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Title 10Chapter IPart 71 → Subpart H


Title 10: Energy
PART 71—PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL


Subpart H—Quality Assurance


Contents
§71.101   Quality assurance requirements.
§71.103   Quality assurance organization.
§71.105   Quality assurance program.
§71.106   Changes to quality assurance program.
§71.107   Package design control.
§71.109   Procurement document control.
§71.111   Instructions, procedures, and drawings.
§71.113   Document control.
§71.115   Control of purchased material, equipment, and services.
§71.117   Identification and control of materials, parts, and components.
§71.119   Control of special processes.
§71.121   Internal inspection.
§71.123   Test control.
§71.125   Control of measuring and test equipment.
§71.127   Handling, storage, and shipping control.
§71.129   Inspection, test, and operating status.
§71.131   Nonconforming materials, parts, or components.
§71.133   Corrective action.
§71.135   Quality assurance records.
§71.137   Audits.
Appendix A to Part 71—Determination of A1 and A2

Source: 69 FR 3796, Jan. 26, 2004, unless otherwise noted.

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§71.101   Quality assurance requirements.

(a) Purpose. This subpart describes quality assurance requirements applying to design, purchase, fabrication, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, assembly, inspection, testing, operation, maintenance, repair, and modification of components of packaging that are important to safety. As used in this subpart, “quality assurance” comprises all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a system or component will perform satisfactorily in service. Quality assurance includes quality control, which comprises those quality assurance actions related to control of the physical characteristics and quality of the material or component to predetermined requirements. Each certificate holder and applicant for a package approval is responsible for satisfying the quality assurance requirements that apply to design, fabrication, testing, and modification of packaging subject to this subpart. Each licensee is responsible for satisfying the quality assurance requirements that apply to its use of a packaging for the shipment of licensed material subject to this subpart.

(b) Establishment of program. Each licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish, maintain, and execute a quality assurance program satisfying each of the applicable criteria of §§71.101 through 71.137 and satisfying any specific provisions that are applicable to the licensee's activities including procurement of packaging. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall execute the applicable criteria in a graded approach to an extent that is commensurate with the quality assurance requirement's importance to safety.

(c) Approval of program. (1) Before the use of any package for the shipment of licensed material subject to this subpart, each licensee shall obtain Commission approval of its quality assurance program. Using an appropriate method listed in §71.1(a), each licensee shall file a description of its quality assurance program, including a discussion of which requirements of this subpart are applicable and how they will be satisfied, by submitting the description to: ATTN: Document Control Desk, Director, Division of Fuel Management, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards.

(2) Before the fabrication, testing, or modification of any package for the shipment of licensed material subject to this subpart, each certificate holder, or applicant for a Certificate of Compliance shall obtain Commission approval of its quality assurance program. Each certificate holder or applicant for a CoC shall, in accordance with §71.1, file a description of its quality assurance program, including a discussion of which requirements of this subpart are applicable and how they will be satisfied.

(d) Existing package designs. The provisions of this paragraph deal with packages that have been approved for use in accordance with this part before January 1, 1979, and which have been designed in accordance with the provisions of this part in effect at the time of application for package approval. Those packages will be accepted as having been designed in accordance with a quality assurance program that satisfies the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section.

(e) Existing packages. The provisions of this paragraph deal with packages that have been approved for use in accordance with this part before January 1, 1979, have been at least partially fabricated before that date, and for which the fabrication is in accordance with the provisions of this part in effect at the time of application for approval of package design. These packages will be accepted as having been fabricated and assembled in accordance with a quality assurance program that satisfies the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section.

(f) Previously approved programs. A Commission-approved quality assurance program that satisfies the applicable criteria of subpart H of this part, Appendix B of part 50 of this chapter, or subpart G of part 72 of this chapter, and that is established, maintained, and executed regarding transport packages, will be accepted as satisfying the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section. Before first use, the licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall notify the NRC, in accordance with §71.1, of its intent to apply its previously approved subpart H, Appendix B, or subpart G quality assurance program to transportation activities. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall identify the program by date of submittal to the Commission, Docket Number, and date of Commission approval.

(g) Radiography containers. A program for transport container inspection and maintenance limited to radiographic exposure devices, source changers, or packages transporting these devices and meeting the requirements of §34.31(b) of this chapter or equivalent Agreement State requirement, is deemed to satisfy the requirements of §§71.17(b) and 71.101(b).

[69 FR 3796, Jan. 26, 2004, as amended at 75 FR 73945, Nov. 30, 2010; 79 FR 75741, Dec. 19, 2014; 80 FR 34013, June 12, 2015; 84 FR 65645, Nov. 29, 2019]

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§71.103   Quality assurance organization.

(a) The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a Certificate of Compliance shall be responsible for the establishment and execution of the quality assurance program. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a Certificate of Compliance may delegate to others, such as contractors, agents, or consultants, the work of establishing and executing the quality assurance program, or any part of the quality assurance program, but shall retain responsibility for the program. These activities include performing the functions associated with attaining quality objectives and the quality assurance functions.

(b) The quality assurance functions are—

(1) Assuring that an appropriate quality assurance program is established and effectively executed; and

(2) Verifying, by procedures such as checking, auditing, and inspection, that activities affecting the functions that are important to safety have been correctly performed.

(c) The persons and organizations performing quality assurance functions must have sufficient authority and organizational freedom to—

(1) Identify quality problems;

(2) Initiate, recommend, or provide solutions; and

(3) Verify implementation of solutions.

(d) The persons and organizations performing quality assurance functions shall report to a management level that assures that the required authority and organizational freedom, including sufficient independence from cost and schedule, when opposed to safety considerations, are provided.

(e) Because of the many variables involved, such as the number of personnel, the type of activity being performed, and the location or locations where activities are performed, the organizational structure for executing the quality assurance program may take various forms, provided that the persons and organizations assigned the quality assurance functions have the required authority and organizational freedom.

(f) Irrespective of the organizational structure, the individual(s) assigned the responsibility for assuring effective execution of any portion of the quality assurance program, at any location where activities subject to this section are being performed, must have direct access to the levels of management necessary to perform this function.

[69 FR 3796, Jan. 26, 2004, as amended at 80 FR 34014, June 12, 2015]

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§71.105   Quality assurance program.

(a) The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish, at the earliest practicable time consistent with the schedule for accomplishing the activities, a quality assurance program that complies with the requirements of §§71.101 through 71.137. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall document the quality assurance program by written procedures or instructions and shall carry out the program in accordance with those procedures throughout the period during which the packaging is used. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall identify the material and components to be covered by the quality assurance program, the major organizations participating in the program, and the designated functions of these organizations.

(b) The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC, through its quality assurance program, shall provide control over activities affecting the quality of the identified materials and components to an extent consistent with their importance to safety, and as necessary to assure conformance to the approved design of each individual package used for the shipment of radioactive material. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall assure that activities affecting quality are accomplished under suitably controlled conditions. Controlled conditions include the use of appropriate equipment; suitable environmental conditions for accomplishing the activity, such as adequate cleanliness; and assurance that all prerequisites for the given activity have been satisfied. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall take into account the need for special controls, processes, test equipment, tools, and skills to attain the required quality, and the need for verification of quality by inspection and test.

(c) The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall base the requirements and procedures of its quality assurance program on the following considerations concerning the complexity and proposed use of the package and its components:

(1) The impact of malfunction or failure of the item to safety;

(2) The design and fabrication complexity or uniqueness of the item;

(3) The need for special controls and surveillance over processes and equipment;

(4) The degree to which functional compliance can be demonstrated by inspection or test; and

(5) The quality history and degree of standardization of the item.

(d) The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall provide for indoctrination and training of personnel performing activities affecting quality, as necessary to assure that suitable proficiency is achieved and maintained. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall review the status and adequacy of the quality assurance program at established intervals. Management of other organizations participating in the quality assurance program shall review regularly the status and adequacy of that part of the quality assurance program they are executing.

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§71.106   Changes to quality assurance program.

(a) Each quality assurance program approval holder shall submit, in accordance with §71.1(a), a description of a proposed change to its NRC-approved quality assurance program that will reduce commitments in the program description as approved by the NRC. The quality assurance program approval holder shall not implement the change before receiving NRC approval.

(1) The description of a proposed change to the NRC-approved quality assurance program must identify the change, the reason for the change, and the basis for concluding that the revised program incorporating the change continues to satisfy the applicable requirements of subpart H of this part.

(2) [Reserved]

(b) Each quality assurance program approval holder may change a previously approved quality assurance program without prior NRC approval, if the change does not reduce the commitments in the quality assurance program previously approved by the NRC. Changes to the quality assurance program that do not reduce the commitments shall be submitted to the NRC every 24 months, in accordance with §71.1(a). In addition to quality assurance program changes involving administrative improvements and clarifications, spelling corrections, and non-substantive changes to punctuation or editorial items, the following changes are not considered reductions in commitment:

(1) The use of a quality assurance standard approved by the NRC that is more recent than the quality assurance standard in the certificate holder's or applicant's current quality assurance program at the time of the change;

(2) The use of generic organizational position titles that clearly denote the position function, supplemented as necessary by descriptive text, rather than specific titles, provided that there is no substantive change to either the functions of the position or reporting responsibilities;

(3) The use of generic organizational charts to indicate functional relationships, authorities, and responsibilities, or alternatively, the use of descriptive text, provided that there is no substantive change to the functional relationships, authorities, or responsibilities;

(4) The elimination of quality assurance program information that duplicates language in quality assurance regulatory guides and quality assurance standards to which the quality assurance program approval holder has committed to on record; and

(5) Organizational revisions that ensure that persons and organizations performing quality assurance functions continue to have the requisite authority and organizational freedom, including sufficient independence from cost and schedule when opposed to safety considerations.

(c) Each quality assurance program approval holder shall maintain records of quality assurance program changes.

[80 FR 34014, June 12, 2015]

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§71.107   Package design control.

(a) The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to assure that applicable regulatory requirements and the package design, as specified in the license or CoC for those materials and components to which this section applies, are correctly translated into specifications, drawings, procedures, and instructions. These measures must include provisions to assure that appropriate quality standards are specified and included in design documents and that deviations from standards are controlled. Measures must be established for the selection and review for suitability of application of materials, parts, equipment, and processes that are essential to the functions of the materials, parts, and components of the packaging that are important to safety.

(b) The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures for the identification and control of design interfaces and for coordination among participating design organizations. These measures must include the establishment of written procedures, among participating design organizations, for the review, approval, release, distribution, and revision of documents involving design interfaces. The design control measures must provide for verifying or checking the adequacy of design, by methods such as design reviews, alternate or simplified calculational methods, or by a suitable testing program. For the verifying or checking process, the licensee shall designate individuals or groups other than those who were responsible for the original design, but who may be from the same organization. Where a test program is used to verify the adequacy of a specific design feature in lieu of other verifying or checking processes, the licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall include suitable qualification testing of a prototype or sample unit under the most adverse design conditions. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall apply design control measures to the following:

(1) Criticality physics, radiation shielding, stress, thermal, hydraulic, and accident analyses;

(2) Compatibility of materials;

(3) Accessibility for inservice inspection, maintenance, and repair;

(4) Features to facilitate decontamination; and

(5) Delineation of acceptance criteria for inspections and tests.

(c) The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall subject design changes, including field changes, to design control measures commensurate with those applied to the original design. Changes in the conditions specified in the CoC require prior NRC approval.

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§71.109   Procurement document control.

The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to assure that adequate quality is required in the documents for procurement of material, equipment, and services, whether purchased by the licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC or by its contractors or subcontractors. To the extent necessary, the licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall require contractors or subcontractors to provide a quality assurance program consistent with the applicable provisions of this part.

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§71.111   Instructions, procedures, and drawings.

The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall prescribe activities affecting quality by documented instructions, procedures, or drawings of a type appropriate to the circumstances and shall require that these instructions, procedures, and drawings be followed. The instructions, procedures, and drawings must include appropriate quantitative or qualitative acceptance criteria for determining that important activities have been satisfactorily accomplished.

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§71.113   Document control.

The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to control the issuance of documents such as instructions, procedures, and drawings, including changes, that prescribe all activities affecting quality. These measures must assure that documents, including changes, are reviewed for adequacy, approved for release by authorized personnel, and distributed and used at the location where the prescribed activity is performed.

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§71.115   Control of purchased material, equipment, and services.

(a) The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to assure that purchased material, equipment, and services, whether purchased directly or through contractors and subcontractors, conform to the procurement documents. These measures must include provisions, as appropriate, for source evaluation and selection, objective evidence of quality furnished by the contractor or subcontractor, inspection at the contractor or subcontractor source, and examination of products on delivery.

(b) The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall have available documentary evidence that material and equipment conform to the procurement specifications before installation or use of the material and equipment. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall retain, or have available, this documentary evidence for the life of the package to which it applies. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall assure that the evidence is sufficient to identify the specific requirements met by the purchased material and equipment.

(c) The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall assess the effectiveness of the control of quality by contractors and subcontractors at intervals consistent with the importance, complexity, and quantity of the product or services.

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§71.117   Identification and control of materials, parts, and components.

The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures for the identification and control of materials, parts, and components. These measures must assure that identification of the item is maintained by heat number, part number, or other appropriate means, either on the item or on records traceable to the item, as required throughout fabrication, installation, and use of the item. These identification and control measures must be designed to prevent the use of incorrect or defective materials, parts, and components.

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§71.119   Control of special processes.

The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to assure that special processes, including welding, heat treating, and nondestructive testing are controlled and accomplished by qualified personnel using qualified procedures in accordance with applicable codes, standards, specifications, criteria, and other special requirements.

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§71.121   Internal inspection.

The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish and execute a program for inspection of activities affecting quality by or for the organization performing the activity, to verify conformance with the documented instructions, procedures, and drawings for accomplishing the activity. The inspection must be performed by individuals other than those who performed the activity being inspected. Examination, measurements, or tests of material or products processed must be performed for each work operation where necessary to assure quality. If direct inspection of processed material or products is not carried out, indirect control by monitoring processing methods, equipment, and personnel must be provided. Both inspection and process monitoring must be provided when quality control is inadequate without both. If mandatory inspection hold points, which require witnessing or inspecting by the licensee's designated representative and beyond which work should not proceed without the consent of its designated representative, are required, the specific hold points must be indicated in appropriate documents.

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§71.123   Test control.

The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish a test program to assure that all testing required to demonstrate that the packaging components will perform satisfactorily in service is identified and performed in accordance with written test procedures that incorporate the requirements of this part and the requirements and acceptance limits contained in the package approval. The test procedures must include provisions for assuring that all prerequisites for the given test are met, that adequate test instrumentation is available and used, and that the test is performed under suitable environmental conditions. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall document and evaluate the test results to assure that test requirements have been satisfied.

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§71.125   Control of measuring and test equipment.

The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to assure that tools, gauges, instruments, and other measuring and testing devices used in activities affecting quality are properly controlled, calibrated, and adjusted at specified times to maintain accuracy within necessary limits.

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§71.127   Handling, storage, and shipping control.

The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to control, in accordance with instructions, the handling, storage, shipping, cleaning, and preservation of materials and equipment to be used in packaging to prevent damage or deterioration. When necessary for particular products, special protective environments, such as inert gas atmosphere, and specific moisture content and temperature levels must be specified and provided.

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§71.129   Inspection, test, and operating status.

(a) The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to indicate, by the use of markings such as stamps, tags, labels, routing cards, or other suitable means, the status of inspections and tests performed upon individual items of the packaging. These measures must provide for the identification of items that have satisfactorily passed required inspections and tests, where necessary to preclude inadvertent bypassing of the inspections and tests.

(b) The licensee shall establish measures to identify the operating status of components of the packaging, such as tagging valves and switches, to prevent inadvertent operation.

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§71.131   Nonconforming materials, parts, or components.

The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to control materials, parts, or components that do not conform to the licensee's requirements to prevent their inadvertent use or installation. These measures must include, as appropriate, procedures for identification, documentation, segregation, disposition, and notification to affected organizations. Nonconforming items must be reviewed and accepted, rejected, repaired, or reworked in accordance with documented procedures.

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§71.133   Corrective action.

The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to assure that conditions adverse to quality, such as deficiencies, deviations, defective material and equipment, and nonconformances, are promptly identified and corrected. In the case of a significant condition adverse to quality, the measures must assure that the cause of the condition is determined and corrective action taken to preclude repetition. The identification of the significant condition adverse to quality, the cause of the condition, and the corrective action taken must be documented and reported to appropriate levels of management.

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§71.135   Quality assurance records.

The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a Certificate of Compliance shall maintain sufficient written records to describe the activities affecting quality. These records must include changes to the quality assurance program as required by §71.106, the instructions, procedures, and drawings required by §71.111 to prescribe quality assurance activities, and closely related specifications such as required qualifications of personnel, procedures, and equipment. The records must include the instructions or procedures that establish a records retention program that is consistent with applicable regulations and designates factors such as duration, location, and assigned responsibility. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a Certificate of Compliance shall retain these records for 3 years beyond the date when the licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a Certificate of Compliance last engage in the activity for which the quality assurance program was developed. If any portion of the quality assurance program, written procedures or instructions is superseded, the licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a Certificate of Compliance shall retain the superseded material for 3 years after it is superseded.

[80 FR 34014, June 12, 2015]

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§71.137   Audits.

The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall carry out a comprehensive system of planned and periodic audits to verify compliance with all aspects of the quality assurance program and to determine the effectiveness of the program. The audits must be performed in accordance with written procedures or checklists by appropriately trained personnel not having direct responsibilities in the areas being audited. Audited results must be documented and reviewed by management having responsibility in the area audited. Followup action, including reaudit of deficient areas, must be taken where indicated.

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Appendix A to Part 71—Determination of A1 and A2

I. Values of A1 and A2 for individual radionuclides, which are the bases for many activity limits elsewhere in these regulations, are given in Table A-1. The curie (Ci) values specified are obtained by converting from the Terabecquerel (TBq) value. The Terabecquerel values are the regulatory standard. The curie values are for information only and are not intended to be the regulatory standard. Where values of A1 and A2 are unlimited, it is for radiation control purposes only. For nuclear criticality safety, some materials are subject to controls placed on fissile material.

II. a. For individual radionuclides whose identities are known, but which are not listed in Table A-1, the A1 and A2 values contained in Table A-3 may be used. Otherwise, the licensee shall obtain prior Commission approval of the A1 and A2 values for radionuclides not listed in Table A-1, before shipping the material.

b. For individual radionuclides whose identities are known, but which are not listed in Table A-2, the exempt material activity concentration and exempt consignment activity values contained in Table A-3 may be used. Otherwise, the licensee shall obtain prior Commission approval of the exempt material activity concentration and exempt consignment activity values for radionuclides not listed in Table A-2, before shipping the material.

c. The licensee shall submit requests for prior approval, described under paragraphs II.a. and II.b. of this Appendix, to the Commission, in accordance with §71.1 of this part.

III. In the calculations of A1 and A2 for a radionuclide not in Table A-1, a single radioactive decay chain, in which radionuclides are present in their naturally occurring proportions, and in which no daughter radionuclide has a half-life either longer than 10 days, or longer than that of the parent radionuclide, shall be considered as a single radionuclide, and the activity to be taken into account, and the A1 and A2 value to be applied, shall be those corresponding to the parent radionuclide of that chain. In the case of radioactive decay chains in which any daughter radionuclide has a half-life either longer than 10 days, or greater than that of the parent radionuclide, the parent and those daughter radionuclides shall be considered as mixtures of different radionuclides.

IV. For mixtures of radionuclides whose identities and respective activities are known, the following conditions apply:

a. For special form radioactive material, the maximum quantity transported in a Type A package is as follows:

eCFR graphic er12jn15.094.gif

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where B(i) is the activity of radionuclide i in special form, and A1(i) is the A1 value for radionuclide i.

b. For normal form radioactive material, the maximum quantity transported in a Type A package is as follows:

eCFR graphic er12jn15.095.gif

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where B(i) is the activity of radionuclide i in normal form, and A2(i) is the A2 value for radionuclide i.

c. If the package contains both special and normal form radioactive material, the activity that may be transported in a Type A package is as follows:

eCFR graphic er12jn15.096.gif

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where B(i) is the activity of radionuclide i as special form radioactive material, A1(i) is the A1 value for radionuclide i, C(j) is the activity of radionuclide j as normal form radioactive material, and A2(j) is the A2 value for radionuclide j.

d. Alternatively, the A1 value for mixtures of special form material may be determined as follows:

eCFR graphic er12jn15.097.gif

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where f(i) is the fraction of activity for radionuclide i in the mixture and A1(i) is the appropriate A1 value for radionuclide i.

e. Alternatively, the A2 value for mixtures of normal form material may be determined as follows:

eCFR graphic er12jn15.098.gif

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where f(i) is the fraction of activity for radionuclide i in the mixture and A2(i) is the appropriate A2 value for radionuclide i.

f. The exempt activity concentration for mixtures of nuclides may be determined as follows:

eCFR graphic er12jn15.099.gif

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where f(i) is the fraction of activity concentration of radionuclide i in the mixture and [A](i) is the activity concentration for exempt material containing radionuclide i.

g. The activity limit for an exempt consignment for mixtures of radionuclides may be determined as follows:

eCFR graphic er12jn15.100.gif

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where f(i) is the fraction of activity of radionuclide i in the mixture and A(i) is the activity limit for exempt consignments for radionuclide i.

V.a. When the identity of each radionuclide is known, but the individual activities of some of the radionuclides are not known, the radionuclides may be grouped, and the lowest A1 or A2 value, as appropriate, for the radionuclides in each group may be used in applying the formulas in paragraph IV. Groups may be based on the total alpha activity and the total beta/gamma activity when these are known, using the lowest A1 or A2 values for the alpha emitters and beta/gamma emitters.

b. When the identity of each radionuclide is known but the individual activities of some of the radionuclides are not known, the radionuclides may be grouped and the lowest [A] (activity concentration for exempt material) or A (activity limit for exempt consignment) value, as appropriate, for the radionuclides in each group may be used in applying the formulas in paragraph IV of this appendix. Groups may be based on the total alpha activity and the total beta/gamma activity when these are known, using the lowest [A] or A values for the alpha emitters and beta/gamma emitters, respectively.

Table A-1—A1 and A2 Values For Radionuclides

Symbol of
radionuclide
Element and
atomic number
A1 (TBq)A1 (Ci)bA2 (TBq)A2 (Ci)bSpecific activity
(TBq/g)(Ci/g)
Ac-225 (a)Actinium (89)8.0 × 10−12.2 × 1016.0 × 10−31.6 × 10−12.1 × 1035.8 × 104
Ac-227 (a)9.0 × 10−12.4 × 1019.0 × 10−52.4 × 10−32.77.2 × 101
Ac-2286.0 × 10−11.6 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1018.4 × 1042.2 × 106
Ag-105Silver (47)2.05.4 × 1012.05.4 × 1011.1 × 1033.0 × 104
Ag-108m (a)7.0 × 10−11.9 × 1017.0 × 10−11.9 × 1019.7 × 10−12.6 × 101
Ag-110m (a)4.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1011.8 × 1024.7 × 103
Ag-1112.05.4 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1015.8 × 1031.6 × 105
Al-26Aluminum (13)1.0 × 10−12.71.0 × 10−12.77.0 × 10−41.9 × 10−2
Am-241Americium (95)1.0 × 1012.7 × 1021.0 × 10−32.7 × 10−21.3 × 10−13.4
Am-242m (a)1.0 × 1012.7 × 1021.0 × 10−32.7 × 10−23.6 × 10−11.0 × 101
Am-243 (a)5.01.4 × 1021.0 × 10−32.7 × 10−27.4 × 10−32.0 × 10−1
Ar-37Argon (18)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1034.0 × 1011.1 × 1033.7 × 1039.9 × 104
Ar-394.0 × 1011.1 × 1032.0 × 1015.4 × 1021.33.4 × 101
Ar-413.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.11.5 × 1064.2 × 107
As-72Arsenic (33)3.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.16.2 × 1041.7 × 106
As-734.0 × 1011.1 × 1034.0 × 1011.1 × 1038.2 × 1022.2 × 104
As-741.02.7 × 1019.0 × 10−12.4 × 1013.7 × 1039.9 × 104
As-763.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.15.8 × 1041.6 × 106
As-772.0 × 1015.4 × 1027.0 × 10−11.9 × 1013.9 × 1041.0 × 106
At-211 (a)Astatine (85)2.0 × 1015.4 × 1025.0 × 10−11.4 × 1017.6 × 1042.1 × 106
Au-193Gold (79)7.01.9 × 1022.05.4 × 1013.4 × 1049.2 × 105
Au-1941.02.7 × 1011.02.7 × 1011.5 × 1044.1 × 105
Au-1951.0 × 1012.7 × 1026.01.6 × 1021.4 × 1023.7 × 103
Au-1981.02.7 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1019.0 × 1032.4 × 105
Au-1991.0 × 1012.7 × 1026.0 × 10−11.6 × 1017.7 × 1032.1 × 105
Ba-131 (a)Barium (56)2.05.4 × 1012.05.4 × 1013.1 × 1038.4 × 104
Ba-1333.08.1 × 1013.08.1 × 1019.42.6 × 102
Ba-133m2.0 × 1015.4 × 1026.0 × 10−11.6 × 1012.2 × 1046.1 × 105
Ba-140 (a)5.0 × 10−11.4 × 1013.0 × 10−18.12.7 × 1037.3 × 104
Be-7Beryllium (4)2.0 × 1015.4 × 1022.0 × 1015.4 × 1021.3 × 1043.5 × 105
Be-104.0 × 1011.1 × 1036.0 × 10−11.6 × 1018.3 × 10−42.2 × 10−2
Bi-205Bismuth (83)7.0 × 10−11.9 × 1017.0 × 10−11.9 × 1011.5 × 1034.2 × 104
Bi-2063.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.13.8 × 1031.0 × 105
Bi-2077.0 × 10−11.9 × 1017.0 × 10−11.9 × 1011.95.2 × 101
Bi-2101.02.7 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1014.6 × 1031.2 × 105
Bi-210m (a)6.0 × 10−11.6 × 1012.0 × 10−25.4 × 10−12.1 × 10−55.7 × 10−4
Bi-212 (a)7.0 × 10−11.9 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1015.4 × 1051.5 × 107
Bk-247Berkelium (97)8.02.2 × 1028.0 × 10−42.2 × 10−23.8 × 10−21.0
Bk-249 (a)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1033.0 × 10−18.16.1 × 1011.6 × 103
Br-76Bromine (35)4.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1019.4 × 1042.5 × 106
Br-773.08.1 × 1013.08.1 × 1012.6 × 1047.1 × 105
Br-824.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 1041.1 × 106
C-11Carbon (6)1.02.7 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1013.1 × 1078.4 × 108
C-144.0 × 1011.1 × 1033.08.1 × 1011.6 × 10−14.5
Ca-41Calcium (20)UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited3.1 × 10−38.5 × 10−2
Ca-454.0 × 1011.1 × 1031.02.7 × 1016.6 × 1021.8 × 104
Ca-47 (a)3.08.1 × 1013.0 × 10−18.12.3 × 1046.1 × 105
Cd-109Cadmium (48)3.0 × 1018.1 × 1022.05.4 × 1019.6 × 1012.6 × 103
Cd-113m4.0 × 1011.1 × 1035.0 × 10−11.4 × 1018.32.2 × 102
Cd-115 (a)3.08.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1011.9 × 1045.1 × 105
Cd-115m5.0 × 10−11.4 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1019.4 × 1022.5 × 104
Ce-139Cerium (58)7.01.9 × 1022.05.4 × 1012.5 × 1026.8 × 103
Ce-1412.0 × 1015.4 × 1026.0 × 10−11.6 × 1011.1 × 1032.8 × 104
Ce-1439.0 × 10−12.4 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1012.5 × 1046.6 × 105
Ce-144 (a)2.0 × 10−15.42.0 × 10−15.41.2 × 1023.2 × 103
Cf-248Californium (98)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1036.0 × 10−31.6 × 10−15.8 × 1011.6 × 103
Cf-2493.08.1 × 1018.0 × 10−42.2 × 10−21.5 × 10−14.1
Cf-2502.0 × 1015.4 × 1022.0 × 10−35.4 × 10−24.01.1 × 102
Cf-2517.01.9 × 1027.0 × 10−41.9 × 10−25.9 × 10−21.6
Cf-2521.0 × 10−12.73.0 × 10−38.1 × 10−22.0 × 1015.4 × 102
Cf-253 (a)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1034.0 × 10−21.11.1 × 1032.9 × 104
Cf-2541.0 × 10−32.7 × 10−21.0 × 10−32.7 × 10−23.1 × 1028.5 × 103
Cl-36Chlorine (17)1.0 × 1012.7 × 1026.0 × 10−11.6 × 1011.2 × 10−33.3 × 10−2
Cl-382.0 × 10−15.42.0 × 10−15.44.9 × 1061.3 × 108
Cm-240Curium (96)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1032.0 × 10−25.4 × 10−17.5 × 1022.0 × 104
Cm-2412.05.4 × 1011.02.7 × 1016.1 × 1021.7 × 104
Cm-2424.0 × 1011.1 × 1031.0 × 10−22.7 × 10−11.2 × 1023.3 × 103
Cm-2439.02.4 × 1021.0 × 10−32.7 × 10−21.9 × 10−35.2 × 101
Cm-2442.0 × 1015.4 × 1022.0 × 10−35.4 × 10−23.08.1 × 101
Cm-2459.02.4 × 1029.0 × 10−42.4 × 10−26.4 × 10−31.7 × 10−1
Cm-2469.02.4 × 1029.0 × 10−42.4 × 10−21.1 × 10−23.1 × 10−1
Cm-247 (a)3.08.1 × 1011.0 × 10−32.7 × 10−23.4 × 10−69.3 × 10−5
Cm-2482.0 × 10−25.4 × 10−13.0 × 10−48.1 × 10−31.6 × 10−44.2 × 10−3
Co-55Cobalt (27)5.0 × 10−11.4 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1011.1 × 1053.1 × 106
Co-563.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.11.1 × 1033.0 × 104
Co-571.0 × 1012.7 × 1021.0 × 1012.7 × 1023.1 × 1028.4 × 103
Co-581.02.7 × 1011.02.7 × 1011.2 × 1033.2 × 104
Co-58m4.0 × 1011.1 × 1034.0 × 1011.1 × 1032.2 × 1055.9 × 106
Co-604.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.2 × 1011.1 × 103
Cr-51Chromium (24)3.0 × 1018.1 × 1023.0 × 1018.1 × 1023.4 × 1039.2 × 104
Cs-129Cesium (55)4.01.1 × 1024.01.1 × 1022.8 × 1047.6 × 105
Cs-1313.0 × 1018.1 × 1023.0 × 1018.1 × 1023.8 × 1031.0 × 105
Cs-1321.02.7 × 1011.02.7 × 1015.7 × 1031.5 × 105
Cs-1347.0 × 10−11.9 × 1017.0 × 10−11.9 × 1014.8 × 1011.3 × 103
Cs-134m4.0 × 1011.1 × 1036.0 × 10−11.6 × 1013.0 × 1058.0 × 106
Cs-1354.0 × 1011.1 × 1031.02.7 × 1014.3 × 10−51.2 × 10−3
Cs-1365.0 × 10−11.4 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1012.7 × 1037.3 × 104
Cs-137 (a)2.05.4 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1013.28.7 × 101
Cu-64Copper (29)6.01.6 × 1021.02.7 × 1011.4 × 1053.9 × 106
Cu-671.0 × 1012.7 × 1027.0 × 10−11.9 × 1012.8 × 1047.6 × 105
Dy-159Dysprosium (66)2.0 × 1015.4 × 1022.0 × 1015.4 × 1022.1 × 1025.7 × 103
Dy-1659.0 × 10−12.4 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1013.0 × 1058.2 × 106
Dy-166 (a)9.0 × 10−12.4 × 1013.0 × 10−18.18.6 × 1032.3 × 105
Er-169Erbium (68)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1031.02.7 × 1013.1 × 1038.3 × 104
Er-1718.0 × 10−12.2 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1019.0 × 1042.4 × 106
Eu-147Europium (63)2.05.4 × 1012.05.4 × 1011.4 × 1033.7 × 104
Eu-1485.0 × 10−11.4 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1016.0 × 1021.6 × 104
Eu-1492.0 × 1015.4 × 1022.0 × 1015.4 × 1023.5 × 1029.4 × 103
Eu-150 (short lived)2.05.4 × 1017.0 × 10−11.9 × 1016.1 × 1041.6 × 106
Eu-150 (long lived)7.0 × 10−11.9 × 1017.0 × 10−11.9 × 1016.1 × 1041.6 × 106
Eu-1521.02.7 × 1011.02.7 × 1016.51.8 × 102
Eu-152m8.0 × 10−12.2 × 1018.0 × 10−12.2 × 1018.2 × 1042.2 × 106
Eu-1549.0 × 10−12.4 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1019.82.6 × 102
Eu-1552.0 × 1015.4 × 1023.08.1 × 1011.8 × 1014.9 × 102
Eu-1567.0 × 10−11.9 × 1017.0 × 10−11.9 × 1012.0 × 1035.5 × 104
F-18Fluorine (9)1.02.7 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1013.5 × 1069.5 × 107
Fe-52 (a)Iron (26)3.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.12.7 × 1057.3 × 106
Fe-554.0 × 1011.1 × 1034.0 × 1011.1 × 1038.8 × 1012.4 × 103
Fe-599.0 × 10−12.4 × 1019.0 × 10−12.4 × 1011.8 × 1035.0 × 104
Fe-60 (a)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1032.0 × 10−15.47.4 × 10−42.0 × 10−2
Ga-67Gallium (31)7.01.9 × 1023.08.1 × 1012.2 × 1046.0 × 105
Ga-685.0 × 10−11.4 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1011.5 × 1064.1 × 107
Ga-724.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1011.1 × 1053.1 × 106
Gd-146 (a)Gadolinium (64)5.0 × 10−11.4 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1016.9 × 1021.9 × 104
Gd-1482.0 × 1015.4 × 1022.0 × 10−35.4 × 10−21.23.2 × 101
Gd-1531.0 × 1012.7 × 1029.02.4 × 1021.3 × 1023.5 × 103
Gd-1593.08.1 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1013.9 × 1041.1 × 106
Ge-68 (a)Germanium (32)5.0 × 10−11.4 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1012.6 × 1027.1 × 103
Ge-714.0 × 1011.1 × 1034.0 × 1011.1 × 1035.8 × 1031.6 × 105
Ge-773.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.11.3 × 1053.6 × 106
Hf-172 (a)Hafnium (72)6.0 × 10−11.6 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1014.1 × 1011.1 × 103
Hf-1753.08.1 × 1013.08.1 × 1013.9 × 1021.1 × 104
Hf-1812.05.4 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1016.3 × 1021.7 × 104
Hf-182UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited8.1 × 10−62.2 × 10−4
Hg-194 (a)Mercury (80)1.02.7 × 1011.02.7 × 1011.3 × 10−13.5
Hg-195m (a)3.08.1 × 1017.0 × 10−11.9 × 1011.5 × 1044.0 × 105
Hg-1972.0 × 1015.4 × 1021.0 × 1012.7 × 1029.2 × 1032.5 × 105
Hg-197m1.0 × 1012.7 × 1024.0 × 10−11.1 × 1012.5 × 1046.7 × 105
Hg-2035.01.4 × 1021.02.7 × 1015.1 × 1021.4 × 104
Ho-166Holmium (67)4.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1012.6 × 1047.0 × 105
Ho-166m6.0 × 10−11.6 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1016.6 × 10−21.8
I-123Iodine (53)6.01.6 × 1023.08.1 × 1017.1 × 1041.9 × 106
I-1241.02.7 × 1011.02.7 × 1019.3 × 1032.5 × 105
I-1252.0 × 1015.4 × 1023.08.1 × 1016.4 × 1021.7 × 104
I-1262.05.4 × 1011.02.7 × 1012.9 × 1038.0 × 104
I-129UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited6.5 × 10−61.8 × 10−4
I-1313.08.1 × 1017.0 × 10−11.9 × 1014.6 × 1031.2 × 105
I-1324.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1013.8 × 1051.0 × 107
I-1337.0 × 10−11.9 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1014.2 × 1041.1 × 106
I-1343.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.19.9 × 1052.7 × 107
I-135 (a)6.0 × 10−11.6 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1011.3 × 1053.5 × 106
In-111Indium (49)3.08.1 × 1013.08.1 × 1011.5 × 1044.2 × 105
In-113m4.01.1 × 1022.05.4 × 1016.2 × 1051.7 × 107
In-114m (a)1.0 × 1012.7 × 1025.0 × 10−11.4 × 1018.6 × 1022.3 × 104
In-115m7.01.9 × 1021.02.7 × 1012.2 × 1056.1 × 106
Ir-189 (a)Iridium (77)1.0 × 1012.7 × 1021.0 × 1012.7 × 1021.9 × 1035.2 × 104
Ir-1907.0 × 10−11.9 × 1017.0 × 10−11.9 × 1012.3 × 1036.2 × 104
Ir-192c1.0c2.7 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1013.4 × 1029.2 × 103
Ir-1943.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.13.1 × 1048.4 × 105
K-40Potassium (19)9.0 × 10−12.4 × 1019.0 × 10−12.4 × 1012.4 × 10−76.4 × 10−6
K-422.0 × 10−15.42.0 × 10−15.42.2 × 1056.0 × 106
K-437.0 × 10−11.9 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1011.2 × 1053.3 × 106
Kr-79Krypton (36)4.01.1 × 1022.05.4 × 1014.2 × 1041.1 × 106
Kr-814.0 × 1011.1 × 1034.0 × 1011.1 × 1037.8 × 10−42.1 × 10−2
Kr-851.0 × 1012.7 × 1021.0 × 1012.7 × 1021.5 × 1013.9 × 102
Kr-85m8.02.2 × 1023.08.1 × 1013.0 × 1058.2 × 106
Kr-872.0 × 10−15.42.0 × 10−15.41.0 × 1062.8 × 107
La-137Lanthanum (57)3.0 × 1018.1 × 1026.01.6 × 1021.6 × 10−34.4 × 10−2
La-1404.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1012.1 × 1045.6 × 105
Lu-172Lutetium (71)6.0 × 10−11.6 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1014.2 × 1031.1 × 105
Lu-1738.02.2 × 1028.02.2 × 1025.6 × 1011.5 × 103
Lu-1749.02.4 × 1029.02.4 × 1022.3 × 1016.2 × 102
Lu-174m2.0 × 1015.4 × 1021.0 × 1012.7 × 1022.0 × 1025.3 × 103
Lu-1773.0 × 1018.1 × 1027.0 × 10−11.9 × 1014.1 × 1031.1 × 105
Mg-28 (a)Magnesium (12)3.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.12.0 × 1055.4 × 106
Mn-52Manganese (25)3.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.11.6 × 1044.4 × 105
Mn-53UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited6.8 × 10−51.8 × 10−3
Mn-541.02.7 × 1011.02.7 × 1012.9 × 1027.7 × 103
Mn-563.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.18.0 × 1052.2 × 107
Mo-93Molybdenum (42)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1032.0 × 1015.4 × 1024.1 × 10−21.1
Mo-99 ah1.02.7 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1011.8 × 1044.8 × 105
N-13Nitrogen (7)9.0 × 10−12.4 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1015.4 × 1071.5 × 109
Na-22Sodium (11)5.0 × 10−11.4 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1012.3 × 1026.3 × 103
Na-242.0 × 10−15.42.0 × 10−15.43.2 × 1058.7 × 106
Nb-93mNiobium (41)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1033.0 × 1018.1 × 1028.82.4 × 102
Nb-947.0 × 10−11.9 × 1017.0 × 10−11.9 × 1016.9 × 10−31.9 × 10−1
Nb-951.02.7 × 1011.02.7 × 1011.5 × 1033.9 × 104
Nb-979.0 × 10−12.4 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1019.9 × 1052.7 × 107
Nd-147Neodymium (60)6.01.6 × 1026.0 × 10−11.6 × 1013.0 × 1038.1 × 104
Nd-1496.0 × 10−11.6 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1014.5 × 1051.2 × 107
Ni-59Nickel (28)UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited3.0 × 10−38.0 × 10−2
Ni-634.0 × 1011.1 × 1033.0 × 1018.1 × 1022.15.7 × 101
Ni-654.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1017.1 × 1051.9 × 107
Np-235Neptunium (93)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1034.0 × 1011.1 × 1035.2 × 1011.4 × 103
Np-236 (short-lived)2.0 × 1015.4 × 1022.05.4 × 1014.7 × 10−41.3 × 10−2
Np-236 (long-lived)9.0 × 1002.4 × 1022.0 × 10−25.4 × 10−14.7 × 10−41.3 × 10−2
Np-2372.0 × 1015.4 × 1022.0 × 10−35.4 × 10−22.6 × 10−57.1 × 10−4
Np-2397.01.9 × 1024.0 × 10−11.1 × 1018.6 × 1032.3 × 105
Os-185Osmium (76)1.02.7 × 1011.02.7 × 1012.8 × 1027.5 × 103
Os-1911.0 × 1012.7 × 1022.05.4 × 1011.6 × 1034.4 × 104
Os-191m4.0 × 1011.1 × 1033.0 × 1018.1 × 1024.6 × 1041.3 × 106
Os-1932.05.4 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1012.0 × 1045.3 × 105
Os-194 (a)3.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.11.1 × 1013.1 × 102
P-32Phosphorus (15)5.0 × 10−11.4 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1011.1 × 1042.9 × 105
P-334.0 × 1011.1 × 1031.02.7 × 1015.8 × 1031.6 × 105
Pa-230 (a)Protactinium (91)2.05.4 × 1017.0 × 10−21.91.2 × 1033.3 × 104
Pa-2314.01.1 × 1024.0 × 10−41.1 × 10−21.7 × 10−34.7 × 10−2
Pa-2335.01.4 × 1027.0 × 10−11.9 × 1017.7 × 1022.1 × 104
Pb-201Lead (82)1.02.7 × 1011.02.7 × 1016.2 × 1041.7 × 106
Pb-2024.0 × 1011.1 × 1032.0 × 1015.4 × 1021.2 × 10−43.4 × 10−3
Pb-2034.01.1 × 1023.08.1 × 1011.1 × 1043.0 × 105
Pb-205UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited4.5 × 10−61.2 × 10−4
Pb-210 (a)1.02.7 × 1015.0 × 10−21.42.87.6 × 101
Pb-212 (a)7.0 × 10−11.9 × 1012.0 × 10−15.45.1 × 1041.4 × 106
Pd-103 (a)Palladium (46)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1034.0 × 1011.1 × 1032.8 × 1037.5 × 104
Pd-107UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited1.9 × 10−55.1 × 10−4
Pd-1092.05.4 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1017.9 × 1042.1 × 106
Pm-143Promethium (61)3.08.1 × 1013.08.1 × 1011.3 × 1023.4 × 103
Pm-1447.0 × 10−11.9 × 1017.0 × 10−11.9 × 1019.2 × 1012.5 × 103
Pm-1453.0 × 1018.1 × 1021.0 × 1012.7 × 1025.21.4 × 102
Pm-1474.0 × 1011.1 × 1032.05.4 × 1013.4 × 1019.3 × 102
Pm-148m (a)8.0 × 10−12.2 × 1017.0 × 10−11.9 × 1017.9 × 1022.1 × 104
Pm-1492.05.4 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1011.5 × 1044.0 × 105
Pm-1512.05.4 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1012.7 × 1047.3 × 105
Po-210Polonium (84)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1032.0 × 10−25.4 × 10−11.7 × 1024.5 × 103
Pr-142Praseodymium (59)4.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.3 × 1041.2 × 106
Pr-1433.08.1 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1012.5 × 1036.7 × 104
Pt-188 (a)Platinum (78)1.02.7 × 1018.0 × 10−12.2 × 1012.5 × 1036.8 × 104
Pt-1914.01.1 × 1023.08.1 × 1018.7 × 1032.4 × 105
Pt-1934.0 × 1011.1 × 1034.0 × 1011.1 × 1031.43.7 × 101
Pt-193m4.0 × 1011.1 × 1035.0 × 10−11.4 × 1015.8 × 1031.6 × 105
Pt-195m1.0 × 1012.7 × 1025.0 × 10−11.4 × 1016.2 × 1031.7 × 105
Pt-1972.0 × 1015.4 × 1026.0 × 10−11.6 × 1013.2 × 1048.7 × 105
Pt-197m1.0 × 1012.7 × 1026.0 × 10−11.6 × 1013.7 × 1051.0 × 107
Pu-236Plutonium (94)3.0 × 1018.1 × 1023.0 × 10−38.1 × 10−22.0 × 1015.3 × 102
Pu-2372.0 × 1015.4 × 1022.0 × 1015.4 × 1024.5 × 1021.2 × 104
Pu-2381.0 × 1012.7 × 1021.0 × 10−32.7 × 10−26.3 × 10−11.7 × 101
Pu-2391.0 × 1012.7 × 1021.0 × 10−32.7 × 10−22.3 × 10−36.2 × 10−2
Pu-2401.0 × 1012.7 × 1021.0 × 10−32.7 × 10−28.4 × 10−32.3 × 10−1
Pu-241 (a)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1036.0 × 10−21.63.81.0 × 102
Pu-2421.0 × 1012.7 × 1021.0 × 10−32.7 × 10−21.5 × 10−43.9 × 10−3
Pu-244 (a)4.0 × 10−11.1 × 1011.0 × 10−32.7 × 10−26.7 × 10−71.8 × 10−5
Ra-223 (a)Radium (88)4.0 × 10−11.1 × 1017.0 × 10−31.9 × 10−11.9 × 1035.1 × 104
Ra-224 (a)4.0 × 10−11.1 × 1012.0 × 10−25.4 × 10−15.9 × 1031.6 × 105
Ra-225 (a)2.0 × 10−15.44.0 × 10−31.1 × 10−11.5 × 1033.9 × 104
Ra-226 (a)2.0 × 10−15.43.0 × 10−38.1 × 10−23.7 × 10−21.0
Ra-228 (a)6.0 × 10−11.6 × 1012.0 × 10−25.4 × 10−11.0 × 1012.7 × 102
Rb-81Rubidium (37)2.05.4 × 1018.0 × 10−12.2 × 1013.1 × 1058.4 × 106
Rb-83 (a)2.05.4 × 1012.05.4 × 1016.8 × 1021.8 × 104
Rb-841.02.7 × 1011.02.7 × 1011.8 × 1034.7 × 104
Rb-865.0 × 10−11.4 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1013.0 × 1038.1 × 104
Rb-87UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited3.2 × 10−98.6 × 10−8
Rb(nat)UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited6.7 × 1061.8 × 108
Re-184Rhenium (75)1.02.7 × 1011.02.7 × 1016.9 × 1021.9 × 104
Re-184m3.08.1 × 1011.02.7 × 1011.6 × 1024.3 × 103
Re-1862.05.4 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1016.9 × 1031.9 × 105
Re-187UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited1.4 × 10−93.8 × 10−8
Re-1884.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1013.6 × 1049.8 × 105
Re-189 (a)3.08.1 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1012.5 × 1046.8 × 105
Re(nat)UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited0.02.4 × 10−8
Rh-99Rhodium (45)2.05.4 × 1012.05.4 × 1013.0 × 1038.2 × 104
Rh-1014.01.1 × 1023.08.1 × 1014.1 × 1011.1 × 103
Rh-1025.0 × 10−11.4 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1014.5 × 1011.2 × 103
Rh-102m2.05.4 × 1012.05.4 × 1012.3 × 1026.2 × 103
Rh-103m4.0 × 1011.1 × 1034.0 × 1011.1 × 1031.2 × 1063.3 × 107
Rh-1051.0 × 1012.7 × 1028.0 × 10−12.2 × 1013.1 × 1048.4 × 105
Rn-222 (a)Radon (86)3.0 × 10−18.14.0 × 10−31.1 × 10−15.7 × 1031.5 × 105
Ru-97Ruthenium (44)5.01.4 × 1025.01.4 × 1021.7 × 1044.6 × 105
Ru-103 (a)2.05.4 × 1012.05.4 × 1011.2 × 1033.2 × 104
Ru-1051.02.7 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1012.5 × 1056.7 × 106
Ru-106 (a)2.0 × 10−15.42.0 × 10−15.41.2 × 1023.3 × 103
S-35Sulphur (16)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1033.08.1 × 1011.6 × 1034.3 × 104
Sb-122Antimony (51)4.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1011.5 × 1044.0 × 105
Sb-1246.0 × 10−11.6 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1016.5 × 1021.7 × 104
Sb-1252.05.4 × 1011.02.7 × 1013.9 × 1011.0 × 103
Sb-1264.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1013.1 × 1038.4 × 104
Sc-44Scandium (21)5.0 × 10−11.4 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1016.7 × 1051.8 × 107
Sc-465.0 × 10−11.4 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1011.3 × 1033.4 × 104
Sc-471.0 × 1012.7 × 1027.0 × 10−11.9 × 1013.1 × 1048.3 × 105
Sc-483.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.15.5 × 1041.5 × 106
Se-75Selenium (34)3.08.1 × 1013.08.1 × 1015.4 × 1021.5 × 104
Se-794.0 × 1011.1 × 1032.05.4 × 1012.6 × 10−37.0 × 10−2
Si-31Silicon (14)6.0 × 10−11.6 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1011.4 × 1063.9 × 107
Si-324.0 × 1011.1 × 1035.0 × 10−11.4 × 1013.91.1 × 102
Sm-145Samarium (62)1.0 × 1012.7 × 1021.0 × 1012.7 × 1029.8 × 1012.6 × 103
Sm-147UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited8.5 × 10−12.3 × 10−8
Sm-1514.0 × 1011.1 × 1031.0 × 1012.7 × 1029.7 × 10−12.6 × 101
Sm-1539.02.4 × 1026.0 × 10−11.6 × 1011.6 × 1044.4 × 105
Sn-113 (a)Tin (50)4.01.1 × 1022.05.4 × 1013.7 × 1021.0 × 104
Sn-117m7.01.9 × 1024.0 × 10−11.1 × 1013.0 × 1038.2 × 104
Sn-119m4.0 × 1011.1 × 1033.0 × 1018.1 × 1021.4 × 1023.7 × 103
Sn-121m (a)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1039.0 × 10−12.4 × 1012.05.4 × 101
Sn-1238.0 × 10−12.2 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1013.0 × 1028.2 × 103
Sn-1254.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 1031.1 × 105
Sn-126 (a)6.0 × 10−11.6 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1011.0 × 10−32.8 × 10−2
Sr-82 (a)Strontium (38)2.0 × 10−15.42.0 × 10−15.42.3 × 1036.2 × 104
Sr-852.05.4 × 1012.05.4 × 1018.8 × 1022.4 × 104
Sr-85m5.01.4 × 1025.01.4 × 1021.2 × 1063.3 × 107
Sr-87m3.08.1 × 1013.08.1 × 1014.8 × 1051.3 × 107
Sr-896.0 × 10−11.6 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1011.1 × 1032.9 × 104
Sr-90 (a)3.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.15.11.4 × 102
Sr-91 (a)3.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.11.3 × 1053.6 × 106
Sr-92 (a)1.02.7 × 1013.0 × 10−18.14.7 × 1051.3 × 107
T(H-3)Tritium (1)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1034.0 × 1011.1 × 1033.6 × 1029.7 × 103
Ta-178 (long-lived)Tantalum (73)1.02.7 × 1018.0 × 10−12.2 × 1014.2 × 1061.1 × 108
Ta-1793.0 × 1018.1 × 1023.0 × 1018.1 × 1024.1 × 1011.1 × 103
Ta-1829.0 × 10−12.4 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1012.3 × 1026.2 × 103
Tb-157Terbium (65)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1034.0 × 1011.1 × 1035.6 × 10−11.5 × 101
Tb-1581.02.7 × 1011.02.7 × 1015.6 × 10−11.5 × 101
Tb-1601.02.7 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1014.2 × 1021.1 × 104
Tc-95m (a)Technetium (43)2.05.4 × 1012.05.4 × 1018.3 × 1022.2 × 104
Tc-964.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1011.2 × 1043.2 × 105
Tc-96m (a)4.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1011.4 × 1063.8 × 107
Tc-97UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited5.2 × 10−51.4 × 10−3
Tc-97m4.0 × 1011.1 × 1031.02.7 × 1015.6 × 1021.5 × 104
Tc-988.0 × 10−12.2 × 1017.0 × 10−11.9 × 1013.2 × 10−58.7 × 10−4
Tc-994.0 × 1011.1 × 1039.0 × 10−12.4 × 1016.3 × 10−41.7 × 10−2
Tc-99m1.0 × 1012.7 × 1024.01.1 × 1021.9 × 1055.3 × 106
Te-121Tellurium (52)2.05.4 × 1012.05.4 × 1012.4 × 1036.4 × 104
Te-121m5.01.4 × 1023.08.1 × 1012.6 × 1027.0 × 103
Te-123m8.02.2 × 1021.02.7 × 1013.3 × 1028.9 × 103
Te-125m2.0 × 1015.4 × 1029.0 × 10−12.4 × 1016.7 × 1021.8 × 104
Te-1272.0 × 1015.4 × 1027.0 × 10−11.9 × 1019.8 × 1042.6 × 106
Te-127m (a)2.0 × 1015.4 × 1025.0 × 10−11.4 × 1013.5 × 1029.4 × 103
Te-1297.0 × 10−11.9 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1017.7 × 1052.1 × 107
Te-129m (a)8.0 × 10−12.2 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1011.1 × 1033.0 × 104
Te-131m (a)7.0 × 10−11.9 × 1015.0 × 10−11.4 × 1013.0 × 1048.0 × 105
Te-132 (a)5.0 × 10−11.4 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1011.1 × 1043.0 × 105
Th-227Thorium (90)1.0 × 1012.7 × 1025.0 × 10−31.4 × 10−11.1 × 1033.1 × 104
Th-228 (a)5.0 × 10−11.4 × 1011.0 × 10−32.7 × 10−23.0 × 1018.2 × 102
Th-2295.01.4 × 1025.0 × 10−41.4 × 10−27.9 × 10−32.1 × 10−1
Th-2301.0 × 1012.7 × 1021.0 × 10−32.7 × 10−27.6 × 10−42.1 × 10−2
Th-2314.0 × 1011.1 × 1032.0 × 10−25.4 × 10−12.0 × 1045.3 × 105
Th-232UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited4.0 × 10−91.1 × 10−7
Th-234 (a)3.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.18.6 × 1022.3 × 104
Th(nat)UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited8.1 × 10−92.2 × 10−7
Ti-44 (a)Titanium (22)5.0 × 10−11.4 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1016.41.7 × 102
Tl-200Thallium (81)9.0 × 10−12.4 × 1019.0 × 10−12.4 × 1012.2 × 1046.0 × 105
Tl-2011.0 × 1012.7 × 1024.01.1 × 1027.9 × 1032.1 × 105
Tl-2022.05.4 × 1012.05.4 × 1012.0 × 1035.3 × 104
Tl-2041.0 × 1012.7 × 1027.0 × 10−11.9 × 1011.7 × 1014.6 × 102
Tm-167Thulium (69)7.01.9 × 1028.0 × 10−12.2 × 1013.1 × 1038.5 × 104
Tm-1703.08.1 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1012.2 × 1026.0 × 103
Tm-1714.0 × 1011.1 × 1034.0 × 1011.1 × 1034.0 × 1011.1 × 103
U-230 (fast lung absorption) (a)(d)Uranium (92)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1031.0 × 10−12.71.0 × 1032.7 × 104
U-230 (medium lung absorption) (a)(e)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1034.0 × 10−31.1 × 10−11.0 × 1032.7 × 104
U-230 (slow lung absorption) (a)(f)3.0 × 1018.1 × 1023.0 × 10−38.1 × 10−21.0 × 1032.7 × 104
U-232 (fast lung absorption) (d)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1031.0 × 10−22.7 × 10−18.3 × 10−12.2 × 101
U-232 (medium lung absorption) (e)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1037.0 × 10−31.9 × 10−18.3 × 10−12.2 × 101
U-232 (slow lung absorption) (f)1.0 × 1012.7 × 1021.0 × 10−32.7 × 10−28.3 × 10−12.2 × 101
U-233 (fast lung absorption) (d)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1039.0 × 10−22.43.6 × 10−49.7 × 10−3
U-233 (medium lung absorption) (e)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1032.0 × 10−25.4 × 10−13.6 × 10−49.7 × 10−3
U-233 (slow lung absorption) (f)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1036.0 × 10−31.6 × 10−13.6 × 10−49.7 × 10−3
U-234 (fast lung absorption) (d)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1039.0 × 10−22.42.3 × 10−46.2 × 10−3
U-234 (medium lung absorption) (e)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1032.0 × 10−25.4 × 10−12.3 × 10−46.2 × 10−3
U-234 (slow lung absorption) (f)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1036.0 × 10−31.6 × 10−12.3 × 10−46.2 × 10−3
U-235 (all lung absorption types) (a),(d),(e),(f)UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited8.0 × 10−82.2 × 10−6
U-236 (fast lung absorption) (d)UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited2.4 × 10−66.5 × 10−5
U-236 (medium lung absorption) (e)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1032.0 × 10−25.4 × 10−12.4 × 10−66.5 × 10−5
U-236 (slow lung absorption) (f)4.0 × 1011.1 × 1036.0 × 10−31.6 × 10−12.4 × 10−66.5 × 10−5
U-238 (all lung absorption types) (d),(e),(f)UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited1.2 × 10−83.4 × 10−7
U (nat)UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited2.6 × 10−87.1 × 10−7
U (enriched to 20% or less)(g)UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedSee Table A-4See Table A-4
U (dep)UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedSee Table A-4See Table A-4
V-48Vanadium (23)4.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1016.3 × 1031.7 × 105
V-494.0 × 1011.1 × 1034.0 × 1011.1 × 1033.0 × 1028.1 × 103
W-178 (a)Tungsten (74)9.02.4 × 1025.01.4 × 1021.3 × 1033.4 × 104
W-1813.0 × 1018.1 × 1023.0 × 1018.1 × 1022.2 × 1026.0 × 103
W-1854.0 × 1011.1 × 1038.0 × 10−12.2 × 1013.5 × 1029.4 × 103
W-1872.05.4 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1012.6 × 1047.0 × 105
W-188 (a)4.0 × 10−11.1 × 1013.0 × 10−18.13.7 × 1021.0 × 104
Xe-122 (a)Xenon (54)4.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.8 × 1041.3 × 106
Xe-1232.05.4 × 1017.0 × 10−11.9 × 1014.4 × 1051.2 × 107
Xe-1274.01.1 × 1022.05.4 × 1011.0 × 1032.8 × 104
Xe-131m4.0 × 1011.1 × 1034.0 × 1011.1 × 1033.1 × 1038.4 × 104
Xe-1332.0 × 1015.4 × 1021.0 × 1012.7 × 1026.9 × 1031.9 × 105
Xe-1353.08.1 × 1012.05.4 × 1019.5 × 1042.6 × 106
Y-87 (a)Yttrium (39)1.02.7 × 1011.02.7 × 1011.7 × 1044.5 × 105
Y-884.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1015.2 × 1021.4 × 104
Y-903.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.12.0 × 1045.4 × 105
Y-916.0 × 10−11.6 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1019.1 × 1022.5 × 104
Y-91m2.05.4 × 1012.05.4 × 1011.5 × 1064.2 × 107
Y-922.0 × 10−15.42.0 × 10−15.43.6 × 1059.6 × 106
Y-933.0 × 10−18.13.0 × 10−18.11.2 × 1053.3 × 106
Yb-169Ytterbium (70)4.01.1 × 1021.02.7 × 1018.9 × 1022.4 × 104
Yb-1753.0 × 1018.1 × 1029.0 × 10−12.4 × 1016.6 × 1031.8 × 105
Zn-65Zinc (30)2.05.4 × 1012.05.4 × 1013.0 × 1028.2 × 103
Zn-693.08.1 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1011.8 × 1064.9 × 107
Zn-69m (a)3.08.1 × 1016.0 × 10−11.6 × 1011.2 × 1053.3 × 106
Zr-88Zirconium (40)3.08.1 × 1013.08.1 × 1016.6 × 1021.8 × 104
Zr-93UnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited9.3 × 10−52.5 × 10−3
Zr-95 (a)2.05.4 × 1018.0 × 10−12.2 × 1017.9 × 1022.1 × 104
Zr-97 (a)4.0 × 10−11.1 × 1014.0 × 10−11.1 × 1017.1 × 1041.9 × 106

aA1 and/or A2 values include contributions from daughter nuclides with half-lives less than 10 days, as listed in the following:

Mg-28Al-28
Ca-47Sc-47
Ti-44Sc-44
Fe-52Mn-52m
Fe-60Co-60m
Zn-69mZn-69
Ge-68Ga-68
Rb-83Kr-83m
Sr-82Rb-82
Sr-90Y-90
Sr-91Y-91m
Sr-92Y-92
Y-87Sr-87m
Zr-95Nb-95m
Zr-97Nb-97m, Nb-97
Mo-99Tc-99m
Tc-95mTc-95
Tc-96mTc-96
Ru-103Rh-103m
Ru-106Rh-106
Pd-103Rh-103m
Ag-108mAg-108
Ag-110mAg-110
Cd-115In-115m
In-114mIn-114
Sn-113In-113m
Sn-121mSn-121
Sn-126Sb-126m
Te-127mTe-127
Te-129mTe-129
Te-131mTe-131
Te-132I-132
I-135Xe-135m
Xe-122I-122
Cs-137Ba-137m
Ba-131Cs-131
Ba-140La-140
Ce-144Pr-144m, Pr-144
Pm-148mPm-148
Gd-146Eu-146
Dy-166Ho-166
Hf-172Lu-172
W-178Ta-178
W-188Re-188
Re-189Os-189m
Os-194Ir-194
Ir-189Os-189m
Pt-188Ir-188
Hg-194Au-194
Hg-195mHg-195
Pb-210Bi-210
Pb-212Bi-212, Tl-208, Po-212
Bi-210mTl-206
Bi-212Tl-208, Po-212
At-211Po-211
Rn-222Po-218, Pb-214, At-218, Bi-214, Po-214
Ra-223Rn-219, Po-215, Pb-211, Bi-211, Po-211, Tl-207
Ra-224Rn-220, Po-216, Pb-212, Bi-212, Tl-208, Po-212
Ra-225Ac-225, Fr-221, At-217, Bi-213, Tl-209, Po-213, Pb-209
Ra-226Rn-222, Po-218, Pb-214, At-218, Bi-214, Po-214
Ra-228Ac-228
Ac-225Fr-221, At-217, Bi-213, Tl-209, Po-213, Pb-209
Ac-227Fr-223
Th-228Ra-224, Rn-220, Po-216, Pb-212, Bi-212, Tl-208, Po-212
Th-234Pa-234m, Pa-234
Pa-230Ac-226, Th-226, Fr-222, Ra-222, Rn-218, Po-214
U-230Th-226, Ra-222, Rn-218, Po-214
U-235Th-231
Pu-241U-237
Pu-244U-240, Np-240m
Am-242mAm-242, Np-238
Am-243Np-239
Cm-247Pu-243
Bk-249Am-245
Cf-253Cm-249

bThe values of A1 and A2 in Curies (Ci) are approximate and for information only; the regulatory standard units are Terabecquerels (TBq) (see Appendix A to Part 71—Determination of A1 and A2, Section I).

cThe activity of Ir-192 in special form may be determined from a measurement of the rate of decay or a measurement of the radiation level at a prescribed distance from the source.

dThese values apply only to compounds of uranium that take the chemical form of UF6, UO2F2 and UO2(NO3)2 in both normal and accident conditions of transport.

eThese values apply only to compounds of uranium that take the chemical form of UO3, UF4, UCl4 and hexavalent compounds in both normal and accident conditions of transport.

fThese values apply to all compounds of uranium other than those specified in notes (d) and (e) of this table.

gThese values apply to unirradiated uranium only.

hA2 = 0.74 TBq (20 Ci) for Mo-99 for domestic use.

Table A-2—Exempt Material Activity Concentrations and Exempt Consignment Activity Limits for Radionuclides

Symbol of
radionuclide
Element and atomic numberActivity concentration for exempt material
(Bq/g)
Activity concentration for exempt material
(Ci/g)
Activity limit for exempt consignment
(Bq)
Activity limit for exempt consignment
(Ci)
Ac-225Actinium (89)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Ac-2271.0 × 10−12.7 × 10−121.0 × 1032.7 × 10−8
Ac-2281.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ag-105Silver (47)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ag-108m (b)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ag-110m1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ag-1111.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Al-26Aluminum (13)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Am-241Americium (95)1.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Am-242m (b)1.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Am-243 (b)1.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1032.7 × 10−8
Ar-37Argon (18)1.0 × 1062.7 × 10−51.0 × 1082.7 × 10−3
Ar-391.0 × 1072.7 × 10−41.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Ar-411.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1092.7 × 10−2
As-72Arsenic (33)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
As-731.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
As-741.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
As-761.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
As-771.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
At-211Astatine (85)1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Au-193Gold (79)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Au-1941.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Au-1951.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Au-1981.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Au-1991.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ba-131Barium (56)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ba-1331.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ba-133m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ba-140 (b)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Be-7Beryllium (4)1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Be-101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Bi-205Bismuth (83)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Bi-2061.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Bi-2071.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Bi-2101.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Bi-210m1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Bi-212 (b)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Bk-247Berkelium (97)1.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Bk-2491.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Br-76Bromine (35)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Br-771.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Br-821.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
C-11Carbon (6)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
C-141.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Ca-41Calcium (20)1.0 × 1052.7 × 10−61.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Ca-451.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Ca-471.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Cd-109Cadmium (48)1.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Cd-113m1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Cd-1151.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Cd-115m1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ce-139Cerium (58)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ce-1411.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Ce-1431.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ce-144 (b)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Cf-248Californium (98)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Cf-2491.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1032.7 × 10−8
Cf-2501.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Cf-2511.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1032.7 × 10−8
Cf-2521.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Cf-2531.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Cf-2541.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1032.7 × 10−8
Cl-36Chlorine (17)1.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Cl-381.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Cm-240Curium (96)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Cm-2411.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Cm-2421.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Cm-2431.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Cm-2441.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Cm-2451.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1032.7 × 10−8
Cm-2461.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1032.7 × 10−8
Cm-2471.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Cm-2481.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1032.7 × 10−8
Co-55Cobalt (27)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Co-561.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Co-571.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Co-581.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Co-58m1.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Co-601.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Cr-51Chromium (24)1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Cs-129Cesium (55)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Cs-1311.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Cs-1321.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Cs-1341.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Cs-134m1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Cs-1351.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Cs-1361.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Cs-137 (b)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Cu-64Copper (29)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Cu-671.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Dy-159Dysprosium (66)1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Dy-1651.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Dy-1661.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Er-169Erbium (68)1.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Er-1711.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Eu-147Europium (63)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Eu-1481.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Eu-1491.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Eu-150 (short lived)1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Eu-150 (long lived)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Eu-1521.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Eu-152m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Eu-1541.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Eu-1551.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Eu-1561.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
F-18Fluorine (9)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Fe-52Iron (26)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Fe-551.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Fe-591.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Fe-601.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Ga-67Gallium (31)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ga-681.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Ga-721.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Gd-146Gadolinium (64)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Gd-1481.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Gd-1531.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Gd-1591.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ge-68Germanium (32)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Ge-711.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1082.7 × 10−3
Ge-771.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Hf-172Hafnium (72)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Hf-1751.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Hf-1811.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Hf-1821.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Hg-194Mercury (80)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Hg-195m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Hg-1971.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Hg-197m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Hg-2031.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Ho-166Holmium (67)1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Ho-166m1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
I-123Iodine (53)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
I-1241.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
I-1251.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
I-1261.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
I-1291.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
I-1311.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
I-1321.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
I-1331.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
I-1341.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
I-1351.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
In-111Indium (49)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
In-113m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
In-114m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
In-115m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ir-189Iridium (77)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Ir-1901.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ir-1921.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Ir-1941.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
K-40Potassium (19)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
K-421.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
K-431.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Kr-79Krypton (36)1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Kr-811.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Kr-851.0 × 1052.7 × 10−61.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Kr-85m1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 10102.7 × 10−1
Kr-871.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1092.7 × 10−2
La-137Lanthanum (57)1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
La-1401.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Lu-172Lutetium (71)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Lu-1731.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Lu-1741.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Lu-174m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Lu-1771.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Mg-28Magnesium (12)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Mn-52Manganese (25)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Mn-531.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1092.7 × 10−2
Mn-541.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Mn-561.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Mo-93Molybdenum (42)1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1082.7 × 10−3
Mo-991.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
N-13Nitrogen (7)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1092.7 × 10−2
Na-22Sodium (11)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Na-241.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Nb-93mNiobium (41)1.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Nb-941.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Nb-951.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Nb-971.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Nd-147Neodymium (60)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Nd-1491.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ni-59Nickel (28)1.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1082.7 × 10−3
Ni-631.0 × 1052.7 × 10−61.0 × 1082.7 × 10−3
Ni-651.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Np-235Neptunium (93)1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Np-236 (short-lived)1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Np-236 (long-lived)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Np-237 (b)1.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1032.7 × 10−8
Np-2391.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Os-185Osmium (76)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Os-1911.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Os-191m1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Os-1931.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Os-1941.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
P-32Phosphorus (15)1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
P-331.0 × 1052.7 × 10−61.0 × 1082.7 × 10−3
Pa-230Protactinium (91)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Pa-2311.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1032.7 × 10−8
Pa-2331.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Pb-201Lead (82)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Pb-2021.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Pb-2031.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Pb-2051.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Pb-210 (b)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Pb-212 (b)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Pd-103Palladium (46)1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1082.7 × 10−3
Pd-1071.0 × 1052.7 × 10−61.0 × 1082.7 × 10−3
Pd-1091.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Pm-143Promethium (61)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Pm-1441.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Pm-1451.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Pm-1471.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Pm-148m1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Pm-1491.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Pm-1511.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Po-210Polonium (84)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Pr-142Praseodymium (59)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Pr-1431.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Pt-188Platinum (78)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Pt-1911.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Pt-1931.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Pt-193m1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Pt-195m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Pt-1971.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Pt-197m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Pu-236Plutonium (94)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Pu-2371.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Pu-2381.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Pu-2391.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Pu-2401.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1032.7 × 10−8
Pu-2411.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Pu-2421.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Pu-2441.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Ra-223 (b)Radium (88)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Ra-224 (b)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Ra-2251.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Ra-226 (b)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Ra-228 (b)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Rb-81Rubidium (37)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Rb-831.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Rb-841.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Rb-861.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Rb-871.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Rb(nat)1.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Re-184Rhenium (75)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Re-184m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Re-1861.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Re-1871.0 × 1062.7 × 10−51.0 × 1092.7 × 10−2
Re-1881.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Re-1891.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Re(nat)1.0 × 1062.7 × 10−51.0 × 1092.7 × 10−2
Rh-99Rhodium (45)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Rh-1011.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Rh-1021.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Rh-102m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Rh-103m1.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1082.7 × 10−3
Rh-1051.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Rn-222 (b)Radon (86)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1082.7 × 10−3
Ru-97Ruthenium (44)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Ru-1031.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ru-1051.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ru-106 (b)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
S-35Sulphur (16)1.0 × 1052.7 × 10−61.0 × 1082.7 × 10−3
Sb-122Antimony (51)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Sb-1241.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Sb-1251.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Sb-1261.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Sc-44Scandium (21)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Sc-461.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Sc-471.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Sc-481.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Se-75Selenium (34)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Se-791.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Si-31Silicon (14)1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Si-321.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Sm-145Samarium (62)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Sm-1471.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Sm-1511.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1082.7 × 10−3
Sm-1531.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Sn-113Tin (50)1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Sn-117m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Sn-119m1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Sn-121m1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Sn-1231.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Sn-1251.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Sn-1261.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Sr-82Strontium (38)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Sr-851.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Sr-85m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Sr-87m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Sr-891.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Sr-90 (b)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Sr-911.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Sr-921.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
T(H-3)Tritium (1)1.0 × 1062.7 × 10−51.0 × 1092.7 × 10−2
Ta-178 (long-lived)Tantalum (73)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Ta-1791.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Ta-1821.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Tb-157Terbium (65)1.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Tb-1581.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Tb-1601.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Tc-95mTechnetium (43)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Tc-961.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Tc-96m1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Tc-971.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1082.7 × 10−3
Tc-97m1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Tc-981.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Tc-991.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Tc-99m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Te-121Tellurium (52)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Te-121m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Te-123m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Te-125m1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Te-1271.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Te-127m1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Te-1291.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Te-129m1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Te-131m1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Te-1321.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Th-227Thorium (90)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Th-228 (b)1.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Th-229 (b)1.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1032.7 × 10−8
Th-2301.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Th-2311.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Th-2321.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Th-234 (b)1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Th (nat) (b)1.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1032.7 × 10−8
Ti-44Titanium (22)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Tl-200Thallium (81)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Tl-2011.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Tl-2021.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Tl-2041.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Tm-167Thulium (69)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Tm-1701.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Tm-1711.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1082.7 × 10−3
U-230 (fast lung absorption) (b),(d)Uranium (92)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
U-230 (medium lung absorption) (e)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
U-230 (slow lung absorption) (f)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
U-232 (fast lung absorption) (b),(d)1.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1032.7 × 10−8
U-232 (medium lung absorption) (e)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
U-232 (slow lung absorption) (f)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
U-233 (fast lung absorption) (d)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
U-233 (medium lung absorption) (e)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
U-233 (slow lung absorption) (f)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
U-234 (fast lung absorption) (d)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
U-234 (medium lung absorption) (e)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
U-234 (slow lung absorption) (f)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
U-235 (all lung absorption types) (b),(d),(e),(f)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
U-236 (fast lung absorption) (d)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
U-236 (medium lung absorption) (e)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
U-236 (slow lung absorption) (f)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
U-238 (all lung absorption types) (b),(d),(e),(f)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
U (nat) (b)1.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1032.7 × 10−8
U (enriched to 20% or less)(g)1.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1032.7 × 10−8
U (dep)1.02.7 × 10−111.0 × 1032.7 × 10−8
V-48Vanadium (23)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
V-491.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
W-178Tungsten (74)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
W-1811.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
W-1851.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
W-1871.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
W-1881.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Xe-122Xenon (54)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1092.7 × 10−2
Xe-1231.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1092.7 × 10−2
Xe-1271.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Xe-131m1.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Xe-1331.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Xe-1351.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 10102.7 × 10−1
Y-87Yttrium (39)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Y-881.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Y-901.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Y-911.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Y-91m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Y-921.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Y-931.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6
Yb-169Ytterbium (70)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Yb-1751.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Zn-65Zinc (30)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Zn-691.0 × 1042.7 × 10−71.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Zn-69m1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Zr-88Zirconium (40)1.0 × 1022.7 × 10−91.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Zr-93 (b)1.0 × 1032.7 × 10−81.0 × 1072.7 × 10−4
Zr-951.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1062.7 × 10−5
Zr-97 (b)1.0 × 1012.7 × 10−101.0 × 1052.7 × 10−6

a[Reserved]

bParent nuclides and their progeny included in secular equilibrium are listed as follows:

Sr-90Y-90
Zr-93Nb-93m
Zr-97Nb-97
Ru-106Rh-106
Ag-108mAg-108
Cs-137Ba-137m
Ce-144Pr-144
Ba-140La-140
Bi-212Tl-208 (0.36), Po-212 (0.64)
Pb-210Bi-210, Po-210
Pb-212Bi-212, Tl-208 (0.36), Po-212 (0.64)
Rn-222Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, Po-214
Ra-223Rn-219, Po-215, Pb-211, Bi-211, Tl-207
Ra-224Rn-220, Po-216, Pb-212, Bi-212, Tl-208 (0.36), Po-212 (0.64)
Ra-226Rn-222, Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, Po-214, Pb-210, Bi-210, Po-210
Ra-228Ac-228
Th-228Ra-224, Rn-220, Po-216, Pb-212, Bi-212, Tl-208 (0.36), Po-212(0.64)
Th-229Ra-225, Ac-225, Fr-221, At-217, Bi-213, Po-213, Pb-209
Th-natRa-228, Ac-228, Th-228, Ra-224, Rn-220, Po-216, Pb-212, Bi-212, Tl-208 (0.36), Po-212 (0.64)
Th-234Pa-234m
U-230Th-226, Ra-222, Rn-218, Po-214
U-232Th-228, Ra-224, Rn-220, Po-216, Pb-212, Bi-212, Tl-208 (0.36), Po-212 (0.64)
U-235Th-231
U-238Th-234, Pa-234m
U-natTh-234, Pa-234m, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Rn-222, Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, Po-214, Pb-210, Bi-210, Po-210
Np-237Pa-233
Am-242mAm-242
Am-243Np-239

c[Reserved]

dThese values apply only to compounds of uranium that take the chemical form of UF6, UO2F2 and UO2(NO3)2 in both normal and accident conditions of transport.

eThese values apply only to compounds of uranium that take the chemical form of UO3, UF4, UCl4 and hexavalent compounds in both normal and accident conditions of transport.

fThese values apply to all compounds of uranium other than those specified in notes (d) and (e) of this table.

gThese values apply to unirradiated uranium only.

Table A-3—General Values for A1 and A2

Contents A1 A2 Activity concentration for exempt material
(Bq/g)
Activity concentration for exempt material
(Ci/g)
Activity limits for exempt consignments
(Bq)
Activity limits for exempt consignments
(Ci)
(TBq) (Ci) (TBq) (Ci)
Only beta or gamma emitting radionuclides are known to be present1 × 10−12.7 × 1002 × 10−25.4 × 10−11 × 1012.7 × 10−101 × 1042.7 × 10−7
Alpha emitting nuclides, but no neutron emitters, are known to be present (a)2 × 10−15.4 × 1009 × 10−52.4 × 10−31 × 10−12.7 × 10−121 × 1032.7 × 10−8
Neutron emitting nuclides are known to be present or no relevant data are available1 × 10−32.7 × 10−29 × 10−52.4 × 10−31 × 10−12.7 × 10−121 × 1032.7 × 10−8

aIf beta or gamma emitting nuclides are known to be present, the A1 value of 0.1 TBq (2.7 Ci) should be used.

Table A-4—Activity-mass Relationships for Uranium

Uranium Enrichment1 wt % U-235 present Specific Activity
TBq/g Ci/g
0.451.8 × 10−85.0 × 10−7
0.722.6 × 10−87.1 × 10−7
12.8 × 10−87.6 × 10−7
1.53.7 × 10−81.0 × 10−6
51.0 × 10−72.7 × 10−6
101.8 × 10−74.8 × 10−6
203.7 × 10−71.0 × 10−5
357.4 × 10−72.0 × 10−5
509.3 × 10−72.5 × 10−5
902.2 × 10−65.8 × 10−5
932.6 × 10−67.0 × 10−5
953.4 × 10−69.1 × 10−5

1The figures for uranium include representative values for the activity of the uranium-234 that is concentrated during the enrichment process.

[69 FR 3800, Jan. 26, 2004; 69 FR 58039, Sept. 29, 2004, as amended at 77 FR 39908, July 6, 2012; 80 FR 34014, June 12, 2015]

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