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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of December 5, 2019

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 98 → Subpart F


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 98—MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING


Subpart F—Aluminum Production


Contents
§98.60   Definition of the source category.
§98.61   Reporting threshold.
§98.62   GHGs to report.
§98.63   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.64   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.65   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.66   Data reporting requirements.
§98.67   Records that must be retained.
§98.68   Definitions.
Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 98—Slope and Overvoltage Coefficients for the Calculation of PFC Emissions From Aluminum Production
Table F-2 to Subpart F of Part 98—Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions

§98.60   Definition of the source category.

(a) A primary aluminum production facility manufactures primary aluminum using the Hall-Héroult manufacturing process. The primary aluminum manufacturing process comprises the following operations:

(1) Electrolysis in prebake and Søderberg cells.

(2) Anode baking for prebake cells.

(b) This source category does not include experimental cells or research and development process units.

§98.61   Reporting threshold.

You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains an aluminum production process and the facility meets the requirements of either §98.2(a)(1) or (a)(2).

§98.62   GHGs to report.

You must report:

(a) Perfluoromethane (CF4), and perfluoroethane (C2F6) emissions from anode effects in all prebake and Søderberg electrolysis cells.

(b) CO2 emissions from anode consumption during electrolysis in all prebake and Søderberg electrolysis cells.

(c) CO2 emissions from on-site anode baking.

(d) You must report under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources) the emissions of CO2, N2O, and CH4 emissions from each stationary fuel combustion unit by following the requirements of subpart C.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79155, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.63   Calculating GHG emissions.

(a) The annual value of each PFC compound (CF4, C2F6) shall be estimated from the sum of monthly values using Equation F-1 of this section:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.025.gif

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Where:

EPFC = Annual emissions of each PFC compound from aluminum production (metric tons PFC).

Em = Emissions of the individual PFC compound from aluminum production for the month “m” (metric tons PFC).

(b) Use Equation F-2 of this section to estimate CF4 emissions from anode effect duration or Equation F-3 of this section to estimate CF4 emissions from overvoltage, and use Equation F-4 of this section to estimate C2F6 emissions from anode effects from each prebake and Søderberg electrolysis cell.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.026.gif

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Where:

ECF4 = Monthly CF4 emissions from aluminum production (metric tons CF4).

SCF4 = The slope coefficient ((kg CF4/metric ton Al)/(AE-Mins/cell-day)).

AEM = The anode effect minutes per cell-day (AE-Mins/cell-day).

MP = Metal production (metric tons Al), where AEM and MP are calculated monthly.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.027.gif

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Where:

ECF4 = Monthly CF4 emissions from aluminum production (metric tons CF4).

EFCF4 = The overvoltage emission factor (kg CF4/metric ton Al).

MP = Metal production (metric tons Al), where MP is calculated monthly.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.028.gif

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Where:

EC2F6 = Monthly C2F6 emissions from aluminum production (metric tons C2F6).

ECF4 = CF4 emissions from aluminum production (kg CF4).

FC2F6/CF4 = The weight fraction of C2F6/CF4 (kg C2F6/kg CF4).

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons, where ECF4 is calculated monthly.

(c) You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from anode consumption during electrolysis and anode baking of prebake cells using either the procedures in paragraph (d) of this section, the procedures in paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section, or the procedures in paragraph (g) of this section.

(d) Calculate and report under this subpart the process CO2 emissions by operating and maintaining CEMS according to the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology in §98.33(a)(4) and all associated requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources).

(e) Use the following procedures to calculate CO2 emissions from anode consumption during electrolysis:

(1) For Prebake cells: you must calculate CO2 emissions from anode consumption using Equation F-5 of this section:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.029.gif

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Where:

ECO2 = Annual CO2 emissions from prebaked anode consumption (metric tons CO2).

NAC = Net annual prebaked anode consumption per metric ton Al (metric tons C/metric tons Al).

MP = Annual metal production (metric tons Al).

Sa = Sulfur content in baked anode (percent weight).

Asha = Ash content in baked anode (percent weight).

44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to carbon.

(2) For Søderberg cells you must calculate CO2 emissions using Equation F-6 of this section:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.030.gif

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Where:

ECO2 = Annual CO2 emissions from paste consumption (metric ton CO2).

PC = Annual paste consumption (metric ton/metric ton Al).

MP = Annual metal production (metric ton Al).

CSM = Annual emissions of cyclohexane soluble matter (kg/metric ton Al).

BC = Binder content of paste (percent weight).

Sp = Sulfur content of pitch (percent weight).

Ashp = Ash content of pitch (percent weight).

Hp = Hydrogen content of pitch (percent weight).

Sc = Sulfur content in calcined coke (percent weight).

Ashc = Ash content in calcined coke (percent weight).

CD = Carbon in skimmed dust from Søderberg cells (metric ton C/metric ton Al).

44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to carbon.

(f) Use the following procedures to calculate CO2 emissions from anode baking of prebake cells:

(1) Use Equation F-7 of this section to calculate emissions from pitch volatiles combustion.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.031.gif

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Where:

ECO2PV = Annual CO2 emissions from pitch volatiles combustion (metric tons CO2).

GA = Initial weight of green anodes (metric tons).

Hw = Annual hydrogen content in green anodes (metric tons).

BA = Annual baked anode production (metric tons).

WT = Annual waste tar collected (metric tons).

44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to carbon.

(2) Use Equation F-8 of this section to calculate emissions from bake furnace packing material.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.032.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

ECO2PC = Annual CO2 emissions from bake furnace packing material (metric tons CO2).

PCC = Annual packing coke consumption (metric tons/metric ton baked anode).

BA = Annual baked anode production (metric tons).

Spc = Sulfur content in packing coke (percent weight).

Ashpc = Ash content in packing coke (percent weight).

44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to carbon.

(g) If process CO2 emissions from anode consumption during electrolysis or anode baking of prebake cells are vented through the same stack as any combustion unit or process equipment that reports CO2 emissions using a CEMS that complies with the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources), then the calculation methodology in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section shall not be used to calculate those process emissions. The owner or operation shall report under this subpart the combined stack emissions according to the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology in §98.33(a)(4) and all associated requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources).

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79155, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.64   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

(a) Effective December 31, 2010 for smelters with no prior measurement or effective December 31, 2012, for facilities with historic measurements, the smelter-specific slope coefficients, overvoltage emission factors, and weight fractions used in Equations F-2, F-3, and F-4 of this subpart must be measured in accordance with the recommendations of the EPA/IAI Protocol for Measurement of Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) Emissions from Primary Aluminum Production (2008) (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), except the minimum frequency of measurement shall be every 10 years unless a change occurs in the control algorithm that affects the mix of types of anode effects or the nature of the anode effect termination routine.Facilities which operate at less than 0.2 anode effect minutes per cell day or operate with less than 1.4mV anode effect overvoltage can use either smelter-specific slope coefficients or the technology specific default values in Table F-1 of this subpart.

(b) The minimum frequency of the measurement and analysis is annually except as follows:

(1) Monthly for anode effect minutes per cell day (or anode effect overvoltage and current efficiency).

(2) Monthly for aluminum production.

(3) Smelter-specific slope coefficients, overvoltage emission factors, and weight fractions according to paragraph (a) of this section.

(c) Sources may use either smelter-specific values from annual measurements of parameters needed to complete the equations in §98.63 (e.g., sulfur, ash, and hydrogen contents) or the default values shown in Table F-2 of this subpart.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79155, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.65   Procedures for estimating missing data.

A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations is required. Therefore, whenever a quality-assured value of a required parameter is unavailable (e.g., if a meter malfunctions during unit operation or if a required sample measurement is not taken), a substitute data value for the missing parameter shall be used in the calculations, according to the following requirements:

(a) Where anode or paste consumption data are missing, CO2 emissions can be estimated from aluminum production by using Equation F-9 of this section.

eCFR graphic er09de16.018.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

ECO2 = CO2 emissions from anode and/or paste consumption, metric tons CO2.

EFp = Prebake technology specific emission factor (1.6 metric tons CO2/metric ton aluminum produced).

MPp = Metal production from prebake process (metric tons Al).

EFs = Søderberg technology specific emission factor (1.7 metric tons CO2/metric ton Al produced).

MPs = Metal production from Søderberg process (metric tons Al).

(b) For other parameters, use the average of the two most recent data points after the missing data.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79156, Dec. 17, 2010; 81 FR 89253, Dec. 9, 2016]

§98.66   Data reporting requirements.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(c), you must report the following information at the facility level:

(a) [Reserved]

(b) Type of smelter technology used.

(c) The following PFC-specific information on an annual basis:

(1) Perfluoromethane emissions and perfluoroethane emissions from anode effects in all prebake and all Søderberg electrolysis cells combined.

(2) Anode effect minutes per cell-day (AE-mins/cell-day), anode effect frequency (AE/cell-day), anode effect duration (minutes). (Or anode effect overvoltage factor ((kg CF4/metric ton Al)/(mV/cell day)), potline overvoltage (mV/cell day), current efficiency (%)).

(3) Smelter-specific slope coefficients (or overvoltage emission factors) and the last date when the smelter-specific slope coefficients (or overvoltage emission factors) were measured.

(d) Method used to measure the frequency and duration of anode effects (or overvoltage).

(e) The following CO2-specific information for prebake cells:

(1) Annual anode consumption if using the method in §98.63(g).

(2) Annual CO2 emissions from the smelter.

(f) The following CO2-specific information for Søderberg cells:

(1) Annual paste consumption if using the method in §98.63(g).

(2) Annual CO2 emissions from the smelter.

(g) [Reserved]

(h) Exact data elements required will vary depending on smelter technology (e.g., point-feed prebake or Søderberg) and process control technology (e.g., Pechiney or other).

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79156, Dec. 17, 2010; 79 FR 63784, Oct. 24, 2014; 81 FR 89253, Dec. 9, 2016]

§98.67   Records that must be retained.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(g), you must retain the following records:

(a) Monthly aluminum production in metric tons.

(b) Type of smelter technology used.

(c) The following PFC-specific information on a monthly basis:

(1) Perfluoromethane and perfluoroethane emissions from anode effects in prebake and Søderberg electolysis cells.

(2) Anode effect minutes per cell-day (AE-mins/cell-day), anode effect frequency (AE/cell-day), anode effect duration (minutes). (Or anode effect overvoltage factor ((kg CF4/metric ton Al)/(mV/cell day)), potline overvoltage (mV/cell day), current efficiency (%).))

(3) Smelter-specific slope coefficients and the last date when the smelter-specific-slope coefficients were measured.

(d) Method used to measure the frequency and duration of anode effects (or to measure anode effect overvoltage and current efficiency).

(e) The following CO2-specific information for prebake cells:

(1) Annual anode consumption.

(2) Annual CO2 emissions from the smelter.

(f) The following CO2-specific information for Søderberg cells:

(1) Annual paste consumption.

(2) Annual CO2 emissions from the smelter.

(g) Smelter-specific inputs to the CO2 process equations (e.g., levels of sulfur and ash) that were used in the calculation, on an annual basis.

(h) Exact data elements required will vary depending on smelter technology (e.g., point-feed prebake or Søderberg) and process control technology (e.g., Pechiney or other).

(i) Verification software records. You must keep a record of the file generated by the verification software specified in §98.5(b) for the applicable data specified in paragraphs (i)(1) through (30) of this section. Retention of this file satisfies the recordkeeping requirement for the data in paragraphs (i)(1) through (30) of this section.

(1) Slope coefficient per potline per month (kg CF4/metric ton Al)/(AE-Mins/cell-day)) (Equation F-2 of §98.63).

(2) Anode effect minutes per cell-day per potline per month (AE-Mins/cell-day) (Equation F-2).

(3) Anode effect frequency per potline per month (AE/cell-day) (Equation F-2).

(4) Anode effect duration per potline per month (minutes) (Equation F-2).

(5) Metal production of aluminum per potline per month (metric tons) (Equation F-2).

(6) Overvoltage emission factor per potline per month (kg CF4/metric ton Al) (Equation F-3 of §98.63).

(7) Metal production of aluminum per potline per month (metric tons) (Equation F-3).

(8) Weight fraction of C2F6/CF4 per potline per month (kg C2F6/kg CF4) (Equation F-4 of §98.63).

(9) Net annual prebaked anode consumption (metric tons C/metric tons Al) (Equation F-5 of §98.63).

(10) Annual metal production of aluminum (metric tons) (Equation F-5).

(11) Sulfur content in baked anode (weight percent) (Equation F-5).

(12) Ash content in baked anode (weight percent) (Equation F-5).

(13) Annual paste consumption (metric ton/metric ton Al) (Equation F-6 of §98.63).

(14) Annual metal production of aluminum (metric tons) (Equation F-6).

(15) Annual emissions of cyclohexane soluble matter (kg/metric ton Al) (Equation F-6).

(16) Binder content of paste (weight percent) (Equation F-6).

(17) Sulfur content of pitch (weight percent) (Equation F-6).

(18) Ash content of pitch (weight percent) (Equation F-6).

(19) Hydrogen content of pitch (weight percent) (Equation F-6).

(20) Sulfur content in calcined coke (weight percent) (Equation F-6).

(21) Ash content in calcined coke (weight percent) (Equation F-6).

(22) Carbon in skimmed dust from Søderberg cells (metric ton C/metric ton Al) (Equation F-6).

(23) Initial weight of green anodes (metric tons) (Equation F-7 of §98.63).

(24) Annual hydrogen content in green anodes (metric tons) (Equation F-7).

(25) Annual baked anode production (metric tons) (Equation F-7).

(26) Annual waste tar collected (metric tons) (Equation F-7).

(27) Annual packing coke consumption (metric tons/metric ton baked anode) (Equation F-8 of §98.63).

(28) Annual baked anode production (metric tons) (Equation F-8).

(29) Sulfur content in packing coke (weight percent) (Equation F-8).

(30) Ash content in packing coke (weight percent) (Equation F-8).

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 79 FR 63784, Oct. 24, 2014]

§98.68   Definitions.

All terms used in this subpart have the same meaning given in the Clean Air Act and subpart A of this part.

Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 98—Slope and Overvoltage Coefficients for the Calculation of PFC Emissions From Aluminum Production

TechnologyCF4 slope coefficient
[(kg CF4/metric ton Al)/(AE-Mins/cell-day)]
CF4 overvoltage coefficient
[(kg CF4/metric ton Al)/(mV)]
Weight fraction C2F6/CF4
[(kg C2F6/kg CF4)]
Center Worked Prebake (CWPB)0.1431.160.121
Side Worked Prebake (SWPB)0.2723.650.252
Vertical Stud Søderberg (VSS)0.092NA0.053
Horizontal Stud Søderberg (HSS)0.099NA0.085

[75 FR 79156, Dec. 17, 2010]

Table F-2 to Subpart F of Part 98—Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions

ParameterData source
CO2 Emissions from Prebake Cells (CWPB and SWPB)
MP: metal production (metric tons Al)Individual facility records.
NAC: net annual prebaked anode consumption per metric ton Al (metric tons C/metric tons Al)Individual facility records.
Sa: sulfur content in baked anode (percent weight)2.0.
Asha: ash content in baked anode (percent weight)0.4.
CO2 Emissions From Pitch Volatiles Combustion (CWPB and SWPB)
MP: metal production (metric tons Al)Individual facility records.
PC: annual paste consumption (metric ton/metric ton Al)Individual facility records.
CSM: annual emissions of cyclohexane soluble matter (kg/metric ton Al)HSS: 4.0.
VSS: 0.5.
BC: binder content of paste (percent weight)Dry Paste: 24.
Wet Paste: 27.
Sp: sulfur content of pitch (percent weight)0.6.
Ashp: ash content of pitch (percent weight)0.2.
Hp: hydrogen content of pitch (percent weight)3.3.
Sc: sulfur content in calcined coke (percent weight)1.9.
Ashc: ash content in calcined coke (percent weight)0.2.
CD: carbon in skimmed dust from Søderberg cells (metric ton C/metric ton Al)0.01.
CO2 Emissions from Pitch Volatiles Combustion (VSS and HSS)
GA: initial weight of green anodes (metric tons)Individual facility records.
Hw: annual hydrogen content in green anodes (metric tons)0.005 × GA.
BA: annual baked anode production (metric tons)Individual facility records.
WT: annual waste tar collected (metric tons)(a) 0.005 × GA.
(a) Riedhammer furnaces(b) insignificant.
(b) all other furnaces
CO2 Emissions From Bake Furnace Packing Materials (CWPB and SWPB)
PCC: annual packing coke consumption (metric tons/metric ton baked anode)0.015.
BA: annual baked anode production (metric tons)Individual facility records.
Spc: sulfur content in packing coke (percent weight)2.
Ashpc: ash content in packing coke (percent weight)2.5.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79156, Dec. 17, 2010]

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