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e-CFR data is current as of March 30, 2020

Title 26Chapter ISubchapter CPart 31 → Subpart D


Title 26: Internal Revenue
PART 31—EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE


Subpart D—Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954)


Contents
§31.3301-1   Persons liable for tax.
§31.3301-2   Measure of tax.
§31.3301-3   Rate and computation of tax.
§31.3301-4   When wages are paid.
§31.3302(a)-1   Credit against tax for contributions paid.
§31.3302(a)-2   Refund of State contributions.
§31.3302(a)-3   Proof of credit under section 3302(a).
§31.3302(b)-1   Additional credit against tax.
§31.3302(b)-2   Proof of additional credit under section 3302(b).
§31.3302(c)-1   Limit on total credits.
§31.3302(d)-1   Definitions and special rules relating to limit on total credits.
§31.3302(e)-1   Successor employer.
§31.3306(a)-1   Who are employers.
§31.3306(b)-1   Wages.
§31.3306(b)-1T   Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).
§31.3306(b)-2   Reimbursement and other expense allowance amounts.
§31.3306(b)(1)-1   $3,000 limitation.
§31.3306(b)(2)-1   Payments under employers' plans on account of retirement, sickness or accident disability, medical or hospitalization expenses, or death.
§31.3306(b)(3)-1   Retirement payments.
§31.3306(b)(4)-1   Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses.
§31.3306(b)(5)-1   Payments from or to certain tax-exempt trusts, or under or to certain annuity plans or bond purchase plans.
§31.3306(b)(6)-1   Payment by an employer of employee tax under section 3101 or employee contributions under a State law.
§31.3306(b)(7)-1   Payments other than in cash for service not in the course of employer's trade or business.
§31.3306(b)(8)-1   Payments to employees for non-work periods.
§31.3306(b)(9)-1   Moving expenses.
§31.3306(b)(10)-1   Payments under certain employers' plans after retirement, disability, or death.
§31.3306(b)(13)-1   Payments or benefits under a qualified educational assistance program.
§31.3306(c)-1   Employment; services performed before 1955.
§31.3306(c)-2   Employment; services performed after 1954.
§31.3306(c)-3   Employment; excepted services in general.
§31.3306(c)(1)-1   Agricultural labor.
§31.3306(c)(2)-1   Domestic service.
§31.3306(c)(3)-1   Services not in the course of employer's trade or business.
§31.3306(c)(4)-1   Services on or in connection with a non-American vessel or aircraft.
§31.3306(c)(5)-1   Family employment.
§31.3306(c)(6)-1   Services in employ of United States or instrumentality thereof.
§31.3306(c)(7)-1   Services in employ of States or their political subdivisions or instrumentalities.
§31.3306(c)(8)-1   Services in employ of religious, charitable, educational, or certain other organizations exempt from income tax.
§31.3306(c)(9)-1   Railroad industry; services performed by an employee or an employee representative under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act.
§31.3306(c)(10)-1   Services in the employ of certain organizations exempt from income tax.
§31.3306(c)(10)-2   Services of student in employ of school, college, or university.
§31.3306(c)(10)-3   Services before 1962 in employ of certain employees' beneficiary associations.
§31.3306(c)(11)-1   Services in employ of foreign government.
§31.3306(c)(12)-1   Services in employ of wholly owned instrumentality of foreign government.
§31.3306(c)(13)-1   Services of student nurse or hospital intern.
§31.3306(c)(14)-1   Services of insurance agent or solicitor.
§31.3306(c)(15)-1   Services in delivery or distribution of newspapers, shopping news, or magazines.
§31.3306(c)(16)-1   Services in employ of international organization.
§31.3306(c)(17)-1   Fishing services.
§31.3306(c)(18)-1   Services of certain nonresident aliens.
§31.3306(d)-1   Included and excluded service.
§31.3306(i)-1   Who are employees.
§31.3306(j)-1   State, United States, and citizen.
§31.3306(k)-1   Agricultural labor.
§31.3306(m)-1   American vessel and aircraft.
§31.3306(n)-1   Services on American vessel whose business is conducted by general agent of Secretary of Commerce.
§31.3306(p)-1   Employees of related corporations.
§31.3306(r)(2)-1   Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans.
§31.3307-1   Deductions by an employer from remuneration of an employee.
§31.3308-1   Instrumentalities of the United States specifically exempted from tax imposed by section 3301.

§31.3301-1   Persons liable for tax.

Every person who is an employer as defined in section 3306(a) (see §31.3306(a)-1) is liable for the tax. Even if an employer is not subject to any State unemployment compensation law, he is nevertheless liable for the tax. However, if he is subject to such a State law, he may be entitled to certain credits against the tax (see §§31.3302(a)1 to 31.3302(c)-1, inclusive). For provisions relating to payment of the tax, see Subpart G of the regulations in this part.

§31.3301-2   Measure of tax.

The tax for any calendar year is measured by the amount of wages paid by the employer during such year with respect to employment after December 31, 1938. (See §31.3306(b)-1, relating to wages, and §§31.3306(c)-1 to 31.3306(c)-3, inclusive, relating to employment.)

[T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6632, June 27, 1963]

§31.3301-3   Rate and computation of tax.

(a) The rates of tax with respect to wages paid in calendar years after 1954 are as follows:

   Percent
In the calendar years 1955 to 1960, both inclusive3
In the calendar year 19613.1
In the calendar year 19623.5
In the calendar year 19633.35
In the calendar year 1964 and subsequent calendar years3.1

(b) The tax is computed by applying to the wages paid in a calendar year, with respect to employment after December 31, 1938, the rate in effect at the time the wages are paid.

[T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6632, June 27, 1963]

§31.3301-4   When wages are paid.

Wages are paid when actually or constructively paid. Wages are constructively paid when they are credited to the account of or set apart for an employee so that they may be drawn upon by him at any time although not then actually reduced to possession. To constitute payment in such a case the wages must be credited to or set apart for the employee without any substantial limitation or restriction as to the time or manner of payment or condition upon which payment is to be made, and must be made available to him so that they may be drawn upon at any time, and their payment brought within his own control and disposition. See §31.6011(a)-3, relating to the return on which wages are to be reported.

§31.3302(a)-1   Credit against tax for contributions paid.

(a) In general. Subject to the provision of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section and to the provisions of §31.3302(c)-1, the taxpayer may credit against the tax for any taxable year the total amount of contributions paid by him into an unemployment fund maintained during such year under a State law which has been found by the Secretary of Labor to contain the provisions specified in section 3304(a); Provided, however, That no credit may be taken for contributions under a State law if such State has not been duly certified for the calendar year to the Secretary of the Treasury by the Secretary of Labor. The contributions may be credited against the tax whether or not they are paid with respect to employment as defined in section 3306(c). For provisions relating to additional credit against the tax, see §31.3302(b)-1.

(b) Limitation on the taxable year with respect to which contributions are allowable. In order to be allowable as credit against the tax for any taxable year, the contributions must have been paid with respect to such year.

Example 1. Under the unemployment compensation law of State X, employer M is required to report in his contribution return for the quarter ending December 31, 1955, all remuneration payable for services rendered in such quarter. A portion of such remuneration is not paid to his employees until February 1, 1956. On January 20, 1956, M pays to the State the total amount of contributions due with respect to all remuneration so required to be reported. Such contributions, including those with respect to the remuneration paid on February 1, 1956, may be included in computing the credit against the tax for the calendar year 1955. This is true even though the remuneration paid on February 1, 1956 (if it constitutes “wages”) is required to be reported in the Federal return for 1956 and not in the Federal return for 1955.

Example 2. Under the unemployment compensation law of State Y, employer N is required to include in his contribution return for the quarter ending December 31, 1955, certain remuneration paid on December 30, to 1955, to an employee for services to be rendered after December 31. On January 20, 1956, N pays to the State the total amount of contributions due with respect to all remuneration required to be reported on the contribution return. Such contributions, including those with respect to the remuneration paid on December 30, 1955, may be included in computing the credit against the tax for the calendar year 1955.

(c) Limitation on amount of credit allowable based on time when contributions are paid—(1) In general. The amount of credit allowable for contributions paid into a State unemployment fund depends in part on the time of payment of such contributions. Although contributions paid at any time may be credited against the tax (subject to the limitations referred to in paragraphs (c)(2) and (3) of this section), no refund or credit of the tax based on credit for contributions paid will be allowed unless the contributions are paid prior to the expiration of the period of limitations applicable to refund or credit of the tax. For general provisions relating to the limitation period and to refunds, credits and abatements of the tax, see respectively §§301.6511(a)-1, 301.6402-2 and 301.6404-1 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration).

(2) Amount of credit allowable when contributions are paid on or before last day for filing return. Contributions paid into a State unemployment fund on or before the last day upon which the Federal return for the taxable year is required to be filed may be credited against the tax in an amount equal to such contributions, but not, however, to exceed the total credits, determined pursuant to §31.3302(c)-1. For provisions relating to the time for filing the return, see §31.6071(a)-1 in Subpart G of this part.

(3) Amount of credit allowable when contributions are paid after last day for filing return. Contributions paid into a State unemployment fund after the last day upon which the Federal return for the taxable year is required to be filed may be credited against the tax in an amount not to exceed 90 percent of the amount which would have been allowable as credit on account of such contributions had they been paid into a State unemployment fund on or before such last day. However, see paragraph (c)(4) of this section relating to the payment of contributions to the wrong State. For general provisions relating to refunds, credits, and abatements of the tax, see §§301.6402-2 and 301.6404-1 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration).

Example 1. The Federal return of the M Company for the calendar year 1961 discloses total wages of $400,000. The Federal tax, imposed at the rate of 3.1 percent, is $12,400. The company is liable for total State contributions of $8,000 for 1961. The due date of the Federal return is January 31, 1962, no extension of time for filing the return having been granted. The contributions are not paid until February 1, 1962. If the contributions had been paid on or before January 31, 1962, the entire amount of $8,000 could have been credited against the tax. (Credits could not exceed 2.7 percent of the wages, or $10,800. See §31.3302(c)-1.) Since the contributions were paid after January 31, 1962, the M Company is entitled to a credit of 90 percent of the amount which would have been allowable as credit had the contributions been paid on time (90 percent of $8,000, or $7,200), the net liability for Federal tax being $5,200 ($12,400 minus $7,200).

Example 2. The facts are the same as in example 1, except that the M Company is liable for and pays total State contributions of $12,000, instead of $8,000. If the contributions had been paid on or before January 31, 1962, the amount allowable as credit would have been $10,800 (2.7 percent of wages of $400,000). Since the contributions were paid after January 31, 1962, the M Company is entitled to a credit of 90 percent of $10,800, or $9,720, the net liability for Federal tax being $2,680 ($12,400 minus $9,720).

Example 3. The Federal return of the R Company for the calendar year 1961 discloses a total tax of $3,100. The company is liable for total State contributions of $2,700 for such year. The due date of the Federal return is January 31, 1962, no extension of time for filing the return having been granted. The R Company pays $1,700 of the total State contributions on or before such date, and the remaining $1,000 on February 1, 1962. If the $1,000 had been paid on or before January 31, 1962, that amount could have been credited against the tax (such amount plus the $1,700 paid on or before January 31, 1962, not exceeding the aggregate credit allowable). Since the $1,000 was paid after January 31, 1962, the R Company is entitled to a credit of 90 percent of this amount or $900, plus the credit of $1,700 allowable for the contributions paid on or before January 31, 1962. The net liability for Federal tax is thus $500 ($3,100 minus $2,600).

(4) Amount of credit allowable when contributions are paid to wrong State. Contributions for the taxable year paid into a State unemployment fund which are required under the unemployment compensation law of that State, but which are paid with respect to remuneration on the basis of which the taxpayer had, prior to such payment, erroneously paid an amount as contributions under another unemployment compensation law, shall be deemed for purposes of the credit to have been paid at the time of the erroneous payment. If, by reason of such other law, the taxpayer was entitled to cease paying contributions for such taxable year with respect to services subject to such other law, the payment into the proper fund shall be deemed for purposes of credit to have been made on the date the Federal return for such year was actually filed by the taxpayer under §31.6011(a)-3.

Example. Employee N, whose Federal return for the calendar year 1961 discloses a total tax of $3,100, employs individuals in State X and State Y during the calendar year 1961. N assumes in good faith that the services of his employees are covered by the unemployment compensation law of State Y, and pays as contributions to State Y the amount of $2,700 based upon the remuneration of the employees. All of the services were in fact covered by the unemployment compensation law of State X, and none by the law of State Y. The payment to State Y was made on January 31, 1962. When the error was discovered thereafter, N paid to State X contributions in the amount of $2,700 based upon such remuneration. Since the contributions were paid to State Y on January 31, 1962, the contributions to State X are, for purposes of the credit, deemed to have been paid on such date. N is entitled to a credit of $2,700 against the Federal tax of $3,100, the net liability for Federal tax being $400 ($3,100 minus $2,700).

[T.D. 6516, 25 FR 13032, Dec. 20, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6632, June 27, 1963]

§31.3302(a)-2   Refund of State contributions.

If, subsequent to the filing of the return, a refund is made by a State to the taxpayer of any part of his contribution credited against the tax, the taxpayer is required to advise the district director of the date and amount of such refund and the reason therefor, and to pay the tax, if any, due as a result of such refund, together with interest from the date when the tax was due.

§31.3302(a)-3   Proof of credit under section 3302(a).

Credit against the tax for any calendar year for contributions paid into State unemployment funds shall not be allowed unless there is submitted to the district director:

(a) A certificate of the proper officer of each State (the laws of which required the contributions to be paid) showing, for the taxpayer:

(1) The total amount of contributions required to be paid under the State law with respect to such calendar year (exclusive of penalties and interest) which was actually paid on or before the date the Federal return is required to be filed; and

(2) The amounts and dates of such required payments (exclusive of penalties and interest) actually paid after the date the Federal return is required to be filed.

(b) A statement by the taxpayer that no part of any payment made by him into a State unemployment fund for such calendar year, which is claimed as a credit against the tax, was deducted or is to be deducted from the remuneration of individuals in his employ. Such statement shall contain or be verified by a written declaration that it is made under the penalties of perjury.

(c) Such other or additional proof as the Commissioner or the district director may deem necessary to establish the right to the credit provided for under section 3302(a).

§31.3302(b)-1   Additional credit against tax.

(a) In general. In addition to the credit against the tax allowable for contributions actually paid to State unemployment funds (see §31.3302(a)-1), the taxpayer may be entitled to a credit under section 3302(b). This additional credit is allowable to the taxpayer with respect to the amount of contributions which he is relieved from paying to an unemployment fund under the provisions of a State law which have been certified for the taxable year as provided in section 3303. Generally, an additional credit is available to an employer, if under the provisions of a State law which have been so certified he is permitted to pay contributions to such State for the taxable year, or portion thereof, at a rate which is both lower than the highest rate applied under such law in such year and lower than 2.7 percent. No additional credit is allowable except with respect to a State law certified by the Secretary of Labor for the taxable year as provided in section 3303 (or with respect to any provisions thereof so certified).

(b) Method of computing amount of additional credit allowable with respect to a State law—(1) Certification of a State law as a whole. In ascertaining the additional credit for any taxable year with respect to a particular State law which the Secretary of Labor certifies as a whole to the Secretary of the Treasury in accordance with the provisions of section 3303, the taxpayer must first compute the following amounts:

(i) The amount of contributions (whether or not with respect to employment as defined in section 3306(c)) which the taxpayer would have been required to pay under the State law for such year if throughout the year he had been subject to the highest rate applied under such law in such year, or to a rate of 2.7 percent, whichever rate is lower.

(ii) The amount of contributions (whether or not with respect to employment as defined in section 3306 (c)) he was required to pay under the State law with respect to such year, whether or not paid.

The amount computed under paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section should then be subtracted from the amount computed under paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section and the result will be the additional credit for the taxable year with respect to the law of that State.

Example. A employs individuals only in State X during the calendar year 1955. The unemployment compensation law of State X has been certified in its entirety to the Secretary of the Treasury by the Secretary of Labor for such year. The highest rate applied in such year under such State law to any taxpayer is 3 percent. However, A has obtained a rate of 1 percent under the law of such State and is required to pay his entire year's contribution at that rate. The amount of remuneration of A's employees subject to contributions under such State law is $25,000. A's additional credit under section 3302(b) is $425, computed as follows:

Remuneration subject to contributions$25,000
Contributions at 2.7 percent rate675
Less:
Contributions required to be paid at 1 percent rate250
Additional credit to A425

Since the 2.7 percent rate is less than the highest rate applied (3 percent), the 2.7 percent rate is used in computing the amount ($675) from which the amount of contributions required to be paid at the 1 percent rate ($250) is deducted in order to ascertain the additional credit ($425).

(2) Certification with respect to particular provisions of a State law. If the Secretary of Labor makes a certification to the Secretary of the Treasury with respect to particular provisions of a State law for any taxable year pursuant to section 3303, the additional credit of the taxpayer for such year with respect to such law shall be computed in such manner as the Commissioner shall determine.

(c) Amount of additional credit allowable to taxpayer with respect to more than one State law. If the taxpayer is entitled to additional credit with respect to more than one State law in any taxable year, the additional credit allowable with respect to each State law shall be computed separately (in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section) and the total additional credit allowable against the tax for such year shall be the aggregate of the additional credits allowable with respect to such State laws. For limitation on total credits, see §31.3302(c)-1.

[T.D. 6516, 25 FR 13032, Dec. 20, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6632, June 27, 1963]

§31.3302(b)-2   Proof of additional credit under section 3302(b).

Additional credit under section 3302(b) shall not be allowed against the tax for any calendar year unless there is submitted—

(a) To the Commissioner a certificate of the proper officer of each State (with respect to the law of which the additional credit is claimed) showing the highest rate of contributions applied under the State law in such calendar year to any person having individuals in his employ; and

(b) To the district director a certificate of the proper officer of each State (with respect to the law of which the additional credit is claimed) showing for the taxpayer—

(1) The total remuneration with respect to which contributions were required to be paid by the taxpayer under the State law with respect to such calendar year; and

(2) The rate of contributions applied to the taxpayer under the State law with respect to such calendar year.

If under the law of such State different rates of contributions were applied to the taxpayer during particular periods of such calendar year, the certificate shall set forth the information called for in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section with respect to each such period.

(c) Such other or additional proof as the Commissioner or the district director may deem necessary to establish the right to the additional credit provided for under section 3302(b).

§31.3302(c)-1   Limit on total credits.

(a) In general. Paragraph (b) of this section relates to the limitation on the aggregate of the credits allowable under section 3302 (a) and (b). Paragraph (c) of this section relates to reductions, under certain circumstances, of the total credits allowable after applying section 3302 (a), (b), and (c)(1). In paragraphs (c)(1), (2), and (3) of this section, relate, respectively, to reductions of credits in respect of advances under title XII of the Social Security Act before September 13, 1960, advances under title XII of the Social Security Act after September 12, 1960, and payments under the Temporary Unemployment Compensation Act of 1958. A reduction of credit under paragraph (c)(1), (2), or (3) of this section applies separately from, and in addition to, a reduction under any other such subparagraph. See section 3302(d) and §31.3302(d)-1 for definitions and special rules relating to section 3302(c), and for a provision that, in applying section 3302(c), the Federal tax shall be computed at the rate of 3 percent.

(b) Limitation on aggregate credit. The aggregate of the credit under section 3302(a) and the additional credit under section 3302(b) shall not exceed 90 percent of the tax against which credit is taken, computed as if the tax were imposed at the rate of 3 percent. Thus, the aggregate of the credit which is allowable to an employer for any taxable year shall not exceed 2.7 percent of the wages paid by the employer during the year.

(c) Reductions of amount of credit otherwise allowable—(1) Advances before September 13, 1960, under title XII of Social Security Act—(i) Credit reductions for 1961 and 1962. Pursuant to section 3302(c)(2), as applicable to credit allowable for any year ended before 1963, the total credits otherwise allowable under section 3302 to a taxpayer subject to the unemployment compensation law of the State of—

(a) Alaska shall be reduced for the taxable year 1961 by an amount equal to 0.15 percent of the wages paid by the taxpayer during 1961 which are attributable to Alaska, and shall be reduced for the taxable year 1962 by an amount equal to 0.3 percent of the wages paid by the taxpayer during 1962 which are attributable to Alaska; or

(b) Michigan shall be reduced for the taxable year 1962 by an amount equal to 0.15 percent of the wages paid by the taxpayer during 1962 which are attributable to Michigan.

(ii) Credit reductions for 1963 and subsequent years. If any balance of an advance or advances under title XII of the Social Security Act, made before September 13, 1960, to the unemployment account of a State, remains unpaid on January 1, 1963, or on January 1 of any succeeding taxable year, the total credits otherwise allowable under section 3302 to a taxpayer subject to the unemployment compensation law of the State shall be reduced for the taxable year unless—

(a) No balance of such advance or advances exists as of the beginning of November 10 of the taxable year, or

(b) The State pays into the Federal unemployment account, before November 10 of the taxable year, the amount certified by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to section 3302(c)(2), and designates such payment as being made for purposes of the last sentence of section 3302(c)(2).

The credit reduction for a taxable year shall be a percentage of the wages paid by the taxpayer during that taxable year which are attributable to the State. The percentage for the taxable year 1963, or for any succeeding taxable year beginning before January 1, 1968, is 0.15 percent (that is, 5 percent of the Federal tax, computed as if imposed at the rate of 3 percent of the wages). The percentage for any taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 1968, is the percentage reduction for the immediately preceding taxable year plus 0.15 percent. Thus, for 1968 the percentage is 0.3 percent, for 1969 the percentage is 0.45 percent, and for 1970 the percentage is 0.6 percent.

(2) Advances after September 12, 1960, under title XII of Social Security Act—(i) In general. If any balance of an advance or advances under title XII of the Social Security Act, made after September 12, 1960, to the unemployment account of a State, remains unpaid on January 1 of two consecutive taxable years, the total credits otherwise allowable under section 3302 to a taxpayer subject to the unemployment compensation law of the State shall be reduced for the taxable year beginning with the second consecutive January 1, unless prior to November 10 of that taxable year the total amount of any such advance or advances made to the account of the State has been fully repaid. The reduction made pursuant to this subdivision in the total credits otherwise allowable for the taxable year beginning with the second consecutive January 1 shall be 0.3 percent of the wages paid by the taxpayer during the taxable year which are attributable to the State (that is, 10 percent of the Federal tax, computed as if imposed at the rate of 3 percent of the wages). In the case of any succeeding taxable year beginning with a consecutive January 1 on which there exists such a balance of an unreturned advance or advances made after September 12, 1960, the total credits otherwise allowable shall be further reduced unless prior to November 10 of that succeeding taxable year the total amount of any such advance or advances made to the account of the State has been fully repaid. The reduction for each such succeeding taxable year beginning with a consecutive January 1 on which such a balance exists shall be a percentage of the wages paid by the taxpayer during that succeeding taxable year which are attributable to the State. The percentage reduction for any such succeeding taxable year shall be the aggregate of (a) the percentage reduction (without regard to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) or (iii) of this section) for the immediately preceding taxable year, (b) 0.3 percent of the wages paid by the taxpayer during the taxable year which are attributable to the State, and (c) the percentage, if any, described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) or (iii) of this section.

(ii) Additional reduction if a balance of advances exists after third or fourth consecutive January 1. If the credit reduction described in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph is made for the third or fourth consecutive taxable year, the total credits otherwise allowable under section 3302 to a taxpayer subject to the unemployment compensation law of the State shall be further reduced for the taxable year unless the average employer contribution rate (see section 3302(d)(4)) for such State for the calendar year preceding such taxable year is at least 2.7 percent. The percentage of reduction, if any, under this subdivision shall be the percentage referred to in section 3302(c)(3)(B) which is certified by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to section 3302(d)(7).

(iii) Additional reduction if a balance of advances exists after fifth or any succeeding consecutive January 1. If the credit reduction described in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph is made for the fifth or any succeeding taxable year, the total credits otherwise allowable under section 3302 to a taxpayer subject to the unemployment compensation law of the State shall be further reduced for the taxable year unless the average employer contribution rate (see section 3302(d)(4)) for the State for the calendar year preceding such taxable year equals or exceeds the 5-year benefit cost rate (see section 3302(d)(5)) applicable to the State for the taxable year or 2.7 percent, whichever is higher. The percentage of reduction, if any, under this subdivision for a taxable year shall be the percentage referred to in section 3302(c)(3)(C) which is certified by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to section 3302(d)(7).

(3) Payments under the Temporary Unemployment Compensation Act of 1958. If any amount of temporary unemployment compensation was paid in a State under the Temporary Unemployment Compensation Act of 1958, the total credits otherwise allowable under section 3302 to a taxpayer with respect to wages attributable to the State for the taxable year beginning January 1, 1963, and for each taxable year thereafter, shall be reduced unless prior to November 10 of the taxable year—

(i) There have been restored to the Treasury the amounts of temporary unemployment compensation paid in the State (except amounts paid to individuals who exhausted their unemployment compensation under title XV of the Social Security Act and title IV of the Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act of 1952 prior to their making their first claims under the Temporary Unemployment Compensation Act of 1958), the amount of costs incurred in the administration of the Temporary Unemployment Compensation Act of 1958); with respect to the State, and the amount estimated by the Secretary of Labor as the State's proportionate share of other costs incurred in the administration of such Act, or

(ii) The State restores to the general fund of the Treasury the amount certified by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to section 104 of the Temporary Unemployment Compensation Act of 1958, and designates such restoration as being made for purposes of the last sentence of such section.

The credit reduction for a taxable year shall be a percentage of the wages paid by the taxpayer during that year which are attributable to the State. The percentage for the taxable year 1963 is 0.15 percent (that is, 5 percent of the Federal tax, computed as if imposed at the rate of 3 percent). The percentage for any succeeding year is 0.3 percent (that is, 10 percent of the Federal tax, computed as if imposed at the rate of 3 percent).

(4) Example. The cumulative effect of the credit reductions described in this paragraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. Advances to the unemployment account of State X were made in 1957 and in 1961 under title XII of the Social Security Act. Payments under the Temporary Unemployment Compensation Act of 1958 were made in State X in 1958. No portion of the advances or payments is returned before November 10, 1964. As a consequence:

(a) The credit reduction applicable under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph is made for 1964 at the rate of 0.15 percent;

(b) The credit reduction described in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph has been made for 1963 (the second successive year after 1961) at the rate of 0.3 percent. The rate of credit reduction under subparagraph (2) for 1964 is 1 percent (the aggregate of 0.6 percent under section 3302(c)(3)(A) and 0.4 percent (assumed for purposes of this example to be the percentage referred to in section 3302(c)(3)(B) which is certified by the Secretary of Labor), and

(c) The credit reduction described in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph has been made for 1963 at the rate of 0.15 percent. The rate of credit reduction for 1964 is 0.3 percent.

The cumulative rate of credit reduction applicable for 1964 to wages attributable to State X is 1.45 percent, representing the aggregate of the percentage reductions applicable under subparagraphs (1), (2), and (3) of this paragraph (0.15 percent, 1 percent, and 0.3 percent, respectively). In 1964 Employer A paid wages of $100,000, all of which are subject to the unemployment compensation law of State X. The credit which would be allowable (under section 3302 (a), (b), and (c)(1)) if there were no credit reduction is $2,700. Employer A's tax is computed as follows for 1964:

Total taxable wages (attributable to State X)$100,000
Gross Federal tax (3.1 percent of wages)3,100
Less credit:
Gross credit$2,700
Credit reduction (1.45 percent of wages)1,450
Net credit1,250
Amount of Federal tax due1,850

[T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6633, June 27, 1963, as amended by T.D. 6708, 29 FR 3198, Mar. 10, 1964]

§31.3302(d)-1   Definitions and special rules relating to limit on total credits.

(a) Rate of tax deemed to be 3 percent. In applying the provisions of section 3302(c) relating to the limitation on total credits, and to reductions of credits otherwise allowable, the tax imposed by section 3301 shall be computed at the rate of 3 percent in lieu of any other rate prescribed in section 3301 (see §31.3301-3).

(b) Wages attributable to a particular State. For purposes of section 3302(c) (2) or (3), wages are attributable to a particular State if they are subject to the unemployment compensation law of the State. If wages are not subject to the unemployment compensation law of any State, the determination as to whether such wages, or any portion thereof, are attributable to the particular State with respect to which the reduction in total credits is imposed shall be made in accordance with rules prescribed by the Commissioner.

(c) Employment Security Act of 1960. The Employment Security Act of 1960, referred to in section 3302(c)(2), means title V of the Social Security Amendments of 1960.

[T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6635, June 27, 1963]

§31.3302(e)-1   Successor employer.

(a) In general. In addition to the credits against the tax allowable under section 3302(a) and (b) for any taxable year after 1960, the taxpayer may be entitled to an amount of credit under section 3302(e). Credit under section 3302(e) is provided in the case of a taxpayer who (1) acquires substantially all of the property used in a trade or business, or in a separate unit of a trade or business, of another person (referred to in this section as a predecessor) who is not an employer (see §31.3306(a)-1) for the calendar year in which the acquisition takes place, and (2) immediately after the acquisition employs in his trade or business one or more individuals who immediately prior to the acquisition were employed in the trade or business of the predecessor.

(b) Method of computing credit under section 3302(e). (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the amount of credit to which the taxpayer may be entitled under section 3302(e) is the amount of credit to which the predecessor would be entitled under section 3302 (a), (b), and (e), without regard to the limits in section 3302(c), if the predecessor were an employer.

(2) If, during the calendar year in which the acquisition takes place, the predecessor pays remuneration, subject to contributions under the unemployment compensation law of a State, to any employee other than the individuals referred to in paragraph (a) of this section, the taxpayer will be entitled only to a portion of the amount of credit described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. The portion is determined by multiplying such amount by a fraction. The numerator of the fraction is the total amount of remuneration, subject to such contributions, paid by the predecessor during such year to the individuals referred to in paragraph (a) of this section. The denominator of the fraction is the total amount of remuneration, subject to such contributions, paid by the predecessor during such year to all employees for services performed by them in the trade or business, or unit thereof, acquired by the taxpayer.

Example. In April 1961 the X Partnership terminated after selling all of its property to the Y Corporation. During 1961, the X Partnership paid its employees and former employees a total of $1,000,000 as remuneration subject to contributions under the employment compensation law of a State. (Note that the X Partnership did not qualify as an employer for 1961 for purposes of the Federal unemployment tax, because it had employees during less than 20 weeks in 1961.) When the Y Corporation acquired the property it concurrently employed all individuals who were then in the employ of the X Partnership. Assume that the X Partnership, if it had qualified as an employer for 1961, would have been entitled to a total credit against the Federal tax of $30,000 under section 3302 (a) and (b), without regard to the limits in section 3302(c). Of the $1,000,000 remuneration paid by the X Partnership in 1961, one-fifth (or $200,000) was paid to individuals who were employed by the Y Corporation at the time it acquired the property of the X Partnership. Under section 3302(e), therefore, the Y Corporation is entitled to credit of $6,000, which is one-fifth of the credit ($30,000) which would have been available to the X Partnership.

(3) The aggregate amount of credit allowable to the taxpayer under section 3302 (a), (b), and (e) is subject to the limits in section 3302(c).

(c) Proof of credit under section 3302(e). Credit under section 3302(e) shall not be allowed against the tax for any taxable year unless there is submitted to the district director (1) such information or proof as may be called for in the return on which the credit is reported, or in the instructions relating to the return, and (2) such other or additional proof as the Commissioner or the district director may deem necessary to establish the right to the credit provided for under section 3302(e).

(d) Cross-references. See paragraph (b) of §31.3306(b)(1)-1 for examples of the acquisition of property used in a trade or business, or in a separate unit thereof.

[T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6635, June 27, 1963]

§31.3306(a)-1   Who are employers.

(a) Definition—(1) For calendar years 1956 through 1969, inclusive. Every person who employs 4 or more employees in employment (within the meaning of section 3306 (c) and (d)) on a total of 20 or more calendar days during any calendar year after 1955 and before 1970, each such day being in a different calendar week, is with respect to such year an employer subject to the tax.

(1a) For 1970 and subsequent calendar years. Every person who employs 4 or more employees in employment (within the meaning of section 3306 (c) and (d)) on a total of 20 or more calendar days during a calendar year after 1969, or during the calendar year immediately preceding such a calendar year, each such day being in a different calendar week, is with respect to such year an employer subject to the tax.

(2) For calendar year 1955. Every person who employs 8 or more employees in employment (within the meaning of section 3306 (c) and (d)) on a total of 20 or more calendar days during the calendar year 1955, each such day being in a different calendar week, is with respect to such year an employer subject to the tax.

(3) General agents of the Secretary of Commerce. For provisions relating to the circumstances under which an employee who performs services as an officer or member of the crew of an American vessel (i) which is owned by or bareboat chartered to the United States and (ii) whose business is conducted by a general agent of the Secretary of Commerce shall be deemed to be performing services for such general agent rather than for the United States, see §31.3306 (N)-1.

(b) The several weeks in each of which occurs a day on which the prescribed number of employees are employed need not be consecutive weeks. It is not necessary that the employees so employed be the same individuals; they may be different individuals on each day. Neither is it necessary that the prescribed number of employees be employed at the same moment of time or for any particular length of time or on any particular basis of compensation. It is sufficient if the total number of employees employed during the 24 hours of a calendar day is 4 or more (8 or more for the calendar year 1955).

(c) In determining whether a person employs a sufficient number of employees to be an employer subject to the tax, each employee is counted with respect to services which constitute employment as defined in section 3306(c) (see §31.3306(c)-2). No employee is counted with respect to services which do not constitute employment as so defined. See, however, paragraph (d) of this section.

(d) The provisions of paragraph (c) of this section are subject to the provisions of section 3306(d), relating to services which do not constitute employment but which are deemed to be employment, and relating to services which constitute employment but which are deemed not to be employment (see §31.3306(d)-1). For example, if the services of an employee during a pay period are deemed to be employment under section 3306(d), even though a portion thereof does not constitute employment under section 3306(c), the employee is counted with respect to all services during the pay period. On the other hand, if the services of an employee during a pay period are deemed not to be employment, even though a portion thereof constitutes employment, the employee is not counted with respect to any services during the pay period.

[T.D. 6516, 25 FR 13032, Dec. 20, 1960, as amended by T.D. 7037, 35 FR 6709, Apr. 28, 1970]

§31.3306(b)-1   Wages.

(a) Applicable law and regulations—(1) Remuneration paid after 1954. Whether remuneration paid after 1954 for employment performed after 1938 constitutes wages is determined under section 3306(b). Accordingly, only remuneration paid after 1954 for employment performed after 1938 is covered by this section of the regulations and by the sections relating to the statutory exclusions from wages (§§31.3306(b)(1)-1 to 31.3306(b)(10)-1).

(2) Remuneration paid after 1939 and before 1955. Whether remuneration paid after 1939 and before 1955 for employment performed after 1938 constitutes wages shall be determined in accordance with the applicable provisions of law and of 26 CFR (1939) Part 403 (Regulations 107).

(3) Remuneration paid in 1939. Whether remuneration paid in 1939 for employment performed after 1938 constitutes wages shall be determined in accordance with the applicable provisions of law and of 26 CFR (1939) Part 400 (Regulations 90).

(b) The term “wages” means all remuneration for employment unless specifically excepted under section 3306(b) (see §§31.3306(b)(1)-1 to 31.3306(b)(10)-1, inclusive) or paragraph (j) of this section.

(c) The name by which the remuneration for employment is designated is immaterial. Thus, salaries, fees, bonuses, and commissions are wages if paid as compensation for employment.

(d) The basis upon which the remuneration is paid is immaterial in determining whether the remuneration constitutes wages. Thus, it may be paid on the basis of piecework or a percentage of profits; and it may be paid hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, or annually.

(e) Except in the case of remuneration paid for services not in the course of the employer's trade or business (see §31.3306(b)(7)-1), the medium in which the remuneration is paid is also immaterial. It may be paid in cash or in something other than cash, as for example, goods, lodging, food, or clothing. Remuneration paid in items other than cash shall be computed on the basis of the fair value of such items at the time of payments.

(f) Ordinarily, facilities or privileges (such as entertainment, medical services, or so-called “courtesy” discounts on purchases), furnished or offered by an employer to his employees generally, are not considered as remuneration for employment if such facilities or privileges are of relatively small value and are offered or furnished by the employer merely as a means of promoting the health, good will, contentment, or efficiency of his employees. The term “facilities or privileges”, however, does not ordinarily include the value of meals or lodging furnished, for example, to restaurant or hotel employees, or to seamen or other employees aboard vessels, since generally these items constitute an appreciable part of the total remuneration of such employees.

(g) Amounts of so-called “vacation allowances” paid to an employee constitute wages. Thus, the salary of an employee on vacation, paid notwithstanding his absence from work, constitutes wages.

(h) Amounts paid specifically—either as advances or reimbursements—for traveling or other bona fide ordinary and necessary expenses incurred or reasonably expected to be incurred in the business of the employer are not wages. Traveling and other reimbursed expenses must be identified either by making a separate payment or by specifically indicating the separate amounts where both wages and expense allowances are combined in a single payment. For amounts that are received by an employee on or after July 1, 1990, with respect to expenses paid or incurred on or after July 1, 1990, see §31.3306(b)-2.

(i) Remuneration paid by an employer to an individual for employment, unless such remuneration is specifically excepted under section 3306(b), constitutes wages even though at the time paid the individual is no longer an employee.

Example. A is employed by B, an employer, during the month of June 1955 in employment and is entitled to receive remuneration of $100 for the services performed for B during the month. A leaves the employ of B at the close of business on June 30, 1955. On July 15, 1955 (when A is no longer an employee of B), B pays A the remuneration of $100 which was earned for the services performed in June. The $100 is wages, and the tax is payable with respect thereto.

(j) In addition to the exclusions specified in §§31.3306(b)(1)-1 to 31.3306(b)(10)-1, inclusive, the following types of payments are excluded from wages:

(1) Remuneration for services which do not constitute employment under section 3306(c).

(2) Remuneration for services which are deemed not to be employment under section 3306(d) (§31.3306(d)-1).

(3) Tips or gratuities paid directly to an employee by a customer of an employer, and not accounted for by the employee to the employer.

(k) For provisions relating to the treatment of deductions from remuneration as payments of remuneration, see §31.3307-1.

(l) Split-dollar life insurance arrangements. Except as otherwise provided under section 3306(r), see §§1.61-22 and 1.7872-15 of this chapter for rules relating to the treatment of split-dollar life insurance arrangements.

[T.D. 6516, 25 FR 13032, Dec. 20, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6636, June 27, 1963; T.D. 7375, 40 FR 42350, Sept. 12, 1975; T.D. 8276, 54 FR 51028, Dec. 12, 1989; T.D. 8324, 55 FR 51697, Dec. 17, 1990; T.D. 9092, 68 FR 54361, Sept. 17, 2003]

§31.3306(b)-1T   Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).

The following question and answer relates to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended by section 531(d)(3) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 885):

Q-1: Are fringe benefits included in the definition of wages under section 3306(b)?

A-1: Yes, unless specifically excluded from the definition of “wages” pursuant to section 3306(b) (1) through (16). For example, a fringe benefit provided to or on behalf of an employee is excluded from the definition of “wages” if at the time such benefit is provided it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such benefit from income under section 117 or 132.

[T.D. 8004, 50 FR 755, Jan. 7, 1985]

§31.3306(b)-2   Reimbursement and other expense allowance amounts.

(a) When excluded from wages. If a reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement meets the requirements of section 62(c) of the Code and §1.62-2 and the expenses are substantiated within a reasonable period of time, payments made under the arrangement that do not exceed the substantiated expenses are treated as paid under an accountable plan and are not wages. In addition, if both wages and the reimbursement or other expense allowance are combined in a single payment, the reimbursement or other expense allowance must be identified either by making a separate payment or by specifically identifying the amount of the reimbursement or other expense allowance.

(b) When included in wages—(1) Accountable plans—(i) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, if a reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement satisfied the requirements of section 62(c) and §1.62-2, but the expenses are not substantiated within a reasonable period of time or amounts in excess of the substantiated expenses are not returned within a reasonable period of time, the amount paid under the arrangement in excess of the substantiated expenses is treated as paid under a nonaccountable plan, is included in wages, and is subject to withholding and payment of employment taxes no later than the first payroll period following the end of the reasonable period.

(ii) Per diem or mileage allowances. If a reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement providing a per diem or mileage allowance satisfies the requirements of section 62(c) and §1.62-2, but the allowance is paid at a rate for each day or mile of travel that exceeds the amount of the employee's expenses deemed substantiated for a day or mile of travel, the excess portion is treated as paid under a nonaccountable plan and is included in wages. In the case of a per diem or mileage allowance paid as a reimbursement, the excess portion is subject to withholding and payment of employment taxes when paid. In the case of a per diem or mileage allowance paid as an advance, the excess portion is subject to withholding and payment of employment taxes no later than the first payroll period following the payroll period in which the expenses with respect to which the advance was paid (i.e., the days or miles of travel) are substantiated. The Commissioner may, in his discretion, prescribe special rules in pronouncements of general applicability regarding the timing of withholding and payment of employment taxes on per diem and mileage allowances.

(2) Nonaccountable plans. If a reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement does not satisfy the requirements of section 62(c) and §1.62-2 (e.g., the arrangement does not require expenses to be substantiated or require amounts in excess of the substantiated expenses to be returned), all amounts paid under the arrangement are treated as paid under a nonaccountable plan, are included in wages, and are subject to withholding and payment of employment taxes when paid.

(c) Effective dates. This section generally applies to payments made under reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangements received by an employee on or after July 1, 1990, with respect to expenses paid or incurred on or after July 1, 1990. Paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section applies to payments made under reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangements received by an employee on or after January 1, 1991, with respect to expenses paid or incurred on or after January 1, 1991.

[T.D. 8324, 55 FR 51697, Dec. 17, 1990]

§31.3306(b)(1)-1   $3,000 limitation.

(a) In general. (1) the term “wages” does not include that part of the remuneration paid within any calendar year by an employer to an employee which exceeds the first $3,000 of remuneration (exclusive of remuneration excepted from wages in accordance with paragraph (j) of §31.3306(b)-1 or §§31.3306(b)(2)-1 to 31.3306(b)(8)-1, inclusive), paid within such calendar year by such employer to such employee for employment performed for him at any time after 1938.

(2) The $3,000 limitation applies only if the remuneration paid during any one calendar year by an employer to the same employee for employment performed after 1938 exceeds $3,000. The limitation in such case relates to the amount of remuneration paid during any one calendar year for employment after 1938 and not to the amount of remuneration for employment performed in any one calendar year.

Example. Employer B, in 1955, pays employee A $2,500 on account of $3,000 due him for employment performed in 1955. In 1956 employer B pays employee A the balance of $500 due him for employment performed in the prior year (1955), and thereafter in 1956 also pays A $3,000 for employment performed in 1956. The $2,500 paid in 1955 is subject to tax in 1955. The balance of $500 paid in 1956 for employment during 1955 is subject to tax in 1956, as is also the first $2,500 paid of the $3,000 for employment during 1956 (this $500 for 1955 employment added to the first $2,500 paid for 1956 employment constitutes the maximum wages subject to the tax which could be paid in 1956 by B to A). The final $500 paid by B to A in 1956 is not included as wages and is not subject to the tax.

(3) If during a calendar year an employee is paid remuneration by more than one employer, the limitation of wages to the first $3,000 of remuneration paid applies, not to the aggregate remuneration paid by all employers with respect to employment performed after 1938, but instead to the remuneration paid during such calendar year by each employer with respect to employment performed after 1938. In such case the first $3,000 paid during the calendar year by each employer constitutes wages and is subject to the tax. In connection with the application of the $3,000 limitation, see also paragraph (b) of this section relating to the circumstances under which wages paid by a predecessor employer are deemed to be paid by his successor. In connection with the annual wage limitation in the case of remuneration after December 31, 1978 from two or more related corporations that compensate an employee through a common paymaster, see §31.3306(p)-1.

Example 1. During 1955 employer D pays to employee C a salary of $600 a month for employment performed for D during the first seven months of 1955, or total remuneration of $4,200. At the end of the fifth month C has been paid $3,000 by employer D, and only that part of his total remuneration from D constitutes wages subject to the tax. The $600 paid to employee C by employer D in the sixth month, and the like amount paid in the seventh month, are not included as wages and are not subject to the tax. At the end of the seventh month C leaves the employ of D and enters the employ of E. Employer E pays to C remuneration of $600 a month in each of the remaining five months of 1955, or total remuneration of $3,000. The entire $3,000 paid by E to employee C constitutes wages and is subject to the tax. Thus, the first $3,000 paid by employer D and the entire $3,000 paid by employer E constitute wages.

Example 2. During the calendar year 1955 F is simultaneously an officer (an employee) of the X Corporation, the Y Corporation, and the Z Corporation, each such corporation being an employer for such year. During such year F is paid a salary of $3,000 by each Corporation. Each $3,000 paid to F by each of the corporations, X, Y, and Z (whether or not such corporations are related), constitutes wages and is subject to the tax.

(b) Wages paid by predecessor attributed to successor. (1) If an employer (hereinafter referred to as a successor) during any calendar year acquires substantially all the property used in a trade or business of another employer (hereinafter referred to as a predecessor), or used in a separate unit of a trade or business of a predecessor, and if immediately after the acquisition the successor employs in his trade or business an individual who immediately prior to the acquisition was employed in the trade or business of such predecessor, then, for purposes of the application of the $3,000 limitation set forth in paragraph (a) of this section, any remuneration (exclusive of remuneration excepted from wages in accordance with paragraph (j) of §31.3306(b)-1 or §§31.3306(b)(2)-1 to 31.3306(b)(8)-1, inclusive), with respect to employment paid (or considered under this provision as having been paid to such individual by such predecessor during such calendar year and prior to such acquisition shall be considered as having been paid by such successor. Wages paid by a predecessor shall not be considered as having been paid by the successor unless both the predecessor and the successor are employers as defined in section 3306(a) for the calendar year in which the acquisition occurs (see §31.3306(a)-1, relating to who are employers).

(2) The wages paid, or considered as having been paid, by a predecessor to an employee shall, for purposes of the $3,000 limitation, be treated as having been paid to such employee by a successor, if:

(i) The successor during a calendar year acquired substantially all the property used in a trade or business, or used in a separate unit of a trade or business, of the predecessor;

(ii) Such employee was employed in the trade or business of the predecessor immediately prior to the acquisition and is employed by the successor in his trade or business immediately after the acquisition; and

(iii) Such wages were paid during the calendar year in which the acquisition occurred and prior to such acquisition.

(3) The method of acquisition by an employer of the property of another employer is immaterial. The acquisition may occur as a consequence of the incorporation of a business by a sole proprietor of a partnership, the continuance without interruption of the business of a previously existing partnership by a new partnership or by a sole proprietor, or a purchase or any other transaction whereby substantially all the property used in a trade or business, or used in a separate unit of a trade or business, of one employer is acquired by another employer.

(4) Substantially all the property used in a separate unit of a trade or business may consist of substantially all the property used in the performance of an essential operation of the trade or business, or it may consist of substantially all the property used in a relatively self-sustaining entity which forms a part of the trade or business.

Example 1. The M Corporation which is engaged in the manufacture of automobiles, including the manufacture of automobile engines, discontinues the manufacture of the engines and transfers all the property used in such manufacturing operations to the N Company. The N Company is considered to have acquired a separate unit of the trade or business of the M Corporation, namely, its engine manufacturing unit.

Example 2. The R Corporation which is engaged in the operation of a chain of grocery stores transfers one of such stores to the S Company. The S Company is considered to have acquired a separate unit of the trade or business of the R Corporation.

(5) A successor may receive credit for wages paid to an employee by a predecessor only if immediately prior to the acquisition the employee was employed by the predecessor in his trade or business which was acquired by the successor and if immediately after the acquisition such employee is employed by the successor in his trade or business (whether or not in the same trade or business in which the acquired property is used). If the acquisition involves only a separate unit of a trade or business of the predecessor, the employee need not have been employed by the predecessor in that unit provided he was employed in the trade or business of which the acquired unit was a part.

Example. The Y Corporation in 1955 acquires all the property of the X Manufacturing Company and immediately after the acquisition employs in its trade or business employee A, who, immediately prior to the acquisition, was employed by the X Company. Both the Y Corporation and the X Company are employers, as defined in the Act, for the calendar year 1955. The X Company has in 1955 (the calendar year in which the acquisition occurs) and prior to the acquisition paid $2,000 of wages to A. The Y Corporation in 1955 pays to A remuneration with respect to employment of $2,000. Only $1,000 of such remuneration is considered to be wages. For purposes of the $3,000 limitation, the Y Corporation is credited with the $2,000 paid to A by the X Company. If, in the same calendar year, the property is acquired from the Y Corporation by the Z Company, an employer for such year, and A immediately after the acquisition is employed by the Z Company in its trade or business, no part of the remuneration paid to A by the Z Company in the year of the acquisition will be considered to be wages. The Z Company will be credited with the remuneration paid to A by the Y Corporation and also with the wages paid to A by the X Company (considered for purposes of the application of the $3,000 limitation as having also been paid by the Y Corporation).

[T.D. 6516, 25 FR 13032, Dec. 20, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6636, June 27, 1963; T.D. 7660, 44 FR 75142, Dec. 19, 1979]

§31.3306(b)(2)-1   Payments under employers' plans on account of retirement, sickness or accident disability, medical or hospitalization expenses, or death.

(a) The term “wages” does not include the amount of any payment (including any amount paid by an employer for insurance or annuities, or into a fund, to provide for any such payment) made to, or on behalf of, an employee or any of his dependents under a plan or system established by an employer which makes provision for his employees generally (or for his employees generally and their dependents) or for a class or classes of his employees (or for a class or classes of his employees and their dependents), on account of:

(1) An employee's retirement,

(2) Sickness or accident disability of an employee or any of his dependents,

(3) Medical or hospitalization expenses in connection with sickness or accident disability of an employee or any of his dependents, or

(4) Death of an employee or any of his dependents.

(b) The plan or system established by an employer need not provide for payments on account of all of the specified items, but such plan or system may provide for any one or more of such items. Payments for any one or more of such items under a plan or system established by an employer solely for the dependents of his employees are not within this exclusion from wages.

(c) Dependents of an employee include the employee's husband or wife, children, and any other members of the employee's immediate family.

(d) It is immaterial for purposes of this exclusion whether the amount or possibility of such benefit payments is taken into consideration in fixing the amount of an employee's remuneration or whether such payments are required, expressly or impliedly, by the contract of service.

§31.3306(b)(3)-1   Retirement payments.

The term “wages” does not include any payment made by an employer to an employee (including any amount paid by an employer for insurance or annuities, or into a fund, to provide for any such payment) on account of the employee's retirement. Thus payments made to an employee on account of his retirement are excluded from wages under this exception even though not made under a plan or system.

§31.3306(b)(4)-1   Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses.

The term “wages” does not include any payment made by an employer to, or on behalf of, an employee on account of the employee's sickness or accident disability or the medical or hospitalization expenses in connection with the employee's sickness or accident disability, if such payment is made after the expiration of 6 calendar months following the last calendar month in which such employee worked for such employer. Such payments are excluded from wages under this exception even though not made under a plan or system. If the employee does not actually perform services for the employer during the requisite period, the existence of the employer-employee relationship during that period is immaterial.

§31.3306(b)(5)-1   Payments from or to certain tax-exempt trusts, or under or to certain annuity plans or bond purchase plans.

(a) Payments from or to certain tax-exempt trusts. The term “wages” does not include any payment made—

(1) By an employer, on behalf of an employee or his beneficiary, into a trust, or

(2) To, or on behalf of an employee or his beneficiary from a trust,

if at the time of such payment the trust is exempt from tax under section 501(a) as an organization described in section 401(a). A payment made to an employee of such a trust for services rendered as an employee of the trust and not as a beneficiary thereof is not within this exclusion from wages.

(b) Payments under or to certain annuity plans. (1) The term “wages” does not include any payment made after December 31, 1962—

(i) By an employer, on behalf of an employee or his beneficiary, into an annuity plan, or

(ii) To, or on behalf of, an employee or his beneficiary under an annuity plan, if at the time of such payment the annuity plan is a plan described in section 403(a).

(2) The term “wages” does not include any payment made before January 1, 1963—

(i) By an employer, on behalf of an employee or his beneficiary, into an annuity plan, or

(ii) To, or on behalf of, an employee or his beneficiary under an annuity plan, if at the time of such payment the annuity plan meets the requirements of section 401(a) (3), (4), (5), and (6).

(c) Payments under or to certain bond purchase plans. The term “wages” does not include any payment made after December 31, 1962—

(1) By an employer, on behalf of an employee or his beneficiary, into a bond purchase plan, or

(2) To, or on behalf of, an employee or his beneficiary under a bond purchase plan,

if at the time of such payment the plan is a qualified bond purchase plan described in section 405(a).

[T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6636, June 27, 1963]

§31.3306(b)(6)-1   Payment by an employer of employee tax under section 3101 or employee contributions under a State law.

The term “wages” does not include any payment by an employer (without deduction from the remuneration of, or other reimbursement from, the employee) of either (a) the employee tax imposed by section 3101 or the corresponding section of prior law, or (b) any payment required from an employee under a State unemployment compensation law.

§31.3306(b)(7)-1   Payments other than in cash for service not in the course of employer's trade or business.

The term “wages” does not include remuneration paid in any medium other than cash for service not in the course of the employer's trade or business. Cash remuneration includes checks and other monetary media of exchange. Remuneration paid in any medium other than cash, such as lodging, food, or other goods or commodities, for service not in the course of the employer's trade or business does not constitute wages. Remuneration paid in any medium other than cash for other types of services does not come within this exclusion from wages. For provisions relating to the circumstances under which service not in the course of the employer's trade or business does not constitute employment, see §31.3306(c)(3)-1.

§31.3306(b)(8)-1   Payments to employees for non-work periods.

The term “wages” does not include any payment (other than vacation or sick pay) made by an employer to an employee after the calendar month in which the employee attains age 65, if—

(a) Such employee does no work (other than being subject to call for the performance of work) for such employer in the period for which such payment is made; and

(b) The employer-employee relationship exists between the employer and employee throughout the period for which such payment is made.

Vacation or sick pay is not within this exclusion from wages. If the employee does any work for the employer in the period for which the payment is made, no remuneration paid by such employer to such employee with respect to such period is within this exclusion from wages. For example, if employee A, who attained the age of 65 in January 1955, is employed by the X Company on a stand-by basis and is paid $200 by the X Company for being subject to call during the month of February 1955 and an additional $25 for work performed for the X Company on one day in February 1955, then none of the $225 is excluded from wages under this exception.

[T.D. 6516, 25 FR 13032, Dec. 20, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6708, 29 FR 3199, Mar. 10, 1964]

§31.3306(b)(9)-1   Moving expenses.

(a) The term “wages” does not include remuneration paid on or after November 1, 1964, to or on behalf of an employee, either as an advance or a reimbursement, specifically for moving expenses incurred or expected to be incurred, if (and to the extent that) at the time of payment it is reasonable to believe that a corresponding deduction is or will be allowable to the employee under section 217. The reasonable belief contemplated by the statute may be based upon any evidence reasonably sufficient to induce such belief, even though such evidence may be insufficient upon closer examination by the district director or the courts finally to establish that a deduction is allowable under section 217. The reasonable belief shall be based upon the application of section 217 and the regulations thereunder in Part 1 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations). When used in this section, the term “moving expenses” has the same meaning as when used in section 217 and the regulations thereunder.

(b) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a) of this section, or in a numbered paragraph of section 3306(b), amounts paid to or on behalf of an employee for moving expenses are wages for purposes of section 3306(b).

[T.D. 7375, 40 FR 42351, Sept. 12, 1975]

§31.3306(b)(10)-1   Payments under certain employers' plans after retirement, disability, or death.

(a) In general. The term “wages” does not include the amount of any payment or series of payments made after January 2, 1968, by an employer to, or on behalf of, an employee or any of his dependents under a plan established by the employer which makes provisions for his employees generally (or for his employees generally and their dependents) or for a class or classes of his employees (or for a class or classes of his employees and their dependents), which is paid or commences to be paid upon or within a reasonable time after the termination of an employee's employment relationship because of the employee's—

(1) Death,

(2) Retirement for disability, or

(3) Retirement after attaining an age specified in the plan established by the employer or in a pension plan of the employer as the age at which a person in the employee's circumstances is eligible for retirement.

A payment or series of payments made under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence is excluded from “wages” even if made pursuant to an incentive compensation plan which also provides for the making of other types of payments. However, any payment or series of payments which would have been paid if the employee's relationship had not been terminated is not excluded from “wages” under this section and section 3306(b)(10). For example, lump-sum payments for unused vacation time or a final paycheck received after retirement are payments which the employee would have received whether or not he retired and therefore are not excluded from “wages.” Further, if any payment is made upon or after termination of employment for any reason other than those set out in paragraphs (a)(1), (2), and (3) of this section such payment is not excludable from “wages” by this section. For example, if a pension plan provides for retirement upon disability, completion of 30 years of service, or attainment of age 65, and if an employee who is not disabled retires at age 61 after 30 years of service, none of the retirement payments made to the employee under the pension plan (including any made after he is 65) is excludable from “wages” under this section. However, if the pension plan had conditioned retirement after 30 years of service upon attainment of age 60, all of the retirement payments would have been excludable.

(b) Plan. The plan or system established by an employer need not provide for payments because of termination of employment for all the reasons set out in paragraphs (a)(1), (2), and (3) of this section, but such plan or system may provide for payments because of termination for any one or more of such reasons. Payments because of termination of employment for any one or more of such reasons under a plan or system established by an employer solely for the dependents of his employees are not within this exclusion from wages.

(c) Dependents. Dependents of an employee include the employee's husband or wife, children, and any other members of the employee's immediate family.

(d) Benefit payments. It is immaterial for purposes of this exclusion whether the amount or possibility of such benefit payments is paid on account of services rendered or taken into consideration in fixing the amount of an employee's remuneration or whether such payments are required expressly or impliedly, by the contract of service.

(e) Example. The application of this section may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. A, an employee, receives a salary of $1,500 a month, payable on the 5th day of the month following the month for which the salary is earned. A's employer has established an incentive compensation plan for a class of his employees, including A, providing for the payment of deferred compensation on termination of employment, including termination upon an employee's death, retirement at age 65 (the retirement age specified in the plan), or retirement for disability. On March 1, 1973, A attains the age of 65 and retires. On March 5, 1973, A receives $5,500 from his employer of which $1,500 represents A's salary for services he performed in February 1973, and $4,000 represents incentive compensation paid under the employer's plan. The amount of $4,000 is excluded from “wages” under this section. The amount of $1,500 is not excluded from “wages” under this section.

[T.D. 7374, 40 FR 30951, July 24, 1975]

§31.3306(b)(13)-1   Payments or benefits under a qualified educational assistance program.

The term “wages” does not include any payment made, or benefit furnished, to or for the benefit of an employee in a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1978, if at the time of such payment or furnishing it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such payment or benefit from income under section 127.

[T.D. 7898, 48 FR 31019, July 6, 1983]

§31.3306(c)-1   Employment; services performed before 1955.

(a) Services performed after 1938 and before 1955 constitute employment under section 3306(c) if such services were employment under the law applicable to the period in which they were performed.

(b) The tax applies with respect to remuneration paid by an employer after 1954 for services performed after 1938 and before 1955, as well as for services performed after 1954, to the extent that the remuneration and services constitute wages and employment. See §§31.3306(b)-1 to 31.3306(b)(8)-1, inclusive, relating to wages.

(c) Determination of whether services performed after 1938 and before 1955 constitute employment shall be made in accordance with the provisions of law applicable to the period in which they were performed and of the regulations thereunder. The regulations applicable in determining whether services performed after 1938 and before 1955 constitute employment are as follows:

(1) Services performed in 1939—26 CFR (1939) Part 400 (Regulations 90).

(2) Services performed after 1939 and before 1955—26 CFR (1939) Part 403 (Regulations 107).

§31.3306(c)-2   Employment; services performed after 1954.

(a) In general. Whether services performed after 1954 constitute employment is determined under subsections (c) and (n) of section 3306.

(b) Services performed within the United States. Services performed after 1954 within the United States (see §31.3306(j)-1) by an employee for the person employing him, unless specifically excepted under section 3306(c), constitute employment. With respect to services performed within the United States, the place where the contract of service is entered into is immaterial. The citizenship or residence of the employee or of the person employing him also is immaterial except to the extent provided in any specific exception from employment. Thus, the employee and the person employing him may be citizens and residents of a foreign country and the contract of service may be entered into in a foreign country, and yet, if the employee under such contract performs services within the United States, there may be to that extent employment.

(c) Services performed outside the United States—(1) In general. Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, services performed outside the United States (see §31.3306(j)-1) do not constitute employment.

(2) On or in connection with an American vessel or American aircraft. (i) This subparagraph relates to services performed after 1954 “on or in connection with” an American vessel, and to services performed after 1961 “on or in connection with” an American aircraft to the extent that the remuneration for the latter services is paid after 1961. Such services performed outside the United States by an employee for the person employing him constitute employment if:

(a) The employee is also employed “on and in connection with” such vessel or aircraft when outside the United States; and

(b) The services are performed under a contract of service, between the employee and the person employing him, which is entered into within the United States, or during the performance of the contract under which the services are performed and while the employee is employed on the vessel or aircraft it touches at a port within the United States; and

(c) The services are not excepted under section 3306(c). (See particularly §31.3306(c)(17)-1, relating to fishing.)

(ii) An employee performs services on and in connection with the vessel or aircraft if he performs services on the vessel or aircraft which are also in connection with the vessel or aircraft. Services performed on the vessel by employees as officers or members of the crew, or as employees of concessionaires, of the vessel, for example, are performed under such circumstances, since the services are also connected with the vessel. Similarly, services performed on the aircraft by employees as officers or members of the crew of the aircraft are performed on and in connection with such aircraft. Services may be performed on the vessel or aircraft, however, which have no connection with it, as in the case of services performed by an employee while on the vessel or aircraft merely as a passenger in the general sense. For example, the services of a buyer in the employ of a department store while he is a passenger on a vessel are not in connection with the vessel.

(iii) If services are performed by an employee “on and in connection with” an American vessel or American aircraft when outside the United States and the conditions in (b) and (c) of paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section are met, then the services of that employee performed on or in connection with the vessel or aircraft constitute employment. The expression “on or in connection with” refers not only to services performed on the vessel or aircraft but also to services connected with the vessel or aircraft which are not actually performed on it (for example, shore services performed as officers or members of the crew, or as employees of concessionaires, of the vessel).

(iv) Services performed by a member of the crew or other employee whose contract of service is not entered into within the United States, and during the performance of which and while the employee is employed on the vessel or aircraft it does not touch at a port within the United States, do not constitute employment, notwithstanding that service performed by other members of the crew or other employees on or in connection with the vessel or aircraft may constitute employment.

(v) A vessel includes every description of watercraft, or other contrivance, used as a means of transportation on water. An aircraft includes every description of craft, or other contrivance, used as a means of transportation through the air. In the case of an aircraft, the term “port” means an airport. An airport means an area on land or water used regularly by aircraft for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo. For definitions of “American vessel” and “American aircraft”, see §31.3306(m)-1.

(vi) With respect to services performed outside the United States on or in connection with an American vessel or American aircraft, the citizenship or residence of the employee is immaterial, and the citizenship or residence of the employer is material only in case it has a bearing in determining whether a vessel is an American vessel.

[T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6636, June 27, 1963]

§31.3306(c)-3   Employment; excepted services in general.

(a) Services performed by an employee for the person employing him do not constitute employment for purposes of the tax if they are specifically excepted from employment under any of the numbered paragraphs of section 3306(c). Services so excepted do not constitute employment for purposes of the tax even though they are performed within the United States, or are performed outside the United States on or in connection with an American vessel or American aircraft. If not otherwise provided in the regulations relating to the numbered paragraphs of section 3306(c), such regulations apply with respect to services performed after 1954.

(b) The exception attaches to the services performed by the employee and not to the employee as an individual; that is, the exception applies only to the services rendered by the employee in an excepted class.

Example. A is an individual who is employed part time by B to perform services which constitutes “agricultural labor” (see §31.3306 (k)-1). A is also employed by C part time to perform services as a grocery clerk in a store owned by him. While A's services which constitute “agricultural labor” are expected, the exception does not embrace the services performed by A as a grocery clerk in the employ of C and the latter services are not excepted from employment.

(c) For provisions relating to the circumstances under which services which are excepted are nevertheless deemed to be employment, and relating to the circumstances under which services which are not excepted are nevertheless deemed not to be employment, see §31.3306(d)-1.

[T.D. 6516, 25 FR 13032, Dec. 20, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6637, June 27, 1963]

§31.3306(c)(1)-1   Agricultural labor.

Services performed by an employee for the person employing him which constitute “agricultural labor” as defined in section 3306(k) are excepted from employment. For provisions relating to the definition of the term “agricultural labor”, see §31.3306(k)-1.

§31.3306(c)(2)-1   Domestic service.

(a) In a private home. (1) Services of a household nature performed by an employee in or about a private home of the person by whom he is employed are excepted from employment. A private home is a fixed place of abode of an individual or family. A separate and distinct dwelling unit maintained by an individual in an apartment house, hotel, or other similar establishment may constitute a private home. If a dwelling house is used primarily as a boarding or lodging house for the purpose of supplying board or lodging to the public as a business enterprise, it is not a private home and the services performed therein are not excepted.

(2) In general, services of a household nature in or about a private home include services performed by cooks, waiters, butlers, housekeepers, governesses, maids, valets, baby sitters, janitors, laundresses, furnacemen, caretakers, handymen, gardeners, footmen, grooms, and chauffeurs of automobile for family use.

(b) In a local college club or local chapter of a college fraternity or sorority. (1) Services of a household nature performed by an employee in or about the club rooms or house of a local college club or of a local chapter of a college fraternity or sorority by which he is employed are excepted from employment. A local college club or local chapter of a college fraternity or sorority does not include an alumni club or chapter. If the club rooms or house of a local college club or local chapter of a college fraternity or sorority is used primarily for the purpose of supplying board or lodging to students or the public as a business enterprise, the services performed therein are not within the exception.

(2) In general, services of a household nature in or about the club rooms or house of a local college club or local chapter of a college fraternity or sorority include services rendered by cooks, waiters, butlers, maids, janitors, laundresses, furnacemen, handymen, gardeners, housekeepers, and housemothers.

(c) Services not excepted. Services not of a household nature, such as services performed as a private secretary, tutor, or librarian, even though performed in the employer's private home or in a local college club or local chapter of a college fraternity or sorority, are not within the exception. Services of a household nature are not within the exception if performed in or about rooming or lodging houses, boarding houses, clubs (except local college clubs), hotels, hospitals, eleemosynary institutions, or commercial offices or establishments.

§31.3306(c)(3)-1   Services not in the course of employer's trade or business.

(a) Services not in the course of the employer's trade or business performed by an employe for an employer in a calendar quarter are excepted from employment unless—

(1) The cash remuneration paid for such services performed by the employee for the employer in the calendar quarter is $50 or more; and

(2) Such employee is regularly employed in the calendar quarter by such employer to perform such services.

Unless the tests set forth in both paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section are met, the services are excepted from employment.

(b) The term “services not in the course of the employer's trade or business” includes services that do not promote or advance the trade or business of the employer. Services performed for a corporation do not come within the exception.

(c) The test relating to cash remuneration of $50 or more is based on the remuneration earned during a calendar quarter rather than on the remuneration paid in a calendar quarter. However, for purposes of determining whether the test is met, it is also required that the remuneration be paid, although it is immaterial when the remuneration is paid. Furthermore, in determining whether $50 or more has been paid for services not in the course of the employer's trade or business, only cash remuneration for such services shall be taken into account. The term “cash remuneration” includes checks and other monetary media of exchange. Remuneration paid in any other medium, such as lodging, food, or other goods or commodities, is disregarded in determining whether the cash-remuneration test is met.

(d) For purposes of this exception, an individual is deemed to be regularly employed by an employer during a calendar quarter only if—

(1) Such individual performs services not in the course of the employer's trade or business for such employer for some portion of the day on at least 24 days (whether or not consecutive) during such calendar quarter; or

(2) Such individual was regularly employed (as determined under paragraph (d)(1) of this section) by such employer in the performance of services not in the course of the employer's trade or business during the preceding calendar quarter (including the last calendar quarter of 1954).

(e) In determining whether an employee has performed services not in the course of the employer's trade or business on at least 24 days during a calendar quarter, there shall be counted as one day—

(1) Any day or portion thereof on which the employee actually performs such services; and

(2) Any day or portion thereof on which the employee does not perform services of the prescribed character but with respect to which cash remuneration is paid or payable to the employee for such services, such as a day on which the employee is sick or on vacation.

An employee who on a particular day reports for work and, at the direction of his employer, holds himself in readiness to perform services not in the course of the employer's trade or business shall be considered to be engaged in the actual performance of such services on that day. For purposes of this exception, a day is a period of 24 hours commencing at midnight and ending at midnight.

(f) For provisions relating to the exclusion from wages of remuneration paid in any medium other than cash for services not in the course of the employer's trade or business, see §31.3306(b) (7)-1.

§31.3306(c)(4)-1   Services on or in connection with a non-American vessel or aircraft.

(a) Services performed within the United States by an employee for an employer “on or in connection with” a vessel not an American vessel, or “on or in connection with” an aircraft not an American aircraft, are excepted from employment if the employee is employed by the employer “on and in connection with” the vessel or aircraft when outside the United States.

(b) An employee performs services on and in connection with the vessel or aircraft if he performs services on the vessel or aircraft when outside the United States which are also in connection with the vessel or aircraft. Services performed on the vessel outside the United States by employees as officers or members of the crew, or by employees of concessionaires, of the vessel, for example, are performed under such circumstances, since such services are also connected with the vessel. Similarly, services performed on the aircraft outside the United States by employees as officers or members of the crew of the aircraft are performed on and in connection with such aircraft. Services may be performed on the vessel or aircraft, however, which have no connection with it, as in the case of services performed by an employee while on the vessel or aircraft merely as a passenger in the general sense. For example, the services of a buyer in the employ of a department store while he is a passenger on a vessel are not in connection with the vessel.

(c) The expression “on or in connection with” refers not only to services performed on the vessel or aircraft but also to services connected with the vessel or aircraft which are not actually performed on it (for example, shore services performed as officers or members of the crew, or as employees of concessionaires, of the vessel).

(d) The citizenship or residence of the employee and the place where the contract of service is entered into are immaterial for purposes of this exception, and the citizenship or residence of the person employing him is material only in case it has a bearing in determining whether the vessel is an American vessel. For definitions of the terms “vessel” and “aircraft”, see paragraph (c)(2)(v) of §31.3306(c)-2. For definitions of the terms “American vessel” and “American aircraft”, see §31.3306(m)-1.

(e) Since the only services performed outside the United States which constitute employment are those described in section 3306(c) and paragraph (c) of §31.3306(c)-2 (relating to services performed outside the United States on or in connection with an American vessel or American aircraft), services performed outside the United States on or in connection with a vessel not an American vessel, or an aircraft not an American aircraft, do not constitute employment in any event.

(f) The provisions of section 3306(c) (4) and of this section, insofar as they relate to services performed on or in connection with an aircraft not an American aircraft, apply only to services performed after 1961 for which remuneration is paid after 1961.

[T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6637, June 27, 1963]

§31.3306(c)(5)-1   Family employment.

(a) Certain services are excepted from employment because of the existence of a family relationship between the employee and the individual employing him. The exceptions are as follows:

(1) Services performed by an individual in the employ of his or her spouse;

(2) Services performed by a father or mother in the employ of his or her son or daughter; and

(3) Services performed by a son or daughter under the age of 21 in the employ of his or her father or mother.

(b) Under paragraph (a) (1) and (2) of this section, the exception is conditioned solely upon the family relationship between the employee and the individual employing him. Under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, in addition to the family relationship, there is a further requirement that the son or daughter shall be under the age of 21, and the exception continues only during the time that such son or daughter is under the age of 21.

(c) Services performed in the employ of a partnership are within the exception described in paragraph (a) of this section only if the requisite family relationship exists between the employee and each of the partners comprising the partnership.

(d) Services performed in the employ of a corporation are not within the exception described in paragraph (a) of this section, except that services performed in the employ of an entity that is treated as a corporation under §301.7701-2(c)(2)(iv)(B) of this chapter may qualify for the exception if the requirements of the exception are otherwise met. An entity that is treated as a corporation under §301.7701-2(c)(2)(iv)(B) of this chapter is not treated as the employer for purposes of applying section 3306(c)(5) and this section. For purposes of applying section 3306(c)(5) and this section, the owner of an entity that is treated as a corporation under §301.7701-2(c)(2)(iv)(B) of this chapter is treated as the employer.

(e) Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to wages paid on or after November 1, 2011. However, taxpayers may apply paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section to wages paid on or after January 1, 2009.

[T.D. 6516, 25 FR 13032, Dec. 20, 1960; 25 FR 14021, Dec. 31, 1960, as amended by T.D. 9554, 76 FR 67365, Nov. 1, 2011; T.D. 9670, 79 FR 36206, June 26, 2014]

§31.3306(c)(6)-1   Services in employ of United States or instrumentality thereof.

(a) Services in employ of United States or wholly-owned instrumentality thereof. Services performed in the employ of the United States Government, except as provided in section 3306(n) (see §31.3306(n)-1), are excepted from employment. Services performed in the employ of an instrumentality of the United States which is wholly owned by the United States also are excepted from employment.

(b) Services in employ of instrumentality not wholly owned by United States—(1) Services performed after 1961. Services performed after 1961 in the employ of an instrumentality of the United States which is partially owned by the United States are excepted from employment, if the remuneration for such service is paid after 1961. Services performed after 1961 in the employ of an instrumentality of the United States which is neither wholly owned nor partially owned by the United States are excepted from employment if (i) the instrumentality is exempt from the tax imposed by section 3301 by virtue of any provision of law which specifically refers to section 3301 or the corresponding section of prior law in granting exemption from such tax, and (ii) the remuneration for such service is paid after 1961. For provisions which make general exemptions from Federal taxation ineffectual as to the tax imposed by section 3301, see §31.3308-1.

(2) Services performed before 1962. Services performed in the employ of an instrumentality of the United States which is not wholly owned by the United States are excepted from employment if the instrumentality is exempt from the tax imposed by section 3301 by virtue of any other provision of law, and (i) the services are performed before 1962 or (ii) remuneration for the services is paid before 1962.

[T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6638, June 27, 1963]

§31.3306(c)(7)-1   Services in employ of States or their political subdivisions or instrumentalities.

(a) Services performed in the employ of any State, or of any political subdivision thereof, are excepted from employment. Services performed in the employ of an instrumentality of one or more States or political subdivisions thereof are excepted if the instrumentality is wholly owned by one or more of the foregoing. Services performed in the employ of an instrumentality of one or more of the several States or political subdivisions thereof which is not wholly owned by one or more of the foregoing are excepted only to the extent that the instrumentality is with respect to such services immune under the Constitution of the United States from the tax imposed by section 3301.

(b) For provisions relating to the term “State” see §31.3306(j)-1.

[T.D. 6516, 25 FR 13032, Dec. 20, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6638, June 27, 1963]

§31.3306(c)(8)-1   Services in employ of religious, charitable, educational, or certain other organizations exempt from income tax.

(a) Services performed after 1961. Services performed by an employee after 1961 in the employ of a religious, charitable, educational, or other organization described in section 501(c)(3) which is exempt from income tax under section 501(a) are excepted from employment, if the remuneration for such service is paid after 1961. For provisions relating to exemption from income tax of an organization described in section 501(c) (3), see Part 1 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

(b) Services performed before 1962. (1) Services performed by an employee in the employ of an organization described in section 3306(c)(8) as in effect before 1962, that is, a corporation, community chest, fund, or foundation, organized and operated exclusively for religious, charitable, scientific, testing for public safety, literary, or educational purposes, or for the prevention of cruelty to children or animals, no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual, and no substantial part of the activities of which is carrying on propaganda, or otherwise attempting, to influence legislation, are excepted from employment if (i) the services are performed before 1962, or (ii) remuneration for the services is paid before 1962.

(2) Any organization which is an organization of a type described in section 501(c)(3) and which—

(i) Is exempt from income tax under section 501(a), or

(ii) Has been denied exemption from income tax under section 501(a) by reason of the provisions of section 503 or 504, relating to prohibited transactions and to accumulations out of income, respectively,

is an organization of a type described in section 3306(c)(8) as in effect before 1962. An organization which would be an organization of a type described in section 501(c)(3) except for those provisions of section 501(c)(3) which are not contained in section 3306(c)(8) as in effect before 1962 (provisions relating to participation or intervention in a political campaign on behalf of a candidate for public office) is also an organization of a type described in section 3306(c)(8) as in effect before 1962.

[T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6638, June 27, 1963]

§31.3306(c)(9)-1   Railroad industry; services performed by an employee or an employee representative under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act.

(a) Services performed by an individual as an “employee” or as an “employee representative”, as those terms are defined in section 1 of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act, as amended, are excepted from employment.

(b) Section 1 of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act (45 U.S.C. 351), as amended, provides, in part, as follows:

For the purposes of this Act, except when used in amending the provisions of other Acts—

(a) The term “employer” means any carrier (as defined in subsection (b) of this section), and any company which is directly or indirectly owned or controlled by one or more such carriers or under common control therewith, and which operates any equipment or facility or performs any service (except trucking service, casual service, and the casual operation of equipment or facilities) in connection with the transportation of passengers or property by railroad, or the receipt, delivery elevation, transfer in transit, refrigeration or icing, storage, or handling of property transported by railroad, and any receiver, trustee, or other individual or body, judicial or otherwise, when in the possession of the property or operating all or any part of the business of any such employer: Provided, however, That the term “employer” shall not include any street, interurban, or suburban electric railway, unless such railway is operating as a part of a general steam-railroad system of transportation, but shall not exclude any part of the general steam-railroad system of transportation now or hereafter operated by any other motive power. The Interstate Commerce Commission is hereby authorized and directed upon request of the Board, or upon complaint of any party interested, to determine after hearing whether any line operated by electric power falls within the terms of this proviso. The term “employer” shall also include railroad associations, traffic associations, tariff bureaus, demurrage bureaus, weighing and inspection bureaus, collection agencies, and other associations, bureaus, agencies, or organizations controlled and maintained wholly or principally by two or more employers as hereinbefore defined and engaged in the performance of services in connection with or incidental to railroad transportation and railway labor organizations, national in scope, which have been or may be organized in accordance with the provisions of the Railway Labor Act, and their State and National legislative committees and their general committees and their insurance departments and their local lodges and divisions, established pursuant to the constitution and bylaws of such organizations. The term “employer” shall not include any company by reason of its being engaged in the mining of coal, the supplying of coal to an employer where delivery is not beyond the mine tipple, and the operation of equipment or facilities therefor, or in any of such activities.

(b) The term “carrier” means an express company, sleeping-car company, or carrier by railroad, subject to part I of the Interstate Commerce Act.

(c) The term “company” includes corporations, associations, and joint-stock companies.

(d) The term “employee” (except when used in phrases establishing a different meaning) means any individual who is or has been (i) in the service of one or more employers for compensation, or (ii) an employee representative. The term “employee” shall include an employee of a local lodge or division defined as an employer in section 1 (a) only if he was in the service of a carrier on or after August 29, 1935. The term “employee” includes an officer of an employer.

The term “employee” shall not include any individual while such individual is engaged in the physical operations consisting of the mining of coal, the preparation of coal, the handling (other than movement by rail with standard railroad locomotives) of coal not beyond the mine tipple, or the loading of coal at the tipple.

(e) An individual is in the service of an employer whether his service is rendered within or without the United States if (i) he is subject to the continuing authority of the employer to supervise and direct the manner of rendition of his service, or he is rendering professional or technical services and is integrated into the staff of the employer, or he is rendering, on the property used in the employer's operations, other personal services the rendition of which is integrated into the employer's operations, and (ii) he renders such service for compensation: Provided, however, That an individual shall be deemed to be in the service of an employer, other than a local lodge or division or a general committee of a railway-labor-organization employer, not conducting the principal part of its business in the United States only when he is rendering service to it in the United States; and an individual shall be deemed to be in the service of such a local lodge or division only if (1) all, or substantially all, the individuals constituting its membership are employees of an employer conducting the principal part of its business in the United States; or (2) the headquarters of such local lodge or division is located in the United States; and an individual shall be deemed to be in the service of such a general committee only if (1) he is representing a local lodge or division described in clauses (1) or (2) immediately above; or (2) all, or substantially all, the individuals represented by it are employees of an employer conducting the principal part of its business in the United States; or (3) he acts in the capacity of a general chairman or an assistant general chairman of a general committee which represents individuals rendering service in the United States to an employer, but in such case if his office or headquarters is not located in the United States and the individuals represented by such general committee are employees of an employer not conducting the principal part of its business in the United States, only such proportion of the remuneration for such service shall be regarded as compensation as the proportion which the mileage in the United States under the jurisdiction of such general committee bears to the total mileage under its jurisdiction, unless such mileage formula is inapplicable, in which case the Board may prescribe such other formula as it finds to be equitable, and if the application of such mileage formula, or such other formula as the Board may prescribe, would result in the compensation of the individual being less than 10 per centum of his remuneration for such service no part of such remuneration shall be regarded as compensation: Provided further, That an individual not a citizen or resident of the United States shall not be deemed to be in the service of an employer when rendering service outside the United States to an employer who is required under the laws applicable in the place where the service is rendered to employ therein, in whole or in part, citizens or residents thereof.

(f) The term “employee representative” means any officer or official representative of a railway labor organization other than a labor organization included in the term employer as defined in section 1(a) who before or after August 29, 1935, was in the service of an employer as defined in section 1(a) and who is duly authorized and designated to represent employees in accordance with the Railway Labor Act, and any individual who is regularly assigned to or regularly employed by such officer or official representative in connection with the duties of his office.

*   *   *   *   *

(i) The term “compensation” means any form of money remuneration, including pay for time lost but excluding tips, paid for services rendered as an employee to one or more employers, or as an employee representative: Provided, however, That in computing the compensation paid to any employee, no part of any month's compensation in excess of $300 for any month before July 1, 1954, or in excess of $350 for any month after June 30, 1954, and before the calendar month next following the month [May] in which this Act was amended in 1959, or in excess of $400 for any month after the month [May] in which this Act was so amended, shall be recognized. A payment made by an employer to an individual through the employer's pay roll shall be presumed, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, to be compensation for service rendered by such individual as an employee of the employer in the period with respect to which the payment is made. An employee shall be deemed to be paid, “for time lost” the amount he is paid by an employer with respect to an identifiable period of absence from the active service of the employer, including absence on account of personal injury, and the amount he is paid by the employer for loss of earnings resulting from his displacement to a less remunerative position or occupation. If a payment is made by an employer with respect to a personal injury and includes pay for time lost, the total payment shall be deemed to be paid for time lost unless, at the time of payment, a part of such payment is specifically apportioned to factors other than time lost, in which event only such part of the payment as is not so apportioned shall be deemed to be paid for time lost. Compensation earned in any calendar month before 1947 shall be deemed paid in such month regardless of whether or when payment will have been in fact made, and compensation earned in any calendar year after 1946 but paid after the end of such calendar year shall be deemed to be compensation paid in the calendar year in which it will have been earned if it is so reported by the employer before February 1 of the next succeeding calendar year or, if the employee establishes, subject to the provisions of section 8, the period during which such compensation will have been earned.

*   *   *   *   *

(r) The term “Board” means the Railroad Retirement Board.

(s) The term “United States”, when used in a geographical sense, means the States, Alaska, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia.

*   *   *   *   *

(Sec. 1, Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act, as amended by secs. 1 and 2, Act of June 20, 1939, 53 Stat. 845; secs. 1 and 3, Act of Aug. 13, 1940, 54 Stat. 785, 786; sec. 15, Act of Apr. 8, 1942, 56 Stat. 210; secs. 1 and 2, Act of July 31, 1946, 60 Stat. 722; sec. 302, Act of Aug. 31, 1954, 68 Stat. 1040; sec. 301, Act of May 19, 1959, Pub. L. 86-28, 73 Stat. 30)

[T.D. 6516, 25 FR 13032, Dec. 20, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6638, June 27, 1963]

§31.3306(c)(10)-1   Services in the employ of certain organizations exempt from income tax.

(a) In general. (1) This section deals with the exception from employment of certain services performed in the employ of any organization exempt from income tax under section 501(a) (other than an organization described in section 401(a)) or under section 521. (See the provisions of §§1.401-1, 1.501(a)-1, and 1.521-1 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).) If the services meet the tests set forth in paragraphs (b), (c), (d), or (e) of this section, the services are excepted.

(2) See also §31.3306(c)(8)-1 for provisions relating to the exception of services performed in the employ of religious, charitable, educational, or certain other organizations exempt from income tax; §31.3306(c)(10)-2 for provisions relating to the exception of services performed by certain students in the employ of a school, college, or university; and §31.3306(c)(10)-3 for provisions relating to the exception of services performed before 1962 in the employ of certain employees' beneficiary associations.

(b) Remuneration less than $50 for calendar quarter. Services performed by an employee in a calendar quarter in the employ of an organization exempt from income tax under section 501(a) (other than an organization described in section 401(a)) or under section 521 are excepted from employment, if the remuneration for the service is less than $50. The test relating to remuneration of $50 is based on the remuneration earned during a calendar quarter rather than on the remuneration paid in a calendar quarter. The exception applies separately with respect to each organization for which the employee renders services in a calendar quarter. The type of services performed by the employee and the place where the services are performed are immaterial; the statutory tests are the character of the organization in the employ of which the services are performed and the amount of the remuneration for services performed by the employee in the calendar quarter.

Example 1. X is a local lodge of a fraternal organization and is exempt from income tax under section 501(a) as an organization of the character described in section 501 (c)(8). X has a number of paid employees, among them being A who serves exclusively as recording secretary for the lodge, and B who performs services for the lodge as janitor of its clubhouse. For services performed during the first calendar quarter of 1955 (that is, January 1, 1955, through March 31, 1955, both dates inclusive) A earns a total of $30. For services performed during the same calendar quarter B earns $180. Since the remuneration for the services performed by A during such quarter is less than $50, all of such services are excepted. Thus, A is not counted as an employee in employment on any of the days during such quarter for purposes of determining whether the X organization is an employer (see §31.3306(a)-1). Even though it is subsequently determined that X is an employer, A's remuneration of $30 for services performed during the first calendar quarter of such year is not subject to tax. B's services, however, are not excepted during such quarter since the remuneration therefor is not less than $50. Thus, B is counted as an employee in employment during all of such quarter for purposes of determining whether the X organization is an employer. If it is determined that the X organization is an employer, B's remuneration of $180 for services performed during the first calendar quarter is included in computing the tax.

Example 2. The facts are the same as in example 1, above, except that on April 1, 1955, A's salary is increased and, for services performed during the calendar quarter beginning on that date (that is, April 1, 1955, through June 30, 1955, both dates inclusive), A earns $60. Although all of the services performed by A during the first quarter were excepted, none of A's services performed during the second quarter are excepted since the remuneration for such services is not less than $50. A, therefore, is counted as an employee in employment during all of the second quarter for the purpose of determining whether the X organization is an employer. If it is determined that the X organization is an employer, A's remuneration of $60 for services performed during the second calendar quarter is included in computing the tax.

Example 3. The facts are the same as in example 1, above, except that A earns $120 for services performed during the year 1955, and such amount is paid to him in a lump sum at the end of the year. The services performed by A in any calendar quarter during the year are excepted if the portion of the $120 attributable to services performed in that quarter is less than $50. In such case, A is not counted as an employee in employment on any of the days during such quarter for purposes of determining whether the X organization is an employer. If, however, the portion of the $120 attributable to services performed in any calendar quarter during the year is not less than $50, the services during that quarter are not excepted. In the latter case, A is counted as an employee in employment during all of such quarter and, if it is determined that the X organization is an employer, that portion of the $120 attributable to services performed in such quarter is included in computing the tax.

(c) Collection of dues or premiums for fraternal beneficiary societies, and ritualistic services in connection with such societies, before 1962. The following services performed by an employee in the employ of a fraternal beneficiary society, order, or association exempt from income tax under section 501(a) are excepted from employment if the services are performed before 1962 or if remuneration for the services is paid before 1962:

(1) Services performed away from the home office of such a society, order, or association in connection with the collection of dues or premiums for such society, order, or association; and

(2) Ritualistic services (wherever performed) in connection with such a society, order, or association.

For purposes of the paragraph the amount of the remuneration for services performed by the employee in the calendar quarter is immaterial; the tests are the character of the organization in whose employ the services are performed, the type of services, and, in the case of collection of dues or premiums, the place where the services are performed.

(d) Students employed before 1962. (1) Services performed in the employ of an organization exempt from income tax under section 501(a) (other than an organization described in section 401(a)) or under section 521 by a student who is enrolled and is regularly attending classes at a school, college, or university, are excepted from employment if the services are performed before 1962 or if remuneration for the services is paid before 1962. For purposes of this paragraph, the amount of remuneration for services performed by the employee in the calendar quarter, the type of services, and the place where the services are performed are immaterial; the tests are the character of the organization in whose employ the services are performed and the status of the employee as a student enrolled and regularly attending classes at a school, college, or university.

(2) The term “school, college, or university” as used in this paragraph is to be taken in its commonly or generally accepted sense. For provisions relating to services performed before 1962 by a student enrolled and regularly attending classes at a school, college, or university not exempt from income tax in the employ of such school, college, or university, see paragraph (b) of §31.3306(c)(10)-2. For provisions relating to services performed after 1961 by a student enrolled and regularly attending classes at a school, college, or university in the employ of such school, college, or university, see paragraph (a) or §31.3306(c)(10)-2.

(e) Services performed before 1962 in employ of agricultural or horticultural organization exempt from income tax. (1) Services performed by an employee in the employ of an agricultural or horticultural organization which is described in section 501(c)(5) and the regulations thereunder and which is exempt from income tax under section 501(a) are excepted from employment if the services are performed before 1962 or if remuneration for the services is paid before 1962.

(2) For purposes of this paragraph, the type of services performed by the employee, the amount of remuneration for the services, and the place where the services are performed are immaterial; the test is the character of the organization in whose employ the services are performed.

[T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6639, June 27, 1963]

§31.3306(c)(10)-2   Services of student in employ of school, college, or university.

(a) Services performed after 1961. Services performed after 1961 in the employ of a school, college, or university, by a student who is enrolled and is regularly attending classes at the school, college, or university, are excepted from employment (whether or not the school, college, or university is exempt from income tax), if remuneration for the services is paid after 1961.

(b) Services performed before 1962. Services performed in the employ of a school, college, or university not exempt from income tax under section 501(a), by a student who is enrolled and is regularly attending classes at the school, college, or university, are excepted from employment if the services are performed before 1962 or if remuneration for the services is paid before 1962.

(c) General rule. (1) For purposes of this section, the tests are the character of the organization in the employ of which the services are performed and the status of the employee as a student enrolled and regularly attending classes at the school, college, or university described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, in the employ of which the employee performs the services. If an employee has the status of a student within the meaning of paragraph (d) of this section, the type of services performed by the employee, the place where the services are performed, and the amount of remuneration for services performed by the employee are not material.

(2) School, college, or university. An organization is a school, college, or university within the meaning of section 3306(c)(10)(B) if its primary function is the presentation of formal instruction, it normally maintains a regular faculty and curriculum, and it normally has a regularly enrolled body of students in attendance at the place where its educational activities are regularly carried on. See section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) and the regulations thereunder.

(d) Student Statusgeneral rule. Whether an employee has the status of a student within the meaning of section 3306(c)(10)(B) performing the services shall be determined based on the relationship of the employee with the organization for which the services are performed. In order to have the status of a student within the meaning of section 3306(c)(10)(B), the employee must perform services in the employ of a school, college, or university described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section at which the employee is enrolled and regularly attending classes in pursuit of a course of study within the meaning of paragraphs (d)(1) and (2) of this section. In addition, the employee's services must be incident to and for the purpose of pursuing a course of study at such school, college, or university within the meaning of paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(1) Enrolled and regularly attending classes. An employee must be enrolled and regularly attending classes at a school, college, or university within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2) of this section at which the employee is employed to have the status of a student within the meaning of section 3306(c)(10)(B). An employee is enrolled within the meaning of section 3306(c)(10)(B) if the employee is registered for a course or courses creditable toward an educational credential described in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. In addition, the employee must be regularly attending classes to have the status of a student. For purposes of this paragraph (d)(1), a class is an instructional activity led by a faculty member or other qualified individual hired by the school, college, or university within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2) of this section for identified students following an established curriculum. The frequency of these and similar activities determines whether an employee may be considered to be regularly attending classes.

(2) Course of study. An employee must be pursuing a course of study in order to have the status of a student within the meaning of section 3306(c)(10)(B). A course of study is one or more courses the completion of which fulfills the requirements necessary to receive an educational credential granted by a school, college, or university within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2) of this section. For purposes of this paragraph, an educational credential is a degree, certificate, or other recognized educational credential granted by an organization described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. In addition, a course of study is one or more courses at a school, college or university within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2) of this section the completion of which fulfills the requirements necessary for the employee to sit for an examination required to receive certification by a recognized organization in a field.

(3) Incident to and for the purpose of pursuing a course of study. (i) General rule. An employee's services must be incident to and for the purpose of pursuing a course of study in order for the employee to have the status of a student. Whether an employee's services are incident to and for the purpose of pursuing a course of study shall be determined on the basis of the relationship of the employee with the organization for which such services are performed as an employee. The educational aspect of the relationship between the employer and the employee, as compared to the service aspect of the relationship, must be predominant in order for the employee's services to be incident to and for the purpose of pursuing a course of study. The educational aspect of the relationship is evaluated based on all the relevant facts and circumstances related to the educational aspect of the relationship. The service aspect of the relationship is evaluated based on all the relevant facts and circumstances related to the employee's employment. The evaluation of the service aspect of the relationship is not affected by the fact that the services performed by the employee may have an educational, instructional, or training aspect. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(3)(iii) of this section, whether the educational aspect or the service aspect of an employee's relationship with the employer is predominant is determined by considering all the relevant facts and circumstances. Relevant factors in evaluating the educational and service aspects of an employee's relationship with the employer are described in paragraphs (d)(3)(iv) and (v) of this section respectively. There may be facts and circumstances that are relevant in evaluating the educational and service aspects of the relationship in addition to those described in paragraphs (d)(3)(iv) and (v) of this section.

(ii) Student status determined with respect to each academic term. Whether an employee's services are incident to and for the purpose of pursuing a course of study is determined separately with respect to each academic term. If the relevant facts and circumstances with respect to an employee's relationship with the employer change significantly during an academic term, whether the employee's services are incident to and for the purpose of pursuing a course of study is reevaluated with respect to services performed during the remainder of the academic term.

(iii) Full-time employee. The services of a full-time employee are not incident to and for the purpose of pursuing a course of study. The determination of whether an employee is a full-time employee is based on the employer's standards and practices, except regardless of the employer's classification of the employee, an employee whose normal work schedule is 40 hours or more per week is considered a full-time employee. An employee's normal work schedule is not affected by increases in hours worked caused by work demands unforeseen at the start of an academic term. However, whether an employee is a full-time employee is reevaluated for the remainder of the academic term if the employee changes employment positions with the employer. An employee's work schedule during academic breaks is not considered in determining whether the employee's normal work schedule is 40 hours or more per week. The determination of the employee's normal work schedule is not affected by the fact that the services performed by the individual may have an educational, instructional, or training aspect.

(iv) Evaluating educational aspect. The educational aspect of an employee's relationship with the employer is evaluated based on all the relevant facts and circumstances related to the educational aspect of the relationship. The educational aspect of an employee's relationship with the employer is generally evaluated based on the employee's course workload. Whether an employee's course workload is sufficient in order for the employee's employment to be incident to and for the purpose of pursuing a course of study depends on the particular facts and circumstances. A relevant factor in evaluating an employee's course workload is the employee's course workload relative to a full-time course workload at the school, college or university within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2) of this section at which the employee is enrolled and regularly attending classes.

(v) Evaluating service aspect. The service aspect of an employee's relationship with the employer is evaluated based on the facts and circumstances related to the employee's employment. Services of an employee with the status of a full-time employee within the meaning of paragraph (d)(3)(iii) of this section are not incident to and for the purpose of pursuing a course of study. Relevant factors in evaluating the service aspect of an employee's relationship with the employer are described in paragraphs (d)(3)(v)(A), (B), and (C) of this section.

(A) Normal work schedule and hours worked. If an employee is not a full-time employee within the meaning of paragraph (d)(3)(iii) of this section, then the employee's normal work schedule and number of hours worked per week are relevant factors in evaluating the service aspect of the employee's relationship with the employer. As an employee's normal work schedule or actual number of hours worked approaches 40 hours per week, it is more likely that the service aspect of the employee's relationship with the employer is predominant. The determination of the employee's normal work schedule and actual number of hours worked is not affected by the fact that some of the services performed by the individual may have an educational, instructional, or training aspect.

(B) Professional employee. (1) If an employee has the status of a professional employee, then that suggests that the service aspect of the employee's relationship with the employer is predominant. A professional employee is an employee—

(i) Whose primary duty consists of the performance of work requiring knowledge of an advanced type in a field of science or learning customarily acquired by a prolonged course of specialized intellectual instruction and study, as distinguished from a general academic education, from an apprenticeship, and from training in the performance of routine mental, manual, or physical processes;

(ii) Whose work requires the consistent exercise of discretion and judgment in its performance; and

(iii) Whose work is predominantly intellectual and varied in character (as opposed to routine mental, manual, mechanical, or physical work) and is of such character that the output produced or the result accomplished cannot be standardized in relation to a given period of time.

(2) Licensed, professional employee. If an employee is a licensed, professional employee, then that further suggests the service aspect of the employee's relationship with the employer is predominant. An employee is a licensed, professional employee if the employee is required to be licensed under state or local law to work in the field in which the employee performs services and the employee is a professional employee within the meaning of paragraph (d)(3)(v)(B)(1) of this section.

(C) Employment Benefits. Whether an employee is eligible to receive employment benefits is a relevant factor in evaluating the service aspect of an employee's relationship with the employer. For example, eligibility to receive vacation, paid holiday, and paid sick leave benefits; eligibility to participate in a retirement plan described in section 401(a); or eligibility to receive employment benefits such as reduced tuition, or benefits under section 79 (life insurance), 127 (qualified educational assistance), 129 (dependent care assistance programs), or 137 (adoption assistance) suggest that the service aspect of an employee's relationship with the employer is predominant. Eligibility to receive health insurance employment benefits is not considered in determining whether the service aspect of an employee's relationship with the employer is predominant. The weight to be given the fact that an employee is eligible for a particular benefit may vary depending on the type of employment benefit. For example, eligibility to participate in a retirement plan is generally more significant than eligibility to receive a dependent care employment benefit. Additional weight is given to the fact that an employee is eligible to receive an employment benefit if the benefit is generally provided by the employer to employees in positions generally held by non-students.

(e) Effective date. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to services performed on or after April 1, 2005.

[T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6640, June 27, 1963, as amended by T.D. 9167, 69 FR 76410, Dec. 21, 2004]

§31.3306(c)(10)-3   Services before 1962 in employ of certain employees' beneficiary associations.

(a) Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations. Services performed by an employee in the employ of a voluntary employees' beneficiary association providing for the payment of life, sick, accident, or other benefits to the members of such association or their dependents are excepted from employment if—

(1) No part of its net earnings inures (other than through such payments) to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual,

(2) 85 percent or more of the income consists of amounts collected from members for the sole purpose of making such payments and meeting expenses, and

(3) The services are performed before 1962, or remuneration for the services is paid before 1962.

(b) Federal employees' beneficiary associations. Services performed by an employee in the employ of a voluntary employees' beneficiary association providing for the payment of life, sick, accident, or other benefits to the members of such association or their dependents or their designated beneficiaries are excepted from employment if—

(1) Admission to membership in the association is limited to individuals who are officers or employees of the United States Government,

(2) No part of the net earnings of the association inures (other than through such payments) to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual, and

(3) The services are performed before 1962, or remuneration for the services is paid before 1962.

(c) Application of tests. For purposes of this section, the type of services performed by the employee, the amount of remuneration for the services, and the place where the services are performed are immaterial; the test is the character of the organization in whose employ the services are performed.

[T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6640, June 27, 1963]

§31.3306(c)(11)-1   Services in employ of foreign government.

(a) Services performed by an employee in the employ of a foreign government are excepted from employment. The exception includes not only services performed by ambassadors, ministers, and other diplomatic officers and employees but also services performed as a consular or other officer or employee of a foreign government, or as a nondiplomatic representative thereof.

(b) For purposes of this exception, the citizenship or residence of the employee is immaterial. It is also immaterial whether the foreign government grants an equivalent exemption with respect to similar services performed in the foreign country by citizens of the United States.

§31.3306(c)(12)-1   Services in employ of wholly owned instrumentality of foreign government.

(a) Services performed by an employee in the employ of certain instrumentalities of a foreign government are excepted from employment. The exception includes all services performed in the employ of an instrumentality of the government of a foreign country, if—

(1) The instrumentality is wholly owned by the foreign government;

(2) The services are of a character similar to those performed in foreign countries by employees of the United States Government or of an instrumentality thereof; and

(3) The Secretary of State certifies to the Secretary of the Treasury that the foreign government, with respect to whose instrumentality exemption is claimed, grants an equivalent exemption with respect to services performed in the foreign country by employees of the United States Government and of instrumentalities thereof.

(b) For purposes of this exception, the citizenship or residence of the employee is immaterial.

§31.3306(c)(13)-1   Services of student nurse or hospital intern.

(a) Services performed as a student nurse in the employ of a hospital or a nurses' training school are excepted from employment, if the student nurse is enrolled and regularly attending classes in a nurses' training school and such nurses' training school is chartered or approved pursuant to State law.

(b) Services performed as an intern (as distinguished from a resident doctor) in the employ of a hospital are excepted from employment, if the intern has completed a 4 years' course in a medical school chartered or approved pursuant to State law.

§31.3306(c)(14)-1   Services of insurance agent or solicitor.

(a) Services performed for a person by an employee as an insurance agent or insurance solicitor are excepted from employment, if all such services performed for such person by such individual are performed for remuneration solely by way of commission.

(b) If all or any part of the remuneration of an employee for services performed as an insurance agent or insurance solicitor for a person is a salary, none of his services performed as an insurance agent or insurance solicitor for such person are excepted from employment, and his total remuneration (for example, salary, or salary and commissions) for such services is included for purposes of computing the tax.

§31.3306(c)(15)-1   Services in delivery or distribution of newspapers, shopping news, or magazines.

(a) Services of individuals under age 18. Services performed by an employee under the age of 18 in the delivery or distribution of newspapers or shopping news, not including delivery or distribution (as, for example, by a regional distributor) to any point for subsequent delivery or distribution, are excepted from employment. Thus, the services performed by an employee under the age of 18 in making house-to-house delivery or sale of newspapers or shopping news, including handbills and other similar types of advertising material, are excepted. The services are excepted irrespective of the form or method of compensation. Incidental services by the employee who makes the house-to-house delivery, such as services in assembling newspapers, are considered to be within the exception. The exception continues only during the time that the employee is under the age of 18.

(b) Services of individuals of any age. Services performed by an employee in, and at the time of, the sale of newspapers or magazines to ultimate consumers under an arrangement under which the newspapers or magazines are to be sold by him at a fixed price, his compensation being based on the retention of the excess of such price over the amount at which the newspapers or magazines are charged to him, are excepted from employment. The services are excepted whether or not the employee is guaranteed a minimum amount of compensation for such services, or is entitled to be credited with the unsold newspapers or magazines turned back. Moreover, the services are excepted without regard to the age of the employee. Services performed other than at the time of sale to the ultimate consumer are not within the exception. Thus, the services of a regional distributor which are antecedent to but not immediately part of the sale to the ultimate consumer are not within the exception. However, incidental services by the employee who makes the sale to the ultimate consumer, such as services in assembling newspapers or in taking newspapers or magazines to the place of sale, are considered to be within the exception.

§31.3306(c)(16)-1   Services in employ of international organization.

(a) Subject to the provisions of section 1 of the International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U.S.C. 228), services performed in the employ of an international organization as defined in section 7701(a)(18) are excepted from employment.

(b) (1) Section 701(a)(18) provides as follows:

Sec. 7701. Definitions. (a) When used in this title, where not otherwise distinctly expressed or manifestly incompatible with the intent thereof—

*   *   *   *   *

(18) International organization. The term “international organization” means a public international organization entitled to enjoy privileges, exemptions, and immunities as an international organization under the International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U.S.C. 288-288f).

(2) Section 1 of the International Organizations Immunities Act provides as follows:

Sec. 1. [International Organizations Immunities Act.] For the purposes of this title [International Organizations Immunities Act], the term “international organization” means a public international organization in which the United States participates pursuant to any treaty or under the authority of any Act of Congress authorizing such participation or making an appropriation for such participation, and which shall have been designated by the President through appropriate Executive order as being entitled to enjoy the privileges, exemptions, and immunities herein provided. The President shall be authorized, in the light of the functions performed by any such international organization, by appropriate Executive order to withhold or withdraw from any such organization or its officers or employees any of the privileges, exemptions, and immunities provided for in this title (including the amendments made by this title) or to condition or limit the enjoyment by any such organization or its officers or employees of any such privilege, exemption, or immunity. The President shall be authorized, if in his judgment such action should be justified by reason of the abuse by an international organization or its officers and employees of the privileges, exemptions, and immunities herein provided or for any other reason, at any time to revoke the designation of any international organization under this section, whereupon the international organization in question shall cease to be classed as an international organization for the purposes of this title.

§31.3306(c)(17)-1   Fishing services.

(a) In general. Subject to the limitations prescribed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, services described in this paragraph are excepted from employment. Services performed by an individual in the catching, taking, harvesting, cultivating, or farming of any kind of fish, shell-fish (for example, oysters, clams, and mussels), crustacea (for example, lobsters, crabs, and shrimps), sponges, seaweeds, or other aquatic forms of animal and vegetable life are excepted. The exception extends to services performed as an officer or member of the crew of a vessel while the vessel is engaged in any such activity whether or not the officer or member of the crew is himself so engaged. In the case of an individual who is engaged in any such activity in the employ of any person, the services performed, by such individual in the employ of such person, as an ordinary incident to any such activity are also excepted. Similarly, for example, the shore services of an officer or member of the crew of a vessel engaged in any such activity are excepted if such services are an ordinary incident to any such activity. Services performed as an ordinary incident to any such activity may include, for example, services performed in such cleaning, icing, and packing of fish as are necessary for the immediate preservation of the catch.

(b) Salmon and halibut fishing. Services performed in connection with the catching or taking of salmon or halibut, for commercial purposes, are not within the exception. Thus, neither the services of an officer or member of the crew of a vessel (irrespective of its tonnage) which is engaged in the catching or taking of salmon or halibut, for commercial purposes, nor the services of any other individual in connection with such activity, are within the exception.

(c) Vessels of more than 10 net tons. Services described in paragraph (a) of this section performed on or in connection with a vessel of more than 10 net tons are not within the exception. For purposes of the exception, the tonnage of the vessel shall be determined in the manner provided for determining the register tonnage of merchant vessels under the laws of the United States.

§31.3306(c)(18)-1   Services of certain nonresident aliens.

(a) (1) Services performed after 1961 by a nonresident alien individual who is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under subparagraph (F) or (J) of section 101(a) (15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101), as amended, are excepted from employment if the services are performed to carry out a purpose for which the individual was admitted. For purposes of this section an alien individual who is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under such subparagraph (F) or (J) is deemed to be a nonresident alien individual. The preceding sentence does not apply to the extent it is inconsistent with section 7701(b) and the regulations under that section. A nonresident alien individual who is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under such subparagraph (J) includes an alien individual admitted to the United States as an “exchange visitor” under section 201 of the United States Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948 (22 U.S.C. 1446).

(2) If services are performed by a nonresident alien individual's alien spouse or minor child, who is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under subparagraph (F) or (J) of section 101(a)(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended, the services are not deemed for purposes of this section to be performed to carry out a purpose for which such individual was admitted. The services of such spouse or child are excepted from employment under this section only if the spouse or child was admitted for a purpose specified in such subparagraph (F) or (J) and if the services are performed to carry out such purpose.

(b) Section 101 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101), as amended, provides, in part, as follows:

Sec. 101. Definitions. [Immigration and Nationality Act (66 Stat. 166)]

(a) As used in this chapter—*  *  *

(15) The term immigrant means every alien except an alien who is within one of the following classes of nonimmigrant aliens—

*   *   *   *   *

(F) (i) An alien having a residence in a foreign country which he has no intention of abandoning, who is a bona fide student qualified to pursue a full course of study and who seeks to enter the United States temporarily and solely for the purpose of pursuing such a course of study at an established institution of learning or other recognized place of study in the United States, particularly designated by him and approved by the Attorney General after consultation with the Office of Education of the United States, which institution or place of study shall have agreed to report to the Attorney General the termination of attendance of each nonimmigrant student, and if any such institution of learning or place of study fails to make reports promptly the approval shall be withdrawn, and (ii) the alien spouse and minor children of any such alien if accompanying him or following to join him;

*   *   *   *   *

(J) An alien having a residence in a foreign country which he has no intention of abandoning who is a bona fide student, scholar, trainee, teacher, professor, research assistant, specialist, or leader in a field of specialized knowledge or skill, or other person of similar description, who is coming temporarily to the United States as a participant in a program designated by the Secretary of State, for the purpose of teaching, instructing or lecturing, studying, observing, conducting research, consulting, demonstrating special skills, or receiving training, and the alien spouse and minor children of any such alien if accompanying him or following to join him.

*   *   *   *   *

(Sec. 101, Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended by sec. 101, Act of June 27, 1952, 66 Stat. 166; sec. 109, Act of Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 534)

[T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6640, June 27, 1963, as amended by T.D. 8411, 57 FR 15241, Apr. 27, 1992]

§31.3306(d)-1   Included and excluded service.

(a) If a portion of the services performed by an employee for the person employing him during a pay period constitutes employment, and the remainder does not constitute employment, all the services of the employee during the period shall for purposes of the tax be treated alike, that is, either all as included or all as excluded. The time during which the employee performs services which under section 3306(c) constitute employment, and the time during which he performs services which under such section do not constitute employment, within the pay period, determine whether all the services during the pay period shall be deemed to be included or excluded.

(b) If one-half or more of the employee's time in the employ of a particular person in a pay period is spent in performing services which constitute employment, then all the services of that employee for that person in that pay period shall be deemed to be employment.

(c) If less than one-half of the employee's time in the employ of a particular person in a pay period is spent in performing services which constitute employment, then none of the services of that employee for that person in that pay period shall be deemed to be employment.

(d) The application of the provisions of paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Employer B, who operates a farm and a store, employs A to perform services in connection with both operations. A's services on the farm are such that they are excepted as agricultural labor and do not constitute employment, and his services in the store constitute employment. He is paid at the end of each month. During a particular month A works 120 hours on the farm and 80 hours in the store. None of A's services during the month are deemed to be employment, since less than one-half of his services during the month constitutes employment. During another month A works 75 hours on the farm and 120 hours in the store. All of A's services during the month are deemed to be employment, since one-half or more of his services during the month constitutes employment.

Example 2. Employee C is employed as a maid by D, a medical doctor, whose home and office are located in the same building. C's services in the home are excepted as domestic service and do not constitute employment, and her services in the office constitute employment. She is paid each week. During a particular week C works 20 hours in the home and 20 hours in the office. All of C's services during that week are deemed to be employment, since one-half or more of her services during the week constitutes employment. During another week C works 22 hours in the home and 15 hours in the office. None of C's services during that week are deemed to be employment, since less than one-half of her services during the week constitutes employment.

(e) For purposes of this section, a “pay period” is the period (of not more than 31 consecutive calendar days) for which a payment of remuneration is ordinarily made to the employee by the person employing him. Thus, if the periods for which payments of remuneration are made to the employee by such person are of uniform duration, each such period constitutes a “pay period”. If, however, the periods occasionally vary in duration, the “pay period” is the period for which a payment of remuneration is ordinarily made to the employee by such person, even though that period does not coincide with the actual period for which a particular payment of remuneration is made. For example, if a person ordinarily pays a particular employee for each calendar week at the end of the week, but the employee receives a payment in the middle of the week for the portion of the week already elapsed and receives the remainder at the end of the week, the “pay period” is still the calendar week; or if, instead, that employee is sent on a trip by such person and receives at the end of the third week a single remuneration payment for 3 weeks' services, the “pay period” is still the calendar week.

(f) If there is only one period (and such period does not exceed 31 consecutive calendar days) for which a payment of remuneration is made to the employee by the person employing him, such period is deemed to be a “pay period” for purposes of this section.

(g) The rules set forth in this section do not apply (1) with respect to any services performed by the employee for the person employing him if the periods for which such person makes payments of remuneration to the employee vary to the extent that there is no period “for which a payment of remuneration is ordinarily made to the employee,” or (2) with respect to any services performed by the employee for the person employing him if the period for which a payment of remuneration is ordinarily made to the employee by such person exceeds 31 consecutive calendar days, or (3) with respect to any service performed by the employee for the person employing him during a pay period if any of such service is excepted by section 3306(c) (9) (see §31.3306(c) (9)-1).

(h) If during any period for which a person makes a payment of remuneration to an employee only a portion of the employee's services constitutes employment, but the rules prescribed in this section are not applicable, the tax attaches with respect to such services as constitute employment as defined in section 3306(c) (provided such person is an employer as defined in section 3306(a) and §31.3306(a)-1).

§31.3306(i)-1   Who are employees.

(a) Every individual is an employee if the relationship between him and the person for whom he performs services is the legal relationship of employer and employee. (The word “employer” as used in this section only, notwithstanding the provisions of §31.3306(a)-1, includes a person who employs one or more employees.)

(b) Generally such relationship exists when the person for whom services are performed has the right to control and direct the individual who performs the services, not only as to the result to be accomplished by the work but also as to the details and means by which that result is accomplished. That is, an employee is subject to the will and control of the employer not only as to what shall be done but how it shall be done. In this connection, it is not necessary that the employer actually direct or control the manner in which the services are performed; it is sufficient if he has the right to do so. The right to discharge is also an important factor indicating that the person possessing that right is an employer. Other factors characteristic of an employer, but not necessarily present in every case, are the furnishing of tools and the furnishing of a place to work, to the individual who performs the services. In general, if an individual is subject to the control or direction of another merely as to the result to be accomplished by the work and not as to the means and methods for accomplishing the result, he is an independent contractor. An individual performing services as an independent contractor is not as to such services an employee. Individuals such as physicians, lawyers, dentists, veterinarians, construction contractors, public stenographers, and auctioneers, engaged in the pursuit of an independent trade, business, or profession, in which they offer their services to the public, are independent contractors and not employees.

(c) Whether the relationship of employer and employee exists will in doubtful cases be determined upon an examination of the particular facts of each case.

(d) If the relationship of employer and employee exists, the designation or description of the relationship by the parties as anything other than that of employer and employee is immaterial. Thus, if such relationship exists, it is of no consequence that the employee is designated as a partner, coadventurer, agent, independent contractor, or the like.

(e) All classes or grades of employees are included within the relationship of employer and employee. Thus, superintendents, managers, and other supervisory personnel are employees. Generally, an officer of a corporation is an employee of the corporation. However, an officer of a corporation who as such does not perform any services or performs only minor services and who neither receives nor is entitled to receive, directly or indirectly, any remuneration is considered not to be an employee of the corporation. A director of a corporation in his capacity as such is not an employee of the corporation.

(f) Although an individual may be an employee under this section, his services may be of such a nature, or performed under such circumstances, as not to constitute employment (see §31.3306(c)-2).

§31.3306(j)-1   State, United States, and citizen.

(a) When used in the regulations in this subpart, the term “State” includes the District of Columbia, the Territories of Alaska and Hawaii before their admission as States, and (when used with respect to remuneration paid after 1960 for services performed after 1960) the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(b) When used in the regulations in this subpart, the term “United States”, when used in a geographical sense, means the several States (including the Territories of Alaska and Hawaii before their admission as States), and the District of Columbia. When used in the regulations in this subpart with respect to remuneration paid after 1960 for services performed after 1960, the term “United States” also includes the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico when the term is used in a geographical sense, and the term “citizen of the United States” includes a citizen of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

[T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6641, June 27, 1963]

§31.3306(k)-1   Agricultural labor.

(a) In general. (1) Services performed by an employee for the person employing him which constitute “agricultural labor” as defined in section 3306(k) are excepted from employment by reason of section 3306(c)(1). See §31.3306(c)(1)-1. The term “agricultural labor” as defined in section 3306(k) includes services of the character described in paragraphs (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this section. In general, however, the term does not include services performed in connection with forestry, lumbering, or landscaping.

(2) The term “farm” as used in this subpart includes stock, dairy, poultry, fruit, fur-bearing animal, and truck farms, plantations, ranches, nurseries, ranges, orchards, and such greenhouses and other similar structures as are used primarily for the raising of agricultural or horticultural commodities. Greenhouses and other similar structures used primarily for other purposes (for example, display, storage, and fabrication of wreaths, corsages, and bouquets) do not constitute “farms”.

(b) Services described in section 3306(k)(1). Services performed on a farm by an employee of any person in connection with any of the following activities constitute agricultural labor:

(1) The cultivation of the soil;

(2) The raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training, or management of livestock, bees, poultry, fur-bearing animals, or wildlife; or

(3) The raising or harvesting of any other agricultural or horticultural commodity.

(c) Services described in section 3306(k)(2). (1) The following services performed by an employee in the employ of the owner or tenant or other operator of one or more farms constitute agricultural labor, if the major part of such services is performed on a farm:

(i) Services performed in connection with the operation, management, conservation, improvement, or maintenance of any such farms or its tools or equipment; or

(ii) Services performed in salvaging timber, or clearing land of brush and other debris, left by a hurricane.

(2) The services described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section may include, for example, services performed by carpenters, painters, mechanics, farm supervisors, irrigation engineers, bookkeepers, and other skilled or semiskilled workers, which contribute in any way to the conduct of the farm or farms, as such, operated by the person employing them, as distinguished from any other enterprise in which such person may be engaged.

(3) Since the services described in this paragraph must be performed in the employ of the owner or tenant or other operator of the farm, services performed by employees of a commercial painting concern, for example, which contracts with a farmer to renovate his farm properties, do not constitute agricultural labor.

(d) Services described in section 3306(k)(3). Services performed by an employee in the employ of any person in connection with any of the following operations constitute agricultural labor without regard to the place where such services are performed:

(1) The ginning of cotton;

(2) The hatching of poultry;

(3) The raising or harvesting of mushrooms;

(4) The operation or maintenance of ditches, canals, reservoirs, or waterways used exclusively for supplying or storing water for farming purposes;

(5) The production or harvesting of maple sap or the processing of maple sap into maple sirup or maple sugar (but not the subsequent blending or other processing of such sirup or sugar with other products); or

(6) The production or harvesting of crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree or the processing of such crude gum into gum spirits of turpentine and gum rosin provided such processing is carried on by the original producer of such crude gum.

(e) Services described in section 3306(k)(4). (1)(i) Services performed by an employee in the employ of a farmer or a farmers' cooperative organization or group in the handling, planting, drying, packing, packaging, processing, freezing, grading, storing, or delivering to storage or to market or to a carrier for transportation to market, of any agricultural or horticultural commodity, other than fruits and vegetables (see paragraph (e)(2) of this section), produced by such farmer or farmer-members of such organization or group of farmers constitute agricultural labor, if such services are performed as an incident to ordinary farming operations.

(ii) Generally services are performed “as an incident to ordinary farming operations” within the meaning of this paragraph if they are services of the character ordinarily performed by the employees of a farmer or of a farmers' cooperative organization or group as a prerequisite to the marketing, in its unmanufactured state, of any agricultural or horticultural commodity produced by such farmer or by the members of such farmers' organization or group. Services performed by employees of such farmer or farmers' organization or group in the handling, planting, drying, packing, packaging, processing, freezing, grading, storing, or delivering to storage or to market or to a carrier for transportation to market, of commodities produced by persons other than such farmer or members of such farmers' organization or group are not performed “as an incident to ordinary farming operations”.

(2) Services performed by an employee in the employ of any person in the handling, planting, drying, packing, packaging, processing, freezing, grading, storing, or delivering to storage or to market or to a carrier for transportation to market, of fruits and vegetables, whether or not of a perishable nature, constitute agricultural labor, if such services are performed as an incident to the preparation of such fruits and vegetables for market. For example, if services in the sorting, grading, or storing of fruits, or in the cleaning of beans, are performed as an incident to their preparation for market, such services may constitute agricultural labor, whether performed in the employ of a farmer, a farmers' cooperative, or a commercial handler of such commodities.

(3) The services described in paragraphs (e)(1) and (2) of this section do not include services performed in connection with commercial canning or commercial freezing or in connection with any commodity after its delivery to a terminal market for distribution for consumption. Moreover, since the services described in such subparagraphs must be rendered in the actual handling, planting, drying, packing, packaging, processing, freezing, grading, storing, or delivering to storage or to market or to a carrier for transportation to market, of the commodity, such services do not, for example, include services performed as stenographers, bookkeepers, clerks, and other office employees, even though such services may be in connection with such activities. However, to the extent that the services of such individuals are performed in the employ of the owner or tenant or other operator of a farm and are rendered in major part on a farm, they may be within the provisions of paragraph (c) of this section.

§31.3306(m)-1   American vessel and aircraft.

(a) The term “American vessel” means any vessel which is documented (that is, registered, enrolled, or licensed) or numbered in conformity with the laws of the United States. It also includes any vessel which is neither documented nor numbered under the laws of the United States, nor documented under the laws of any foreign country, if the crew of such vessel is employed solely by one or more citizens or residents of the United States or corporations organized under the laws of the United States or of any State. (For provisions relating to the terms “State” and “citizen”, see §31.3306(j)-1.)

(b) The term “American aircraft” means any aircraft registered under the laws of the United States.

(c) For provisions relating to services performed outside the United States on or in connection with an American vessel or American aircraft, see paragraph (c) of §31.3306(c)-2.

[T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6641, June 27, 1963]

§31.3306(n)-1   Services on American vessel whose business is conducted by general agent of Secretary of Commerce.

(a) Section 3306(n) and this section of the regulations apply with respect only to services performed by an officer or member of the crew of an American vessel (1) which is owned by or bareboat chartered to the United States, and (2) whose business is conducted by a general agent of the Secretary of Commerce. Whether services performed by such an officer or member of a crew under the above conditions constitute employment is determined under section 3306(c) and (n), but without regard to section 3306(c)(6). See §31.3306(c)(6)-1, relating to services performed in the employ of the United States and instrumentalities thereof. If, without regard to section 3306(c)(6), such services constitute employment, they are not excepted from employment by reason of the fact that they are performed on or in connection with an American vessel which is owned by or bareboat chartered to the United States and whose business is conducted by a general agent of the Secretary of Commerce, that is, such services are not excepted from employment by section 3306(c)(6). For provisions relating to services performed within the United States and services performed outside the United States which constitute employment, see §31.3306(c)-2.

(b) The expression “officer or member of the crew” includes the master or officer in charge of the vessel, however designated, and every individual, subject to his authority, serving on board and contributing in any way to the operation and welfare of the vessel. Thus, the expression includes, for example, the master, mates, pilots, pursers, surgeons, stewards, engineers, firemen, cooks, clerks, carpenters, and deck hands.

(c) An employee of the United States who performs services as an officer or member of the crew of an American vessel which is owned by or bareboat chartered to the United States and whose business is conducted by a general agent of the Secretary of Commerce shall be deemed, under section 3306(n), to be performing services for such general agent rather than for the United States. Any such general agent of the Secretary of Commerce is considered a legal entity in his capacity as such general agent, separate and distinct from his identity as a person employing individuals on his own account. Each such general agent who in his capacity as such qualifies as an employer under section 3306(a) is with respect to each calendar year for which he so qualifies subject to the tax imposed by section 3301, and to all the requirements imposed upon an employer as defined in section 3306(a) by the regulations in this part, with respect to services which constitute employment by reason of section 3306(n) and this section of the regulations.

§31.3306(p)-1   Employees of related corporations.

(a) In general. For purposes of sections 3301, 3302, and 3306(b)(1), when two or more related corporations concurrently employ the same individual and compensate that individual through a common paymaster which is one of the related corporations for which the individual performs services, each of the corporations is considered to have paid only the remuneration it actually disburses to that individual (unless the disbursing corporation fails to remit the taxes due). Paragraphs (b) and (c) of §31.3121(s)-1 contain rules defining related corporations, common paymasters, and concurrent employment, and rules for determining the liability of the other related corporations for employment taxes if the common paymaster fails to remit the taxes pursuant to sections 3102 and 3111, and for allocating these taxes among the related corporations. Those rules also apply to the tax under section 3301. For purposes of applying those rules to this section, references in those rules to section 3111 are considered references to sections 3301 and 3302, and references to section 3121 are considered references to section 3306.

(b) Allocation of credit for contributions to State unemployment funds. A special rule for applying the rules of §31.3121(s)-1 to this section applies if it is necessary to determine the ultimate liability of each related corporation for which services are performed in the event the common paymaster fails to remit the tax to the Internal Revenue Service. In determining the ultimate liability of a corporation, the credit for contributions to State unemployment funds that the corporation may claim under section 3302 is calculated as if each corporation were a separate employer.

(c) Effective date. This section is effective with respect to wages paid after December 31, 1978.

[T.D. 7660, 44 FR 75142, Dec. 19, 1979]

§31.3306(r)(2)-1   Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans.

(a) In general. Section 3306(r)(2) provides a special timing rule for the tax imposed by section 3301 with respect to any amount deferred under a nonqualified deferred compensation plan. Section 31.3121(v)(2)-1 contains rules relating to when amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans are wages for purposes of sections 3121(v)(2), 3101, and 3111. The rules in §31.3121(v)(2)-1 also apply to the special timing rule of section 3306(r)(2). For purposes of applying the rules in §31.3121(v)(2)-1 to section 3306(r)(2) and this paragraph (a), references to the Federal Insurance Contributions Act are considered references to the Federal Unemployment Tax Act (26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq.), references to FICA are considered references to FUTA, references to section 3101 or 3111 are considered references to section 3301, references to section 3121(v)(2) are considered references to section 3306(r)(2), references to section 3121(a), (a)(5), and (a)(13) are considered references to section 3306(b), (b)(5), and (b)(10), respectively, and references to §31.3121(a)-2(a) are considered references to §31.3301-4.

(b) Effective dates and transition rules. Except as otherwise provided, section 3306(r)(2) applies to remuneration paid after December 31, 1984. Section 31.3121(v)(2)-2 contains effective date rules for certain remuneration paid after December 31, 1983, for purposes of section 3121(v)(2). The rules in §31.3121(v)(2)-2 also apply to section 3306(r)(2). For purposes of applying the rules in §31.3121(v)(2)-2 to section 3306(r)(2) and this paragraph (b), references to section 3121(v)(2) are considered references to section 3306(r)(2), and references to section 3121(a)(2), (a)(3), or (a)(13) are considered references to section 3306(b)(2), (b)(3), or (b)(10), respectively. In addition, references to §31.3121(v)(2)-1 are considered references to paragraph (a) of this section. For purposes of applying the rules of §31.3121(v)(2)-2 to this paragraph (b)—

(1) References to “December 31, 1983” are considered references to “December 31, 1984”;

(2) References to “before 1984” are considered references to “before 1985”;

(3) References to “Federal Insurance Contributions Act” are considered references to “Federal Unemployment Tax Act”; and

(4) References to “FICA” are considered references to “FUTA”.

[64 FR 4541, Jan. 29, 1999]

§31.3307-1   Deductions by an employer from remuneration of an employee.

Any amount deducted by an employer from the remuneration of an employee is considered to be a part of the employee's remuneration and is considered to be paid to the employee as remuneration at the time that the deduction is made. It is immaterial that any act of Congress or the law of any State requires or permits such deductions and the payment of the amount thereof to the United States, a State, or any political subdivision thereof.

§31.3308-1   Instrumentalities of the United States specifically exempted from tax imposed by section 3301.

Section 3308 makes ineffectual as to the tax imposed by section 3301 (with respect to remuneration paid after 1961 for services performed after 1961) those provisions of law which grant to an instrumentality of the United States an exemption from taxation, unless such provisions grant a specific exemption from the tax imposed by section 3301 by an express reference to such section or the corresponding section of prior law. Thus, the general exceptions from Federal taxation granted by various statutes to certain instrumentalities of the United States without specific reference to the tax imposed by section 3301 or the corresponding section of prior law are rendered inoperative insofar as such exemptions relate to the tax imposed by section 3301. For provisions relating to the exception from employment of services performed in the employ of an instrumentality of the United States specifically exempted from the tax imposed by section 3301, see §31.3306(c)(6)-1.

[T.D. 6658, 28 FR 6641, June 27, 1963]

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