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Title 14Chapter ISubchapter CPart 25 → Subpart G


Title 14: Aeronautics and Space
PART 25—AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES


Subpart G—Operating Limitations and Information


Contents
§25.1501   General.

Operating Limitations

§25.1503   Airspeed limitations: general.
§25.1505   Maximum operating limit speed.
§25.1507   Maneuvering speed.
§25.1511   Flap extended speed.
§25.1513   Minimum control speed.
§25.1515   Landing gear speeds.
§25.1516   Other speed limitations.
§25.1517   Rough air speed, VRA.
§25.1519   Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.
§25.1521   Powerplant limitations.
§25.1522   Auxiliary power unit limitations.
§25.1523   Minimum flight crew.
§25.1525   Kinds of operation.
§25.1527   Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.
§25.1529   Instructions for Continued Airworthiness.
§25.1531   Maneuvering flight load factors.
§25.1533   Additional operating limitations.
§25.1535   ETOPS approval.

Markings and Placards

§25.1541   General.
§25.1543   Instrument markings: general.
§25.1545   Airspeed limitation information.
§25.1547   Magnetic direction indicator.
§25.1549   Powerplant and auxiliary power unit instruments.
§25.1551   Oil quantity indication.
§25.1553   Fuel quantity indicator.
§25.1555   Control markings.
§25.1557   Miscellaneous markings and placards.
§25.1561   Safety equipment.
§25.1563   Airspeed placard.

Airplane Flight Manual

§25.1581   General.
§25.1583   Operating limitations.
§25.1585   Operating procedures.
§25.1587   Performance information.

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§25.1501   General.

(a) Each operating limitation specified in §§25.1503 through 25.1533 and other limitations and information necessary for safe operation must be established.

(b) The operating limitations and other information necessary for safe operation must be made available to the crewmembers as prescribed in §§25.1541 through 25.1587.

[Amdt. 25-42, 43 FR 2323, Jan. 16, 1978]

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Operating Limitations

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§25.1503   Airspeed limitations: general.

When airspeed limitations are a function of weight, weight distribution, altitude, or Mach number, limitations corresponding to each critical combination of these factors must be established.

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§25.1505   Maximum operating limit speed.

The maximum operating limit speed (VMO/MMO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not be deliberately exceeded in any regime of flight (climb, cruise, or descent), unless a higher speed is authorized for flight test or pilot training operations. VMO/MMO must be established so that it is not greater than the design cruising speed VC and so that it is sufficiently below VD/MD or VDF/MDF, to make it highly improbable that the latter speeds will be inadvertently exceeded in operations. The speed margin between VMO/MMO and VD/MD or VDFM/DF may not be less than that determined under §25.335(b) or found necessary during the flight tests conducted under §25.253.

[Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5680, Apr. 8, 1970]

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§25.1507   Maneuvering speed.

The maneuvering speed must be established so that it does not exceed the design maneuvering speed VA determined under §25.335(c).

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§25.1511   Flap extended speed.

The established flap extended speed VFE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed VF chosen under §§25.335(e) and 25.345, for the corresponding flap positions and engine powers.

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§25.1513   Minimum control speed.

The minimum control speed VMC determined under §25.149 must be established as an operating limitation.

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§25.1515   Landing gear speeds.

(a) The established landing gear operating speed or speeds, VLO, may not exceed the speed at which it is safe both to extend and to retract the landing gear, as determined under §25.729 or by flight characteristics. If the extension speed is not the same as the retraction speed, the two speeds must be designated as VLO(EXT) and VLO(RET), respectively.

(b) The established landing gear extended speed VLE may not exceed the speed at which it is safe to fly with the landing gear secured in the fully extended position, and that determined under §25.729.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-38, 41 FR 55468, Dec. 20, 1976]

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§25.1516   Other speed limitations.

Any other limitation associated with speed must be established.

[Doc. No. 2000-8511, 66 FR 34024, June 26, 2001]

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§25.1517   Rough air speed, VRA.

(a) A rough air speed, VRA, for use as the recommended turbulence penetration airspeed, and a rough air Mach number, MRA, for use as the recommended turbulence penetration Mach number, must be established. VRA/MRA must be sufficiently less than VMO/MMO to ensure that likely speed variation during rough air encounters will not cause the overspeed warning to operate too frequently.

(b) At altitudes where VMO is not limited by Mach number, in the absence of a rational investigation substantiating the use of other values, VRA must be less than VMO—35 KTAS.

(c) At altitudes where VMO is limited by Mach number, MRA may be chosen to provide an optimum margin between low and high speed buffet boundaries.

[Amdt. 25-141, 79 FR 73469, Dec. 11, 2014]

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§25.1519   Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution limitations determined under §§25.23 through 25.27 must be established as operating limitations.

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§25.1521   Powerplant limitations.

(a) General. The powerplant limitations prescribed in this section must be established so that they do not exceed the corresponding limits for which the engines or propellers are type certificated and do not exceed the values on which compliance with any other requirement of this part is based.

(b) Reciprocating engine installations. Operating limitations relating to the following must be established for reciprocating engine installations:

(1) Horsepower or torque, r.p.m., manifold pressure, and time at critical pressure altitude and sea level pressure altitude for—

(i) Maximum continuous power (relating to unsupercharged operation or to operation in each supercharger mode as applicable); and

(ii) Takeoff power (relating to unsupercharged operation or to operation in each supercharger mode as applicable).

(2) Fuel grade or specification.

(3) Cylinder head and oil temperatures.

(4) Any other parameter for which a limitation has been established as part of the engine type certificate except that a limitation need not be established for a parameter that cannot be exceeded during normal operation due to the design of the installation or to another established limitation.

(c) Turbine engine installations. Operating limitations relating to the following must be established for turbine engine installations:

(1) Horsepower, torque or thrust, r.p.m., gas temperature, and time for—

(i) Maximum continuous power or thrust (relating to augmented or unaugmented operation as applicable).

(ii) Takeoff power or thrust (relating to augmented or unaugmented operation as applicable).

(2) Fuel designation or specification.

(3) Maximum time interval between engine run-ups from idle, run-up power setting and duration at power for ground operation in icing conditions, as defined in §25.1093(b)(2).

(4) Any other parameter for which a limitation has been established as part of the engine type certificate except that a limitation need not be established for a parameter that cannot be exceeded during normal operation due to the design of the installation or to another established limitation.

(d) Ambient temperature. An ambient temperature limitation (including limitations for winterization installations, if applicable) must be established as the maximum ambient atmospheric temperature established in accordance with §25.1043(b).

[Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29786, July 20, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 25-140, 79 FR 65528, Nov. 4, 2014]

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§25.1522   Auxiliary power unit limitations.

If an auxiliary power unit is installed in the airplane, limitations established for the auxiliary power unit, including categories of operation, must be specified as operating limitations for the airplane.

[Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29786, July 20, 1990]

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§25.1523   Minimum flight crew.

The minimum flight crew must be established so that it is sufficient for safe operation, considering—

(a) The workload on individual crewmembers;

(b) The accessibility and ease of operation of necessary controls by the appropriate crewmember; and

(c) The kind of operation authorized under §25.1525.

The criteria used in making the determinations required by this section are set forth in appendix D.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-3, 30 FR 6067, Apr. 29, 1965]

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§25.1525   Kinds of operation.

The kinds of operation to which the airplane is limited are established by the category in which it is eligible for certification and by the installed equipment.

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§25.1527   Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited by flight, structural, powerplant, functional, or equipment characteristics, must be established.

[Doc. No. 2000-8511, 66 FR 34024, June 26, 2001]

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§25.1529   Instructions for Continued Airworthiness.

The applicant must prepare Instructions for Continued Airworthiness in accordance with appendix H to this part that are acceptable to the Administrator. The instructions may be incomplete at type certification if a program exists to ensure their completion prior to delivery of the first airplane or issuance of a standard certificate of airworthiness, whichever occurs later.

[Amdt. 25-54, 45 FR 60173, Sept. 11, 1980]

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§25.1531   Maneuvering flight load factors.

Load factor limitations, not exceeding the positive limit load factors determined from the maneuvering diagram in §25.333(b), must be established.

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§25.1533   Additional operating limitations.

(a) Additional operating limitations must be established as follows:

(1) The maximum takeoff weights must be established as the weights at which compliance is shown with the applicable provisions of this part (including the takeoff climb provisions of §25.121(a) through (c), for altitudes and ambient temperatures).

(2) The maximum landing weights must be established as the weights at which compliance is shown with the applicable provisions of this part (including the landing and approach climb provisions of §§25.119 and 25.121(d) for altitudes and ambient temperatures).

(3) The minimum takeoff distances must be established as the distances at which compliance is shown with the applicable provisions of this part (including the provisions of §§25.109 and 25.113, for weights, altitudes, temperatures, wind components, runway surface conditions (dry and wet), and runway gradients) for smooth, hard-surfaced runways. Additionally, at the option of the applicant, wet runway takeoff distances may be established for runway surfaces that have been grooved or treated with a porous friction course, and may be approved for use on runways where such surfaces have been designed constructed, and maintained in a manner acceptable to the Administrator.

(b) The extremes for variable factors (such as altitude, temperature, wind, and runway gradients) are those at which compliance with the applicable provisions of this part is shown.

(c) For airplanes certified in accordance with §25.1420(a)(1) or (2), an operating limitation must be established to:

(1) Prohibit intentional flight, including takeoff and landing, into icing conditions defined in Appendix O of this part for which the airplane has not been certified to safely operate; and

(2) Require exiting all icing conditions if icing conditions defined in Appendix O of this part are encountered for which the airplane has not been certified to safely operate.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-38, 41 FR 55468, Dec. 20, 1976; Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29786, July 20, 1990; Amdt. 25-92, 63 FR 8321, Feb. 18, 1998; Amdt. 25-140, 79 FR 65528, Nov. 4, 2014]

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§25.1535   ETOPS approval.

Except as provided in §25.3, each applicant seeking ETOPS type design approval must comply with the provisions of Appendix K of this part.

[Doc. No. FAA-2002-6717, 72 FR 1873, Jan. 16, 2007]

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Markings and Placards

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§25.1541   General.

(a) The airplane must contain—

(1) The specified markings and placards; and

(2) Any additional information, instrument markings, and placards required for the safe operation if there are unusual design, operating, or handling characteristics.

(b) Each marking and placard prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section—

(1) Must be displayed in a conspicuous place; and

(2) May not be easily erased, disfigured, or obscured.

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§25.1543   Instrument markings: general.

For each instrument—

(a) When markings are on the cover glass of the instrument, there must be means to maintain the correct alignment of the glass cover with the face of the dial; and

(b) Each instrument marking must be clearly visible to the appropriate crewmember.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29786, July 20, 1990]

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§25.1545   Airspeed limitation information.

The airspeed limitations required by §25.1583 (a) must be easily read and understood by the flight crew.

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§25.1547   Magnetic direction indicator.

(a) A placard meeting the requirements of this section must be installed on, or near, the magnetic direction indicator.

(b) The placard must show the calibration of the instrument in level flight with the engines operating.

(c) The placard must state whether the calibration was made with radio receivers on or off.

(d) Each calibration reading must be in terms of magnetic heading in not more than 45 degree increments.

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§25.1549   Powerplant and auxiliary power unit instruments.

For each required powerplant and auxiliary power unit instrument, as appropriate to the type of instrument—

(a) Each maximum and, if applicable, minimum safe operating limit must be marked with a red radial or a red line;

(b) Each normal operating range must be marked with a green arc or green line, not extending beyond the maximum and minimum safe limits;

(c) Each takeoff and precautionary range must be marked with a yellow arc or a yellow line; and

(d) Each engine, auxiliary power unit, or propeller speed range that is restricted because of excessive vibration stresses must be marked with red arcs or red lines.

[Amdt. 25-40, 42 FR 15044, Mar. 17, 1977]

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§25.1551   Oil quantity indication.

Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately.

[Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29786, July 20, 1990]

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§25.1553   Fuel quantity indicator.

If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon, or five percent of the tank capacity, whichever is greater, a red arc must be marked on its indicator extending from the calibrated zero reading to the lowest reading obtainable in level flight.

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§25.1555   Control markings.

(a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose function is obvious, must be plainly marked as to its function and method of operation.

(b) Each aerodynamic control must be marked under the requirements of §§25.677 and 25.699.

(c) For powerplant fuel controls—

(1) Each fuel tank selector control must be marked to indicate the position corresponding to each tank and to each existing cross feed position;

(2) If safe operation requires the use of any tanks in a specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector for those tanks; and

(3) Each valve control for each engine must be marked to indicate the position corresponding to each engine controlled.

(d) For accessory, auxiliary, and emergency controls—

(1) Each emergency control (including each fuel jettisoning and fluid shutoff must be colored red; and

(2) Each visual indicator required by §25.729(e) must be marked so that the pilot can determine at any time when the wheels are locked in either extreme position, if retractable landing gear is used.

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§25.1557   Miscellaneous markings and placards.

(a) Baggage and cargo compartments and ballast location. Each baggage and cargo compartment, and each ballast location must have a placard stating any limitations on contents, including weight, that are necessary under the loading requirements. However, underseat compartments designed for the storage of carry-on articles weighing not more than 20 pounds need not have a loading limitation placard.

(b) Powerplant fluid filler openings. The following apply:

(1) Fuel filler openings must be marked at or near the filler cover with—

(i) The word “fuel”;

(ii) For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the minimum fuel grade;

(iii) For turbine engine powered airplanes, the permissible fuel designations; and

(iv) For pressure fueling systems, the maximum permissible fueling supply pressure and the maximum permissible defueling pressure.

(2) Oil filler openings must be marked at or near the filler cover with the word “oil”.

(3) Augmentation fluid filler openings must be marked at or near the filler cover to identify the required fluid.

(c) Emergency exit placards. Each emergency exit placard must meet the requirements of §25.811.

(d) Doors. Each door that must be used in order to reach any required emergency exit must have a suitable placard stating that the door is to be latched in the open position during takeoff and landing.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-32, 37 FR 3972, Feb. 24, 1972; Amdt. 25-38, 41 FR 55468, Dec. 20, 1976; Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29786, July 20, 1990]

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§25.1561   Safety equipment.

(a) Each safety equipment control to be operated by the crew in emergency, such as controls for automatic liferaft releases, must be plainly marked as to its method of operation.

(b) Each location, such as a locker or compartment, that carries any fire extinguishing, signaling, or other life saving equipment must be marked accordingly.

(c) Stowage provisions for required emergency equipment must be conspicuously marked to identify the contents and facilitate the easy removal of the equipment.

(d) Each liferaft must have obviously marked operating instructions.

(e) Approved survival equipment must be marked for identification and method of operation.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-46, 43 FR 50598, Oct. 30, 1978]

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§25.1563   Airspeed placard.

A placard showing the maximum airspeeds for flap extension for the takeoff, approach, and landing positions must be installed in clear view of each pilot.

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Airplane Flight Manual

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§25.1581   General.

(a) Furnishing information. An Airplane Flight Manual must be furnished with each airplane, and it must contain the following:

(1) Information required by §§25.1583 through 25.1587.

(2) Other information that is necessary for safe operation because of design, operating, or handling characteristics.

(3) Any limitation, procedure, or other information established as a condition of compliance with the applicable noise standards of part 36 of this chapter.

(b) Approved information. Each part of the manual listed in §§25.1583 through 25.1587, that is appropriate to the airplane, must be furnished, verified, and approved, and must be segregated, identified, and clearly distinguished from each unapproved part of that manual.

(c) [Reserved]

(d) Each Airplane Flight Manual must include a table of contents if the complexity of the manual indicates a need for it.

[Amdt. 25-42, 43 FR 2323, Jan. 16, 1978, as amended by Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29786, July 20, 1990]

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§25.1583   Operating limitations.

(a) Airspeed limitations. The following airspeed limitations and any other airspeed limitations necessary for safe operation must be furnished:

(1) The maximum operating limit speed VMO/MMO and a statement that this speed limit may not be deliberately exceeded in any regime of flight (climb, cruise, or descent) unless a higher speed is authorized for flight test or pilot training.

(2) If an airspeed limitation is based upon compressibility effects, a statement to this effect and information as to any symptoms, the probable behavior of the airplane, and the recommended recovery procedures.

(3) The maneuvering speed established under §25.1507 and statements, as applicable to the particular design, explaining that:

(i) Full application of pitch, roll, or yaw controls should be confined to speeds below the maneuvering speed; and

(ii) Rapid and large alternating control inputs, especially in combination with large changes in pitch, roll, or yaw, and full control inputs in more than one axis at the same time, should be avoided as they may result in structural failures at any speed, including below the maneuvering speed.

(4) The flap extended speed VFE and the pertinent flap positions and engine powers.

(5) The landing gear operating speed or speeds, and a statement explaining the speeds as defined in §25.1515(a).

(6) The landing gear extended speed VLE, if greater than VLO, and a statement that this is the maximum speed at which the airplane can be safely flown with the landing gear extended.

(b) Powerplant limitations. The following information must be furnished:

(1) Limitations required by §25.1521 and §25.1522.

(2) Explanation of the limitations, when appropriate.

(3) Information necessary for marking the instruments required by §§25.1549 through 25.1553.

(c) Weight and loading distribution. The weight and center of gravity limitations established under §25.1519 must be furnished in the Airplane Flight Manual. All of the following information, including the weight distribution limitations established under §25.1519, must be presented either in the Airplane Flight Manual or in a separate weight and balance control and loading document that is incorporated by reference in the Airplane Flight Manual:

(1) The condition of the airplane and the items included in the empty weight as defined in accordance with §25.29.

(2) Loading instructions necessary to ensure loading of the airplane within the weight and center of gravity limits, and to maintain the loading within these limits in flight.

(3) If certification for more than one center of gravity range is requested, the appropriate limitations, with regard to weight and loading procedures, for each separate center of gravity range.

(d) Flight crew. The number and functions of the minimum flight crew determined under §25.1523 must be furnished.

(e) Kinds of operation. The kinds of operation approved under §25.1525 must be furnished.

(f) Ambient air temperatures and operating altitudes. The extremes of the ambient air temperatures and operating altitudes established under §25.1527 must be furnished.

(g) [Reserved]

(h) Additional operating limitations. The operating limitations established under §25.1533 must be furnished.

(i) Maneuvering flight load factors. The positive maneuvering limit load factors for which the structure is proven, described in terms of accelerations, must be furnished.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 1891, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-38, 41 FR 55468, Dec. 20, 1976; Amdt. 25-42, 43 FR 2323, Jan. 16, 1978; Amdt. 25-46, 43 FR 50598, Oct. 30, 1978; Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29787, July 20, 1990; Amdt. 25-105, 66 FR 34024, June 26, 2001; 75 FR 49818, Aug. 16, 2010]

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§25.1585   Operating procedures.

(a) Operating procedures must be furnished for—

(1) Normal procedures peculiar to the particular type or model encountered in connection with routine operations;

(2) Non-normal procedures for malfunction cases and failure conditions involving the use of special systems or the alternative use of regular systems; and

(3) Emergency procedures for foreseeable but unusual situations in which immediate and precise action by the crew may be expected to substantially reduce the risk of catastrophe.

(b) Information or procedures not directly related to airworthiness or not under the control of the crew, must not be included, nor must any procedure that is accepted as basic airmanship.

(c) Information identifying each operating condition in which the fuel system independence prescribed in §25.953 is necessary for safety must be furnished, together with instructions for placing the fuel system in a configuration used to show compliance with that section.

(d) The buffet onset envelopes, determined under §25.251 must be furnished. The buffet onset envelopes presented may reflect the center of gravity at which the airplane is normally loaded during cruise if corrections for the effect of different center of gravity locations are furnished.

(e) Information must be furnished that indicates that when the fuel quantity indicator reads “zero” in level flight, any fuel remaining in the fuel tank cannot be used safely in flight.

(f) Information on the total quantity of usable fuel for each fuel tank must be furnished.

[Doc. No. 2000-8511, 66 FR 34024, June 26, 2001]

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§25.1587   Performance information.

(a) Each Airplane Flight Manual must contain information to permit conversion of the indicated temperature to free air temperature if other than a free air temperature indicator is used to comply with the requirements of §25.1303(a)(1).

(b) Each Airplane Flight Manual must contain the performance information computed under the applicable provisions of this part (including §§25.115, 25.123, and 25.125 for the weights, altitudes, temperatures, wind components, and runway gradients, as applicable) within the operational limits of the airplane, and must contain the following:

(1) In each case, the conditions of power, configuration, and speeds, and the procedures for handling the airplane and any system having a significant effect on the performance information.

(2) VSR determined in accordance with §25.103.

(3) The following performance information (determined by extrapolation and computed for the range of weights between the maximum landing weight and the maximum takeoff weight):

(i) Climb in the landing configuration.

(ii) Climb in the approach configuration.

(iii) Landing distance.

(4) Procedures established under §25.101(f) and (g) that are related to the limitations and information required by §25.1533 and by this paragraph (b) in the form of guidance material, including any relevant limitations or information.

(5) An explanation of significant or unusual flight or ground handling characteristics of the airplane.

(6) Corrections to indicated values of airspeed, altitude, and outside air temperature.

(7) An explanation of operational landing runway length factors included in the presentation of the landing distance, if appropriate.

[Doc. No. 2000-8511, 66 FR 34024, June 26, 2001, as amended by Amdt. 25-108, 67 FR 70828, Nov. 26, 2002]

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