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Title 34Subtitle BChapter IIPart 222 → Subpart K


Title 34: Education
PART 222—IMPACT AID PROGRAMS


Subpart K—Determinations Under Section 8009 of the Act


Contents
§222.160   What are the scope and purpose of this subpart?
§222.161   How is State aid treated under section 7009 of the Act?
§222.162   What disparity standard must a State meet in order to be certified and how are disparities in current expenditures or revenues per pupil measured?
§222.163   What proportion of Impact Aid funds may a State take into consideration upon certification?
§222.164   What procedures does the Secretary follow in making a determination under section 7009?
§222.165   What procedures does the Secretary follow after making a determination under section 8009?
§§222.166-222.169   [Reserved]
Appendix to Subpart K of Part 222—Determinations Under Section 8009 of the Act—Methods of Calculations for Treatment of Impact Aid Payments Under State Equalization Programs

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§222.160   What are the scope and purpose of this subpart?

(a) Scope. This subpart applies to determinations made by the Secretary under section 8009 of the Act.

(b) Purpose. The sole purpose of the regulations in this subpart is to implement the provisions of section 8009. The definitions and standards contained in this subpart apply only with respect to section 8009 and do not establish definitions and standards for any other purpose.

(Authority: 20 U.S.C. 7709)

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§222.161   How is State aid treated under section 7009 of the Act?

(a) General rules. (1) A State may take into consideration payments under sections 8002 and 8003(b) of the Act (including hold harmless payments calculated under section 8003(e)) in allocating State aid if that State has a State aid program that qualifies under §222.162, except as follows:

(i) Those payments may be taken into consideration for each affected local educational agency (LEA) only in the proportion described in §222.163.

(ii) A State may not take into consideration—

(A) That portion of an LEA's payment that is generated by the portion of a weight in excess of one under section 8003(a)(2)(B) of the Act (children residing on Indian lands);

(B) Payments under section 8003(d) of the Act (children with disabilities); or

(C) The amount that an LEA receives under section 8003(b)(2) that exceeds the amount the LEA would receive if eligible under section 8003(b)(1) and not section 8003(b)(2) (heavily impacted LEAs).

(2) No State aid program may qualify under this subpart if a court of that State has determined by final order, not under appeal, that the program fails to equalize expenditures for free public education among LEAs within the State or otherwise violates law, and if the court's order provides that the program is no longer in effect.

(3) No State, whether or not it has an equalization program that qualifies under §222.162, may, in allocating State aid, take into consideration an LEA's eligibility for payments under the Act if that LEA does not apply for and receive those payments.

(4) Any State that takes into consideration payments under the Act in accordance with the provisions of section 8009 in allocating State aid to LEAs must reimburse any LEA for any amounts taken into consideration for any fiscal year to the extent that the LEA did not in fact receive payments in those amounts during that fiscal year.

(5) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(6), a State may not take into consideration payments under the Act in making estimated or final State aid payments before its State aid program has been certified by the Secretary.

(6)(i) If the Secretary has not made a determination under section 7009 of the Act for a fiscal year, the State may request permission from the Secretary to make estimated or preliminary State aid payments for that fiscal year, that consider a portion of Impact Aid payments as local resources in accordance with this section.

(ii) The State must include with its request an assurance that if the Secretary determines that the State does not meet the requirements of section 222.162 for that State fiscal year, the State must pay to each affected LEA, within 60 days of the Secretary's determination, the amount by which the State reduced State aid to the LEA.

(iii) In determining whether to grant permission, the Secretary may consider factors including whether—

(A) The Secretary certified the State under §222.162 in the prior State fiscal year; and

(B) Substantially the same State aid program is in effect since the date of the last certification.

(b) Data for determinations. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, determinations under this subpart requiring the submission of financial or school population data must be made on the basis of final data for the second fiscal year preceding the fiscal year for which the determination is made if substantially the same program was then in effect.

(2)(i) If the Secretary determines that the State has substantially revised its State aid program, the Secretary may certify that program for any fiscal year only if—

(A) The Secretary determines, on the basis of projected data, that the State's program will meet the disparity standard described in §222.162 for the fiscal year for which the determination is made; and

(B) The State provides an assurance to the Secretary that, if final data do not demonstrate that the State's program met that standard for the fiscal year for which the determination is made, the State will pay to each affected LEA the amount by which the State reduced State aid to the LEA.

(ii) Data projections submitted by a State must set forth the assumptions upon which the data projections are founded, be accompanied by an assurance as to their accuracy, and be adjusted by actual data for the fiscal year of determination that must be submitted to the Secretary as soon as these data are available.

(3) For a State that has not previously been certified by the Secretary under §222.162, or if the last certification was more than two years prior, the State submits projected data showing whether it meets the disparity standard in §222.162. The projected data must show the resulting amounts of State aid as if the State were certified to consider Impact Aid in making State aid payments.

(c) Definitions. The following definitions apply to this subpart:

Current expenditures is defined in section 7013(4) of the Act. Additionally, for the purposes of this section it does not include expenditures of funds received by the agency under sections 7002 and 7003(b) (including hold harmless payments calculated under section 7003(e)) that are not taken into consideration under the State aid program and exceed the proportion of those funds that the State would be allowed to take into consideration under §222.162.

Equalize expenditures means to meet the standard set forth in §222.162.

Local tax revenues means compulsory charges levied by an LEA or by an intermediate school district or other local governmental entity on behalf of an LEA for current expenditures for educational services. “Local tax revenues” include the proceeds of ad valorem taxes, sales and use taxes, income taxes and other taxes. Where a State funding formula requires a local contribution equivalent to a specified mill tax levy on taxable real or personal property or both, “local tax revenues” include any revenues recognized by the State as satisfying that local contribution requirement.

Local tax revenues covered under a State equalization program means “local tax revenues” as defined in paragraph (c) of this section contributed to or taken into consideration in a State aid program subject to a determination under this subpart, but excluding all revenues from State and Federal sources.

Revenue means an addition to assets that does not increase any liability, does not represent the recovery of an expenditure, does not represent the cancellation of certain liabilities without a corresponding increase in other liabilities or a decrease in assets, and does not represent a contribution of fund capital in food service or pupil activity funds. Furthermore, the term “revenue” includes only revenue for current expenditures.

State aid means any contribution, no repayment for which is expected, made by a State to or on behalf of LEAs within the State for current expenditures for the provision of free public education.

Total local tax revenues means all “local tax revenues” as defined in paragraph (c) of this section, including tax revenues for education programs for children needing special services, vocational education, transportation, and the like during the period in question but excluding all revenues from State and Federal sources.

(Authority: 20 U.S.C. 7709)

[60 FR 50778, Sept. 29, 1995, as amended at 62 FR 35419, July 1, 1997; 80 FR 33170, June 11, 2015; 81 FR 64744, Sept. 20, 2016; 83 FR 47070, Sept. 18, 2018]

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§222.162   What disparity standard must a State meet in order to be certified and how are disparities in current expenditures or revenues per pupil measured?

(a) Percentage disparity limitation. The Secretary considers that a State aid program equalizes expenditures if the disparity in the amount of current expenditures or revenues per pupil for free public education among LEAs in the State is no more than 25 percent. In determining the disparity percentage, the Secretary disregards LEAs with per pupil expenditures or revenues above the 95th or below the 5th percentile of those expenditures or revenues in the State. The method for calculating the percentage of disparity in a State is in the appendix to this subpart.

(b)(1) Weighted average disparity for different grade level groups. If a State requests it, the Secretary will make separate disparity computations for different groups of LEAs in the State that have similar grade levels of instruction.

(2) In those cases, the weighted average disparity for all groups, based on the proportionate number of pupils in each group, may not be more than the percentage provided in paragraph (a) of this section. The method for calculating the weighted average disparity percentage is set out in the appendix to this subpart.

(c) Per pupil figure computations. In calculating the current expenditures or revenue disparities under this section, computations of per pupil figures are made on one of the following bases:

(1) The per pupil amount of current expenditures or revenue for an LEA is computed on the basis of the total number of pupils receiving free public education in the schools of the agency. The total number of pupils is determined in accordance with whatever standard measurement of pupil count is used in the State.

(2) If a State aid program uses “weighted pupil,” “classroom,” “instructional unit,” or another designated measure of need in determining allocations of State aid to take account of special cost differentials, the computation of per pupil revenue or current expenditures may be made using one of the methods in paragraph (d) of this section. The two allowable categories of special cost differentials are—

(i) Those associated with pupils having special educational needs, such as children with disabilities, economically disadvantaged children, non-English speaking children, and gifted and talented children; and

(ii) Those associated with particular types of LEAs such as those affected by geographical isolation, sparsity or density of population, high cost of living, or special socioeconomic characteristics within the area served by an LEA.

(d) Accounting for special cost differentials. In computing per-pupil figures under paragraph (c) of this section, the State accounts for special cost differentials that meet the requirements of paragraph (c)(2) of this section in one of four ways:

(1) The inclusion method on a revenue basis. The State divides total revenues by a weighted pupil count that includes only those weights associated with the special cost differentials.

(2) The inclusion method on an expenditure basis. The State divides total current expenditures by a weighted pupil count that includes only those weights associated with the special cost differentials.

(3) The exclusion method on a revenue basis. The State subtracts revenues associated with the special cost differentials from total revenues, and divides this net amount by an unweighted pupil count.

(4) The exclusion method on an expenditure basis. The State subtracts current expenditures from revenues associated with the special cost differentials from total current expenditures, and divides this net amount by an unweighted pupil count.

(Authority: 20 U.S.C. 7709)

[60 FR 50778, Sept. 29, 1995, as amended at 62 FR 35419, July 1, 1997; 81 FR 64744, Sept. 20, 2016]

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§222.163   What proportion of Impact Aid funds may a State take into consideration upon certification?

(a) Provision of law. Section 8009(d)(1)(B) provides that, upon certification by the Secretary, in allocating State aid a State may consider as local resources funds received under sections 8002 and 8003(b) (including hold harmless payments calculated under section 8003(e)) only in proportion to the share that local tax revenues covered under a State equalization program are of total local tax revenues. Determinations of proportionality must be made on a case-by-case basis for each LEA affected and not on the basis of a general rule to be applied throughout a State.

(Authority: 20 U.S.C. 7709)

(b) Computation of proportion. (1) In computing the share that local tax revenues covered under a State equalization program are of total local tax revenues for an LEA with respect to a program qualifying under §222.162, the proportion is obtained by dividing the amount of local tax revenues covered under the equalization program by the total local tax revenues attributable to current expenditures for free public education within that LEA.

(2) In cases where there are no local tax revenues for current expenditures and the State provides all of those revenues on behalf of the LEA, the State may consider up to 100 percent of the funds received under the Act by that LEA in allocating State aid.

(Authority: 20 U.S.C. 7709(d)(1)(B))

(c) Application of proportion to Impact Aid payments. Except as provided in §222.161(a)(1)(ii) and (iii), the proportion established under this section (or a lesser proportion) for any LEA receiving payments under sections 8002 and 8003(b) (including hold harmless payments calculated under section 8003(e)) may be applied by a State to actual receipts of those payments.

(Authority: 20 U.S.C. 7709(d)(1)(B))

[60 FR 50778, Sept. 29, 1995, as amended at 80 FR 33170, June 11, 2015]

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§222.164   What procedures does the Secretary follow in making a determination under section 7009?

(a) Initiation. (1) A proceeding under this subpart leading to a determination by the Secretary under section 8009 may be initiated—

(i) By the State educational agency (SEA) or other appropriate agency of the State;

(ii) By an LEA; or

(iii) By the Secretary, if the Secretary has reason to believe that the State's action is in violation of section 8009.

(2) Whenever a proceeding under this subpart is initiated, the party initiating the proceeding shall provide either the State or all LEAs with a complete copy of the submission required in paragraph (b) of this section. Following receipt of the submission, the Secretary shall notify the State and all LEAs in the State of their right to request from the Secretary, within 30 days of the initiation of a proceeding, the opportunity to present their views to the Secretary before the Secretary makes a determination.

(b) Submission. (1) A submission by a State or LEA under this section must be made in the manner requested by the Secretary and must contain the information and assurances as may be required by the Secretary in order to reach a determination under section 8009 and this subpart.

(2)(i) A State in a submission shall—

(A) Demonstrate how its State aid program comports with §222.162; and

(B) Demonstrate for each LEA receiving funds under the Act that the proportion of those funds that will be taken into consideration comports with §222.163.

(ii) The submission must be received by the Secretary no later than 120 calendar days before the beginning of the State's fiscal year for the year of the determination, and must include (except as provided in §222.161(c)(2)) final second preceding fiscal year disparity data enabling the Secretary to determine whether the standard in §222.162 has been met. The submission is considered timely if received by the Secretary on or before the filing deadline or if it bears a U.S. Postal Service postmark dated on or before the filing deadline.

(3) An LEA in a submission must demonstrate whether the State aid program comports with section 8009.

(4) Whenever a proceeding is initiated under this subpart, the Secretary may request from a State the data deemed necessary to make a determination. A failure on the part of a State to comply with that request within a reasonable period of time results in a summary determination by the Secretary that the State aid program of that State does not comport with the regulations in this subpart.

(5) Before making a determination under section 8009, the Secretary affords the State, and all LEAs in the State, an opportunity to present their views as follows:

(i) Upon receipt of a timely request for a predetermination hearing, the Secretary notifies all LEAs and the State of the time and place of the predetermination hearing.

(ii) Predetermination hearings are informal and any LEA and the State may participate whether or not they requested the predetermination hearing.

(iii) At the conclusion of the predetermination hearing, the Secretary holds the record open for 15 days for the submission of post-hearing comments. The Secretary may extend the period for post-hearing comments for good cause for up to an additional 15 days.

(iv) Instead of a predetermination hearing, if the party or parties requesting the predetermination hearing agree, they may present their views to the Secretary exclusively in writing. In such a case, the Secretary notifies all LEAs and the State that this alternative procedure is being followed and that they have up to 30 days from the date of the notice in which to submit their views in writing. Any LEA or the State may submit its views in writing within the specified time, regardless of whether it requested the opportunity to present its views.

(c) Determinations. The Secretary reviews the participants' submissions and any views presented at a predetermination hearing under paragraph (b)(5) of this section, including views submitted during the post-hearing comment period. Based upon this review, the Secretary issues a written determination setting forth the reasons for the determination in sufficient detail to enable the State or LEAs to respond. The Secretary affords reasonable notice of a determination under this subpart and the opportunity for a hearing to the State or any LEA adversely affected by the determination.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1810-0036)

(Authority: 20 U.S.C. 7709)

Note to paragraph (b)(2) of this section: The U.S. Postal Service does not uniformly provide a dated postmark. Before relying on this method, an applicant should check with its local post office.

[60 FR 50778, Sept. 29, 1995, as amended at 62 FR 35419, July 1, 1997; 81 FR 64745, Sept. 20, 2016]

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§222.165   What procedures does the Secretary follow after making a determination under section 8009?

(a) Request for hearing. (1) A State or LEA that is adversely affected by a determination under section 8009 and this subpart and that desires a hearing regarding that determination must submit a written request for a hearing within 60 days of receipt of the determination. The time within which a request must be filed may not be extended unless the Secretary, or the Secretary's delegatee, extends the time in writing at the time notice of the determination is given.

(2) A request for a hearing in accordance with this section must specify the issues of fact and law to be considered.

(3) If an LEA requests a hearing, it must furnish a copy of the request to the State. If a State requests a hearing, it must furnish a copy of the request to all LEAs in the State.

(b) Right to intervene. Any LEA or State that is adversely affected by a determination shall have the right of intervention in the hearing.

(c) Time and place of hearing. The hearing is held at a time and place fixed by the Secretary or the Secretary's delegatee (with due regard to the mutual convenience of the parties).

(d) Counsel. In all proceedings under this section, all parties may be represented by counsel.

(e) Proceedings. (1) The Secretary refers the matter in controversy to an administrative law judge (ALJ) appointed under 5 U.S.C. 3105.

(2) The ALJ is bound by all applicable statutes and regulations and may neither waive them nor rule them invalid.

(f) Filing requirements. (1) Any written submission under this section must be filed by hand-delivery, mail, or facsimile transmission. The Secretary discourages the use of facsimile transmission for documents longer than five pages.

(2) If agreed upon by the parties, service of a document may be made upon the other party by facsimile transmission.

(3) The filing date for a written submission under this section is the date the document is—

(i) Hand-delivered;

(ii) Mailed; or

(iii) Sent by facsimile transmission.

(4) A party filing by facsimile transmission is responsible for confirming that a complete and legible copy of the document was received by the Department.

(5) Any party filing a document by facsimile transmission must file a follow-up hard copy by hand-delivery or mail within a reasonable period of time.

(g) Procedural rules. (1) If, in the opinion of the ALJ, no dispute exists as to a material fact the resolution of which would be materially assisted by oral testimony, the ALJ shall afford each party to the proceeding an opportunity to present its case—

(i) In whole or in part in writing; or

(ii) In an informal conference after affording each party sufficient notice of the issues to be considered.

(2) With respect to hearings involving a dispute as to a material fact the resolution of which would be materially assisted by oral testimony, the ALJ shall afford the following procedures to each party:

(i) Sufficient notice of the issues to be considered at the hearing.

(ii) An opportunity to make a record of the proceedings.

(iii) An opportunity to present witnesses on the party's behalf.

(iv) An opportunity to cross-examine other witnesses either orally or through written interrogatories.

(h) Decisions. (1) The ALJ—

(i) Makes written findings and an initial decision based upon the hearing record; and

(ii) Forwards to the Secretary, and mails to each party, a copy of the written findings and initial decision.

(2) Appeals to the Secretary and the finality of initial decisions under section 8009 are governed by §§222.157(b), 222.158, and 222.159 of subpart J of this part.

(Authority: 20 U.S.C. 7709)

(i) Corrective action. (1) Within 30 days after a determination by the Secretary that a State has been in violation of section 8009 unless the determination is timely appealed by the State, the State shall provide satisfactory written assurances that it will undertake appropriate corrective action if necessary.

(2) A State found by the Secretary to have been in violation of section 8009 following a hearing shall provide, within 30 days after disposal of the hearing request (such as by a final decision issued under this subpart or withdrawal of the hearing request), satisfactory assurances that it is taking corrective action, if necessary.

(3) At any time during a hearing under this subpart, a State may provide the Secretary appropriate assurances that it will undertake corrective action if necessary. The Secretary or the ALJ, as applicable, may stay the proceedings pending completion of corrective action.

(Authority: 20 U.S.C. 7709)

[60 FR 50778, Sept. 29, 1995, as amended at 62 FR 35420, July 1, 1997; 80 FR 33170, June 11, 2015]

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§§222.166-222.169   [Reserved]

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Appendix to Subpart K of Part 222—Determinations Under Section 8009 of the Act—Methods of Calculations for Treatment of Impact Aid Payments Under State Equalization Programs

The following paragraphs describe the methods for making certain calculations in conjunction with determinations made under the regulations in this subpart. Except as otherwise provided in the regulations, these methods are the only methods that may be used in making these calculations.

1. Determinations of disparity standard compliance under §222.162(b)(1).

(a) The determinations of disparity in current expenditures or revenue per pupil are made by—

(i) Ranking all LEAs having similar grade levels within the State on the basis of current expenditures or revenue per pupil for the second preceding fiscal year before the year of determination;

(ii) Identifying those LEAs in each ranking that fall at the 95th and 5th percentiles of the total number of pupils in attendance in the schools of those LEAs; and

(iii) Subtracting the lower current expenditure or revenue per pupil figure from the higher for those agencies identified in paragraph (ii) and dividing the difference by the lower figure.

Example: In State X, after ranking all LEAs organized on a grade 9-12 basis in order of the expenditures per pupil for the fiscal year in question, it is ascertained by counting the number of pupils in attendance in those agencies in ascending order of expenditure that the 5th percentile of student population is reached at LEA A with a per pupil expenditure of $820, and that the 95th percentile of student population is reached at LEA B with a per pupil expenditure of $1,000. The percentage disparity between the 95th and 5th percentile LEAs is 22 percent ($1,000-$820 = $180/$820). The program would meet the disparity standard for fiscal years before fiscal year 1998 but would not for subsequent years.

(b) In cases under §222.162(b), where separate computations are made for different groups of LEAs, the disparity percentage for each group is obtained in the manner described in paragraph (a) above. Then the weighted average disparity percentage for the State as a whole is determined by—

(i) Multiplying the disparity percentage for each group by the total number of pupils receiving free public education in the schools in that group;

(ii) Summing the figures obtained in paragraph (b)(i); and

(iii) Dividing the sum obtained in paragraph (b)(ii) by the total number of pupils for all the groups.

Example

Group 1 (grades 1-6), 80,000 pupils × 18.00%=14,400
Group 2 (grades 7-12), 100,000 pupils × 22.00%=22,000
Group 3 (grades 1-12), 20,000 pupils × 35.00%=7,000
Total 200,000 pupils43,400
43,400/200,000 = 21.70% Disparity

2. Determinations under §222.163(b) as to maximum proportion of payments under the Act that may be taken into consideration by a State under an equalization program. The proportion that local tax revenues covered under a State equalization program are of total local tax revenues for a particular LEA shall be obtained by dividing: (a) The amount of local tax revenues covered under the equalization program by (b) the total local tax revenues attributable to current expenditures within the LEA. Local revenues that can be excluded from the proportion computation are those received from local non-tax sources such as interest, bake sales, gifts, donations, and in-kind contributions.

Examples

Example 1. State A has an equalization program under which each LEA is guaranteed $900 per pupil less the LEA contribution based on a uniform tax levy. The LEA contribution from the uniform tax levy is considered under the equalization program. LEA X contributes the proceeds of the uniform tax levy, $700 per pupil, and the State contributes the $200 difference. No other local tax revenues are applied to current expenditures for education by LEA X. The percentage of funds under the Act that may be taken into consideration by State A for LEA X is 100 percent ($700/$700). If LEA X receives $100 per pupil in payments under the Act, $100 per pupil may be taken into consideration by State A in determining LEA X's relative financial resources and needs under the program. LEA X is regarded as contributing $800 and State A would now contribute the $100 difference.

Example 2. The initial facts are the same as in Example 1, except that LEA X, under a permissible additional levy outside the equalization program, raises an additional $100 per pupil not covered under the equalization program. The permissible levy is not included in local tax revenues covered under the equalization program but it is included in total local tax revenues. The percentage of payments under the Act that may be taken into consideration is 87.5 percent ($700/$800). If LEA X receives $100 per pupil in payments under the Act, $87.50 per pupil may be taken into consideration. LEA X is now regarded as contributing $787.50 per pupil under the program and State A would now contribute $112.50 per pupil as the difference.

Example 3. State B has an equalization program under which each LEA is guaranteed $900 per pupil for contributing the equivalent of a two mill tax levy. LEA X contributes $700 per pupil from a two mill tax levy and an additional $500 per pupil from local interest, bake sales, in-kind contributions, and other non-tax local sources. The percentage of funds under the Act that may be taken into consideration by State A for LEA X is 100 percent ($700/$700). The local revenue received from interest, bake sales, in-kind contributions and other non-tax local revenues are excluded from the computation since they are from non-tax sources. If LEA X receives $100 per pupil in payments under the Act, $100 per pupil may be taken into consideration by State A in determining LEA X's relative financial resources and needs under the program. LEA X is regarded as contributing $800 and State A would now contribute the $100 difference.

Example 4. State C has an equalization program in which each participating LEA is guaranteed a certain per pupil revenue at various levels of tax rates. For an eight mill rate the guarantee is $500, for nine mills $550, for 10 mills $600. LEA X levies a 10 mill rate and realizes $300 per pupil. Furthermore, it levies an additional 10 mills under a local leeway option realizing another $300 per pupil. The $300 proceeds of the local leeway option are not included in local tax revenues covered under the equalization program, but they are included in total local tax revenues. The percentage of payments under the Act that may be taken into consideration is 50 percent ($300/$600). If LEA X receives $100 per pupil in payments under the Act, $50 per pupil may be taken into consideration. LEA X may be regarded as contributing $350 per pupil under the program and State B would now contribute $250 as the difference.

Example 5. The initial facts are the same as in Example 4, except that LEA Y in State C, while taxing at the same 10 mill rate for both the equalization program and leeway allowance as LEA X, realizes $550 per pupil for each tax. As with LEA X, the percentage of payments under the Act that may be taken into consideration for LEA Y is 50 percent (550/1100). If LEA Y receives $150 per pupil in payments under the Act, then up to $75 per pupil normally could be taken into consideration. However, since LEA Y would have received only $50 per pupil in State aid, only $50 of the allowable $75 could be taken into consideration. Thus, LEA Z may be regarded as contributing $600 per pupil under the program and State B would not contribute any State aid.

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