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e-CFR data is current as of October 16, 2020

Title 25Chapter ISubchapter BPart 11 → Subpart K


Title 25: Indians
PART 11—COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE


Subpart K—Minor-in-Need-of-Care Procedure


Contents
§11.1100   Complaint.
§11.1101   Warrant.
§11.1102   Custody.
§11.1103   Law enforcement officer's duties.
§11.1104   Shelter care.
§11.1105   Preliminary inquiry.
§11.1106   Investigation by the presenting officer.
§11.1107   Petition.
§11.1108   Date of hearing.
§11.1109   Summons.
§11.1110   Minor-in-need-of-care adjudicatory hearing.
§11.1111   Minor-in-need-of-care dispositional hearing.
§11.1112   Dispositional alternatives.
§11.1113   Modification of dispositional order.
§11.1114   Termination.
§11.1115   Information collection.

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§11.1100   Complaint.

A complaint must be filed by a law enforcement officer or by the presenting officer and sworn to by a person who has knowledge of the facts alleged. The complaint shall be signed by the complaining witness and shall contain:

(a) A citation to the specific section of this part which gives the children's court jurisdiction of the proceedings;

(b) The name, age and address of the minor who is the subject of the complaint, if known; and

(c) A plain and concise statement of the facts upon which the allegations are based, including the date, time and location at which the alleged facts occurred.

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§11.1101   Warrant.

The children's court may issue a warrant, directing that a minor be taken into custody if the children's court finds there is probable cause to believe the minor is a minor-in-need-of-care.

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§11.1102   Custody.

A minor may be taken into custody by a law enforcement officer if:

(a) The officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the minor is a minor-in-need-of-care and that the minor is in immediate danger from his or her surroundings and that removal is necessary; or

(b) A warrant pursuant to §11.1101 of this part has been issued for the minor.

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§11.1103   Law enforcement officer's duties.

Upon taking a minor into custody the officer shall:

(a) Release the minor to the minor's parents, guardian or custodian and issue a verbal advice or warning as may be appropriate, unless shelter care is necessary.

(b) If the minor is not released, make immediate and recurring efforts to notify the minor's parents, guardian or custodian to inform them that the minor has been taken into custody and inform them of their right to be present with the minor until an investigation to determine the need for shelter care is made by the children's court.

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§11.1104   Shelter care.

(a) A minor alleged to be a minor-in-need-of-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places:

(1) A foster care facility authorized under tribal or state law to provide foster care, group care or protective residence;

(2) A private family home approved by the tribe; or

(3) A shelter care facility operated by a licensed child welfare services agency and approved by the tribe.

(b) A minor alleged to be a minor-in-need-of care may not be detained in a jail or other facility used for the detention of adults. If such minor is detained in a facility used for the detention of juvenile offenders, he or she must be detained in a room separate from juvenile offenders, and routine inspection of the room where the minor is detained must be conducted every 30 minutes to assure his or her safety and welfare.

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§11.1105   Preliminary inquiry.

(a) If a minor is placed in shelter care, the children's court shall conduct a preliminary inquiry with 24 hours for the purpose of determining:

(1) Whether probable cause exists to believe the minor is a minor-in-need-of care; and

(2) Whether continued shelter care is necessary pending further proceedings.

(b) If a minor has been released to the parents, guardian or custodian, the children's court shall conduct a preliminary inquiry within three days after receipt of the complaint for the sole purpose of determining whether probable cause exists to believe the minor is a minor-in-need-of-care.

(c) If the minor's parents, guardian or custodian is not present at the preliminary inquiry, the children's court shall determine what efforts have been made to notify and obtain the presence of the parent, guardian or custodian. If it appears that further efforts are likely to produce the parent, guardian or custodian, the children's court shall recess for no more than 24 hours and direct that continued efforts be made to obtain the presence of the parents, guardian or custodian.

(d) All the rights listed in §11.906 of this part shall be afforded the parties in the minor-in-need-of care preliminary inquiry except that the court is not required to appoint counsel if the parties cannot afford one. Notice of the inquiry shall be given to the minor, and his or her parents, guardian or custodian and their counsel as soon as the time for the inquiry has been established.

(e) The children's court shall hear testimony concerning:

(1) The circumstances that gave rise to the complaint or the taking of the minor into custody; and

(2) The need for shelter care.

(f) If the children's court finds that probable cause exists to believe the minor is a minor-in-need-of-care, the minor shall be released to the parents, guardian or custodian, and ordered to appear at the adjudicatory hearing, unless:

(1) There is reasonable cause to believe that the minor will run away and be unavailable for further proceedings;

(2) There is reasonable cause to believe that the minor is in immediate danger from parents, guardian or custodian and that removal from them is necessary; or

(3) There is a reasonable cause to believe that the minor will commit a serious act causing damage to person or property.

(g) The children's court may release the minor pursuant to paragraph (f) of this section to a relative or other responsible adult tribal member if the parents, guardian or custodian of the minor consent to the release. If the minor is ten years to age or older, the minor and the parents, guardian or custodian must both consent to the release.

(h) Upon finding that probable cause exists to believe that the minor is a minor-in-need-of-care and that there is a need for shelter care, the minor's shelter care shall be continued. Otherwise, the complaint shall be dismissed and the minor released.

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§11.1106   Investigation by the presenting officer.

The presenting officer shall make an investigation following the preliminary inquiry or the release of the minor to the parents, guardian or custodian to determine whether the interests of the minor and the public require that further action be taken. Upon the basis of this investigation, the presenting officer may:

(a) Determine that no further action be taken; or

(b) File a petition pursuant to §11.1107 of this part in the children's court to initiate further proceedings. The petition shall be filed within 48 hours of the preliminary inquiry if the minor is in shelter care. If the minor has been previously released to the parents, guardian or custodian, relative or responsible adult, the petition shall be filed within ten days of the preliminary inquiry.

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§11.1107   Petition.

Proceedings under §§11.1100-11.1114 of this part shall be instituted by a petition filed by the presenting officer on behalf of the tribe and the interests of the minor. The petition shall state:

(a) The name, birth date, and residence of the minor;

(b) The names and residences of the minor's parents, guardian or custodian;

(c) A citation to the specific section of this part which gives the children's court jurisdiction of the proceedings; and

(d) If the minor is in shelter care, the place of shelter care and the time he or she was taken into custody.

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§11.1108   Date of hearing.

Upon receipt of the minor-in-need-of-care petition, the children's court shall set a date for the hearing which shall not be more than 15 days after the children's court receives the petition from the presenting officer. If the adjudicatory hearing is not held within 15 days after the filing of the petition, it shall be dismissed unless;

(a) The hearing is continued upon motion of the minor; or

(b) The hearing is continued upon motion of the presenting officer by reason of the unavailability of material evidence or witnesses and the children's court finds the presenting officer has exercised due diligence to obtain the material evidence or witnesses and reasonable grounds exist to believe that the material evidence or witnesses will become available.

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§11.1109   Summons.

(a) At least five working days prior to the adjudicatory hearing for a minor-in-need-of-care, the children's court shall issue summons to:

(1) The minor;

(2) The minor's parents, guardian or custodian; and

(3) Any person the children's court or the minor believes necessary for the proper adjudication of the hearing.

(b) The summons shall contain the name of the court; the title of the proceedings, and the date, time and place of the hearing.

(c) A copy of the petition shall be attached to the summons.

(d) The summons shall be delivered personally by a tribal law enforcement officer or appointee of the children's court. If the summons cannot be delivered personally, the court may deliver it by certified mail.

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§11.1110   Minor-in-need-of-care adjudicatory hearing.

(a) The children's court shall conduct the adjudicatory hearing for the sole purpose of determining whether the minor is a minor-in-need-of-care. The hearing shall be private and closed.

(b) All the rights listed in §11.906 of this part shall be afforded the parties in the adjudicatory hearing, except that the court may not appoint counsel if the parties cannot afford one. The notice requirements of §11.906(a) are met by a summons issued pursuant to §11.1109.

(c) The children's court shall hear testimony concerning the circumstances which gave rise to the complaint.

(d) If the circumstances of the petition are sustained by clear and convincing evidence, the children's court shall find the minor to be a minor-in-need-of-care and proceed to the dispositional hearing.

(e) A finding that a minor is a minor-in-need-of-care constitutes a final order for purposes of appeal.

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§11.1111   Minor-in-need-of-care dispositional hearing.

(a) No later than 15 days after the adjudicatory hearing, a dispositional hearing shall take place to hear evidence on the question of proper disposition.

(b) All the rights listed in §11.906 of this part shall be afforded the parties in the dispositional hearing except the right to free court-appointed counsel. Notice of the hearing shall be given to the parties at least 48 hours before the hearing.

(c) At the dispositional hearing the children's court shall consider any predisposition report or other study it may have ordered and afford the parties an opportunity to controvert the factual contents and conclusions of the reports. The children's court shall also consider the alternative predisposition report prepared by the minor and his or her attorney, if any.

(d) The dispositional order constitutes a final order for purposes of appeal.

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§11.1112   Dispositional alternatives.

(a) If a minor has been adjudged a minor-in-need-of-care, the children's court may:

(1) Permit the minor to remain with his or her parents, guardian or custodian subject to such limitations and conditions as the court may prescribe; or, if reasonable efforts to have the minor return or remain in his or her own home are unsuccessful, the children's court may make whichever of the following dispositions is in the best interest of the minor;

(2) Place the minor with a relative within the boundaries of the reservation subject to such limitations and conditions as the court may prescribe;

(3) Place the minor in a foster home within the boundaries of the reservation which has been approved by the tribe subject to such limitations and conditions as the court may prescribe;

(4) Place the minor in shelter care facilities designated by the court;

(5) Place the minor in a foster home or a relative's home outside the boundaries of the reservation subject to such limitations and conditions as the court may prescribe; or

(6) Recommend that termination proceedings begin.

(b) Whenever a minor is placed in a home or facility located outside the boundaries of the reservation, the court may require the party receiving custody of the minor to sign an agreement that the minor will be returned to the court upon order of the court.

(c) The dispositional orders are to be in effect for the time limit set by the children's court, but no order may continue after the minor reaches 18 years of age, unless the dispositional order was made within six months of the minor's eighteenth birthday, in which case the disposition may not continue for more than six months.

(d) The dispositional orders are to be reviewed at the children's court discretion, but at least once every six months to determine the continuing need for and appropriateness of placement, to determine the extent of progress made, and to assess the probability of the minor's return to his or her home.

(e) A permanency planning hearing must be held within 18 months after the original placement and every six months thereafter to determine the future status of the minor except when the minor is returned to his or her home and court supervision ceases.

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§11.1113   Modification of dispositional order.

(a) A dispositional order of the children's court may be modified upon a showing of a change of circumstances.

(b) The children's court may modify a dispositional order at any time upon motion of the minor or the minor's parents, guardian or custodian.

(c) If the modification involves a change of custody, the children's court shall conduct a hearing pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section to review the dispositional order.

(d) A hearing to review a dispositional order shall be conducted as follows:

(1) All the rights listed in §11.906 of this part shall be afforded the parties in the review of the disposition hearing except the right to free court-appointed counsel. Notice of the hearing shall be given the parties at least 48 hours before the hearing.

(2) The children's court shall review the performance of the minor, the minor's parents, guardian or custodian, and other persons providing assistance to the minor and the minor's family.

(3) In determining modification of disposition, the procedures prescribed in §11.1111 of this part shall apply.

(4) If the request for review of disposition is based upon an alleged violation of a court order, the children's court shall not modify its dispositional order unless it finds clear and convincing evidence of the violation.

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§11.1114   Termination.

(a) Parental rights to a child may be terminated by the children's court according to the procedures in this section.

(b) Proceedings to terminate parental rights shall be instituted by a petition filed by the presenting officer on behalf of the tribe or by the parents or guardian of the child. The petition shall state:

(1) The name, birth date, and residence of the minor;

(2) The names and residences of the minor's parents, guardian or custodian;

(3) If the child is in detention or shelter care, the place of detention or shelter care and the time he was taken into custody; and

(4) The reasons for the petition.

(c) Upon receipt of the petition, the children's court shall set a date for the termination hearing which shall not be more than 15 days after the children's court receives the petition from the presenting officer. The hearing may be continued:

(1) On motion of the minor's parents, guardian or custodian; or

(2) Upon motion of the presenting officer by reason of the unavailability of material evidence or witnesses and the children's court finds the presenting officer has exercised due diligence to obtain the material evidence or witnesses and reasonable grounds exist to believe that the material evidence or witnesses will become available.

(d) Summons:

(1) At least five working days prior to the termination hearing, the children's court shall issue summons to the minor, the minor's parents, guardian or custodian, and any other person the court or the minor's parents, guardian or custodian believes necessary for the proper adjudication of the hearing.

(2) The summons shall contain the name of the court, the title of the proceedings, and the date, time and place of the hearing.

(3) A copy of the petition shall be attached to the summons.

(4) The summons shall be delivered personally by a law enforcement officer or appointee of the children's court. If the summons cannot be delivered personally, the court may deliver it by certified mail.

(e) The children's court shall conduct the termination hearing for the sole purpose of determining whether parental rights shall be terminated. The hearing shall be private and closed.

(1) All the rights listed in §11.906 shall be afforded the parties in the termination hearing except the right to a free court-appointed counsel. The minor's parents may not be compelled to be witnesses against, nor otherwise incriminate themselves.

(2) The children's court shall hear testimony concerning the circumstances that gave rise to the petition, and the need for termination of parental rights.

(3) The children's court may terminate parental rights if, following efforts to prevent or eliminate the need to remove the minor, it finds such efforts to have been unsuccessful, and it finds beyond a reasonable doubt that:

(i) The child has been abandoned;

(ii) The minor has suffered physical injuries, willfully and repeatedly inflicted by his or her parent(s) which cause or create a substantial risk of death, disfigurement, or impairment of bodily functions;

(iii) The parent(s) has subjected the minor to willful and repeated acts of sexual abuse;

(iv) The minor has suffered serious emotional or mental harm due to the act of the parent(s); or

(v) The voluntary written consent of both parents has been acknowledged before the court.

(f) Dispositional alternatives:

(1) If parental rights to a child are terminated, the children's court shall place the minor in a foster care or shelter care facility which has been approved by the tribe, and follow the adoption procedures of the tribe, or, in their absence, the adoption procedures of the state within which it is located.

(2) If parental rights to a child are not terminated, the children's court shall make a disposition according to §11.1112 of this part.

(g) The termination order constitutes a final order for purposes of appeal.

(h) No adjudication of termination of parental rights shall affect the minor's enrollment status as a member of any tribe or the minor's degree of blood quantum of any tribe.

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§11.1115   Information collection.

(a) The information collection requirements contained in §11.600 and §11.606 have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq., and assigned approval number 1076-0094. The information is being collected to obtain a marriage license (§11.600) and a divorce decree (§11.606) from the Courts of Indian Offenses, and will be used by the courts to issue a marriage license or divorce decree. Response to this request is required to obtain a benefit.

(b) Public reporting for this information collection is estimated to average .25 hours per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, gathering and maintaining data, and completing and reviewing the information collection. Direct comments regarding the burden estimate or any other aspect of this information collection to the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Information Collection Clearance Officer, Room 336-SIB, 1849 C Street, NW., Washington, DC 20240; and the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs [Project 1076-0094], Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC 20502.

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