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e-CFR data is current as of July 1, 2020

Title 21Chapter ISubchapter HPart 870 → Subpart B


Title 21: Food and Drugs
PART 870—CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES


Subpart B—Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices


Contents
§870.1025   Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).
§870.1100   Blood pressure alarm.
§870.1110   Blood pressure computer.
§870.1120   Blood pressure cuff.
§870.1130   Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.
§870.1140   Venous blood pressure manometer.
§870.1200   Diagnostic intravascular catheter.
§870.1210   Continuous flush catheter.
§870.1220   Electrode recording catheter or electrode recording probe.
§870.1230   Fiberoptic oximeter catheter.
§870.1240   Flow-directed catheter.
§870.1250   Percutaneous catheter.
§870.1251   Temporary catheter for embolic protection during transcatheter intracardiac procedures.
§870.1255   Balloon aortic valvuloplasty catheter.
§870.1270   Intracavitary phonocatheter system.
§870.1280   Steerable catheter.
§870.1290   Steerable catheter control system.
§870.1300   Catheter cannula.
§870.1310   Vessel dilator for percutaneous catheterization.
§870.1330   Catheter guide wire.
§870.1340   Catheter introducer.
§870.1350   Catheter balloon repair kit.
§870.1360   Trace microsphere.
§870.1370   Catheter tip occluder.
§870.1380   Catheter stylet.
§870.1390   Trocar.
§870.1415   Coronary vascular physiologic simulation software device.
§870.1425   Programmable diagnostic computer.
§870.1435   Single-function, preprogrammed diagnostic computer.
§870.1450   Densitometer.
§870.1650   Angiographic injector and syringe.
§870.1660   Indicator injector.
§870.1670   Syringe actuator for an injector.
§870.1750   External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.
§870.1800   Withdrawal-infusion pump.
§870.1875   Stethoscope.
§870.1915   Thermodilution probe.

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§870.1025   Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

(a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to produce a visible or audible signal or alarm when atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, such as premature contraction or ventricular fibrillation, occurs.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The guidance document entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Arrhythmia Detector and Alarm” will serve as the special control. See §870.1 for the availability of this guidance document.

[68 FR 61344, Oct. 28, 2003]

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§870.1100   Blood pressure alarm.

(a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood pressure transducer amplifier, processes the signal, and emits an alarm when the blood pressure falls outside a pre-set upper or lower limit.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1110   Blood pressure computer.

(a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal from a blood pressure transducer amplifier and indicates the systolic, diastolic, or mean pressure based on the input signal.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1120   Blood pressure cuff.

(a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an inelastic sleeve (cuff) with a mechanism for inflating and deflating the bladder. The cuff is used in conjunction with another device to determine a subject's blood pressure.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1130   Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

(a) Identification. A noninvasive blood pressure measurement system is a device that provides a signal from which systolic, diastolic, mean, or any combination of the three pressures can be derived through the use of tranducers placed on the surface of the body.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1140   Venous blood pressure manometer.

(a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous catheter to indicate manometrically the central or peripheral venous pressure.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1200   Diagnostic intravascular catheter.

(a) Identification. An intravascular diagnostic catheter is a device used to record intracardiac pressures, to sample blood, and to introduce substances into the heart and vessels. Included in this generic device are right-heart catheters, left-heart catheters, and angiographic catheters, among others.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1210   Continuous flush catheter.

(a) Identification. A continuous flush catheter is an attachment to a catheter-transducer system that permits continuous intravascular flushing at a slow infusion rate for the purpose of eliminating clotting, back-leakage, and waveform damping.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1220   Electrode recording catheter or electrode recording probe.

(a) Identification. An electrode recording catheter or an electrode recording probe is a device used to detect an intracardiac electrocardiogram, or to detect cardiac output or left-to-right heart shunts. The device may be unipolar or multipolar for electrocardiogram detection, or may be a platinum-tipped catheter which senses the presence of a special indicator for cardiac output or left-to-right heart shunt determinations.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1230   Fiberoptic oximeter catheter.

(a) Identification. A fiberoptic oximeter catheter is a device used to estimate the oxygen saturation of the blood. It consists of two fiberoptic bundles that conduct light at a desired wavelength through blood and detect the reflected and scattered light at the distal end of the catheter.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1240   Flow-directed catheter.

(a) Identification. A flow-directed catheter is a device that incorporates a gas-filled balloon to help direct the catheter to the desired position.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1250   Percutaneous catheter.

(a) Identification. A percutaneous catheter is a device that is introduced into a vein or artery through the skin using a dilator and a sheath (introducer) or guide wire.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1251   Temporary catheter for embolic protection during transcatheter intracardiac procedures.

(a) Identification. This device is a single use percutaneous catheter system that has (a) blood filter(s) at the distal end. This device is indicated for use while performing transcatheter intracardiac procedures. The device is used to filter blood in a manner that may prevent embolic material (thrombus/debris) from the transcatheter intracardiac procedure from traveling towards the cerebral circulation.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special controls for this device are:

(1) Non-clinical performance testing must demonstrate that the device performs as intended under anticipated conditions of use. The following performance characteristics must be tested:

(i) Simulated-use testing in a clinically relevant bench anatomic model to assess the following:

(A) Delivery, deployment, and retrieval, including quantifying deployment and retrieval forces, and procedural time; and

(B) Device compatibility and lack of interference with the transcatheter intracardiac procedure and device.

(ii) Tensile strengths of joints and components, tip flexibility, torque strength, torque response, and kink resistance.

(iii) Flow characteristics.

(A) The ability of the filter to not impede blood flow.

(B) The amount of time the filter can be deployed in position and/or retrieved from its location without disrupting blood flow.

(iv) Characterization and verification of all dimensions.

(2) Animal testing must demonstrate that the device performs as intended under anticipated conditions of use. The following performance characteristics must be assessed:

(i) Delivery, deployment, and retrieval, including quantifying procedural time.

(ii) Device compatibility and lack of interference with the transcatheter intracardiac procedure and device.

(iii) Flow characteristics.

(A) The ability of the filter to not impede blood flow.

(B) The amount of time the filter can be deployed in position and/or retrieved from its location without disrupting blood flow.

(iv) Gross pathology and histopathology assessing vascular injury and downstream embolization.

(3) All patient contacting components of the device must be demonstrated to be biocompatible.

(4) Performance data must demonstrate the sterility of the device components intended to be provided sterile.

(5) Performance data must support the shelf life of the device by demonstrating continued sterility, package integrity, and device functionality over the identified shelf life.

(6) Labeling for the device must include:

(i) Instructions for use;

(ii) Compatible transcatheter intracardiac procedure devices;

(iii) A detailed summary of the clinical testing conducted; and

(iv) A shelf life and storage conditions.

(7) Clinical performance testing must demonstrate:

(i) The ability to safely deliver, deploy, and remove the device;

(ii) The ability of the device to filter embolic material while not impeding blood flow;

(iii) Secure positioning and stability of the position throughout the transcatheter intracardiac procedure; and

(iv) Evaluation of all adverse events including death, stroke, and vascular injury.

[83 FR 4140, Jan. 30, 2018]

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§870.1255   Balloon aortic valvuloplasty catheter.

(a) Identification. A balloon aortic valvuloplasty catheter is a catheter with a balloon at the distal end of the shaft, which is intended to treat stenosis in the aortic valve when the balloon is expanded.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special controls for this device are:

(1) The device must be demonstrated to be biocompatible.

(2) Sterility and shelf life testing must demonstrate the sterility of patient-contacting components and the shelf life of these components.

(3) Non-clinical performance evaluation must demonstrate that the device performs as intended under anticipated conditions of use, including device delivery, inflation, deflation, and removal.

(4) In vivo evaluation of the device must demonstrate device performance, including the ability of the device to treat aortic stenosis.

(5) Labeling must include a detailed summary of the device-related and procedure-related complications pertinent to the use of the device.

[82 FR 34852, July 27, 2017]

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§870.1270   Intracavitary phonocatheter system.

(a) Identification. An intracavitary phonocatheter system is a system that includes a catheter with an acoustic transducer and the associated device that processes the signal from the transducer; this device records bioacoustic phenomena from a transducer placed within the heart, blood vessels, or body cavities.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1280   Steerable catheter.

(a) Identification. A steerable catheter is a catheter used for diagnostic and monitoring purposes whose movements are directed by a steering control unit.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1290   Steerable catheter control system.

(a) Identification. A steerable catheter control system is a device that is connected to the proximal end of a steerable guide wire that controls the motion of the steerable catheter.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1300   Catheter cannula.

(a) Identification. A catheter cannula is a hollow tube which is inserted into a vessel or cavity; this device provides a rigid or semirigid structure which can be connected to a tube or connector.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1310   Vessel dilator for percutaneous catheterization.

(a) Identification. A vessel dilator for percutaneous catheterization is a device which is placed over the guide wire to enlarge the opening in the vessel, and which is then removed before sliding the catheter over the guide wire.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1330   Catheter guide wire.

(a) Identification. A catheter guide wire is a coiled wire that is designed to fit inside a percutaneous catheter for the purpose of directing the catheter through a blood vessel.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device, when it is a torque device that is manually operated, non-patient contacting, and intended to manipulate non-cerebral vascular guide wires, is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to the limitations in §870.9.

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 84 FR 71811, Dec. 30, 2019]

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§870.1340   Catheter introducer.

(a) Identification. A catheter introducer is a sheath used to facilitate placing a catheter through the skin into a vein or artery.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1350   Catheter balloon repair kit.

(a) Identification. A catheter balloon repair kit is a device used to repair or replace the balloon of a balloon catheter. The kit contains the materials, such as glue and balloons, necessary to effect the repair or replacement.

(b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval).

(c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required to be filed with the Food and Drug Administration on or before December 26, 1996 for any catheter balloon repair kit that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on or before December 26, 1996 been found to be substantially equivalent to a catheter balloon repair kit that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976. Any other catheter balloon repair kit shall have an approved PMA or a declared completed PDP in effect before being placed in commercial distribution.

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 52 FR 17736, May 11, 1987; 61 FR 50706, Sept. 27, 1996]

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§870.1360   Trace microsphere.

(a) Identification. A trace microsphere is a radioactively tagged nonbiodegradable particle that is intended to be injected into an artery or vein and trapped in the capillary bed for the purpose of studying blood flow within or to an organ.

(b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval).

(c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required to be filed with the Food and Drug Administration on or before December 26, 1996 for any trace microsphere that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on or before December 26, 1996 been found to be substantially equivalent to a trace microsphere that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976. Any other trace microsphere shall have an approved PMA or a declared completed PDP in effect before being placed in commercial distribution.

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 52 FR 17736, May 11, 1987; 61 FR 50706, Sept. 27, 1996]

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§870.1370   Catheter tip occluder.

(a) Identification. A catheter tip occluder is a device that is inserted into certain catheters to prevent flow through one or more orifices.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1380   Catheter stylet.

(a) Identification. A catheter stylet is a wire that is run through a catheter or cannula to render it stiff.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1390   Trocar.

(a) Identification. A trocar is a sharp-pointed instrument used with a cannula for piercing a vessel or chamber to facilitate insertion of the cannula.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). Except for trocars that are reprocessed for multiple use, the device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to the limitations in §870.9.

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 84 FR 71811, Dec. 30, 2019]

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§870.1415   Coronary vascular physiologic simulation software device.

(a) Identification. A coronary vascular physiologic simulation software device is a prescription device that provides simulated functional assessment of blood flow in the coronary vascular system using data extracted from medical device imaging to solve algorithms and yield simulated metrics of physiologic information (e.g., blood flow, coronary flow reserve, fractional flow reserve, myocardial perfusion). A coronary vascular physiologic simulation software device is intended to generate results for use and review by a qualified clinician.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special controls for this device are:

(1) Adequate software verification and validation based on comprehensive hazard analysis, with identification of appropriate mitigations, must be performed, including:

(i) Full characterization of the technical parameters of the software, including:

(A) Any proprietary algorithm(s) used to model the vascular anatomy; and

(B) Adequate description of the expected impact of all applicable image acquisition hardware features and characteristics on performance and any associated minimum specifications;

(ii) Adequate consideration of privacy and security issues in the system design; and

(iii) Adequate mitigation of the impact of failure of any subsystem components (e.g., signal detection and analysis, data storage, system communications and cybersecurity) with respect to incorrect patient reports and operator failures.

(2) Adequate non-clinical performance testing must be provided to demonstrate the validity of computational modeling methods for flow measurement; and

(3) Clinical data supporting the proposed intended use must be provided, including the following:

(i) Output measure(s) must be compared to a clinically acceptable method and must adequately represent the simulated measure(s) the device provides in an accurate and reproducible manner;

(ii) Clinical utility of the device measurement accuracy must be demonstrated by comparison to that of other available diagnostic tests (e.g., from literature analysis);

(iii) Statistical performance of the device within clinical risk strata (e.g., age, relevant comorbidities, disease stability) must be reported;

(iv) The dataset must be adequately representative of the intended use population for the device (e.g., patients, range of vessel sizes, imaging device models). Any selection criteria or limitations of the samples must be fully described and justified;

(v) Statistical methods must consider the predefined endpoints:

(A) Estimates of probabilities of incorrect results must be provided for each endpoint,

(B) Where multiple samples from the same patient are used, statistical analysis must not assume statistical independence without adequate justification, and

(C) The report must provide appropriate confidence intervals for each performance metric;

(vi) Sensitivity and specificity must be characterized across the range of available measurements;

(vii) Agreement of the simulated measure(s) with clinically acceptable measure(s) must be assessed across the full range of measurements;

(viii) Comparison of the measurement performance must be provided across the range of intended image acquisition hardware; and

(ix) If the device uses a cutoff threshold or operates across a spectrum of disease, it must be established prior to validation, and it must be justified as to how it was determined and clinically validated;

(4) Adequate validation must be performed and controls implemented to characterize and ensure consistency (i.e., repeatability and reproducibility) of measurement outputs:

(i) Acceptable incoming image quality control measures and the resulting image rejection rate for the clinical data must be specified, and

(ii) Data must be provided within the clinical validation study or using equivalent datasets demonstrating the consistency (i.e., repeatability and reproducibility) of the output that is representative of the range of data quality likely to be encountered in the intended use population and relevant use conditions in the intended use environment;

(A) Testing must be performed using multiple operators meeting planned qualification criteria and using the procedure that will be implemented in the production use of the device, and

(B) The factors (e.g., medical imaging dataset, operator) must be identified regarding which were held constant and which were varied during the evaluation, and a description must be provided for the computations and statistical analyses used to evaluate the data;

(5) Human factors evaluation and validation must be provided to demonstrate adequate performance of the user interface to allow for users to accurately measure intended parameters, particularly where parameter settings that have impact on measurements require significant user intervention; and

(6) Device labeling must be provided that adequately describes the following:

(i) The device's intended use, including the type of imaging data used, what the device measures and outputs to the user, whether the measure is qualitative or quantitative, the clinical indications for which it is to be used, and the specific population for which the device use is intended;

(ii) Appropriate warnings specifying the intended patient population, identifying anatomy and image acquisition factors that may impact measurement results, and providing cautionary guidance for interpretation of the provided measurements;

(iii) Key assumptions made in the calculation and determination of simulated measurements;

(iv) The measurement performance of the device for all presented parameters, with appropriate confidence intervals, and the supporting evidence for this performance. Per-vessel clinical performance, including where applicable localized performance according to vessel and segment, must be included as well as a characterization of the measurement error across the expected range of measurement for key parameters based on the clinical data;

(v) A detailed description of the patients studied in the clinical validation (e.g., age, gender, race or ethnicity, clinical stability, current treatment regimen) as well as procedural details of the clinical study (e.g., scanner representation, calcium scores, use of beta-blockers or nitrates); and

(vi) Where significant human interface is necessary for accurate analysis, adequately detailed description of the analysis procedure using the device and any data features that could affect accuracy of results.

[80 FR 63673, Oct. 21, 2015]

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§870.1425   Programmable diagnostic computer.

(a) Identification. A programmable diagnostic computer is a device that can be programmed to compute various physiologic or blood flow parameters based on the output from one or more electrodes, transducers, or measuring devices; this device includes any associated commercially supplied programs.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1435   Single-function, preprogrammed diagnostic computer.

(a) Identification. A single-function, preprogrammed diagnostic computer is a hard-wired computer that calculates a specific physiological or blood-flow parameter based on information obtained from one or more electrodes, transducers, or measuring devices.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1450   Densitometer.

(a) Identification. A densitometer is a device used to measure the transmission of light through an indicator in a sample of blood.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1650   Angiographic injector and syringe.

(a) Identification. An angiographic injector and syringe is a device that consists of a syringe and a high-pressure injector which are used to inject contrast material into the heart, great vessels, and coronary arteries to study the heart and vessels by x-ray photography.

(b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device, when it is a non-patient contacting balloon inflation syringe intended only to inflate/deflate balloon catheters and monitor pressure within the balloon, is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to the limitations in §870.9.

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 84 FR 71811, Dec. 30, 2019]

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§870.1660   Indicator injector.

(a) Identification. An indicator injector is an electrically or gas-powered device designed to inject accurately an indicator solution into the blood stream. This device may be used in conjuction with a densitometer or thermodilution device to determine cardiac output.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1670   Syringe actuator for an injector.

(a) Identification. A syringe actuator for an injector is an electrical device that controls the timing of an injection by an angiographic or indicator injector and synchronizes the injection with the electrocardiograph signal.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1750   External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

(a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at preselected intervals; this device is used in electrophysiological studies.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1800   Withdrawal-infusion pump.

(a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately drugs into the bloodstream and to withdraw blood samples for use in determining cardiac output.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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§870.1875   Stethoscope.

(a) Manual stethoscope—(1) Identification. A manual stethoscope is a mechanical device used to project the sounds associated with the heart, arteries, and veins and other internal organs.

(2) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to the limitations in §870.9.

(b) Electronic stethoscope—(1) Identification. An electronic stethoscope is an electrically amplified device used to project the sounds associated with the heart, arteries, and veins and other internal organs.

(2) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device, when it is a lung sound monitor, is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to the limitations in §870.9.

[45 FR 7907, Feb. 5, 1980, as amended at 59 FR 63007, Dec. 7, 1994; 66 FR 38796, July 25, 2001; 84 FR 71811, Dec. 30, 2019]

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§870.1915   Thermodilution probe.

(a) Identification. A thermodilution probe is a device that monitors cardiac output by use of thermodilution techniques; this device is commonly attached to a catheter that may have one or more probes.

(b) Classification. Class II (performance standards).

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