation HH-6, use the methane emissions calculated using Equation HH-8 as the methane emissions for the landfill.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66472, Oct. 28, 2010; 78 FR 71970, Nov. 29, 2013; 81 FR 89266, Dec. 9, 2016]

§98.347   Records that must be retained.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(g), you must retain the calibration records for all monitoring equipment, including the method or manufacturer's specification used for calibration. You must retain records of all measurements made to determine tare weights and working capacities by vehicle/container type if these are used to determine the annual waste quantities.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66473, Oct. 28, 2010]

§98.348   Definitions.

Except as specified in this section, all terms used in this subpart have the same meaning given in the Clean Air Act and subpart A of this part.

Construction and demolition (C&D) waste landfill means a solid waste disposal facility subject to the requirements of part 257, subparts A or B of this chapter that receives construction and demolition waste and does not receive hazardous waste (defined in §261.3 of this chapter) or industrial solid waste (defined in §258.2 of this chapter) or municipal solid waste (as defined in §98.6) other than residential lead-based paint waste. A C&D waste landfill typically receives any one or more of the following types of solid wastes: Roadwork material, excavated material, demolition waste, construction/renovation waste, and site clearance waste.

Destruction device means a flare, thermal oxidizer, boiler, turbine, internal combustion engine, or any other combustion unit used to destroy or oxidize methane contained in landfill gas.

Final cover means materials used at a landfill to meet final closure regulations of the competent federal, state, or local authority.

Industrial waste landfill means any landfill other than a municipal solid waste landfill, a RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste landfill, or a TSCA hazardous waste landfill, in which industrial solid waste, such a RCRA Subtitle D wastes (nonhazardous industrial solid waste, defined in §257.2 of this chapter), commercial solid wastes, or conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes, is placed. An industrial waste landfill includes all disposal areas at the facility.

Intermediate or interim cover means the placement of material over waste in a landfill for a period of time prior to the disposal of additional waste and/or final closure as defined by state regulation, permit, guidance or written plan, or state accepted best management practice.

Landfill capacity means the maximum amount of solid waste a landfill can accept. For the purposes of this subpart, for landfills that have a permit, the landfill capacity can be determined in terms of volume or mass in the most recent permit issued by the state, local, or Tribal agency responsible for regulating the landfill, plus any in-place waste not accounted for in the most recent permit. If the owner or operator chooses to convert from volume to mass to determine its capacity, the calculation must include a site-specific density.

Leachate recirculation means the practice of taking the leachate collected from the landfill and reapplying it to the landfill by any of one of a variety of methods, including pre-wetting of the waste, direct discharge into the working face, spraying, infiltration ponds, vertical injection wells, horizontal gravity distribution systems, and pressure distribution systems.

Passive vent means a pipe or a system of pipes that allows landfill gas to flow naturally, without the use of a fan or similar mechanical draft equipment, to the surface of the landfill where an opening or pipe (vent) allows for the free flow of landfill gas to the atmosphere or to a passive vent flare without diffusion through the top layer of surface soil.

Solid waste has the meaning established by the Administrator pursuant to the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C.A. 6901 et seq.).

Working capacity means the maximum volume or mass of waste that is actually placed in the landfill from an individual or representative type of container (such as a tank, truck, or roll-off bin) used to convey wastes to the landfill, taking into account that the container may not be able to be 100 percent filled and/or 100 percent emptied for each load.

[75 FR 66473, Oct. 28, 2010, as amended at 78 FR 71970, Nov. 29, 2013; 81 FR 89266, Dec. 9, 2016]

Table HH-1 to Subpart HH of Part 98—Emissions Factors, Oxidation Factors and Methods

FactorDefault valueUnits
DOC and k values—Bulk waste option
DOC (bulk waste)0.20Weight fraction, wet basis.
k (precipitation plus recirculated leachatea <20 inches/year)0.02yr−1
k (precipitation plus recirculated leachatea 20-40 inches/year)0.038yr−1
k (precipitation plus recirculated leachatea >40 inches/year)0.057yr−1
DOC and k values—Modified bulk MSW option
DOC (bulk MSW, excluding inerts and C&D waste)0.31Weight fraction, wet basis.
DOC (inerts, e.g., glass, plastics, metal, concrete)0.00Weight fraction, wet basis.
DOC (C&D waste)0.08Weight fraction, wet basis.
k (bulk MSW, excluding inerts and C&D waste)0.02 to 0.057byr−1
k (inerts, e.g., glass, plastics, metal, concrete)0.00yr−1
k (C&D waste)0.02 to 0.04byr−1
DOC and k values—Waste composition option
DOC (food waste)0.15Weight fraction, wet basis.
DOC (garden)0.2Weight fraction, wet basis.
DOC (paper)0.4Weight fraction, wet basis.
DOC (wood and straw)0.43Weight fraction, wet basis.
DOC (textiles)0.24Weight fraction, wet basis.
DOC (diapers)0.24Weight fraction, wet basis.
DOC (sewage sludge)0.05Weight fraction, wet basis.
DOC (inerts, e.g., glass, plastics, metal, cement)0.00Weight fraction, wet basis.
k (food waste)0.06 to 0.185cyr−1
k (garden)0.05 to 0.10cyr−1
k (paper)0.04 to 0.06cyr−1
k (wood and straw)0.02 to 0.03cyr−1
k (textiles)0.04 to 0.06cyr−1
k (diapers)0.05 to 0.10cyr−1
k (sewage sludge)0.06 to 0.185cyr−1
k (inerts e.g., glass, plastics, metal, concrete)0.00yr−1
Other parameters—All MSW landfills
MCF1.
DOCF0.5
F0.5
OXSee Table HH-4 of this subpart
DE0.99

aRecirculated leachate (in inches/year) is the total volume of leachate recirculated from company records or engineering estimates divided by the area of the portion of the landfill containing waste with appropriate unit conversions. Alternatively, landfills that use leachate recirculation can elect to use the k value of 0.057 rather than calculating the recirculated leachate rate.

bUse the lesser value when precipitation plus recirculated leachate is less than 20 inches/year. Use the greater value when precipitation plus recirculated leachate is greater than 40 inches/year. Use the average of the range of values when precipitation plus recirculated leachate is 20 to 40 inches/year (inclusive). Alternatively, landfills that use leachate recirculation can elect to use the greater value rather than calculating the recirculated leachate rate.

cUse the lesser value when the potential evapotranspiration rate exceeds the mean annual precipitation rate plus recirculated leachate. Use the greater value when the potential evapotranspiration rate does not exceed the mean annual precipitation rate plus recirculated leachate. Alternatively, landfills that use leachate recirculation can elect to use the greater value rather than assessing the potential evapotranspiration rate or recirculated leachate rate.

[75 FR 66473, Oct. 28, 2010, as amended at 78 FR 71970, Nov. 29, 2013]

Table HH-2 to Subpart HH of Part 98—U.S. Per Capita Waste Disposal Rates

YearWaste per capita
ton/cap/yr
19500.63
19510.63
19520.63
19530.63
19540.63
19550.63
19560.63
19570.63
19580.63
19590.63
19600.63
19610.64
19620.64
19630.65
19640.65
19650.66
19660.66
19670.67
19680.68
19690.68
19700.69
19710.69
19720.70
19730.71
19740.71
19750.72
19760.73
19770.73
19780.74
19790.75
19800.75
19810.76
19820.77
19830.77
19840.78
19850.79
19860.79
19870.80
19880.80
19890.83
19900.82
19910.76
19920.74
19930.76
19940.75
19950.70
19960.68
19970.69
19980.75
19990.75
20000.80
20010.91
20021.02
20031.02
20041.01
20050.98
20060.95
20070.95
20080.95
2009 and all later years0.95

[78 FR 71971, Nov. 29, 2013]

Table HH-3 to Subpart HH of Part 98—Landfill Gas Collection Efficiencies

DescriptionLandfill Gas Collection Efficiency
A1: Area with no waste in-placeNot applicable; do not use this area in the calculation.
A2: Area without active gas collection, regardless of cover typeCE2: 0%.
A3: Area with daily soil cover and active gas collectionCE3: 60%.
A4: Area with an intermediate soil cover, or a final soil cover not meeting the criteria for A5 below, and active gas collectionCE4: 75%.
A5: Area with a final soil cover of 3 feet or thicker of clay or final cover (as approved by the relevant agency) and/or geomembrane cover system and active gas collectionCE5: 95%.
Weighted average collection efficiency for landfills:
Area weighted average collection efficiency for landfillsCEave1 = (A2*CE2 + A3*CE3 + A4*CE4 + A5*CE5) / (A2 + A3 + A4 + A5).

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66474, Oct. 28, 2010; 81 FR 89266, Dec. 9, 2016]

Table HH-4 to Subpart HH of Part 98—Landfill Methane Oxidation Fractions

Under these conditions:Use this landfill methane oxidation
fraction:
I. For all reporting years prior to the 2013 reporting year
C1: For all landfills regardless of cover type or methane flux0.10
II. For the 2013 reporting year and all subsequent years
C2: For landfills that have a geomembrane (synthetic) cover or other non-soil barrier meeting the definition of final cover with less than 12 inches of cover soil for greater than 50% of the landfill area containing waste0.0
C3: For landfills that do not meet the conditions in C2 above and for which you elect not to determine methane flux0.10
C4: For landfills that do not meet the conditions in C2 or C3 above and that do not have final cover, or intermediate or interim covera for greater than 50% of the landfill area containing waste0.10
C5: For landfills that do not meet the conditions in C2 or C3 above and that have final cover, or intermediate or interim covera for greater than 50% of the landfill area containing waste and for which the methane flux rateb is less than 10 grams per square meter per day (g/m2/d)0.35
C6: For landfills that do not meet the conditions in C2 or C3 above and that have final cover or intermediate or interim covera for greater than 50% of the landfill area containing waste and for which the methane flux rateb is 10 to 70 g/m2/d0.25
C7: For landfills that do not meet the conditions in C2 or C3 above and that have final cover or intermediate or interim covera for greater than 50% of the landfill area containing waste and for which the methane flux rateb is greater than 70 g/m2/d0.10

aWhere a landfill is located in a state that does not have an intermediate or interim cover requirement, the landfill must have soil cover of 12 inches or greater in order to use an oxidation fraction of 0.25 or 0.35.

bMethane flux rate (in grams per square meter per day; g/m2/d) is the mass flow rate of methane per unit area at the bottom of the surface soil prior to any oxidation and is calculated as follows:

eCFR graphic er29no13.024.gif

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Where:

MF = Methane flux rate from the landfill in the reporting year (grams per square meter per day, g/m2/d).

K = unit conversion factor = 106/365 (g/metric ton per days/year) or 106/366 for a leap year.

SArea = The surface area of the landfill containing waste at the beginning of the reporting year (square meters, m2).

GCH4 = Modeled methane generation rate in reporting year from Equation HH-1 of this subpart or Equation TT-1 of subpart TT of this part, as applicable, except for application with Equation HH-6 of this subpart (metric tons CH4). For application with Equation HH-6 of this subpart, the greater of the modeled methane generation rate in reporting year from Equation HH-1 of this subpart or Equation TT-1 of this part, as applicable, and the quantity of recovered CH4 from Equation HH-4 of this subpart (metric tons CH4).

CE = Collection efficiency estimated at landfill, taking into account system coverage, operation, and cover system materials from Table HH-3 of this subpart. If area by soil cover type information is not available, use default value of 0.75 (CE4 in table HH-3 of this subpart) for all areas under active influence of the collection system.

N = Number of landfill gas measurement locations (associated with a destruction device or gas sent off-site). If a single monitoring location is used to monitor volumetric flow and CH4 concentration of the recovered gas sent to one or multiple destruction devices, then N = 1.

Rn = Quantity of recovered CH4 from Equation HH-4 of this subpart for the nth measurement location (metric tons).

fRec,n = Fraction of hours the recovery system associated with the nth measurement location was operating (annual operating hours/8760 hours per year or annual operating hours/8784 hours per year for a leap year).

[78 FR 71971, Nov. 29, 2013, as amended at 81 FR 89266, Dec. 9, 2016]

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