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Title 12Chapter VIISubchapter APart 741 → Subpart B


Title 12: Banks and Banking
PART 741—REQUIREMENTS FOR INSURANCE


Subpart B—Regulations Codified Elsewhere in NCUA's Regulations as Applying to Federal Credit Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions


Contents
§741.201   Minimum fidelity bond requirements.
§741.202   Audit and verification requirements.
§741.203   Minimum loan policy requirements.
§741.204   Maximum public unit and nonmember accounts, and low-income designation.
§741.205   Reporting requirements for credit unions that are newly chartered or in troubled condition.
§741.206   Corporate credit unions.
§741.207   Community development revolving loan program for credit unions.
§741.208   Mergers of federally insured credit unions: voluntary termination or conversion of insured status.
§741.209   Management official interlocks.
§741.210   Central liquidity facility.
§741.211   Advertising.
§741.212   Share insurance.
§741.213   Administrative actions, adjudicative hearings, rules of practice and procedure.
§741.214   Report of crime or catastrophic act and Bank Secrecy Act compliance.
§741.215   Records preservation program.
§741.216   Flood insurance.
§741.217   Truth in savings.
§741.218   Involuntary liquidation and creditor claims.
§741.219   Investment requirements.
§741.220   Privacy of consumer financial information.
§741.221   Suretyship and guaranty requirements.
§741.222   Credit union service organizations.
§741.223   Registration of residential mortgage loan originators.
§741.224   Golden parachute and indemnification payments.
§741.225   Loan participations.
Appendix A to Part 741—Guidance for an Interest Rate Risk Policy and an Effective Program
Appendix B to Part 741—Interpretive Ruling and Policy Statement on Loan Workouts, Nonaccrual Policy, and Regulatory Reporting of Troubled Debt Restructured Loans

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§741.201   Minimum fidelity bond requirements.

(a) Any credit union which makes application for insurance of its accounts pursuant to title II of the Act must possess the minimum fidelity bond coverage stated in §§713.3, 713.5, and 713.6 in order for its application for such insurance to be approved and for such insurance coverage to continue. A federally insured credit union whose fidelity bond coverage is terminated shall mail notice of such termination to the Regional Director not less than 35 days prior to the effective date of such termination.

(b) Corporate credit unions must comply with §704.18 of this chapter in lieu of part 713 of this chapter.

[60 FR 58504, Nov. 28, 1995, as amended at 64 FR 28721, May 27, 1999; 70 FR 61716, Oct. 26, 2005; 84 FR 1608, Feb. 5, 2019]

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§741.202   Audit and verification requirements.

(a) The supervisory committee of each credit union insured pursuant to title II of the Act shall make or cause to be made an audit of the credit union at least once every calendar year covering the period elapsed since the last audit. The audit must fully meet the applicable requirements set forth in part 715 of this chapter or applicable state law, whichever requirement is more stringent.

(b) Each credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act shall verify or cause to be verified, under controlled conditions, all passbooks and accounts with the records of the financial officer not less frequently than once every 2 years. The verification must fully meet the requirements set forth in §715.8 of this chapter.

[60 FR 58504, Nov. 28, 1995, as amended at 64 FR 41040, July 29, 1999]

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§741.203   Minimum loan policy requirements.

Any credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act must:

(a) Adhere to the requirements stated in part 723 of this chapter concerning commercial lending and member business loans, §701.21(c)(8) of this chapter concerning prohibited fees, and §701.21(d)(5) of this chapter concerning non-preferential loans. Federally insured state chartered credit unions in a given state are exempt from these requirements if the state supervisory authority for that state adopts substantially equivalent regulations as determined by the NCUA Board or, in the case of the commercial lending and member business loan requirements, if the state supervisory authority administers a state commercial and member business loan rule for use by federally insured credit unions chartered in that state that at least covers all the provisions in part 723 of this chapter and is no less restrictive, upon determination by NCUA. In nonexempt states, all required NCUA reviews and approvals will be handled in coordination with the state credit union supervisory authority; and

(b) Adhere to the requirements stated in part 722 of this chapter concerning appraisals.

(c) Adhere to the requirements stated in §701.21(h) of this chapter concerning third-party servicing of indirect vehicle loans. Before a state-chartered credit union applies to a regional director for a waiver under §701.21(h)(2), it must first notify its state supervisory authority. The regional director will not grant a waiver unless the appropriate state official concurs in the waiver. The 45-day period for the regional director to act on a waiver request, as described §701.21(h)(3), will not begin until the regional director has received the state official's concurrence and any other necessary information.

[60 FR 58504, Nov. 28, 1995, as amended at 63 FR 51802, Sept. 29, 1998; 64 FR 28733, May 27, 1999; 71 FR 36667, June 28, 2006; 81 FR 13559, Mar. 14, 2016]

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§741.204   Maximum public unit and nonmember accounts, and low-income designation.

Any credit union that is insured, or that makes application for insurance, pursuant to title II of the Act must:

(a) Adhere to the requirements of §701.32 of this chapter regarding public unit and nonmember accounts, provided it has the authority to accept such accounts.

(b) Obtain a low-income designation in order to accept nonmember accounts, other than from public units or other credit unions, provided it has the authority to accept such accounts under state law. The state regulator shall make the low-income designation with the concurrence of NCUA. The designation will be made and reviewed by the state regulator on the same basis as that provided in §701.34(a) of this chapter for federal credit unions. Removal of the designation by the state regulator for such credit unions shall be with the concurrence of NCUA.

(c) Receive secondary capital accounts only if the credit union has a low-income designation pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section, and then only in accordance with the terms and conditions authorized for Federal credit unions pursuant to §701.34(b)(1) of this chapter and to the extent not inconsistent with applicable state law and regulation. State chartered federally insured credit unions offering secondary capital accounts must submit the plan required by §701.34(b)(1) to both the state supervisory authority and the NCUA for approval. The state supervisory authority must approve or disapprove the plan with the concurrence of NCUA.

(d) Redeem secondary capital accounts only in accordance with the terms and conditions authorized for federal credit unions pursuant to §701.34(d) of this chapter and to the extent not inconsistent with applicable state law and regulation. State chartered federally insured credit unions seeking to redeem secondary capital accounts must submit the request required by §701.34(d)(1) to both the state supervisory authority and the NCUA. The state supervisory authority must grant or deny the request with the concurrence of NCUA.

[60 FR 58504, Nov. 28, 1995, as amended at 61 FR 3792, Feb. 2, 1996; 71 FR 4240, Jan. 26, 2006; 78 FR 4032, Jan. 18, 2013; 84 FR 58309, Oct. 31, 2019; 85 FR 62213, Oct. 2, 2020]

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§741.205   Reporting requirements for credit unions that are newly chartered or in troubled condition.

Any federally insured credit union chartered for less than 2 years or any credit union defined to be in troubled condition as set forth in §701.14(b)(3) of this chapter must adhere to the requirements stated in §701.14(c) of this chapter concerning the prior notice and NCUA review. Federally insured state-chartered credit unions must submit required information to both the appropriate NCUA Regional Director and their state supervisor. NCUA will consult with the state supervisor before making its determination. NCUA will notify the state supervisor of its approval/disapproval no later than the time that it notifies the affected individual.

[60 FR 58504, Nov. 28, 1995, as amended at 78 FR 4029, Jan. 18, 2013]

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§741.206   Corporate credit unions.

Any corporate credit union insured pursuant to title II of the Act shall adhere to the requirements of part 704 of this chapter.

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§741.207   Community development revolving loan program for credit unions.

Any credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act and is a “participating credit union,” as defined in §705.2 of this chapter, shall adhere to the requirements stated in part 705 of this chapter.

[60 FR 58504, Nov. 28, 1995, as amended at 76 FR 67591, Nov. 2, 2011]

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§741.208   Mergers of federally insured credit unions: voluntary termination or conversion of insured status.

Any credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act and which merges with another credit union or non-credit union institution, and any state-chartered credit union which voluntarily terminates its status as a federally insured credit union, or converts from federal insurance to other insurance from a government or private source authorized to insure member accounts, shall adhere to the applicable requirements stated in section 206 of the Act and parts 708a and 708b of this chapter concerning mergers and voluntary termination or conversion of insured status.

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§741.209   Management official interlocks.

Any credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act shall adhere to the requirements stated in part 711 of this chapter concerning management official interlocks, issued under the provisions of the Depository Institution Management Interlocks Act (12 U.S.C. 3201 et seq.).

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§741.210   Central liquidity facility.

Any credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act and is a member of the Central Liquidity Facility, shall adhere to the requirements stated in part 725 of this chapter.

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§741.211   Advertising.

Any credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act shall adhere to the requirements prescribed by part 740 of this chapter.

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§741.212   Share insurance.

(a) Member share accounts received by any credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act in its usual course of business, including regular shares, share certificates, and share draft accounts, are insured subject to the limitations and rules in subpart A of part 745 of this chapter.

(b) The payment of share insurance and the appeal process applicable to any credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act are addressed in subpart B of part 745 of this chapter.

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§741.213   Administrative actions, adjudicative hearings, rules of practice and procedure.

Any credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act shall adhere to the applicable rules of practice and procedures for administrative actions and adjudicative hearings prescribed by part 747 of this chapter. Subpart E of part 747 of this chapter applies only to federal credit unions.

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§741.214   Report of crime or catastrophic act and Bank Secrecy Act compliance.

Any credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act shall adhere to the requirements stated in part 748 of this chapter.

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§741.215   Records preservation program.

Any credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act shall maintain a records preservation program as prescribed by part 749 of this chapter.

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§741.216   Flood insurance.

Any credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act shall adhere to the requirements stated in part 760 of this chapter.

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§741.217   Truth in savings.

Any credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act shall adhere to the requirements stated in part 707 of this chapter.

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§741.218   Involuntary liquidation and creditor claims.

Any credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act shall adhere to the applicable provisions in part 709 of this chapter. Section 709.3 of this chapter applies only to federal credit unions.

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§741.219   Investment requirements.

(a) Any credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act must adhere to the requirements stated in part 703 of this chapter concerning transacting business with corporate credit unions.

(b) Any credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act must notify the applicable NCUA Regional Director in writing at least 30 days before it begins engaging in derivatives.

[79 FR 5247, Jan. 31, 2014, as amended at 84 FR 1608, Feb. 5, 2019]

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§741.220   Privacy of consumer financial information.

Any credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act must adhere to the requirements stated in part 1016 of this title (Regulation P).

[65 FR 31750, May 18, 2000, as amended at 78 FR 32545, May 31, 2013]

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§741.221   Suretyship and guaranty requirements.

Any credit union, which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act, must adhere to the requirements in §701.20 of this chapter. State-chartered, NCUSIF-insured credit unions may only enter into suretyship and guaranty agreements to the extent authorized under state law.

[69 FR 8548, Feb. 25, 2004]

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§741.222   Credit union service organizations.

(a) Any credit union that is insured pursuant to Title II of the Act must adhere to the requirements in §§712.2(d)(2)(ii), 712.3(d), 712.4 and 712.11(b) and (c) of this chapter concerning permissible investment limits for less than adequately capitalized credit unions, agreements between credit unions and their credit union service organizations (CUSOs), the requirement to maintain separate corporate identities, and investments and loans to CUSOs investing in other CUSOs. For purposes of this section, a CUSO is any entity in which a credit union has an ownership interest or to which a credit union has extended a loan, and that entity is engaged primarily in providing products or services to credit unions or credit union members, or, in the case of checking and currency services, including cashing checks and money orders for a fee, and selling negotiable checks, including travelers checks, money orders, and other similar money transfer instruments (including international and domestic electronic fund transfers and remittance transfers, as defined in section 919 of the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, 15 U.S.C. 1693o-1), to persons eligible for membership in any credit union having a loan, investment or contract with the entity. A CUSO also includes any entity in which a CUSO has an ownership interest of any amount, if that entity is engaged primarily in providing products or services to credit unions or credit union members.

(b) This section shall have no preemptive effect with respect to the laws or rules of any state providing for access to CUSO books and records or CUSO examination by credit union regulatory authorities.

[78 FR 72550, Dec. 3, 2013]

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§741.223   Registration of residential mortgage loan originators.

Any credit union which is insured pursuant to title II of the Act must adhere to the requirements stated in part 1007 of this title (Regulation G).

[75 FR 44704, July 28, 2010, as amended at 78 FR 32545, May 31, 2013]

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§741.224   Golden parachute and indemnification payments.

Any credit union insured pursuant to title II of the Act must adhere to the requirements stated in part 750 of this chapter.

[76 FR 30517, May 26, 2011]

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§741.225   Loan participations.

Any credit union that is insured pursuant to Title II of the Act must adhere to the requirements stated in §701.22 of this chapter, except that federally insured state-chartered credit unions are exempt from the requirement in §701.22(b)(4).

[78 FR 37958, June 25, 2013]

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Appendix A to Part 741—Guidance for an Interest Rate Risk Policy and an Effective Program

Table of Contents

I. Introduction

A. Complexity

B. IRR Exposure

II. IRR Policy

III. IRR Oversight and Management

A. Board of Directors Oversight

B. Management Responsibilities

IV. IRR Measurement and Monitoring

A. Risk Measurement Systems

B. Risk Measurement Methods

C. Components of IRR Measurement Methods

V. Internal Controls

VI. Decision-Making Informed by IRR Measurement Systems

VII. Guidelines for Adequacy of IRR Policy and Effectiveness of Program

VIII. Additional Guidance for Large Credit Unions With Complex or High Risk Balance Sheets

IX. Definitions

I. Introduction

This appendix provides guidance to FICUs in developing an interest rate risk (IRR) policy and program that addresses aspects of asset liability management in a single framework. An effective IRR management program identifies, measures, monitors, and controls IRR and is central to safe and sound credit union operations. Given the differences among credit unions, each credit union should use the guidance in this appendix to formulate a policy that embodies its own practices, metrics and benchmarks appropriate to its operations.

These practices should be established in light of the nature of the credit union's operations and business, as well as its complexity, risk exposure, and size. As these elements increase, NCUA believes the IRR practices should be implemented with increasing degrees of rigor and diligence to maintain safe and sound operations in the area of IRR management. In particular, rigor and diligence are required to manage complexity and risk exposure. Complexity relates to the intricacy of financial instrument structure, and to the composition of assets and liabilities on the balance sheet. In the case of financial instruments, the structure can have numerous characteristics that act simultaneously to affect the behavior of the instrument. In the case of the balance sheet, which contains multiple instruments, assets and liabilities can act in ways that are compounding or can be offsetting because their impact on the IRR level may act in the same or opposite directions. High degrees of risk exposure require a credit union to be diligently aware of the potential earnings and net worth exposures under various interest rate and business environments because the margin for error is low.

A. Complexity

In influencing the behavior of instruments and balance sheet composition, complexity is a function of the predictability of the cash flows. As cash flows become less predictable, the uncertainty of both instrument and balance sheet behavior increases. For example, a residential mortgage is subject to prepayments that will change at the option of the borrower. Mortgage borrowers may pay off their mortgage loans due to geographical relocation, or may increase the amount of their monthly payment above the minimum contractual schedule due to other changes in the borrower's circumstances. This cash flow unpredictability is also found in investments, such as collateralized mortgage obligations, because these contain mortgage loans. Additionally, cash flow unpredictability affects liabilities. For example, nonmaturity share balances vary at the discretion of the depositor making deposits and withdrawals, and this may be influenced by a credit union's pricing of its share accounts.

B. IRR Exposure

Exposure to IRR is the vulnerability of a credit union's financial condition to adverse movements in market interest rates. Although some IRR exposure is a normal part of financial intermediation, a high degree of this exposure may negatively affect a credit union's earnings and net economic value. Changes in interest rates influence a credit union's earnings by altering interest-sensitive income and expenses (e.g. loan income and share dividends). Changes in interest rates also affect the economic value of a credit union's assets and liabilities, because the present value of future cash flows and, in some cases, the cash flows themselves may change when interest rates change. Consequently, the management of a credit union's pricing strategy is critical to the control of IRR exposure.

All FICUs required to have an IRR policy and program should incorporate the following five elements into their IRR program:

1. Board-approved IRR policy.

2. Oversight by the board of directors and implementation by management.

3. Risk measurement systems assessing the IRR sensitivity of earnings and/or asset and liability values.

4. Internal controls to monitor adherence to IRR limits.

5. Decision making that is informed and guided by IRR measures.

II. IRR Policy

The board of directors is responsible for ensuring the adequacy of an IRR policy and its limits. The policy should be consistent with the credit union's business strategies and should reflect the board's risk tolerance, taking into account the credit union's financial condition and risk measurement systems and methods commensurate with the balance sheet structure. The policy should state actions and authorities required for exceptions to policy, limits, and authorizations.

Credit unions have the option of either creating a separate IRR policy or incorporating it into investment, ALM, funds management, liquidity or other policies. Regardless of form, credit unions must clearly document their IRR policy in writing.

The scope of the policy will vary depending on the complexity of the credit union's balance sheet. For example, a credit union that offers short-term loans, invests in non-complex or short-term bullet investments (i.e. a debt security that returns 100 percent of principal on the maturity date), and offers basic share products may not need to create an elaborate policy. The policy for these credit unions may limit the loan portfolio maturity, require a minimum amount of short-term funds, and restrict the types of permissible investments (e.g. Treasuries, bullet investments). More complex balance sheets, especially those containing mortgage loans and complex investments, may warrant a comprehensive IRR policy due to the uncertainty of cash flows.

The policy should establish responsibilities and procedures for identifying, measuring, monitoring, controlling, and reporting IRR, and establish risk limits. A written policy should:

  Identify committees, persons or other parties responsible for review of the credit union's IRR exposure;

  Direct appropriate actions to ensure management takes steps to manage IRR so that IRR exposures are identified, measured, monitored, and controlled;

  State the frequency with which management will report on measurement results to the board to ensure routine review of information that is timely (e.g. current and at least quarterly) and in sufficient detail to assess the credit union's IRR profile;

  Set risk limits for IRR exposures based on selected measures (e.g. limits for changes in repricing or duration gaps, income simulation, asset valuation, or net economic value);

  Choose tests, such as interest rate shocks, that the credit union will perform using the selected measures;

  Provide for periodic review of material changes in IRR exposures and compliance with board approved policy and risk limits;

  Provide for assessment of the IRR impact of any new business activities prior to implementation (e.g. evaluate the IRR profile of introducing a new product or service); and

  Provide for at least an annual evaluation of policy to determine whether it is still commensurate with the size, complexity, and risk profile of the credit union.

IRR policy limits should maintain risk exposures within prudent levels. Examples of limits are as follows:

GAP: less than ±I 10 percent change in any given period, or cumulatively over 12 months.

Income Simulation: net interest income after shock change less than 20 percent over any 12-month period.

Asset Valuation: after shock change in book value of net worth less than 50 percent, or after shock net worth of 4 percent or greater.

Net Economic Value: after shock change in net economic value less than 25 percent, or after shock net economic value of 6 percent or greater.

NCUA emphasizes these are only for illustrative purposes, and management should establish its own limits that are reasonably supported. Where appropriate, management may also set IRR limits for individual portfolios, activities, and lines of business.

III. IRR Oversight and Management

A. Board of Directors Oversight

The board of directors is responsible for oversight of their credit union and for approving policy, major strategies, and prudent limits regarding IRR. To meet this responsibility, understanding the level and nature of IRR taken by the credit union is essential. Accordingly, the board should ensure management executes an effective IRR program.

Additionally, the board should annually assess if the IRR program sufficiently identifies, measures, monitors, and controls the IRR exposure of the credit union. Where necessary, the board may consider obtaining professional advice and training to enhance its understanding of IRR oversight.

B. Management Responsibilities

Management is responsible for the daily management of activities and operations. In order to implement the board's IRR policy, management should:

  Develop and maintain adequate IRR measurement systems;

  Evaluate and understand IRR risk exposures;

  Establish an appropriate system of internal controls (e.g. separation between the risk taker and IRR measurement staff);

  Allocate sufficient resources for an effective IRR program. For example, a complex credit union with an elevated IRR risk profile will likely necessitate a greater allocation of resources to identify and focus on IRR exposures;

  Develop and support competent staff with technical expertise commensurate with the IRR program;

  Identify the procedures and assumptions involved in implementing the IRR measurement systems; and

  Establish clear lines of authority and responsibility for managing IRR; and

  Provide a sufficient set of reports to ensure compliance with board approved policies.

Where delegation of management authority by the board occurs, this may be to designated committees such as an asset liability committee or other equivalent. In credit unions with limited staff, these responsibilities may reside with the board or management. Significant changes in assumptions, measurement methods, tests performed, or other aspects involved in the IRR process should be documented and brought to the attention of those responsible.

IV. IRR Measurement and Monitoring

A. Risk Measurement Systems

Generally, credit unions should have IRR measurement systems that capture and measure all material and identified sources of IRR. An IRR measurement system quantifies the risk contained in the credit union's balance sheet and integrates the important sources of IRR faced by a credit union in order to facilitate management of its risk exposures. The selection and assessment of appropriate IRR measurement systems is the responsibility of credit union boards and management.

Management should:

  Rely on assumptions that are reasonable and supportable;

  Document any changes to assumptions based on observed information;

  Monitor positions with uncertain maturities, rates and cash flows, such as nonmaturity shares, fixed rate mortgages where prepayments may vary, adjustable rate mortgages, and instruments with embedded options, such as calls; and

  Require any interest rate risk calculation techniques, measures and tests to be sufficiently rigorous to capture risk.

B. Risk Measurement Methods

The following discussion is intended only as a general guide and should not be used by credit unions as an endorsement of a particular method. An IRR measurement system may rely on a variety of different methods. Common examples of methods available to credit unions are GAP analysis, income simulation, asset valuation, and net economic value. Any measurement method(s) used by a credit union to analyze IRR exposure should correspond with the complexity of the credit union's balance sheet so as to identify any material sources of IRR.

GAP Analysis

GAP analysis is a simple IRR measurement method that reports the mismatch between rate sensitive assets and rate sensitive liabilities over a given time period. GAP can only suffice for simple balance sheets that primarily consist of short-term bullet type investments and non mortgage-related assets. GAP analysis can be static, behavioral, or based on duration.

Income Simulation

Income simulation is an IRR measurement method used to estimate earnings exposure to changes in interest rates. An income simulation analysis projects interest cash flows of all assets, liabilities, and off-balance sheet instruments in a credit union's portfolio to estimate future net interest income over a chosen timeframe. Generally, income simulations focus on short-term time horizons (e.g. one to three years). Forecasting income is assumption sensitive and more uncertain the longer the forecast period. Simulations typically include evaluations under a base-case scenario, and instantaneous parallel rate shocks, and may include alternate interest-rate scenarios. The alternate rate scenarios may involve ramped changes in rates, twisting of the yield curve, and/or stressed rate environments devised by the user or provided by the vendor.

NCUA Asset Valuation Tables

For credit unions lacking advanced IRR methods that seek simple valuation measures, the NCUA Asset Valuation Tables are available and prepared quarterly by the NCUA. These are available on the NCUA Web site through www.ncua.gov.

These measures provide an indication of a credit union's potential interest rate risk, based on the risk associated with the asset categories of greatest concern—(e.g., mortgage loans and investment securities).

The tables provide a simple measure of the potential devaluation of a credit union's mortgage loans and investment securities that occur during ±300 basis point parallel rate shocks, and report the resulting impact on net worth.

Net Economic Value (NEV)

NEV measures the effect of interest rates on the market value of net worth by calculating the present value of assets minus the present value of liabilities. This calculation measures the long-term IRR in a credit union's balance sheet at a fixed point in time. By capturing the impact of interest rate changes on the value of all future cash flows, NEV provides a comprehensive measurement of IRR. Generally, NEV computations demonstrate the economic value of net worth under current interest rates and shocked interest rate scenarios.

One NEV method is to discount cash flows by a single interest rate path. Credit unions with a significant exposure to assets or liabilities with embedded options should consider alternative measurement methods such as discounting along a yield curve (e.g. the U.S. Treasury curve, LIBOR curve) or using multiple interest rate paths. Credit unions should apply and document appropriate methods, based on available data (e.g. utilizing observed market values), when valuing individual or groups of assets and liabilities.

C. Components of IRR Measurement Methods

In the initial setup of IRR measurement, critical decisions are made regarding numerous variables in the method. These variables include but are not limited to the following.

Chart of Accounts

Credit unions using an IRR measurement method should define a sufficient number of accounts to capture key IRR characteristics inherent within their product lines. For example, credit unions with significant holdings of adjustable-rate mortgages should differentiate balances by periodic and lifetime caps and floors, the reset frequency, and the rate index used for rate resets. Similarly, credit unions with significant holdings of fixed-rate mortgages should differentiate at least by original term, e.g., 30 or 15-year, and coupon level to reflect differences in prepayment behaviors.

Aggregation of Data Input

As the credit union's complexity, risk exposure, and size increases, the degree of detail should be based on data that is increasingly disaggregated. Because imprecision in the measurement process can materially misstate risk levels, management should evaluate the potential loss of precision from any aggregation and simplification used in its measurement of IRR.

Account Attributes

Account attributes define a product, including: Principal type, rate type, rate index, repricing interval, new volume maturity distribution, accounting accrual basis, prepayment driver, and discount rate.

Assumptions

IRR measurement methods rely on assumptions made by management in order to identify IRR. The simplest example is of future interest rate scenarios. The management of IRR will require other assumptions such as: Projected balance sheet volumes; prepayment rates for loans and investment securities; repricing sensitivity, and decay rates of nonmaturity shares. Examples of these assumptions follow.

Example 1. Credit unions should consider evaluating the balance sheet under flat (i.e. static) and/or planned growth scenarios to capture IRR exposures. Under a flat scenario, runoff amounts are reinvested in their respective asset or liability account. Conducting planned growth scenarios allows management to assess the IRR impact of the projected change in volume and/or composition of the balance sheet.

Example 2. Loans and mortgage related securities contain prepayment options that enable the borrower to prepay the obligation prior to maturity. This prepayment option makes it difficult to project the value and earnings stream from these assets because the future outstanding principal balance at any given time is unknown. A number of factors affect prepayments, including the refinancing incentive, seasonality (the particular time of year), seasoning (the age of the loan), member mobility, curtailments (additional principal payments), and burnout (borrowers who don't respond to changes in the level of rates, and pay as scheduled). Prepayment speeds may be estimated or derived from numerous national or vendor data sources.

Example 3. In the process of IRR measurement, the credit union must estimate how each account will reprice in response to market rate fluctuations. For example, when rates rise 300 basis points, the credit union may raise its asset or liability rates in a like amount or not, and may choose to lag the timing of its pricing change.

Example 4. Nonmaturity shares include those accounts with no defined maturity such as share drafts, regular shares, and money market accounts. Measuring the IRR associated with these accounts is difficult because the risk measurement calculations require the user to define the principal cash flows and maturity. Credit unions may assume that there is no value when measuring the associated IRR and carry these values at book value or par. Many credit unions adopt this approach because it keeps the measurement method simple.

Alternatively, a credit union may attribute value to these shares (i.e. premium) on the basis that these shares tend to be lower cost funds that are core balances by virtue of being relatively insensitive to interest rates. This method generally results in nonmaturity shares priced/valued in a way that will produce an increased net economic value. Therefore, the underlying assumptions of the shares require scrutiny.

Credit unions that forecast share behavior and incorporate those assumptions into their risk identification and measurement process should perform sensitivity analysis.

V. Internal Controls

Internal controls are an essential part of a safe and sound IRR program. If possible, separation of those responsible for the risk taking and risk measuring functions should occur at the credit union.

Staff responsible for maintaining controls should periodically assess the overall IRR program as well as compliance with policy. Internal audit staff would normally assume this role; however, if there is no internal auditor, management, or a supervisory committee that is independent of the IRR process, may perform this role. Where appropriate, management may also supplement the internal audit with outside expertise to assess the IRR program. This review should include policy compliance, timeliness, and accuracy of reports given to management and the board.

Audit findings should be reported to the board or supervisory committee with recommended corrective actions and timeframes. The individuals responsible for maintaining internal controls should periodically examine adherence to the policy related to the IRR program.

VI. Decision-Making Informed by IRR Measurement Systems

Management should utilize the results of the credit union's IRR measurement systems in making operational decisions such as changing balance sheet structure, funding, pricing strategies, and business planning. This is particularly the case when measures show a high level of IRR or when measurement results approach board-approved limits.

NCUA recognizes each credit union has its own individual risk profile and tolerance levels. However, when measures of fair value indicate net worth is low, declining, or even negative, or income simulations indicate reduced earnings, management should be prepared to identify steps, if necessary, to bring risk within acceptable levels. In any case, management should understand and use their IRR measurement results, whether generated internally or externally, in the normal course of business. Management should also use the results proactively as a tool to adjust asset liability management for changes in interest rate environments.

VII. Guidelines for Adequacy of IRR Policy and Effectiveness of Program

The following guidelines will assist credit unions in determining the adequacy of their IRR policy and the effectiveness of their program to manage IRR.

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NCUA acknowledges both the range of IRR exposures at credit unions, and the diverse means that they may use to accomplish an effective program to manage this risk. NCUA therefore does not stipulate specific quantitative standards or limits for the management of IRR applicable to all credit unions, and does not rely solely on the results of quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of IRR programs. Assumptions, measures and methods used by a credit union in light of its size, complexity and risk exposure determine the specific appropriate standard. However, NCUA strongly affirms the need for adequate practices for a program to effectively manage IRR. For example, policy limits on IRR exposure are not adequate if they allow a credit union to operate with an exposure that is unsafe or unsound, which means that the credit union may suffer material losses under plausible adverse circumstances as a result of this exposure. Credit unions that do not have a written IRR policy or that do not have an effective IRR program are out of compliance with §741.3 of NCUA's regulations.

VIII. Additional Guidance for Large Credit Unions With Complex or High Risk Balance Sheets

FICUs with assets of $500 million or greater must obtain an annual audit of their financial statements performed in accordance with generally accepted accounting standards. 12 CFR 715.5, 715.6, 741.202. For purposes of data collection, NCUA also uses $500 million and above as its largest credit union asset range. In order to gather information and to monitor IRR exposure at larger credit unions as it relates to the share insurance fund, NCUA will use this as the criterion for definition of large credit unions for purposes of this section of the guidance. Given the increased exposure to the share insurance fund, NCUA encourages the responsible officials at large credit unions that are complex or high risk to fully understand all aspects of interest rate risk, including but not limited to the credit union's IRR assessment and potential directional changes in IRR exposures. For example, the credit union should consider the following:

  A policy which provides for the use of outside parties to validate the tests and limits commensurate with the risk exposure and complexity of the credit union;

  IRR measurement systems that report compliance with policy limits as shown both by risks to earnings and net economic value of equity under a variety of defined and reasonable interest rate scenarios;

  The effect of changes in assumptions on IRR exposure results (e.g. the impact of slower or faster prepayments on earnings and economic value); and,

  Enhanced levels of separation between risk taking and risk assessment (e.g. assignment of resources to separate the investments function from IRR measurement, and IRR monitoring and oversight).

IX. Definitions

Basis risk: The risk to earnings and/or value due to a financial institution's holdings of multiple instruments, based on different indices that are imperfectly correlated.

Interest rate risk: The risk that changes in market rates will adversely affect a credit union's net economic value and/or earnings. Interest rate risk generally arises from a mismatch between the timing of cash flows from fixed rate instruments, and interest rate resets of variable rate instruments, on either side of the balance sheet. Thus, as interest rates change, earnings or net economic value may decline.

Option risk: The risk to earnings and/or value due to the effect on financial instruments of options associated with these instruments. Options are embedded when they are contractual within, or directly associated with, the instrument. An example of a contractual embedded option is a call option on an agency bond. An example of a behavioral embedded option is the right of a residential mortgage holder to vary prepayments on the mortgage through time, either by making additional premium payments, or by paying off the mortgage prior to maturity.

Repricing risk: The repricing of assets or liabilities following market changes can occur in different amounts and/or at different times. This risk can cause returns to vary.

Spread risk: The risk to earnings and/or value resulting from variations through time of the spread between assets or liabilities to an underlying index such as the Treasury curve.

Yield curve risk: The risk to earnings and/or value due to changes in the level or slope of underlying yield curves. Financial instruments can be sensitive to different points on the curve. This can cause returns to vary as yield curves change.

[77 FR 5162, Feb. 2, 2012, as amended at 77 FR 57990, Sept. 19, 2012. Redesignated at 83 FR 7964, Feb. 23, 2018]

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Appendix B to Part 741—Interpretive Ruling and Policy Statement on Loan Workouts, Nonaccrual Policy, and Regulatory Reporting of Troubled Debt Restructured Loans

This Interpretive Ruling and Policy Statement (IRPS) establishes requirements for the management of loan workout1 arrangements, loan nonaccrual, and regulatory reporting of troubled debt restructured loans (herein after referred to as TDR or TDRs).

1Terms defined in the Glossary will be italicized on their first use in the body of this guidance.

This IRPS applies to all federally insured credit unions.

Under this IRPS, TDR loans are as defined in generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the Board does not intend through this policy to change the Financial Accounting Standards Board's (FASB) definition of TDR in any way. In addition to existing agency policy, this IRPS sets NCUA's supervisory expectations governing loan workout policies and practices and loan accruals.

Written Loan Workout Policy and Monitoring Requirements2

2For additional guidance on member business lending extension, deferral, renewal, and rewrite policies, see Interagency Policy Statement on Prudent Commercial Real Estate Loan Workouts (October 30, 2009) transmitted by Letter to Credit Unions No. 10-CU-07, and available at http://www.ncua.gov.

For purposes of this policy statement, types of workout loans to borrowers in financial difficulties include re-agings, extensions, deferrals, renewals, or rewrites. See the Glossary entry on “workouts” for further descriptions of each term. Borrower retention programs or new loans are not encompassed within this policy nor considered by the Board to be workout loans.

Loan workouts can be used to help borrowers overcome temporary financial difficulties, such as loss of job, medical emergency, or change in family circumstances like loss of a family member. Loan workout arrangements should consider and balance the best interests of both the borrower and the credit union.

The lack of a sound written policy on workouts can mask the true performance and past due status of the loan portfolio. Accordingly, the credit union board and management must adopt and adhere to an explicit written policy and standards that control the use of loan workouts, and establish controls to ensure the policy is consistently applied. The loan workout policy and practices should be commensurate with each credit union's size and complexity, and must be in line with the credit union's broader risk mitigation strategies. The policy must define eligibility requirements (i.e., under what conditions the credit union will consider a loan workout), including establishing limits on the number of times an individual loan may be modified.3 The policy must also ensure credit unions make loan workout decisions based on the borrower's renewed willingness and ability to repay the loan. If a credit union engages in restructuring activity on a loan that results in restructuring the loan more often than once a year or twice in five years, examiners will have higher expectations for the documentation of the borrower's renewed willingness and ability to repay the loan. NCUA is concerned about restructuring activity that pushes existing losses into future reporting periods without improving the loan's collectability. One way a credit union can provide convincing evidence that multiple restructurings improve collectability is to perform validation of completed multiple restructurings that substantiate the claim. Examiners will ask for such validation documentation if the credit union engages in multiple restructurings of a loan.

3Broad based credit union programs commonly used as a member benefit and implemented in a safe and sound manner limited to only accounts in good standing, such as Skip-a-Pay programs, are not intended to count toward these limits.

In addition, the policy must establish sound controls to ensure loan workout actions are appropriately structured.4 The policy must provide that in no event may the credit union authorize additional advances to finance unpaid interest and credit union fees. The credit union may, however, make advances to cover third-party fees, excluding credit union commissions, such as force-placed insurance or property taxes. For loan workouts granted, the credit union must document the determination that the borrower is willing and able to repay the loan.

4In developing a written policy, the credit union board and management may wish to consider similar parameters as those established in the FFIEC's “Uniform Retail Credit Classification and Account Management Policy” (FFIEC Policy). 65 FR 36903 (June 12, 2000). The FFIEC Policy sets forth specific limitations on the number of times a loan can be re-aged (for open-end accounts) or extended, deferred, renewed or rewritten (for closed-end accounts). Additionally, NCUA Letter to Credit Unions (LCU) 09-CU-19, “Evaluating Residential Real Estate Mortgage Loan Modification Programs,” outlines policy requirements for real estate modifications. Those requirements remain applicable to real estate loan modifications but could be adapted in part by the credit union in their written loan workout policy for other loans.

Management must ensure that comprehensive and effective risk management and internal controls are established and maintained so that loan workouts can be adequately controlled and monitored by the credit union's board of directors and management, to provide for timely recognition of losses,5 and to permit review by examiners. The credit union's risk management framework must include thresholds based on aggregate volume of loan workout activity that trigger enhanced reporting to the board of directors. This reporting will enable the credit union's board of directors to evaluate the effectiveness of the credit union's loan workout program, any implications to the organization's financial condition, and to make any compensating adjustments to the overall business strategy. This information will also then be available to examiners upon request.

5Refer to NCUA guidance on charge-offs set forth in LCU 03-CU-01, “Loan Charge-off Guidance,” dated January 2003. Examiners will require that a reasonable written charge-off policy is in place and that it is consistently applied. Additionally, credit unions need to adjust historical loss factors when calculating ALLL needs for pooled loans to account for any loans with protracted charge-off timeframes (e.g., 12 months or greater). See discussions on the latter point in the 2006 Interagency ALLL Policy Statement transmitted by Accounting Bulletin 06-1 (December 2006).

To be effective, management information systems need to track the principal reductions and charge-off history of loans in workout programs by type of program. Any decision to re-age, extend, defer, renew, or rewrite a loan, like any other revision to contractual terms, needs to be supported by the credit union's management information systems. Sound management information systems are able to identify and document any loan that is re-aged, extended, deferred, renewed, or rewritten, including the frequency and extent such action has been taken. Documentation normally shows that the credit union's personnel communicated with the borrower, the borrower agreed to pay the loan in full under any new terms, and the borrower has the ability to repay the loan under any new terms.

Regulatory Reporting of Workout Loans Including TDR Past Due Status

The past due status of all loans will be calculated consistent with loan contract terms, including amendments made to loan terms through a formal restructure. Credit unions will report delinquency on the Call Report consistent with this policy.6

6Subsequent Call Reports and accompanying instructions will reflect this policy, including focusing data collection on loans meeting the definition of TDR under GAAP. In reporting TDRs on regulatory reports, the data collections will include all TDRs that meet the GAAP criteria for TDR reporting, without the application of materiality threshold exclusions based on scoping or reporting policy elections of credit union preparers or their auditors. Credit unions should also refer to the recently revised standard from the FASB, Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-02 (April 2011) to the FASB Accounting Standards Codification entitled, Receivables (Topic 310), “A Creditor's Determination of Whether a Restructuring is a Troubled Debt Restructuring.” This clarified the definition of a TDR, which has the practical effect in the current economic environment to broaden loan workouts that constitute a TDR. This standard is effective for annual periods ending on or after December 15, 2012.

Loan Nonaccrual Policy

Credit unions must ensure appropriate income recognition by placing loans in nonaccrual status when conditions as specified below exist, reversing or charging-off previously accrued but uncollected interest, complying with the criteria under GAAP for Cash or Cost Recovery basis of income recognition, and following the specifications below regarding restoration of a nonaccrual loan to accrual status.7 This policy on loan accrual is consistent with longstanding credit union industry practice as implemented by the NCUA over the last several decades. The balance of the policy relates to member business loan workouts and is similar to the FFIEC policies adopted by the federal banking agencies8 as set forth in the FFIEC Call Report for banking institutions and its instructions.9

7Placing a loan in nonaccrual status does not change the loan agreement or the obligations between the borrower and the credit union. Only the parties can effect a restructuring of the original loan terms or otherwise settle the debt.

8The federal banking agencies are the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency.

9FFIEC Report of Condition and Income Forms and User Guides, Updated September 2011, http://www.fdic.gov.

Nonaccrual Status

Credit unions may not accrue interest10 on any loan upon which principal or interest has been in default for a period of 90 days or more, unless the loan is both “well secured” and “in the process of collection.11 Additionally, loans will be placed in nonaccrual status if maintained on a Cash (or Cost Recovery) basis because of deterioration in the financial condition of the borrower, or for which payment in full of principal or interest is not expected. For purposes of applying the “well secured” and “in process of collection” test for nonaccrual status listed above, the date on which a loan reaches nonaccrual status is determined by its contractual terms.

10Nonaccrual of interest also includes the amortization of deferred net loan fees or costs, or the accretion of discount. Nonaccrual of interest on loans past due 90 days or more is a longstanding agency policy and credit union practice.

11A purchased credit impaired loan asset need not be placed in nonaccrual status as long as the criteria for accrual of income under the interest method in GAAP is met. Also, the accrual of interest on workout loans is covered in a separate section of this IRPS later in the policy statement.

While a loan is in nonaccrual status, some or all of the cash interest payments received may be treated as interest income on a cash basis as long as the remaining recorded investment in the loan (i.e., after charge-off of identified losses, if any) is deemed to be fully collectable. The reversal of previously accrued, but uncollected, interest applicable to any loan placed in nonaccrual status must be handled in accordance with GAAP.12 Where assets are collectable over an extended period of time and, because of the terms of the transactions or other conditions, there is no reasonable basis for estimating the degree of collectability—when such circumstances exist, and as long as they exist—consistent with GAAP the Cost Recovery Method of accounting must be used.13 Use of the Cash or Cost Recovery basis for these loans and the statement on reversing previous accrued interest is the practical implementation of relevant accounting principles.

12Acceptable accounting treatment includes a reversal of all previously accrued, but uncollected, interest applicable to loans placed in a nonaccrual status against appropriate income and balance sheet accounts. For example, one acceptable method of accounting for such uncollected interest on a loan placed in nonaccrual status is: (1) To reverse all of the unpaid interest by crediting the “accrued interest receivable” account on the balance sheet, (2) to reverse the uncollected interest that has been accrued during the calendar year-to-date by debiting the appropriate “interest and fee income on loans” account on the income statement, and (3) to reverse any uncollected interest that had been accrued during previous calendar years by debiting the “allowance for loan and lease losses” account on the balance sheet. The use of this method presumes that credit union management's additions to the allowance through charges to the “provision for loan and lease losses” on the income statement have been based on an evaluation of the collectability of the loan and lease portfolios and the “accrued interest receivable” account.

13When a purchased impaired loan or debt security that is accounted for in accordance with ASC Subtopic 310-30, “Receivables-Loans and Debt Securities Acquired with Deteriorated Credit Quality,” has been placed on nonaccrual status, the cost recovery method should be used, when appropriate.

Restoration to Accrual Status for All Loans except Member Business Loan Workouts

A nonaccrual loan may be restored to accrual status when:

  Its past due status is less than 90 days, GAAP does not require it to be maintained on the Cash or Cost Recovery basis, and the credit union is plausibly assured of repayment of the remaining contractual principal and interest within a reasonable period;

  When it otherwise becomes both well secured and in the process of collection; or

  The asset is a purchased impaired loan and it meets the criteria under GAAP for accrual of income under the interest method specified therein.

In restoring all loans to accrual status, if any interest payments received while the loan was in nonaccrual status were applied to reduce the recorded investment in the loan the application of these payments to the loan's recorded investment must not be reversed (and interest income must not be credited). Likewise, accrued but uncollected interest reversed or charged-off at the point the loan was placed on nonaccrual status cannot be restored to accrual; it can only be recognized as income if collected in cash or cash equivalents from the member.

Restoration to Accrual Status on Member Business Loan Workouts14

14This policy is derived from the “Interagency Policy Statement on Prudent Commercial Real Estate Loan Workouts” NCUA and the other financial regulators issued on October 30, 2009.

A formally restructured member business loan workout need not be maintained in nonaccrual status, provided the restructuring and any charge-off taken on the loan are supported by a current, well documented credit evaluation of the borrower's financial condition and prospects for repayment under the revised terms. Otherwise, the restructured loan must remain in nonaccrual status. The evaluation must include consideration of the borrower's sustained historical repayment performance for a reasonable period prior to the date on which the loan is returned to accrual status. A sustained period of repayment performance would be a minimum of six consecutive payments and would involve timely payments under the restructured loan's terms of principal and interest in cash or cash equivalents. In returning the member business workout loan to accrual status, sustained historical repayment performance for a reasonable time prior to the restructuring may be taken into account. Such a restructuring must improve the collectability of the loan in accordance with a reasonable repayment schedule and does not relieve the credit union from the responsibility to promptly charge off all identified losses.

The graph below provides an example of a schedule of repayment performance to demonstrate a determination of six consecutive payments. If the original loan terms required a monthly payment of $1,500, and the credit union lowered the borrower's payment to $1,000 through formal member business loan restructure, then based on the first row of the graph, the “sustained historical repayment performance for a reasonable time prior to the restructuring” would encompass five of the pre-workout consecutive payments that were at least $1,000 (Months 1 through 5); so, in total, the six consecutive repayment burden would be met by the first month post workout (Month 6). In the second row, only one of the pre-workout payments would count toward the six consecutive repayment requirement (Month 5), because it is the first month in which the borrower made a payment of at least $1,000, after failing to pay at least that amount. The loan, therefore, would remain on nonaccrual for at least five post-workout consecutive payments (Months 6 through 10) provided the borrower continues to make payments consistent with the restructured terms.

Pre-workoutPost-workout
Month 1Month 2Month 3Month 4Month 5Month 6Month 7Month 8Month 9Month 10
$1,500$1,200$1,200$1,000$1,000$1,000$1,000$1,000$1,000$1,000
1,5001,2009008751,0001,0001,0001,0001,0001,000

After a formal restructure of a member business loan, if the restructured loan has been returned to accrual status, the loan otherwise remains subject to the nonaccrual standards of this policy. If any interest payments received while the member business loan was in nonaccrual status were applied to reduce the recorded investment in the loan the application of these payments to the loan's recorded investment must not be reversed (and interest income must not be credited). Likewise, accrued but uncollected interest reversed or charged-off at the point the member business workout loan was placed on nonaccrual status cannot be restored to accrual; it can only be recognized as income if collected in cash or cash equivalents from the member.

The following tables summarize nonaccrual and restoration to accrual requirements previously discussed:

Table 1—Nonaccrual Criteria

ActionCondition identifiedAdditional consideration
Nonaccrual on All Loans90 days or more past due unless loan is both well secured and in the process of collection; or
If the loan must be maintained on the Cash or Cost Recovery basis because there is a deterioration in the financial condition of the borrower, or for which payment in full of principal or interest is not expected
See Glossary descriptors for “well secured” and “in the process of collection.”
Consult GAAP for Cash or Cost Recovery basis income recognition guidance. See also Glossary Descriptors.
Nonaccrual on Member Business Loan WorkoutsContinue on nonaccrual at workout point and until restore to accrual criteria are metSee Table 2—Restore to Accrual.

Table 2—Restore to Accrual

ActionCondition identifiedAdditional consideration
Restore to Accrual on All Loans except Member Business Loan WorkoutsWhen the loan is past due less than 90 days, GAAP does not require it to be maintained on the Cash or Cost Recovery basis, and the credit union is plausibly assured of repayment of the remaining contractual principal and interest within a reasonable period
When it otherwise becomes both “well secured” and “in the process of collection”; or
The asset is a purchased impaired loan and it meets the criteria under GAAP for accrual of income under the interest method
See Glossary descriptors for “well secured” and “in the process of collection.”
Interest payments received while the loan was in nonaccrual status and applied to reduce the recorded investment in the loan must not be reversed and income credited. Likewise, accrued but uncollected interest reversed or charged-off at the point the loan was placed on nonaccrual status cannot be restored to accrual.
Restore to Accrual on Member Business Loan WorkoutsFormal restructure with a current, well documented credit evaluation of the borrower's financial condition and prospects for repayment under the revised termsThe evaluation must include consideration of the borrower's sustained historical repayment performance for a minimum of six timely consecutive payments comprised of principal and interest. In returning the loan to accrual status, sustained historical repayment performance for a reasonable time prior to the restructuring may be taken into account.
Interest payments received while the member business loan was in nonaccrual status and applied to reduce the recorded investment in the loan must not be reversed and income credited. Likewise, accrued but uncollected interest reversed or charged-off at the point the member business loan was placed on nonaccrual status cannot be restored to accrual.

Glossary15

15Terms defined in the Glossary will be italicized on their first use in the body of this guidance.

Cash Basis” method of income recognition is set forth in GAAP and means while a loan is in nonaccrual status, some or all of the cash interest payments received may be treated as interest income on a cash basis as long as the remaining recorded investment in the loan (i.e., after charge-off of identified losses, if any) is deemed to be fully collectible.16

16Acceptable accounting practices include: (1) Allocating contractual interest payments among interest income, reduction of the recorded investment in the asset, and recovery of prior charge-offs. If this method is used, the amount of income that is recognized would be equal to that which would have been accrued on the loan's remaining recorded investment at the contractual rate; and, (2) accounting for the contractual interest in its entirety either as income, reduction of the recorded investment in the asset, or recovery of prior charge-offs, depending on the condition of the asset, consistent with its accounting policies for other financial reporting purposes.

Charge-off” means a direct reduction (credit) to the carrying amount of a loan carried at amortized cost resulting from uncollectability with a corresponding reduction (debit) of the ALLL. Recoveries of loans previously charged off should be recorded when received.

Cost Recovery” method of income recognition means equal amounts of revenue and expense are recognized as collections are made until all costs have been recovered, postponing any recognition of profit until that time.17

17FASB Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 605-10-25-4, “Revenue Recognition, Cost Recovery.”

Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP)” means official pronouncements of the FASB as memorialized in the FASB Accounting Standards Codification® as the source of authoritative principles and standards recognized to be applied in the preparation of financial statements by federally insured credit unions in the United States with assets of $10 million or more.

In the process of collection” means collection of the loan is proceeding in due course either: (1) Through legal action, including judgment enforcement procedures, or (2) in appropriate circumstances, through collection efforts not involving legal action which are reasonably expected to result in repayment of the debt or in its restoration to a current status in the near future, i.e., generally within the next 90 days.

“Member Business Loan” is defined consistent with Section 723.1 of NCUA's Member Business Loan Rule, 12 CFR 723.1.

“New Loan” means the terms of the revised loan are at least as favorable to the credit union (i.e., terms are market-based, and profit driven) as the terms for comparable loans to other customers with similar collection risks who are not refinancing or restructuring a loan with the credit union, and the revisions to the original debt are more than minor.

“Past Due” means a loan is determined to be delinquent in relation to its contractual repayment terms including formal restructures, and must consider the time value of money. Credit unions may use the following method to recognize partial payments on “consumer credit,” i.e., credit extended to individuals for household, family, and other personal expenditures, including credit cards, and loans to individuals secured by their personal residence, including home equity and home improvement loans. A payment equivalent to 90 percent or more of the contractual payment may be considered a full payment in computing past due status.

“Recorded Investment in a Loan” means the loan balance adjusted for any unamortized premium or discount and unamortized loan fees or costs, less any amount previously charged off, plus recorded accrued interest.

“Troubled Debt Restructuring” is as defined in GAAP and means a restructuring in which a credit union, for economic or legal reasons related to a member borrower's financial difficulties, grants a concession to the borrower that it would not otherwise consider.18 The restructuring of a loan may include, but is not necessarily limited to: (1) The transfer from the borrower to the credit union of real estate, receivables from third parties, other assets, or an equity interest in the borrower in full or partial satisfaction of the loan, (2) a modification of the loan terms, such as a reduction of the stated interest rate, principal, or accrued interest or an extension of the maturity date at a stated interest rate lower than the current market rate for new debt with similar risk, or (3) a combination of the above. A loan extended or renewed at a stated interest rate equal to the current market interest rate for new debt with similar risk is not to be reported as a restructured troubled loan.

18FASB ASC 310-40, “Troubled Debt Restructuring by Creditors.”

“Well secured” means the loan is collateralized by: (1) A perfected security interest in, or pledges of, real or personal property, including securities with an estimable value, less cost to sell, sufficient to recover the recorded investment in the loan, as well as a reasonable return on that amount, or (2) by the guarantee of a financially responsible party.

“Workout Loan” means a loan to a borrower in financial difficulty that has been formally restructured so as to be reasonably assured of repayment (of principal and interest) and of performance according to its restructured terms. A workout loan typically involves a re-aging, extension, deferral, renewal, or rewrite of a loan.19 For purposes of this policy statement, workouts do not include loans made to market rates and terms such as refinances, borrower retention actions, or new loans.20

19“Re-Age” means returning a past due account to current status without collecting the total amount of principal, interest, and fees that are contractually due.

“Extension” means extending monthly payments on a closed-end loan and rolling back the maturity by the number of months extended. The account is shown current upon granting the extension. If extension fees are assessed, they should be collected at the time of the extension and not added to the balance of the loan.

“Deferral” means deferring a contractually due payment on a closed-end loan without affecting the other terms, including maturity, of the loan. The account is shown current upon granting the deferral.

“Renewal” means underwriting a matured, closed-end loan generally at its outstanding principal amount and on similar terms.

“Rewrite” means significantly changing the terms of an existing loan, including payment amounts, interest rates, amortization schedules, or its final maturity.

20There may be instances where a workout loan is not a TDR even though the borrower is experiencing financial hardship. For example, a workout loan would not be a TDR if the fair value of cash or other assets accepted by a credit union from a borrower in full satisfaction of its receivable is at least equal to the credit union's recorded investment in the loan, e.g., due to charge-offs.

[77 FR 31993, May 31, 2012. Redesignated at 83 FR 7964, Feb. 23, 2018]

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