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e-CFR data is current as of August 10, 2020

Title 11Chapter ISubchapter APart 100 → Subpart C


Title 11: Federal Elections
PART 100—SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (52 U.S.C. 30101)


Subpart C—Exceptions to Contributions


Contents
§100.71   Scope.
§100.72   Testing the waters.
§100.73   News story, commentary, or editorial by the media.
§100.74   Uncompensated services by volunteers.
§100.75   Use of a volunteer's real or personal property.
§100.76   Use of church or community room.
§100.77   Invitations, food, and beverages.
§100.78   Sale of food or beverages by vendor.
§100.79   Unreimbursed payment for transportation and subsistence expenses.
§100.80   Slate cards and sample ballots.
§100.81   Payments by corporations and labor organizations.
§100.82   Bank loans.
§100.83   Brokerage loans and lines of credit to candidates.
§100.84   Office building for State, local, or district party committees or organizations.
§100.85   Legal or accounting services to political party committees.
§100.86   Legal or accounting services to other political committees.
§100.87   Volunteer activity for party committees.
§100.88   Volunteer activity for candidates.
§100.89   Voter registration and get-out-the-vote activities for Presidential candidates.
§100.90   Ballot access fees.
§100.91   Recounts.
§100.92   Candidate debates.
§100.93   Travel by aircraft or other means of transportation.
§100.94   Uncompensated Internet activity by individuals that is not a contribution.

Source: 67 FR 50585, Aug. 5, 2002, unless otherwise noted.

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§100.71   Scope.

(a) The term contribution does not include payments, services or other things of value described in this subpart.

(b) For the purpose of this subpart, a contribution or payment made by an individual shall not be attributed to any other individual, unless otherwise specified by that other individual in accordance with 11 CFR 110.1(k).

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§100.72   Testing the waters.

(a) General exemption. Funds received solely for the purpose of determining whether an individual should become a candidate are not contributions. Examples of activities permissible under this exemption if they are conducted to determine whether an individual should become a candidate include, but are not limited to, conducting a poll, telephone calls, and travel. Only funds permissible under the Act may be used for such activities. The individual shall keep records of all such funds received. See 11 CFR 101.3. If the individual subsequently becomes a candidate, the funds received are contributions subject to the reporting requirements of the Act. Such contributions must be reported with the first report filed by the principal campaign committee of the candidate, regardless of the date the funds were received.

(b) Exemption not applicable to individuals who have decided to become candidates. This exemption does not apply to funds received for activities indicating that an individual has decided to become a candidate for a particular office or for activities relevant to conducting a campaign. Examples of activities that indicate that an individual has decided to become a candidate include, but are not limited to:

(1) The individual uses general public political advertising to publicize his or her intention to campaign for Federal office.

(2) The individual raises funds in excess of what could reasonably be expected to be used for exploratory activities or undertakes activities designed to amass campaign funds that would be spent after he or she becomes a candidate.

(3) The individual makes or authorizes written or oral statements that refer to him or her as a candidate for a particular office.

(4) The individual conducts activities in close proximity to the election or over a protracted period of time.

(5) The individual has taken action to qualify for the ballot under State law.

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§100.73   News story, commentary, or editorial by the media.

Any cost incurred in covering or carrying a news story, commentary, or editorial by any broadcasting station (including a cable television operator, programmer or producer), Web site, newspaper, magazine, or other periodical publication, including any Internet or electronic publication, is not a contribution unless the facility is owned or controlled by any political party, political committee, or candidate, in which case the costs for a news story:

(a) That represents a bona fide news account communicated in a publication of general circulation or on a licensed broadcasting facility; and

(b) That is part of a general pattern of campaign-related news accounts that give reasonably equal coverage to all opposing candidates in the circulation or listening area, is not a contribution.

[67 FR 50585, Aug. 5, 2002, as amended at 71 FR 18613, Apr. 12, 2006]

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§100.74   Uncompensated services by volunteers.

The value of services provided without compensation by any individual who volunteers on behalf of a candidate or political committee is not a contribution.

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§100.75   Use of a volunteer's real or personal property.

No contribution results where an individual, in the course of volunteering personal services on his or her residential premises to any candidate or to any political committee of a political party, provides the use of his or her real or personal property to such candidate for candidate-related activity or to such political committee of a political party for party-related activity. For the purposes of this section, an individual's residential premises, shall include a recreation room in a residential complex where the individual volunteering services resides, provided that the room is available for use without regard to political affiliation. A nominal fee paid by such individual for the use of such room is not a contribution.

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§100.76   Use of church or community room.

No contribution results where an individual, in the course of volunteering personal services to any candidate or political committee of a political party, obtains the use of a church or community room and provides such room to any candidate for candidate-related activity or to any political committee of a political party for party-related activity, provided that the room is used on a regular basis by members of the community for noncommercial purposes and the room is available for use by members of the community without regard to political affiliation. A nominal fee paid by such individual for the use of such room is not a contribution.

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§100.77   Invitations, food, and beverages.

The cost of invitations, food and beverages is not a contribution where such items are voluntarily provided by an individual volunteering personal services on the individual's residential premises or in a church or community room as specified at 11 CFR 100.75 and 100.76 to a candidate for candidate-related activity or to any political committee of a political party for party-related activity, to the extent that: The aggregate value of such invitations, food and beverages provided by the individual on behalf of the candidate does not exceed $1,000 with respect to any single election; and on behalf of all political committees of each political party does not exceed $2,000 in any calendar year.

[69 FR 68238, Nov. 24, 2004]

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§100.78   Sale of food or beverages by vendor.

The sale of any food or beverage by a vendor (whether incorporated or not) for use in a candidate's campaign, or for use by a political committee of a political party, at a charge less than the normal or comparable commercial rate, is not a contribution, provided that the charge is at least equal to the cost of such food or beverage to the vendor, to the extent that: The aggregate value of such discount given by the vendor on behalf of any single candidate does not exceed $1,000 with respect to any single election; and on behalf of all political committees of each political party does not exceed $2,000 in a calendar year.

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§100.79   Unreimbursed payment for transportation and subsistence expenses.

(a) Transportation expenses. Any unreimbursed payment for transportation expenses incurred by any individual on behalf of any candidate or any political committee of a political party is not a contribution to the extent that:

(1) The aggregate value of the payments made by such individual on behalf of a candidate does not exceed $1,000 with respect to a single election; and

(2) The aggregate value of the payments made by such individual on behalf of all political committees of each political party does not exceed $2,000 in a calendar year.

(b) Subsistence expenses. Any unreimbursed payment from a volunteer's personal funds for usual and normal subsistence expenses incidental to volunteer activity is not a contribution.

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§100.80   Slate cards and sample ballots.

The payment by a State or local committee of a political party of the costs of preparation, display, or mailing or other distribution incurred by such committee with respect to a printed slate card, sample ballot, palm card, or other printed listing(s) of three or more candidates for any public office for which an election is held in the State in which the committee is organized is not a contribution. The payment of the portion of such costs allocable to Federal candidates must be made from funds subject to the limitations and prohibitions of the Act. If made by a political committee, such payments shall be reported by that committee as disbursements, but need not be allocated in committee reports to specific candidates. This exemption shall not apply to costs incurred by such a committee with respect to the preparation and display of listings made on broadcasting stations, or in newspapers, magazines, and similar types of general public political advertising such as billboards. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a) and part 300, subpart B for exempt activities that also constitute Federal election activity.

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§100.81   Payments by corporations and labor organizations.

Any payment made or obligation incurred by a corporation or a labor organization is not a contribution, if under the provisions of 11 CFR part 114 such payment or obligation would not constitute an expenditure by the corporation or labor organization.

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§100.82   Bank loans.

(a) General provisions. A loan of money to a political committee or a candidate by a State bank, a federally chartered depository institution (including a national bank) or a depository institution whose deposits and accounts are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or the National Credit Union Administration is not a contribution by the lending institution if such loan is made in accordance with applicable banking laws and regulations and is made in the ordinary course of business. A loan will be deemed to be made in the ordinary course of business if it:

(1) Bears the usual and customary interest rate of the lending institution for the category of loan involved;

(2) Is made on a basis that assures repayment;

(3) Is evidenced by a written instrument; and

(4) Is subject to a due date or amortization schedule.

(b) Reporting. Such loans shall be reported by the political committee in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(a) and (d).

(c) Endorsers and guarantors. Each endorser or guarantor shall be deemed to have contributed that portion of the total amount of the loan for which he or she agreed to be liable in a written agreement, except that, in the event of a signature by the candidate's spouse, the provisions of 11 CFR 100.52(b)(4) shall apply. Any reduction in the unpaid balance of the loan shall reduce proportionately the amount endorsed or guaranteed by each endorser or guarantor in such written agreement. In the event that such agreement does not stipulate the portion of the loan for which each endorser or guarantor is liable, the loan shall be considered a contribution by each endorser or guarantor in the same proportion to the unpaid balance that each endorser or guarantor bears to the total number of endorsers or guarantors.

(d) Overdrafts. For purposes of this section, an overdraft made on a checking or savings account of a political committee shall be considered a contribution by the bank or institution unless:

(1) The overdraft is made on an account that is subject to automatic overdraft protection;

(2) The overdraft is subject to a definite interest rate that is usual and customary; and

(3) There is a definite repayment schedule.

(e) Made on a basis that assures repayment. A loan, including a line of credit, shall be considered made on a basis that assures repayment if it is obtained using either of the sources of repayment described in paragraphs (e)(1) or (2) of this section, or a combination of paragraphs (e)(1) and (2) of this section:

(1)(i) The lending institution making the loan has perfected a security interest in collateral owned by the candidate or political committee receiving the loan, the fair market value of the collateral is equal to or greater than the loan amount and any senior liens as determined on the date of the loan, and the candidate or political committee provides documentation to show that the lending institution has a perfected security interest in the collateral. Sources of collateral include, but are not limited to, ownership in real estate, personal property, goods, negotiable instruments, certificates of deposit, chattel papers, stocks, accounts receivable and cash on deposit.

(ii) Amounts guaranteed by secondary sources of repayment, such as guarantors and cosigners, shall not exceed the contribution limits of 11 CFR part 110 or contravene the prohibitions of 11 CFR 110.4, 110.20, part 114 and part 115; or

(2) The lending institution making the loan has obtained a written agreement whereby the candidate or political committee receiving the loan has pledged future receipts, such as public financing payments under 11 CFR part 9001 through part 9012, or part 9031 through part 9039, contributions, or interest income, provided that:

(i) The amount of the loan or loans obtained on the basis of such funds does not exceed the amount of pledged funds;

(ii) Loan amounts are based on a reasonable expectation of the receipt of pledged funds. To that end, the candidate or political committee must furnish the lending institution documentation, i.e., cash flow charts or other financial plans, that reasonably establish that such future funds will be available;

(iii) A separate depository account is established at the lending institution or the lender obtains an assignment from the candidate or political committee to access funds in a committee account at another depository institution that meets the requirements of 11 CFR 103.2, and the committee has notified the other institution of this assignment;

(iv) The loan agreement requires the deposit of the public financing payments, contributions and interest income pledged as collateral into the separate depository account for the purpose of retiring the debt according to the repayment requirements of the loan agreement; and

(v) In the case of public financing payments, the borrower authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to directly deposit the payments into the depository account for the purpose of retiring the debt.

(3) If the requirements set forth in this paragraph are not met, the Commission will consider the totality of the circumstances on a case-by-case basis in determining whether a loan was made on a basis that assures repayment.

(f) This section shall not apply to loans described in 11 CFR 100.83.

[67 FR 50585, Aug. 5, 2002, as amended at 67 FR 78680, Dec. 26, 2002; 79 FR 16663, Mar. 26, 2014]

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§100.83   Brokerage loans and lines of credit to candidates.

(a) General provisions. Any loan of money derived from an advance on a candidate's brokerage account, credit card, home equity line of credit, or other line of credit available to the candidate, including an overdraft made on a personal checking or savings account of a candidate, provided that:

(1) Such loan is made in accordance with applicable law and under commercially reasonable terms; and

(2) The person making such loan makes loans derived from an advance on a candidate's brokerage account, credit card, home equity line of credit, or other line of credit in the normal course of the person's business.

(b) Endorsers and guarantors. Each endorser, guarantor, or co-signer shall be deemed to have contributed that portion of the total amount of the loan derived from an advance on a candidate's brokerage account, credit card, home equity line of credit, or other line of credit available to the candidate, for which he or she agreed to be liable in a written agreement, including a loan used for the candidate's routine living expenses. Any reduction in the unpaid balance of the loan, advance, or line of credit shall reduce proportionately the amount endorsed or guaranteed by each endorser or guarantor in such written agreement. In the event that such agreement does not stipulate the portion of the loan, advance, or line of credit for which each endorser, guarantor, or co-signer is liable, the loan shall be considered a contribution by each endorser or guarantor in the same proportion to the unpaid balance that each endorser, guarantor, or co-signer bears to the total number of endorsers or guarantors. However, if the spouse of the candidate is the endorser, guarantor, or co-signer, the spouse shall not be deemed to make a contribution if:

(1) For a secured loan, the value of the candidate's share of the property used as collateral equals or exceeds the amount of the loan that is used for the candidate's campaign; or

(2) For an unsecured loan, the amount of the loan used for in connection with the candidate's campaign does not exceed one-half of the available credit extended by the unsecured loan.

(c) Routine living expenses. (1) A loan derived from an advance on a candidate's brokerage account, credit card, home equity line of credit, or other line of credit available to the candidate, that is used by the candidate solely for routine living expenses, as described in 11 CFR 100.153, does not need to be reported under 11 CFR part 104 provided that the loan, advance, or line of credit is repaid exclusively from the personal funds of the candidate or payments that would have been made irrespective of the candidacy pursuant to 11 CFR 113.1(g)(6).

(2) Any repayment, in part or in whole, of the loan, advance, or line of credit described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section by the candidate's authorized committee constitutes the personal use of campaign funds and is prohibited by 11 CFR 113.2.

(3) Any repayment or forgiveness, in part or in whole, of the loan, advance, or line of credit described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section by a third party (other than a third party whose payments are permissible under 11 CFR 113.1(g)(6)) or the lending institution is a contribution, subject to the limitations and prohibitions of 11 CFR parts 110 and 114, and shall be reported under 11 CFR part 104.

(4) Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the portion of any loan or advance from a candidate's brokerage account, credit card account, home equity line of credit, or other line of credit that is used for the purpose of influencing the candidate's election for Federal office shall be reported under 11 CFR part 104.

(d) Repayment. The candidate's authorized committee may repay a loan from the candidate that is derived from an advance on a candidate's brokerage account, credit card, home equity line of credit, or other line of credit available to the candidate, directly to the candidate or the original lender. The amount of the repayment shall not exceed the amount of the principal used for the purpose of influencing the candidate's election for Federal office and interest that has accrued on that principal.

(e) Reporting. Loans derived from an advance on a candidate's brokerage account, credit card, home equity line of credit, or other line of credit available to the candidate shall be reported by the candidate's principal campaign committee in accordance with 11 CFR part 104.

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§100.84   Office building for State, local, or district party committees or organizations.

A donation made to a non-Federal account of a State, local, or district party committee or organization in accordance with 11 CFR 300.35 for the purchase or construction of an office building is not a contribution. A donation includes a gift, subscription, loan, advance, or deposit of money or anything of value.

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§100.85   Legal or accounting services to political party committees.

Legal or accounting services rendered to or on behalf of any political committee of a political party are not contributions if the person paying for such services is the regular employer of the individual rendering the services and such services are not attributable to activities that directly further the election of any designated candidate for Federal office. For purposes of this section, a partnership shall be deemed to be the regular employer of a partner. Amounts paid by the regular employer for such services shall be reported by the committee receiving such services in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(h).

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§100.86   Legal or accounting services to other political committees.

Legal or accounting services rendered to or on behalf of an authorized committee of a candidate or any other political committee are not contributions if the person paying for such services is the regular employer of the individual rendering the services and if such services are solely to ensure compliance with the Act or 26 U.S.C. 9001 et seq. and 9031 et seq. For purposes of this section, a partnership shall be deemed to be the regular employer of a partner. Amounts paid by the regular employer for these services shall be reported by the committee receiving such services in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(h).

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§100.87   Volunteer activity for party committees.

The payment by a state or local committee of a political party of the costs of campaign materials (such as pins, bumper stickers, handbills, brochures, posters, party tabloids or newsletters, and yard signs) used by such committee in connection with volunteer activities on behalf of any nominee(s) of such party is not a contribution, provided that the following conditions are met:

(a) Exemption not applicable to general public communication or political advertising. Such payment is not for cost incurred in connection with any broadcasting, newspaper, magazine, bill board, direct mail, or similar type of general public communication or political advertising. For purposes of this paragraph, the term direct mail means any mailing(s) by a commercial vendor or any mailing(s) made from commercial lists.

(b) Allocation. The portion of the cost of such materials allocable to Federal candidates must be paid from contributions subject to the limitations and prohibitions of the Act. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a), and part 300, subpart B for exempt activities that also constitute Federal election activity.

(c) Contributions designated for particular Federal candidates. Such payment is not made from contributions designated by the donor to be spent on behalf of a particular candidate or candidates for Federal office. For purposes of this paragraph, a contribution shall not be considered a designated contribution if the party committee disbursing the funds makes the final decision regarding which candidate(s) shall receive the benefit of such disbursement.

(d) Distribution of materials by volunteers. Such materials are distributed by volunteers and not by commercial or for-profit operations. For the purposes of this paragraph, payments by the party organization for travel and subsistence or customary token payments to volunteers do not remove such individuals from the volunteer category.

(e) Reporting. If made by a political committee such payments shall be reported by the political committee as disbursements in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3 but need not be allocated to specific candidates in committee reports.

(f) State candidates and their campaign committees. Payments by a State candidate or his or her campaign committee to a State or local political party committee for the State candidate's share of expenses for such campaign materials are not contributions, provided the amount paid by the State candidate or his or her committee does not exceed his or her proportionate share of the expenses.

(g) Exemption not applicable to campaign materials purchased by national party committees. Campaign materials purchased by the national committee of a political party and delivered to a State or local party committee, or materials purchased with funds donated by the national committee to such State or local committee for the purchase of such materials, shall not qualify under this exemption. Rather, the cost of such materials shall be subject to the limitations of 52 U.S.C. 30116(d) and 11 CFR 109.32.

[67 FR 50585, Aug. 5, 2002, as amended at 67 FR 78680, Dec. 26, 2002; 79 FR 77845, Dec. 29, 2014]

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§100.88   Volunteer activity for candidates.

(a) The payment by a candidate for any public office (including State or local office), or by such candidate's authorized committee, of the costs of that candidate's campaign materials that include information on or any reference to a candidate for Federal office and that are used in connection with volunteer activities (such as pins, bumper stickers, handbills, brochures, posters, and yard signs) is not a contribution to such candidate for Federal office, provided that the payment is not for the use of broadcasting, newspapers, magazines, billboards, direct mail or similar types of general public communication or political advertising.

(b) The payment of the portion of the cost of such materials allocable to Federal candidates shall be made from contributions subject to the limitations and prohibitions of the Act. For purposes of this section, the term direct mail means any mailing(s) by commercial vendors or mailing(s) made from lists that were not developed by the candidate. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a), and part 300, subparts D and E for exempt activities that also constitute Federal election activity.

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§100.89   Voter registration and get-out-the-vote activities for Presidential candidates.

The payment by a State or local committee of a political party of the costs of voter registration and get-out-the-vote activities conducted by such committee on behalf of the Presidential and Vice Presidential nominee(s) of that party, is not a contribution to such candidate(s) provided that the following conditions are met:

(a) Exemption not applicable to general public communication or political advertising. Such payment is not for the costs incurred in connection with any broadcasting, newspaper, magazine, billboard, direct mail, or similar type of general public communication or political advertising. For purposes of this paragraph, the term direct mail means any mailing(s) by a commercial vendor or any mailing(s) made from commercial lists.

(b) Allocation. The portion of the costs of such activities allocable to Federal candidates is paid from contributions subject to the limitations and prohibitions of the Act. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a), and part 300, subpart B for exempt activities that also constitute Federal election activity.

(c) Contributions designated for particular Federal candidates. Such payment is not made from contributions designated to be spent on behalf of a particular candidate or candidates for Federal office. For purposes of this paragraph, a contribution shall not be considered a designated contribution if the party committee disbursing the funds makes the final decision regarding which candidate(s) shall receive the benefit of such disbursement.

(d) References to House or Senate candidates. For purposes of this section, if such activities include references to any candidate(s) for the House or Senate, the costs of such activities that are allocable to that candidate(s) shall be a contribution to such candidate(s) unless the mention of such candidate(s) is merely incidental to the overall activity.

(e) Phone banks. For purposes of this section, payment of the costs incurred in the use of phone banks in connection with voter registration and get-out-the-vote activities is not a contribution when such phone banks are operated by volunteer workers. The use of paid professionals to design the phone bank system, develop calling instructions and train supervisors is permissible. The payment of the costs of such professional services is not an expenditure but shall be reported as a disbursement in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3 if made by a political committee.

(f) Reporting of payments for voter registration and get-out-the-vote activities. If made by a political committee, such payments for voter registration and get-out-the-vote activities shall be reported by that committee as disbursements in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3, but such payments need not be allocated to specific candidates in committee reports except as provided in 11 CFR paragraph (d) of this section.

(g) Exemption not applicable to donations by a national committee of a political party to a State or local party committee for voter registration and get-out-the-vote activities. Payments made from funds donated by a national committee of a political party to a State or local party committee for voter registration and get-out-the-vote activities shall not qualify under this exemption. Rather, such funds shall be subject to the limitations of 52 U.S.C. 30116(d) and 11 CFR 109.32.

[67 FR 50585, Aug. 5, 2002, as amended at 67 FR 78680, Dec. 26, 2002; 69 FR 68238, Nov. 24, 2004; 75 FR 31, Jan. 4, 2010; 79 FR 77845, Dec. 29, 2014]

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§100.90   Ballot access fees.

Payments made to any party committee by a candidate or the authorized committee of a candidate as a condition of ballot access are not contributions.

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§100.91   Recounts.

A gift, subscription, loan, advance, or deposit of money or anything of value made with respect to a recount of the results of a Federal election, or an election contest concerning a Federal election, is not a contribution except that the prohibitions of 11 CFR 110.20 and part 114 apply.

[67 FR 50585, Aug. 5, 2002, as amended at 67 FR 78680, Dec. 26, 2002]

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§100.92   Candidate debates.

Funds provided to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates in accordance with the provisions of 11 CFR 110.13 and 114.4(f) are not contributions.

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§100.93   Travel by aircraft or other means of transportation.

(a) Scope and definitions. (1) This section applies to all campaign travelers who use non-commercial travel.

(2) Campaign travelers who use commercial travel, such as a commercial airline flight, charter flight, taxi, or an automobile provided by a rental company, are governed by 11 CFR 100.52(a) and (d), not this section.

(3) For the purposes of this section:

(i) Campaign traveler means

(A) Any candidate traveling in connection with an election for Federal office or any individual traveling in connection with an election for Federal office on behalf of a candidate or political committee; or

(B) Any member of the news media traveling with a candidate.

(ii) Service provider means the owner of an aircraft or other conveyance, or a person who leases an aircraft or other conveyance from the owner or otherwise obtains a legal right to the use of an aircraft or other conveyance, and who uses the aircraft or other conveyance to provide transportation to a campaign traveler. For a jointly owned or leased aircraft or other conveyance, the service provider is the person who makes the aircraft or other conveyance available to the campaign traveler.

(iii) Unreimbursed value means the difference between the value of the transportation service provided, as set forth in this section, and the amount of payment for that transportation service by the political committee or campaign traveler to the service provider within the time limits set forth in this section.

(iv) Commercial travel means travel aboard:

(A) An aircraft operated by an air carrier or commercial operator certificated by the Federal Aviation Administration, provided that the flight is required to be conducted under Federal Aviation Administration air carrier safety rules, or, in the case of travel which is abroad, by an air carrier or commercial operator certificated by an appropriate foreign civil aviation authority, provided that the flight is required to be conducted under air carrier safety rules; or

(B) Other means of transportation operated for commercial passenger service.

(v) Non-commercial travel means travel aboard any conveyance that is not commercial travel, as defined in paragraph (a)(3)(iv) of this section.

(vi) Comparable aircraft means an aircraft of similar make and model as the aircraft that actually makes the trip, with similar amenities as that aircraft.

(b) General rule. (1) No contribution is made by a service provider to a candidate or political committee if:

(i) Every candidate's authorized committee or other political committee on behalf of which the travel is conducted pays the service provider, within the required time, for the full value of the transportation, as determined in accordance with paragraphs (c), (d), (e) or (g) of this section, provided to all campaign travelers who are traveling on behalf of that candidate or political committee; or

(ii) Every campaign traveler for whom payment is not made under paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section pays the service provider for the full value of the transportation provided to that campaign traveler as determined in accordance with paragraphs (c), (d), (e) or (g) of this section. See 11 CFR 100.79 and 100.139 for treatment of certain unreimbursed transportation expenses incurred by individuals traveling on behalf of candidates, authorized committees, and political committees of political parties.

(2) Except as provided in 11 CFR 100.79, the unreimbursed value of transportation provided to any campaign traveler, as determined in accordance with paragraphs (c), (d) or (e) of this section, is an in-kind contribution from the service provider to the candidate or political committee on whose behalf, or with whom, the campaign traveler traveled. Contributions are subject to the reporting requirements, limitations and prohibitions of the Act.

(3) When a candidate is accompanied by a member of the news media, or by security personnel provided by any Federal or State government, the news media or government security provider may reimburse the political committee paying for the pro-rata share of the travel by the member of the media or security personnel, or may pay the service provider directly for that pro-rata share, up to the applicable amount set forth in paragraphs (c)(1), (c)(3), (d), (e), or (g) of this section. A payment made directly to the service provider may be subtracted from the amount for which the political committee is otherwise responsible without any contribution resulting. No contribution results from reimbursement by the media or a government security provider to a political committee in accordance with this paragraph.

(c) Travel on aircraft. When a campaign traveler uses aircraft for non-commercial travel, other than a government aircraft described in paragraph (e) of this section or a candidate or family owned aircraft described in paragraph (g) of this section, reimbursement must be provided no later than seven (7) calendar days after the date the flight began at one of the following rates to avoid the receipt of an in-kind contribution:

(1) Travel by or on behalf of Senate, presidential, or vice-presidential candidates. A Senate, presidential, or vice-presidential candidate traveling on his own behalf, or any person traveling on behalf of such candidate or the candidate's authorized committee must pay the pro rata share per campaign traveler of the normal and usual charter fare or rental charge for travel on a comparable aircraft of comparable size. The pro rata share shall be calculated by dividing the normal and usual charter fare or rental charge by the number of campaign travelers on the flight that are traveling on behalf of such candidates or their authorized committees, including members of the news media, and security personnel traveling with a candidate. No portion of the normal and usual charter fare or rental charge may be attributed to any campaign travelers that are not traveling on behalf of such candidates or their authorized committees, or any other passengers, except as permitted under paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(2) Travel by or on behalf of House candidates and their leadership PACs. Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (e) and (g) of this section, a campaign traveler who is a candidate for election for the office of Representative in, or Delegate or Resident Commissioner to, the Congress, or a person traveling on behalf of any such candidate or any authorized committee or leadership PAC of such candidate, is prohibited from non-commercial travel on behalf of any such candidate or any authorized committee or leadership PAC of such candidate.

(3) Other campaign travelers. When a candidate's authorized committee pays for a flight pursuant to paragraph (c)(1) of this section, no payment is required from other campaign travelers on that flight. Otherwise, a campaign traveler not covered by paragraphs (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section, including persons traveling on behalf of a political party committee, separate segregated fund, nonconnected political committee, or a leadership PAC other than a leadership PAC of a candidate for election for the office of Representative in, or Delegate or Resident Commissioner to, the Congress, must pay the service provider no less than the following for each leg of the trip:

(i) In the case of travel between cities served by regularly scheduled first-class commercial airline service, the lowest unrestricted and non-discounted first-class airfare;

(ii) In the case of travel between a city served by regularly scheduled coach commercial airline service, but not regularly scheduled first-class commercial airline service, and a city served by regularly scheduled coach commercial airline service (with or without first-class commercial airline service), the lowest unrestricted and non-discounted coach airfare; or

(iii) In the case of travel to or from a city not served by regularly scheduled commercial airline service, the normal and usual charter fare or rental charge for a comparable commercial aircraft of sufficient size to accommodate all campaign travelers, and security personnel, if applicable.

(d) Other means of transportation. If a campaign traveler uses any means of transportation other than an aircraft, including an automobile, or train, or boat, the campaign traveler, or the political committee on whose behalf the travel is conducted, must pay the service provider within thirty (30) calendar days after the date of receipt of the invoice for such travel, but not later than sixty (60) calendar days after the date the travel began, at the normal and usual fare or rental charge for a comparable commercial conveyance of sufficient size to accommodate all campaign travelers, including members of the news media traveling with a candidate, and security personnel, if applicable.

(e) Government conveyances—(1) Travel by or on behalf of candidates, their authorized committees, or House candidate Leadership PACs. If a campaign traveler traveling on behalf of a candidate, an authorized committee, or the leadership PAC of a House candidate uses an aircraft that is provided by the Federal government, or by a State or local government, the campaign traveler, or the political committee on whose behalf the travel is conducted, must pay the government entity, within the time specified by that government entity, either:

(i) The pro rata share per campaign traveler of the normal and usual charter fare or rental charge for the flight on a comparable aircraft of sufficient size to accommodate all campaign travelers. The pro rata share shall be calculated by dividing the normal and usual charter fare or rental charge by the number of campaign travelers on the flight that are traveling on behalf of candidates, authorized committees, or House candidate leadership PACs, including members of the news media, and security personnel, if applicable. No portion of the normal and usual charter fare or rental charge may be attributed to any other campaign travelers or any other passengers, except as permitted under paragraph (b)(3) of this section. For purposes of this paragraph, the comparable aircraft need not accommodate any government-required personnel and equipment; or

(ii) The private traveler reimbursement rate, as specified by the governmental entity providing the aircraft, per campaign traveler.

(2) Other campaign travelers. When a candidate's authorized committee, or a House candidate's leadership PAC pays for a flight pursuant to paragraph (e)(1) of this section, no payment is required from any other campaign travelers on that flight. Otherwise, a campaign traveler not covered by paragraph (e)(1) of this section, including persons traveling on behalf of a political party committee, separate segregated fund, nonconnected political committee, or a leadership PAC other than a leadership PAC of a candidate for the office of Representative in, or Delegate or Resident Commissioner to, the Congress, must pay the government entity, within the time specified by that government entity, either:

(i) For travel to or from a military airbase or other location not accessible to the general public, the lowest unrestricted and non-discounted first-class airfare to or from the city with regularly scheduled first-class commercial airline service that is geographically closest to the military airbase or other location actually used; or

(ii) For all other travel, in accordance with paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(3) If a campaign traveler uses a conveyance, other than an aircraft, that is provided by the Federal government, or by a State or local government, the campaign traveler, or the political committee on whose behalf the travel is conducted, must pay the government entity in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section.

(f) Date and public availability of payment rate. For purposes of paragraphs (c), (d), (e), and (g) of this section, the payment rate must be the rate available to the general public for the dates traveled or within seven (7) calendar days thereof. The payment rate must be determined by the time the payment is due under paragraph (c), (d), (e) or (g) of this section.

(g) Aircraft owned or leased by a candidate or a candidate's immediate family member. (1) For non-commercial travel by a candidate, or a person traveling on behalf of a candidate, on an aircraft owned or leased by that candidate or an immediate family member of that candidate, the candidate's authorized committee must pay:

(i) In the case of travel on an aircraft that is owned or leased under a shared-ownership or other time-share arrangement, where the travel does not exceed the candidate's or immediate family member's proportional share of the ownership interest in the aircraft, the hourly, mileage, or other applicable rate charged the candidate, immediate family member, or other service provider for the costs of the travel; or

(ii) In the case of travel on an aircraft that is owned or leased under a shared-ownership or other time-share arrangement, where the travel exceeds the candidate's or immediate family member's proportional share of the ownership interest in the aircraft, the rate specified in paragraph (c) of this section (House candidates are prohibited from engaging in such travel); or

(iii) In the case of travel on an aircraft that is not owned or leased under a shared-ownership or other time-share arrangement, the pro rata share per campaign traveler of the costs associated with the trip. Associated costs include, but are not limited to, the cost of fuel and crew, and a proportionate share of maintenance costs.

(2) A candidate, or an immediate family member of the candidate, will be considered to own or lease an aircraft under paragraph (g)(1) of this section if the candidate or the immediate family member of the candidate has an ownership interest in an entity that owns the aircraft, provided that the entity is not a corporation with publicly traded shares.

(3) A proportional share of the ownership interest in an aircraft means the amount of use to which the candidate or immediate family member is entitled under an ownership or lease agreement. Prior to each flight, the candidate's committee must obtain a certification from the service provider that the candidate's planned use of the aircraft will not exceed the candidate's or immediate family member's proportional share of use under the ownership or lease agreement. See paragraph (j) of this section for related recordkeeping requirements.

(4) For the purposes of this section, an “immediate family member” of a candidate is the father, mother, son, daughter, brother, sister, husband, wife, father-in-law, or mother-in-law of the candidate.

(h) Preemption. In all respects, State and local laws are preempted with respect to travel in connection with a Federal election to the extent they purport to supplant the rates or timing requirements of 11 CFR 100.93.

(i) Reporting. (1) In accordance with 11 CFR 104.13, a political committee on whose behalf the unreimbursed travel is conducted must report the receipt of an in-kind contribution and the making of an expenditure under paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(2) When reporting a disbursement for travel services in accordance with this section, a political committee on whose behalf the travel is conducted must report the actual dates of travel for which the disbursement is made in the “purpose of disbursement” field.

(j) Recordkeeping. (1) For travel on non-commercial aircraft conducted under paragraphs (c)(1), (c)(3)(iii), (e)(1), or (g) of this section, the political committee on whose behalf the travel is conducted shall maintain documentation of:

(i) The service provider and the size, model, make and tail number (or other unique identifier for military aircraft) of the aircraft used;

(ii) An itinerary showing the departure and arrival cities and the date(s) of departure and arrival, a list of all passengers on such trip, along with a designation of which passengers are and which are not campaign travelers or security personnel; and

(iii)(A) The rate for the comparable charter aircraft available in accordance with paragraphs (c), (e) and (f) of this section, including the airline, charter or air taxi operator, and travel service, if any, offering that fare to the public, and the dates on which the rates are based; or

(B) The private traveler reimbursement rate available in accordance with paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, and the dates on which the rate is based.

(iv) Where the travel is aboard an aircraft owned in part by the candidate or an immediate family member of the candidate, the ownership or lease agreement specifying the amount of use of the aircraft corresponding to the candidate's or an immediate family member's ownership interest in the aircraft, as required by paragraph (g)(1)(i) and (ii) and (g)(3) of this section, and the certification required by paragraph (g)(3) of this section.

(2) For travel on non-commercial aircraft conducted under paragraph (c)(3)(i), (c)(3)(ii), or (e)(2)(i) of this section, the political committee on whose behalf the travel is conducted shall maintain documentation of:

(i) The service provider and the size, model, make and tail number (or other unique identifier for military aircraft) of the aircraft used;

(ii) An itinerary showing the departure and arrival cities and the date(s) of departure and arrival, a list of all passengers on such trip, along with a designation of which passengers are and which are not campaign travelers; and

(iii) The lowest unrestricted non-discounted airfare available in accordance with paragraphs (c)(3), (e)(2)(i), and (f) of this section, including the airline offering that fare, flight number, travel service, if any, providing that fare, and the dates on which the rates are based.

(3) For travel by other conveyances, the political committee on whose behalf the travel is conducted shall maintain documentation of:

(i) The service provider and the size, model and make of the conveyance used;

(ii) An itinerary showing the departure and destination locations and the date(s) of departure and arrival, a list of all passengers on such trip, along with a designation of which passengers are and which are not campaign travelers or security personnel; and

(iii) The commercial fare or rental charge available in accordance with paragraphs (d) and (f) of this section for a comparable commercial conveyance of sufficient size to accommodate all campaign travelers including members of the news media traveling with a candidate, and security personnel, if applicable.

[74 FR 63964, Dec. 7, 2009]

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§100.94   Uncompensated Internet activity by individuals that is not a contribution.

(a) When an individual or a group of individuals, acting independently or in coordination with any candidate, authorized committee, or political party committee, engages in Internet activities for the purpose of influencing a Federal election, neither of the following is a contribution by that individual or group of individuals:

(1) The individual's uncompensated personal services related to such Internet activities;

(2) The individual's use of equipment or services for uncompensated Internet activities, regardless of who owns the equipment and services.

(b) Internet activities. For the purposes of this section, the term “Internet activities” includes, but is not limited to: Sending or forwarding electronic messages; providing a hyperlink or other direct access to another person's Web site; blogging; creating, maintaining, or hosting a Web site; paying a nominal fee for the use of another person's Web site; and any other form of communication distributed over the Internet.

(c) Equipment and services. For the purposes of this section, the term “equipment and services” includes, but is not limited to: Computers, software, Internet domain names, Internet Service Providers (ISP), and any other technology that is used to provide access to or use of the Internet.

(d) Paragraph (a) of this section also applies to any corporation that is wholly owned by one or more individuals, that engages primarily in Internet activities, and that does not derive a substantial portion of its revenues from sources other than income from its Internet activities.

(e) This section does not exempt from the definition of contribution:

(1) Any payment for a public communication (as defined in 11 CFR 100.26) other than a nominal fee;

(2) Any payment for the purchase or rental of an e-mail address list made at the direction of a political committee; or

(3) Any payment for an e-mail address list that is transferred to a political committee.

[71 FR 18613, Apr. 12, 2006, as amended at 81 FR 94240, Dec. 23, 2016]

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