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e-CFR data is current as of January 14, 2021

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter APart 26 → Subpart Q


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 26—PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS


Subpart Q—Standards for Assessing Whether To Rely on the Results of Human Research in EPA Actions


Contents
§26.1701   To what does this subpart apply?
§26.1702   Definitions.
§26.1703   Prohibitions applying to all research subject to this subpart.
§26.1704   Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults.
§26.1705   Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006.
§26.1706   Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research.

Source: 71 FR 6168, Feb. 6, 2006, unless otherwise noted.

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§26.1701   To what does this subpart apply?

(a) For decisions under FIFRA (7 U.S.C. 136-136y) or section 408 of FFDCA (21 U.S.C. 346a), this subpart applies to research involving intentional exposure of human subjects to any substance.

(b) For decisions under any regulatory statute administered by EPA other than those statutes designated in paragraph (a) of this section, this subpart applies to research involving intentional exposure of human subjects to a pesticide.

[78 FR 10545, Feb. 14, 2013]

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§26.1702   Definitions.

The definitions in §26.1102 and §26.1202 also apply to this subpart.

[78 FR 10545, Feb. 14, 2013]

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§26.1703   Prohibitions applying to all research subject to this subpart.

(a) Prohibition of reliance on scientifically invalid research. EPA must not rely on data from research subject to this subpart unless EPA determines that the data are relevant to a scientific or policy question important for EPA decisionmaking, that the data were derived in a manner that makes them scientifically valid and reliable, and that it is appropriate to use the data for the purpose proposed by EPA. In making such determinations, EPA must consider:

(1) Whether the research was designed and conducted in accordance with appropriate scientific standards and practices prevailing at the time the research was conducted.

(2) The extent to which the research subjects are representative of the populations for the endpoint or endpoints in question.

(3) The statistical power of the data to support the scientific conclusion EPA intends to draw from the data.

(4) In a study that reports only a No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) or a No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL), whether a dose level in the study gave rise to a biological effect, thereby demonstrating that the study had adequate sensitivity to detect an effect of interest.

(b) Prohibition of reliance on research subject to this subpart involving intentional exposure of human subjects who are pregnant women (and therefore their fetuses), nursing women, or children. Except as provided in §26.1706, EPA must not rely on data from any research subject to this subpart involving intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman, or a child.

[78 FR 10545, Feb. 14, 2013]

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§26.1704   Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults.

(a) This section applies to research subject to this subpart that is not subject to §26.1705.

(b) Except as provided in §26.1706, EPA must not rely on data from any research subject to this section if there is clear and convincing evidence that:

(1) The conduct of the research was fundamentally unethical (e.g., the research was intended to seriously harm participants or failed to obtain informed consent); or

(2) The conduct of the research was deficient relative to the ethical standards prevailing at the time the research was conducted in a way that placed participants at increased risk of harm (based on knowledge available at the time the study was conducted) or impaired their informed consent.

(c) The prohibition in this section is in addition to the prohibitions in §26.1703.

[78 FR 10545, Feb. 14, 2013]

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§26.1705   Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006.

(a) This section applies to research subject to this subpart, that:

(1) Was initiated after April 7, 2006.

(2) Was subject, at the time it was conducted, either to subparts A through L of this part, or to the codification of the Common Rule by another Federal department or agency.

(b) Except as provided in §26.1706, EPA must not rely on data from any research subject to this section unless EPA determines that the research was conducted in substantial compliance with either:

(1) All applicable provisions of subparts A through L of this part, or the codification of the Common Rule by another Federal department or agency; or

(2) If the research was conducted outside the United States, with procedures at least as protective of subjects as those in subparts A through L of this part, or the codification of the Common Rule by another Federal department or agency.

(c) Except as provided in §26.1706, EPA must not rely on data from any research subject to this section unless EPA determines that the research was conducted in substantial compliance with either:

(1) A proposal that was found to be acceptable under §26.1603(c), and no amendments to or deviations from that proposal placed participants at increased risk of harm (based on knowledge available at the time the study was conducted) or impaired their informed consent. If EPA discovers that the submitter of the proposal materially misrepresented or knowingly omitted information that would have altered the outcome of EPA's evaluation of the proposal under §26.1603(c), EPA must not rely on that data.

(2) A proposal that would have been found to be acceptable under §26.1603(c), if it had been subject to review under that section, and no amendments to or deviations from that proposal placed participants at increased risk of harm (based on knowledge available at the time the study was conducted) or impaired their informed consent.

(d) The prohibition in this section is in addition to the prohibitions in §26.1703.

[78 FR 10545, Feb. 14, 2013]

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§26.1706   Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research.

This section establishes the exclusive criteria and procedure by which EPA may decide to rely on data from research that is not acceptable under the standards in §§26.1703 through 26.1705. EPA may rely on such data only if all the conditions in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section are satisfied:

(a) EPA has obtained the views of the Human Studies Review Board concerning the proposal to rely on the otherwise unacceptable data,

(b) EPA has provided an opportunity for public comment on the proposal to rely on the otherwise unacceptable data,

(c) EPA has determined that relying on the data is crucial to a decision that would impose a more stringent regulatory restriction that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on the use of a pesticide, than could be justified without relying on the data, and

(d) EPA has published a full explanation of its decision to rely on the otherwise unacceptable data, including a thorough discussion of the ethical deficiencies of the underlying research and the full rationale for finding that the standard in paragraph (c) of this section was met.

[71 FR 6168, Feb. 6, 2006, as amended at 78 FR 10546, Feb. 14, 2013]

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