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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of November 13, 2019

Title 9Chapter ISubchapter A → Part 3


Title 9: Animals and Animal Products


PART 3—STANDARDS


Contents

Subpart A—Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats

Facilities and Operating Standards

§3.1   Housing facilities, general.
§3.2   Indoor housing facilities.
§3.3   Sheltered housing facilities.
§3.4   Outdoor housing facilities.
§3.5   Mobile or traveling housing facilities.
§3.6   Primary enclosures.

Animal Health and Husbandry Standards

§3.7   Compatible grouping.
§3.8   Exercise for dogs.
§3.9   Feeding.
§3.10   Watering.
§3.11   Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.
§3.12   Employees.

Transportation Standards

§3.13   Consignments to carriers and intermediate handlers.
§3.14   Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats.
§3.15   Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).
§3.16   Food and water requirements.
§3.17   Care in transit.
§3.18   Terminal facilities.
§3.19   Handling.

Subpart B—Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters

Facilities and Operating Standards

§3.25   Facilities, general.
§3.26   Facilities, indoor.
§3.27   Facilities, outdoor.
§3.28   Primary enclosures.

Animal Health and Husbandry Standards

§3.29   Feeding.
§3.30   Watering.
§3.31   Sanitation.
§3.32   Employees.
§3.33   Classification and separation.
§3.34   [Reserved]

Transportation Standards

§3.35   Consignments to carriers and intermediate handlers.
§3.36   Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.
§3.37   Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).
§3.38   Food and water requirements.
§3.39   Care in transit.
§3.40   Terminal facilities.
§3.41   Handling.

Subpart C—Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits

Facilities and Operating Standards

§3.50   Facilities, general.
§3.51   Facilities, indoor.
§3.52   Facilities, outdoor.
§3.53   Primary enclosures.

Animal Health and Husbandry Standards

§3.54   Feeding.
§3.55   Watering.
§3.56   Sanitation.
§3.57   Employees.
§3.58   Classification and separation.
§3.59   [Reserved]

Transportation Standards

§3.60   Consignments to carriers and intermediate handlers.
§3.61   Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits.
§3.62   Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).
§3.63   Food and water requirements.
§3.64   Care in transit.
§3.65   Terminal facilities.
§3.66   Handling.

Subpart D—Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Nonhuman Primates

Facilities and Operating Standards

§3.75   Housing facilities, general.
§3.76   Indoor housing facilities.
§3.77   Sheltered housing facilities.
§3.78   0utdoor housing facilities.
§3.79   Mobile or traveling housing facilities.
§3.80   Primary enclosures.
§3.81   Environment enhancement to promote psychological well-being.

Animal Health and Husbandry Standards

§3.82   Feeding.
§3.83   Watering.
§3.84   Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.
§3.85   Employees.

Transportation Standards

§3.86   Consignments to carriers and intermediate handlers.
§3.87   Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.
§3.88   Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).
§3.89   Food and water requirements.
§3.90   Care in transit.
§3.91   Terminal facilities.
§3.92   Handling.

Subpart E—Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals

Facilities and Operating Standards

§3.100   Special considerations regarding compliance and/or variance.
§3.101   Facilities, general.
§3.102   Facilities, indoor.
§3.103   Facilities, outdoor.
§3.104   Space requirements.

Animal Health and Husbandry Standards

§3.105   Feeding.
§3.106   Water quality.
§3.107   Sanitation.
§3.108   Employees or attendants.
§3.109   Separation.
§3.110   Veterinary care.
§3.111   Swim-with-the-dolphin programs.

Transportation Standards

§3.112   Consignments to carriers and intermediate handlers.
§3.113   Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.
§3.114   Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine).
§3.115   Food and drinking water requirements.
§3.116   Care in transit.
§3.117   Terminal facilities.
§3.118   Handling.

Subpart F—Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine Mammals

Facilities and Operating Standards

§3.125   Facilities, general.
§3.126   Facilities, indoor.
§3.127   Facilities, outdoor.
§3.128   Space requirements.

Animal Health and Husbandry Standards

§3.129   Feeding.
§3.130   Watering.
§3.131   Sanitation.
§3.132   Employees.
§3.133   Separation.
§§3.134-3.135   [Reserved]

Transportation Standards

§3.136   Consignments to carriers and intermediate handlers.
§3.137   Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.
§3.138   Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).
§3.139   Food and water requirements.
§3.140   Care in transit.
§3.141   Terminal facilities.
§3.142   Handling.

Authority: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

Source: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A—Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats1

Source: 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991, unless otherwise noted.

Facilities and Operating Standards

§3.1   Housing facilities, general.

(a) Structure; construction. Housing facilities for dogs and cats must be designed and constructed so that they are structurally sound. They must be kept in good repair, and they must protect the animals from injury, contain the animals securely, and restrict other animals from entering.

1These minimum standards apply only to live dogs and cats, unless stated otherwise.

(b) Condition and site. Housing facilities and areas used for storing animal food or bedding must be free of any accumulation of trash, waste material, junk, weeds, and other discarded materials. Animal areas inside of housing facilities must be kept neat and free of clutter, including equipment, furniture, and stored material, but may contain materials actually used and necessary for cleaning the area, and fixtures or equipment necessary for proper husbandry practices and research needs. Housing facilities other than those maintained by research facilities and Federal research facilities must be physically separated from any other business. If a housing facility is located on the same premises as another business, it must be physically separated from the other business so that animals the size of dogs, skunks, and raccoons are prevented from entering it.

(c) Surfaces—(1) General requirements. The surfaces of housing facilities—including houses, dens, and other furniture-type fixtures and objects within the facility—must be constructed in a manner and made of materials that allow them to be readily cleaned and sanitized, or removed or replaced when worn or soiled. Interior surfaces and any surfaces that come in contact with dogs or cats must:

(i) Be free of excessive rust that prevents the required cleaning and sanitization, or that affects the structural strength of the surface; and

(ii) Be free of jagged edges or sharp points that might injure the animals.

(2) Maintenance and replacement of surfaces. All surfaces must be maintained on a regular basis. Surfaces of housing facilities—including houses, dens, and other furniture-type fixtures and objects within the facility—that cannot be readily cleaned and sanitized, must be replaced when worn or soiled.

(3) Cleaning. Hard surfaces with which the dogs or cats come in contact must be spot-cleaned daily and sanitized in accordance with §3.11(b) of this subpart to prevent accumulation of excreta and reduce disease hazards. Floors made of dirt, absorbent bedding, sand, gravel, grass, or other similar material must be raked or spot-cleaned with sufficient frequency to ensure all animals the freedom to avoid contact with excreta. Contaminated material must be replaced whenever this raking and spot-cleaning is not sufficient to prevent or eliminate odors, insects, pests, or vermin infestation. All other surfaces of housing facilities must be cleaned and sanitized when necessary to satisfy generally accepted husbandry standards and practices. Sanitization may be done using any of the methods provided in §3.11(b)(3) for primary enclosures.

(d) Water and electric power. The housing facility must have reliable electric power adequate for heating, cooling, ventilation, and lighting, and for carrying out other husbandry requirements in accordance with the regulations in this subpart. The housing facility must provide adequate running potable water for the dogs' and cats' drinking needs, for cleaning, and for carrying out other husbandry requirements.

(e) Storage. Supplies of food and bedding must be stored in a manner that protects the supplies from spoilage, contamination, and vermin infestation. The supplies must be stored off the floor and away from the walls, to allow cleaning underneath and around the supplies. Foods requiring refrigeration must be stored accordingly, and all food must be stored in a manner that prevents contamination and deterioration of its nutritive value. All open supplies of food and bedding must be kept in leakproof containers with tightly fitting lids to prevent contamination and spoilage. Only food and bedding that is currently being used may be kept in the animal areas. Substances that are toxic to the dogs or cats but are required for normal husbandry practices must not be stored in food storage and preparation areas, but may be stored in cabinets in the animal areas.

(f) Drainage and waste disposal. Housing facility operators must provide for regular and frequent collection, removal, and disposal of animal and food wastes, bedding, debris, garbage, water, other fluids and wastes, and dead animals, in a manner that minimizes contamination and disease risks. Housing facilities must be equipped with disposal facilities and drainage systems that are constructed and operated so that animal waste and water are rapidly eliminated and animals stay dry. Disposal and drainage systems must minimize vermin and pest infestation, insects, odors, and disease hazards. All drains must be properly constructed, installed, and maintained. If closed drainage systems are used, they must be equipped with traps and prevent the backflow of gases and the backup of sewage onto the floor. If the facility uses sump or settlement ponds, or other similar systems for drainage and animal waste disposal, the system must be located far enough away from the animal area of the housing facility to prevent odors, diseases, pests, and vermin infestation. Standing puddles of water in animal enclosures must be drained or mopped up so that the animals stay dry. Trash containers in housing facilities and in food storage and food preparation areas must be leakproof and must have tightly fitted lids on them at all times. Dead animals, animal parts, and animal waste must not be kept in food storage or food preparation areas, food freezers, food refrigerators, or animal areas.

(g) Washrooms and sinks. Washing facilities such as washrooms, basins, sinks, or showers must be provided for animal caretakers and must be readily accessible.

§3.2   Indoor housing facilities.

(a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Indoor housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or humidity extremes and to provide for their health and well-being. When dogs or cats are present, the ambient temperature in the facility must not fall below 50 °F (10 °C) for dogs and cats not acclimated to lower temperatures, for those breeds that cannot tolerate lower temperatures without stress or discomfort (such as short-haired breeds), and for sick, aged, young, or infirm dogs and cats, except as approved by the attending veterinarian. Dry bedding, solid resting boards, or other methods of conserving body heat must be provided when temperatures are below 50 °F (10 °C). The ambient temperature must not fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when dogs or cats are present, and must not rise above 85 °F (29.5 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when dogs or cats are present. The preceding requirements are in addition to, not in place of, all other requirements pertaining to climatic conditions in parts 2 and 3 of this chapter.

(b) Ventilation. Indoor housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently ventilated at all times when dogs or cats are present to provide for their health and well-being, and to minimize odors, drafts, ammonia levels, and moisture condensation. Ventilation must be provided by windows, vents, fans, or air conditioning. Auxiliary ventilation, such as fans, blowers, or air conditioning must be provided when the ambient temperature is 85 °F (29.5 °C) or higher. The relative humidity must be maintained at a level that ensures the health and well-being of the dogs or cats housed therein, in accordance with the directions of the attending veterinarian and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices.

(c) Lighting. Indoor housing facilities for dogs and cats must be lighted well enough to permit routine inspection and cleaning of the facility, and observation of the dogs and cats. Animal areas must be provided a regular diurnal lighting cycle of either natural or artificial light. Lighting must be uniformly diffused throughout animal facilities and provide sufficient illumination to aid in maintaining good housekeeping practices, adequate cleaning, adequate inspection of animals, and for the well-being of the animals. Primary enclosures must be placed so as to protect the dogs and cats from excessive light.

(d) Interior surfaces. The floors and walls of indoor housing facilities, and any other surfaces in contact with the animals, must be impervious to moisture. The ceilings of indoor housing facilities must be impervious to moisture or be replaceable (e.g., a suspended ceiling with replaceable panels).

[56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991, as amended at 63 FR 10498, Mar. 4, 1998]

§3.3   Sheltered housing facilities.

(a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or humidity extremes and to provide for their health and well-being. The ambient temperature in the sheltered part of the facility must not fall below 50 °F (10 °C) for dogs and cats not acclimated to lower temperatures, for those breeds that cannot tolerate lower temperatures without stress and discomfort (such as short-haired breeds), and for sick, aged, young, or infirm dogs or cats, except as approved by the attending veterinarian. Dry bedding, solid resting boards, or other methods of conserving body heat must be provided when temperatures are below 50 °F (10 °C). The ambient temperature must not fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when dogs or cats are present, and must not rise above 85 °F (29.5 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when dogs or cats are present. The preceding requirements are in addition to, not in place of, all other requirements pertaining to climatic conditions in parts 2 and 3 of this chapter.

(b) Ventilation. The enclosed or sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently ventilated when dogs or cats are present to provide for their health and well-being, and to minimize odors, drafts, ammonia levels, and moisture condensation. Ventilation must be provided by windows, doors, vents, fans, or air conditioning. Auxiliary ventilation, such as fans, blowers, or air-conditioning, must be provided when the ambient temperature is 85 °F (29.5 °C) or higher.

(c) Lighting. Sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be lighted well enough to permit routine inspection and cleaning of the facility, and observation of the dogs and cats. Animal areas must be provided a regular diurnal lighting cycle of either natural or artificial light. Lighting must be uniformly diffused throughout animal facilities and provide sufficient illumination to aid in maintaining good housekeeping practices, adequate cleaning, adequate inspection of animals, and for the well-being of the animals. Primary enclosures must be placed so as to protect the dogs and cats from excessive light.

(d) Shelter from the elements. Dogs and cats must be provided with adequate shelter from the elements at all times to protect their health and well-being. The shelter structures must be large enough to allow each animal to sit, stand, and lie in a normal manner and to turn about freely.

(e) Surfaces. (1) The following areas in sheltered housing facilities must be impervious to moisture:

(i) Indoor floor areas in contact with the animals;

(ii) Outdoor floor areas in contact with the animals, when the floor areas are not exposed to the direct sun, or are made of a hard material such as wire, wood, metal, or concrete; and

(iii) All walls, boxes, houses, dens, and other surfaces in contact with the animals.

(2) Outside floor areas in contact with the animals and exposed to the direct sun may consist of compacted earth, absorbent bedding, sand, gravel, or grass.

[56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991, as amended at 63 FR 10498, Mar. 4, 1998]

§3.4   Outdoor housing facilities.

(a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian:

(i) Dogs or cats that are not acclimated to the temperatures prevalent in the area or region where they are maintained;

(ii) Breeds of dogs or cats that cannot tolerate the prevalent temperatures of the area without stress or discomfort (such as short-haired breeds in cold climates); and

(iii) Sick, infirm, aged or young dogs or cats.

(2) When their acclimation status is unknown, dogs and cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities when the ambient temperature is less than 50 °F (10 °C).

(b) Shelter from the elements. Outdoor facilities for dogs or cats must include one or more shelter structures that are accessible to each animal in each outdoor facility, and that are large enough to allow each animal in the shelter structure to sit, stand, and lie in a normal manner, and to turn about freely. In addition to the shelter structures, one or more separate outside areas of shade must be provided, large enough to contain all the animals at one time and protect them from the direct rays of the sun. Shelters in outdoor facilities for dogs or cats must contain a roof, four sides, and a floor, and must:

(1) Provide the dogs and cats with adequate protection and shelter from the cold and heat;

(2) Provide the dogs and cats with protection from the direct rays of the sun and the direct effect of wind, rain, or snow;

(3) Be provided with a wind break and rain break at the entrance; and

(4) Contain clean, dry, bedding material if the ambient temperature is below 50 °F (10 °C). Additional clean, dry bedding is required when the temperature is 35 °F (1.7 °C) or lower.

(c) Construction. Building surfaces in contact with animals in outdoor housing facilities must be impervious to moisture. Metal barrels, cars, refrigerators or freezers, and the like must not be used as shelter structures. The floors of outdoor housing facilities may be of compacted earth, absorbent bedding, sand, gravel, or grass, and must be replaced if there are any prevalent odors, diseases, insects, pests, or vermin. All surfaces must be maintained on a regular basis. Surfaces of outdoor housing facilities—including houses, dens, etc.—that cannot be readily cleaned and sanitized, must be replaced when worn or soiled.

§3.5   Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

(a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or humidity extremes and to provide for their health and well-being. The ambient temperature in the mobile or traveling housing facility must not fall below 50 °F (10 °C) for dogs and cats not acclimated to lower temperatures, for those breeds that cannot tolerate lower temperatures without stress or discomfort (such as short-haired breeds), and for sick, aged, young, or infirm dogs and cats. Dry bedding, solid resting boards, or other methods of conserving body heat must be provided when temperatures are below 50 °F (10 °C). The ambient temperature must not fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when dogs or cats are present, and must not exceed 85 °F (29.5 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when dogs or cats are present. The preceding requirements are in addition to, not in place of, all other requirements pertaining to climatic conditions in parts 2 and 3 of this chapter.

(b) Ventilation. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently ventilated at all times when dogs or cats are present to provide for the health and well-being of the animals, and to minimize odors, drafts, ammonia levels, moisture condensation, and exhaust fumes. Ventilation must be provided by means of windows, doors, vents, fans, or air conditioning. Auxiliary ventilation, such as fans, blowers, or air conditioning, must be provided when the ambient temperature within the animal housing area is 85 °F (29.5 °C) or higher.

(c) Lighting. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be lighted well enough to permit proper cleaning and inspection of the facility, and observation of the dogs and cats. Animal areas must be provided a regular diurnal lighting cycle of either natural or artificial light. Lighting must be uniformly diffused throughout animal facilities and provide sufficient illumination to aid in maintaining good housekeeping practices, adequate cleaning, adequate inspection of animals, and for the well-being of the animals.

[32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967, as amended at 63 FR 10498, Mar. 4, 1998]

§3.6   Primary enclosures.

Primary enclosures for dogs and cats must meet the following minimum requirements:

(a) General requirements. (1) Primary enclosures must be designed and constructed of suitable materials so that they are structurally sound. The primary enclosures must be kept in good repair.

(2) Primary enclosures must be constructed and maintained so that they:

(i) Have no sharp points or edges that could injure the dogs and cats;

(ii) Protect the dogs and cats from injury;

(iii) Contain the dogs and cats securely;

(iv) Keep other animals from entering the enclosure;

(v) Enable the dogs and cats to remain dry and clean;

(vi) Provide shelter and protection from extreme temperatures and weather conditions that may be uncomfortable or hazardous to all the dogs and cats;

(vii) Provide sufficient shade to shelter all the dogs and cats housed in the primary enclosure at one time;

(viii) Provide all the dogs and cats with easy and convenient access to clean food and water;

(ix) Enable all surfaces in contact with the dogs and cats to be readily cleaned and sanitized in accordance with §3.11(b) of this subpart, or be replaceable when worn or soiled;

(x) Have floors that are constructed in a manner that protects the dogs' and cats' feet and legs from injury, and that, if of mesh or slatted construction, do not allow the dogs' and cats' feet to pass through any openings in the floor;

(xi) Provide sufficient space to allow each dog and cat to turn about freely, to stand, sit, and lie in a comfortable, normal position, and to walk in a normal manner; and

(xii) If the suspended floor of a primary enclosure is constructed of metal strands, the strands must either be greater than 18 of an inch in diameter (9 gauge) or coated with a material such as plastic or fiberglass. The suspended floor of any primary enclosure must be strong enough so that the floor does not sag or bend between the structural supports.

(b) Additional requirements for cats—(1) Space. Each cat, including weaned kittens, that is housed in any primary enclosure must be provided minimum vertical space and floor space as follows:

(i) Each primary enclosure housing cats must be at least 24 in. high (60.96 cm);

(ii) Cats up to and including 8.8 lbs (4 kg) must be provided with at least 3.0 ft2 (0.28 m2);

(iii) Cats over 8.8 lbs (4 kg) must be provided with at least 4.0 ft2 (0.37 m2);

(iv) Each queen with nursing kittens must be provided with an additional amount of floor space, based on her breed and behavioral characteristics, and in accordance with generally accepted husbandry practices. If the additional amount of floor space for each nursing kitten is equivalent to less than 5 percent of the minimum requirement for the queen, such housing must be approved by the attending veterinarian in the case of a research facility, and, in the case of dealers and exhibitors, such housing must be approved by the Administrator; and

(v) The minimum floor space required by this section is exclusive of any food or water pans. The litter pan may be considered part of the floor space if properly cleaned and sanitized.

(2) Compatibility. All cats housed in the same primary enclosure must be compatible, as determined by observation. Not more than 12 adult nonconditioned cats may be housed in the same primary enclosure. Queens in heat may not be housed in the same primary enclosure with sexually mature males, except for breeding. Except when maintained in breeding colonies, queens with litters may not be housed in the same primary enclosure with other adult cats, and kittens under 4 months of age may not be housed in the same primary enclosure with adult cats, other than the dam or foster dam. Cats with a vicious or aggressive disposition must be housed separately.

(3) Litter. In all primary enclosures, a receptacle containing sufficient clean litter must be provided to contain excreta and body wastes.

(4) Resting surfaces. Each primary enclosure housing cats must contain a resting surface or surfaces that, in the aggregate, are large enough to hold all the occupants of the primary enclosure at the same time comfortably. The resting surfaces must be elevated, impervious to moisture, and be able to be easily cleaned and sanitized, or easily replaced when soiled or worn. Low resting surfaces that do not allow the space under them to be comfortably occupied by the animal will be counted as part of the floor space.

(5) Cats in mobile or traveling shows or acts. Cats that are part of a mobile or traveling show or act may be kept, while the show or act is traveling from one temporary location to another, in transport containers that comply with all requirements of §3.14 of this subpart other than the marking requirements in §3.14(a)(6) of this subpart. When the show or act is not traveling, the cats must be placed in primary enclosures that meet the minimum requirements of this section.

(c) Additional requirements for dogs—(1) Space. (i) Each dog housed in a primary enclosure (including weaned puppies) must be provided a minimum amount of floor space, calculated as follows: Find the mathematical square of the sum of the length of the dog in inches (measured from the tip of its nose to the base of its tail) plus 6 inches; then divide the product by 144. The calculation is: (length of dog in inches + 6) × (length of dog in inches + 6) = required floor space in square inches. Required floor space in inches/144 = required floor space in square feet.

(ii) Each bitch with nursing puppies must be provided with an additional amount of floor space, based on her breed and behavioral characteristics, and in accordance with generally accepted husbandry practices as determined by the attending veterinarian. If the additional amount of floor space for each nursing puppy is less than 5 percent of the minimum requirement for the bitch, such housing must be approved by the attending veterinarian in the case of a research facility, and, in the case of dealers and exhibitors, such housing must be approved by the Administrator.

(iii) The interior height of a primary enclosure must be at least 6 inches higher than the head of the tallest dog in the enclosure when it is in a normal standing position: Provided That, prior to February 15, 1994, each dog must be able to stand in a comfortable normal position.

(2) Compatibility. All dogs housed in the same primary enclosure must be compatible, as determined by observation. Not more than 12 adult nonconditioned dogs may be housed in the same primary enclosure. Bitches in heat may not be housed in the same primary enclosure with sexually mature males, except for breeding. Except when maintained in breeding colonies, bitches with litters may not be housed in the same primary enclosure with other adult dogs, and puppies under 4 months of age may not be housed in the same primary enclosure with adult dogs, other than the dam or foster dam. Dogs with a vicious or aggressive disposition must be housed separately.

(3) Dogs in mobile or traveling shows or acts. Dogs that are part of a mobile or traveling show or act may be kept, while the show or act is traveling from one temporary location to another, in transport containers that comply with all requirements of §3.14 of this subpart other than the marking requirements in §3.14(a)(6) of this subpart. When the show or act is not traveling, the dogs must be placed in primary enclosures that meet the minimum requirements of this section.

(4) Prohibited means of primary enclosure. Permanent tethering of dogs is prohibited for use as primary enclosure. Temporary tethering of dogs is prohibited for use as primary enclosure unless approval is obtained from APHIS.

(d) Innovative primary enclosures not precisely meeting the floor area and height requirements provided in paragraphs (b)(1) and (c)(1) of this section, but that provide the dogs or cats with a sufficient volume of space and the opportunity to express species-typical behavior, may be used at research facilities when approved by the Committee, and by dealers and exhibitors when approved by the Administrator.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0093)

[56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991, as amended at 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 3023, Jan. 21, 1998; 63 FR 37482, July 13, 1998; 83 FR 25555, June 4, 2018]

Animal Health and Husbandry Standards

§3.7   Compatible grouping.

Dogs and cats that are housed in the same primary enclosure must be compatible, with the following restrictions:

(a) Females in heat (estrus) may not be housed in the same primary enclosure with males, except for breeding purposes;

(b) Any dog or cat exhibiting a vicious or overly aggressive disposition must be housed separately;

(c) Puppies or kittens 4 months of age or less may not be housed in the same primary enclosure with adult dogs or cats other than their dams or foster dams, except when permanently maintained in breeding colonies;

(d) Dogs or cats may not be housed in the same primary enclosure with any other species of animals, unless they are compatible; and

(e) Dogs and cats that have or are suspected of having a contagious disease must be isolated from healthy animals in the colony, as directed by the attending veterinarian. When an entire group or room of dogs and cats is known to have or believed to be exposed to an infectious agent, the group may be kept intact during the process of diagnosis, treatment, and control.

§3.8   Exercise for dogs.

Dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities must develop, document, and follow an appropriate plan to provide dogs with the opportunity for exercise. In addition, the plan must be approved by the attending veterinarian. The plan must include written standard procedures to be followed in providing the opportunity for exercise. The plan must be made available to APHIS upon request, and, in the case of research facilities, to officials of any pertinent funding Federal agency. The plan, at a minimum, must comply with each of the following:

(a) Dogs housed individually. Dogs over 12 weeks of age, except bitches with litters, housed, held, or maintained by any dealer, exhibitor, or research facility, including Federal research facilities, must be provided the opportunity for exercise regularly if they are kept individually in cages, pens, or runs that provide less than two times the required floor space for that dog, as indicated by §3.6(c)(1) of this subpart.

(b) Dogs housed in groups. Dogs over 12 weeks of age housed, held, or maintained in groups by any dealer, exhibitor, or research facility, including Federal research facilities, do not require additional opportunity for exercise regularly if they are maintained in cages, pens, or runs that provide in total at least 100 percent of the required space for each dog if maintained separately. Such animals may be maintained in compatible groups, unless:

(1) Housing in compatible groups is not in accordance with a research proposal and the proposal has been approved by the research facility Committee;

(2) In the opinion of the attending veterinarian, such housing would adversely affect the health or well-being of the dog(s); or

(3) Any dog exhibits aggressive or vicious behavior.

(c) Methods and period of providing exercise opportunity. (1) The frequency, method, and duration of the opportunity for exercise shall be determined by the attending veterinarian and, at research facilities, in consultation with and approval by the Committee.

(2) Dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities, in developing their plan, should consider providing positive physical contact with humans that encourages exercise through play or other similar activities. If a dog is housed, held, or maintained at a facility without sensory contact with another dog, it must be provided with positive physical contact with humans at least daily.

(3) The opportunity for exercise may be provided in a number of ways, such as:

(i) Group housing in cages, pens or runs that provide at least 100 percent of the required space for each dog if maintained separately under the minimum floor space requirements of §3.6(c)(1) of this subpart;

(ii) Maintaining individually housed dogs in cages, pens, or runs that provide at least twice the minimum floor space required by §3.6(c)(1) of this subpart;

(iii) Providing access to a run or open area at the frequency and duration prescribed by the attending veterinarian; or

(iv) Other similar activities.

(4) Forced exercise methods or devices such as swimming, treadmills, or carousel-type devices are unacceptable for meeting the exercise requirements of this section.

(d) Exemptions. (1) If, in the opinion of the attending veterinarian, it is inappropriate for certain dogs to exercise because of their health, condition, or well-being, the dealer, exhibitor, or research facility may be exempted from meeting the requirements of this section for those dogs. Such exemption must be documented by the attending veterinarian and, unless the basis for exemption is a permanent condition, must be reviewed at least every 30 days by the attending veterinarian.

(2) A research facility may be exempted from the requirements of this section if the principal investigator determines for scientific reasons set forth in the research proposal that it is inappropriate for certain dogs to exercise. Such exemption must be documented in the Committee-approved proposal and must be reviewed at appropriate intervals as determined by the Committee, but not less than annually.

(3) Records of any exemptions must be maintained and made available to USDA officials or any pertinent funding Federal agency upon request.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0093)

§3.9   Feeding.

(a) Dogs and cats must be fed at least once each day, except as otherwise might be required to provide adequate veterinary care. The food must be uncontaminated, wholesome, palatable, and of sufficient quantity and nutritive value to maintain the normal condition and weight of the animal. The diet must be appropriate for the individual animal's age and condition.

(b) Food receptacles must be used for dogs and cats, must be readily accessible to all dogs and cats, and must be located so as to minimize contamination by excreta and pests, and be protected from rain and snow. Feeding pans must either be made of a durable material that can be easily cleaned and sanitized or be disposable. If the food receptacles are not disposable, they must be kept clean and must be sanitized in accordance with §3.11(b) of this subpart. Sanitization is achieved by using one of the methods described in §3.11(b)(3) of this subpart. If the food receptacles are disposable, they must be discarded after one use. Self-feeders may be used for the feeding of dry food. If self-feeders are used, they must be kept clean and must be sanitized in accordance with §3.11(b) of this subpart. Measures must be taken to ensure that there is no molding, deterioration, and caking of feed.

§3.10   Watering.

If potable water is not continually available to the dogs and cats, it must be offered to the dogs and cats as often as necessary to ensure their health and well-being, but not less than twice daily for at least 1 hour each time, unless restricted by the attending veterinarian. Water receptacles must be kept clean and sanitized in accordance with §3.11(b) of this subpart, and before being used to water a different dog or cat or social grouping of dogs or cats.

§3.11   Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

(a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. Excreta and food waste must be removed from primary enclosures daily, and from under primary enclosures as often as necessary to prevent an excessive accumulation of feces and food waste, to prevent soiling of the dogs or cats contained in the primary enclosures, and to reduce disease hazards, insects, pests and odors. When steam or water is used to clean the primary enclosure, whether by hosing, flushing, or other methods, dogs and cats must be removed, unless the enclosure is large enough to ensure the animals would not be harmed, wetted, or distressed in the process. Standing water must be removed from the primary enclosure and animals in other primary enclosures must be protected from being contaminated with water and other wastes during the cleaning. The pans under primary enclosures with grill-type floors and the ground areas under raised runs with mesh or slatted floors must be cleaned as often as necessary to prevent accumulation of feces and food waste and to reduce disease hazards pests, insects and odors.

(b) Sanitization of primary enclosures and food and water receptacles. (1) Used primary enclosures and food and water receptacles must be cleaned and sanitized in accordance with this section before they can be used to house, feed, or water another dog or cat, or social grouping of dogs or cats.

(2) Used primary enclosures and food and water receptacles for dogs and cats must be sanitized at least once every 2 weeks using one of the methods prescribed in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, and more often if necessary to prevent an accumulation of dirt, debris, food waste, excreta, and other disease hazards.

(3) Hard surfaces of primary enclosures and food and water receptacles must be sanitized using one of the following methods:

(i) Live steam under pressure;

(ii) Washing with hot water (at least 180 °F (82.2 °C)) and soap or detergent, as with a mechanical cage washer; or

(iii) Washing all soiled surfaces with appropriate detergent solutions and disinfectants, or by using a combination detergent/disinfectant product that accomplishes the same purpose, with a thorough cleaning of the surfaces to remove organic material, so as to remove all organic material and mineral buildup, and to provide sanitization followed by a clean water rinse.

(4) Pens, runs, and outdoor housing areas using material that cannot be sanitized using the methods provided in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, such as gravel, sand, grass, earth, or absorbent bedding, must be sanitized by removing the contaminated material as necessary to prevent odors, diseases, pests, insects, and vermin infestation.

(c) Housekeeping for premises. Premises where housing facilities are located, including buildings and surrounding grounds, must be kept clean and in good repair to protect the animals from injury, to facilitate the husbandry practices required in this subpart, and to reduce or eliminate breeding and living areas for rodents and other pests and vermin. Premises must be kept free of accumulations of trash, junk, waste products, and discarded matter. Weeds, grasses, and bushes must be controlled so as to facilitate cleaning of the premises and pest control, and to protect the health and well-being of the animals.

(d) Pest control. An effective program for the control of insects, external parasites affecting dogs and cats, and birds and mammals that are pests, must be established and maintained so as to promote the health and well-being of the animals and reduce contamination by pests in animal areas.

[56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991, as amended at 63 FR 3023, Jan. 21, 1998]

§3.12   Employees.

Each person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) maintaining dogs and cats must have enough employees to carry out the level of husbandry practices and care required in this subpart. The employees who provide for husbandry and care, or handle animals, must be supervised by an individual who has the knowledge, background, and experience in proper husbandry and care of dogs and cats to supervise others. The employer must be certain that the supervisor and other employees can perform to these standards.

Transportation Standards

§3.13   Consignments to carriers and intermediate handlers.

(a) Carriers and intermediate handlers must not accept a dog or cat for transport in commerce more than 4 hours before the scheduled departure time of the primary conveyance on which the animal is to be transported. However, a carrier or intermediate handler may agree with anyone consigning a dog or cat to extend this time by up to 2 hours.

(b) Carriers and intermediate handlers must not accept a dog or cat for transport in commerce unless they are provided with the name, address, and telephone number of the consignee.

(c) Carriers and intermediate handlers must not accept a dog or cat for transport in commerce unless the consignor certifies in writing to the carrier or intermediate handler that the dog or cat was offered food and water during the 4 hours before delivery to the carrier or intermediate handler. The certification must be securely attached to the outside of the primary enclosure in a manner that makes it easily noticed and read. Instructions for no food or water are not acceptable unless directed by the attending veterinarian. Instructions must be in compliance with §3.16 of this subpart. The certification must include the following information for each dog and cat:

(1) The consignor's name and address;

(2) The tag number or tattoo assigned to each dog or cat under §§2.38 and 2.50 of this chapter;

(3) The time and date the animal was last fed and watered and the specific instructions for the next feeding(s) and watering(s) for a 24-hour period; and

(4) The consignor's signature and the date and time the certification was signed.

(d) Carriers and intermediate handlers must not accept a dog or cat for transport in commerce in a primary enclosure unless the primary enclosure meets the requirements of §3.14 of this subpart. A carrier or intermediate handler must not accept a dog or cat for transport if the primary enclosure is obviously defective or damaged and cannot reasonably be expected to safely and comfortably contain the dog or cat without causing suffering or injury.

(e) Carriers and intermediate handlers must not accept a dog or cat for transport in commerce unless their animal holding area meets the minimum temperature requirements provided in §§3.18 and 3.19 of this subpart, or unless the consignor provides them with a certificate signed by a veterinarian and dated no more than 10 days before delivery of the animal to the carrier or intermediate handler for transport in commerce, certifying that the animal is acclimated to temperatures lower than those required in §§3.18 and 3.19 of this subpart. Even if the carrier or intermediate handler receives this certification, the temperatures the dog or cat is exposed to while in a terminal facility must not be lower than 45 °F (2.2 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when dogs or cats are present, as set forth in §3.18, nor lower than 45 °F (2.2 °C) for more than 45 minutes, as set forth in §3.19, when moving dogs or cats to or from terminal facilities or primary conveyances. A copy of the certification must accompany the dog or cat to its destination and must include the following information:

(1) The consignor's name and address;

(2) The tag number or tattoo assigned to each dog or cat under §§2.38 and 2.50 of this chapter;

(3) A statement by a veterinarian, dated no more than 10 days before delivery, that to the best of his or her knowledge, each of the dogs or cats contained in the primary enclosure is acclimated to air temperatures lower than 50 °F (10 °C); but not lower than a minimum temperature, specified on a certificate, that the attending veterinarian has determined is based on generally accepted temperature standards for the age, condition, and breed of the dog or cat; and

(4) The signature of the veterinarian and the date the certification was signed.

(f) When a primary enclosure containing a dog or cat has arrived at the animal holding area at a terminal facility after transport, the carrier or intermediate handler must attempt to notify the consignee upon arrival and at least once in every 6-hour period thereafter. The time, date, and method of all attempted notifications and the actual notification of the consignee, and the name of the person who notifies or attempts to notify the consignee must be written either on the carrier's or intermediate handler's copy of the shipping document or on the copy that accompanies the primary enclosure. If the consignee cannot be notified within 24 hours after the dog or cat has arrived at the terminal facility, the carrier or intermediate handler must return the animal to the consignor or to whomever the consignor designates. If the consignee is notified of the arrival and does not accept delivery of the dog or cat within 48 hours after arrival of the dog or cat, the carrier or intermediate handler must return the animal to the consignor or to whomever the consignor designates. The carrier or intermediate handler must continue to provide proper care, feeding, and housing to the dog or cat, and maintain the dog or cat in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices until the consignee accepts delivery of the dog or cat or until it is returned to the consignor or to whomever the consignor designates. The carrier or intermediate handler must obligate the consignor to reimburse the carrier or intermediate handler for the cost of return transportation and care.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0093)

§3.14   Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats.

Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) must not transport or deliver for transport in commerce a dog or cat unless the following requirements are met:

(a) Construction of primary enclosures. The dog or cat must be contained in a primary enclosure such as a compartment, transport cage, carton, or crate. Primary enclosures used to transport dogs and cats must be constructed so that:

(1) The primary enclosure is strong enough to contain the dogs and cats securely and comfortably and to withstand the normal rigors of transportation;

(2) The interior of the primary enclosure has no sharp points or edges and no protrusions that could injure the animal contained in it;

(3) The dog or cat is at all times securely contained within the enclosure and cannot put any part of its body outside the enclosure in a way that could result in injury to itself, to handlers, or to persons or animals nearby;

(4) The dog or cat can be easily and quickly removed from the enclosure in an emergency;

(5) Unless the enclosure is permanently affixed to the conveyance, adequate devices such as handles or handholds are provided on its exterior, and enable the enclosure to be lifted without tilting it, and ensure that anyone handling the enclosure will not come into physical contact with the animal contained inside;

(6) Unless the enclosure is permanently affixed to the conveyance, it is clearly marked on top and on one or more sides with the words “Live Animals,” in letters at least 1 inch (2.5 cm.) high, and with arrows or other markings to indicate the correct upright position of the primary enclosure;

(7) Any material, treatment, paint, preservative, or other chemical used in or on the enclosure is nontoxic to the animal and not harmful to the health or well-being of the animal;

(8) Proper ventilation is provided to the animal in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section; and

(9) The primary enclosure has a solid, leak-proof bottom or a removable, leak-proof collection tray under a slatted or mesh floor that prevents seepage of waste products, such as excreta and body fluids, outside of the enclosure. If a slatted or mesh floor is used in the enclosure, it must be designed and constructed so that the animal cannot put any part of its body between the slats or through the holes in the mesh. Unless the dogs and cats are on raised slatted floors or raised floors made of mesh, the primary enclosure must contain enough previously unused litter to absorb and cover excreta. The litter must be of a suitably absorbent material that is safe and nontoxic to the dogs and cats.

(b) Cleaning of primary enclosures. A primary enclosure used to hold or transport dogs or cats in commerce must be cleaned and sanitized before each use in accordance with the methods provided in §3.11(b)(3) of this subpart. If the dogs or cats are in transit for more than 24 hours, the enclosures must be cleaned and any litter replaced, or other methods, such as moving the animals to another enclosure, must be utilized to prevent the soiling of the dogs or cats by body wastes. If it becomes necessary to remove the dog or cat from the enclosure in order to clean, or to move the dog or cat to another enclosure, this procedure must be completed in a way that safeguards the dog or cat from injury and prevents escape.

(c) Ventilation. (1) Unless the primary enclosure is permanently affixed to the conveyance, there must be:

(i) Ventilation openings located on two opposing walls of the primary enclosure and the openings must be at least 16 percent of the surface area of each such wall, and the total combined surface area of the ventilation openings must be at least 14 percent of the total combined surface area of all the walls of the primary enclosure; or

(ii) Ventilation openings on three walls of the primary enclosure, and the openings on each of the two opposing walls must be at least 8 percent of the total surface area of the two walls, and the ventilation openings on the third wall of the primary enclosure must be at least 50 percent of the total surface area of that wall, and the total combined surface area of the ventilation openings must be at least 14 percent of the total combined surface area of all the walls of the primary enclosure; or

(iii) Ventilation openings located on all four walls of the primary enclosure and the ventilation openings on each of the four walls must be at least 8 percent of the total surface area of each such wall, and the total combined surface area of the openings must be at least 14 percent of total combined surface area of all the walls of the primary enclosure; and

(iv) At least one-third of the ventilation area must be located on the upper half of the primary enclosure.

(2) Unless the primary enclosure is permanently affixed to the conveyance, projecting rims or similar devices must be located on the exterior of each enclosure wall having a ventilation opening, in order to prevent obstruction of the openings. The projecting rims or similar devices must be large enough to provide a minimum air circulation space of 0.75 in. (1.9 cm) between the primary enclosure and anything the enclosure is placed against.

(3) If a primary enclosure is permanently affixed to the primary conveyance so that there is only a front ventilation opening for the enclosure, the primary enclosure must be affixed to the primary conveyance in such a way that the front ventilation opening cannot be blocked, and the front ventilation opening must open directly to an unobstructed aisle or passageway inside the conveyance. The ventilation opening must be at least 90 percent of the total area of the front wall of the enclosure, and must be covered with bars, wire mesh, or smooth expanded metal having air spaces.

(d) Compatibility. (1) Live dogs or cats transported in the same primary enclosure must be of the same species and be maintained in compatible groups, except that dogs and cats that are private pets, are of comparable size, and are compatible, may be transported in the same primary enclosure.

(2) Puppies or kittens 4 months of age or less may not be transported in the same primary enclosure with adult dogs or cats other than their dams.

(3) Dogs or cats that are overly aggressive or exhibit a vicious disposition must be transported individually in a primary enclosure.

(4) Any female dog or cat in heat (estrus) may not be transported in the same primary enclosure with any male dog or cat.

(e) Space and placement. (1) Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats must be large enough to ensure that each animal contained in the primary enclosure has enough space to turn about normally while standing, to stand and sit erect, and to lie in a natural position.

(2) Primary enclosures used to transport dogs and cats must be positioned in the primary conveyance so as to provide protection from the elements.

(f) Transportation by air. (1) No more than one live dog or cat, 6 months of age or older, may be transported in the same primary enclosure when shipped via air carrier.

(2) No more than one live puppy, 8 weeks to 6 months of age, and weighing over 20 lbs (9 kg), may be transported in a primary enclosure when shipped via air carrier.

(3) No more than two live puppies or kittens, 8 weeks to 6 months of age, that are of comparable size, and weighing 20 lbs (9 kg) or less each, may be transported in the same primary enclosure when shipped via air carrier.

(4) Weaned live puppies or kittens less than 8 weeks of age and of comparable size, or puppies or kittens that are less than 8 weeks of age that are littermates and are accompanied by their dam, may be transported in the same primary enclosure when shipped to research facilities, including Federal research facilities.

(g) Transportation by surface vehicle or privately owned aircraft. (1) No more than four live dogs or cats, 8 weeks of age or older, that are of comparable size, may be transported in the same primary enclosure when shipped by surface vehicle (including ground and water transportation) or privately owned aircraft, and only if all other requirements of this section are met.

(2) Weaned live puppies or kittens less than 8 weeks of age and of comparable size, or puppies or kittens that are less than 8 weeks of age that are littermates and are accompanied by their dam, may be transported in the same primary enclosure when shipped to research facilities, including Federal research facilities, and only if all other requirements in this section are met.

(h) Accompanying documents and records. Shipping documents that must accompany shipments of dogs and cats may be held by the operator of the primary conveyance, for surface transportation only, or must be securely attached in a readily accessible manner to the outside of any primary enclosure that is part of the shipment, in a manner that allows them to be detached for examination and securely reattached, such as in a pocket or sleeve. Instructions for administration of drugs, medication, and other special care must be attached to each primary enclosure in a manner that makes them easy to notice, to detach for examination, and to reattach securely. Food and water instructions must be attached in accordance with §3.13(c).

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0093)

[56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991, as amended at 63 FR 3023, Jan. 21, 1998]

§3.15   Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

(a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used to transport dogs and cats must be designed, constructed, and maintained in a manner that at all times protects the health and well-being of the animals transported in them, ensures their safety and comfort, and prevents the entry of engine exhaust from the primary conveyance during transportation.

(b) The animal cargo space must have a supply of air that is sufficient for the normal breathing of all the animals being transported in it.

(c) Each primary enclosure containing dogs or cats must be positioned in the animal cargo space in a manner that provides protection from the elements and that allows each dog or cat enough air for normal breathing.

(d) During air transportation, dogs and cats must be held in cargo areas that are heated or cooled as necessary to maintain an ambient temperature and humidity that ensures the health and well-being of the dogs or cats. The cargo areas must be pressurized when the primary conveyance used for air transportation is not on the ground, unless flying under 8,000 ft. Dogs and cats must have adequate air for breathing at all times when being transported.

(e) During surface transportation, auxiliary ventilation, such as fans, blowers or air conditioning, must be used in any animal cargo space containing live dogs or cats when the ambient temperature within the animal cargo space reaches 85 °F (29.5 °C). Moreover, the ambient temperature may not exceed 85 °F (29.5 °C) for a period of more than 4 hours; nor fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C) for a period of more than 4 hours. The preceding requirements are in addition to, not in place of, all other requirements pertaining to climatic conditions in parts 2 and 3 of this chapter.

(f) Primary enclosures must be positioned in the primary conveyance in a manner that allows the dogs and cats to be quickly and easily removed from the primary conveyance in an emergency.

(g) The interior of the animal cargo space must be kept clean.

(h) Live dogs and cats may not be transported with any material, substance (e.g., dry ice) or device in a manner that may reasonably be expected to harm the dogs and cats or cause inhumane conditions.

[56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991, as amended at 63 FR 10498, 10499, Mar. 4, 1998]

§3.16   Food and water requirements.

(a) Each dog and cat that is 16 weeks of age or more must be offered food at least once every 24 hours. Puppies and kittens less than 16 weeks of age must be offered food at least once every 12 hours. Each dog and cat must be offered potable water at least once every 12 hours. These time periods apply to dealers, exhibitors, research facilities. including Federal research facilities, who transport dogs and cats in their own primary conveyance, starting from the time the dog or cat was last offered food and potable water before transportation was begun. These time periods apply to carriers and intermediate handlers starting from the date and time stated on the certificate provided under §3.13(c) of this subpart. Each dog and cat must be offered food and potable water within 4 hours before being transported in commerce. Consignors who are subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) must certify that each dog and cat was offered food and potable water within the 4 hours preceding delivery of the dog or cat to a carrier or intermediate handler for transportation in commerce, and must certify the date and time the food and potable water was offered, in accordance with §3.13(c) of this subpart.

(b) Any dealer, research facility, including a Federal research facility, or exhibitor offering any dog or cat to a carrier or intermediate handler for transportation in commerce must securely attach to the outside of the primary enclosure used for transporting the dog or cat, written instructions for the in-transit food and water requirements for a 24-hour period for the dogs and cats contained in the enclosure. The instructions must be attached in a manner that makes them easily noticed and read.

(c) Food and water receptacles must be securely attached inside the primary enclosure and placed so that the receptacles can be filled from outside the enclosure without opening the door. Food and water containers must be designed, constructed, and installed so that a dog or cat cannot leave the primary enclosure through the food or water opening.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0093)

§3.17   Care in transit.

(a) Surface transportation (ground and water). Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations transporting dogs or cats in commerce must ensure that the operator of the conveyance, or a person accompanying the operator, observes the dogs or cats as often as circumstances allow, but not less than once every 4 hours, to make sure they have sufficient air for normal breathing, that the ambient temperature is within the limits provided in §3.15(e), and that all applicable standards of this subpart are being complied with. The regulated person must ensure that the operator or person accompanying the operator determines whether any of the dogs or cats are in obvious physical distress and obtains any veterinary care needed for the dogs or cats at the closest available veterinary facility.

(b) Air transportation. During air transportation of dogs or cats, it is the responsibility of the carrier to observe the dogs or cats as frequently as circumstances allow, but not less than once every 4 hours if the animal cargo area is accessible during flight. If the animal cargo area is not accessible during flight, the carrier must observe the dogs or cats whenever they are loaded and unloaded and whenever the animal cargo space is otherwise accessible to make sure they have sufficient air for normal breathing, that the animal cargo area meets the heating and cooling requirements of §3.15(d), and that all other applicable standards of this subpart are being complied with. The carrier must determine whether any of the dogs or cats are in obvious physical distress, and arrange for any needed veterinary care as soon as possible.

(c) If a dog or cat is obviously ill, injured, or in physical distress, it must not be transported in commerce, except to receive veterinary care for the condition.

(d) Except during the cleaning of primary enclosures, as required in §3.14(b) of this subpart, during transportation in commerce a dog or cat must not be removed from its primary enclosure, unless it is placed in another primary enclosure or facility that meets the requirements of §3.6 or §3.14 of this subpart.

(e) The transportation regulations contained in this subpart must be complied with until a consignee takes physical delivery of the dog or cat if the animal is consigned for transportation, or until the animal is returned to the consignor.

§3.18   Terminal facilities.

(a) Placement. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) must not commingle shipments of dogs or cats with inanimate cargo in animal holding areas of terminal facilities.

(b) Cleaning, sanitization, and pest control. All animal holding areas of terminal facilities must be cleaned and sanitized in a manner prescribed in §3.11(b)(3) of this subpart, as often as necessary to prevent an accumulation of debris or excreta and to minimize vermin infestation and disease hazards. Terminal facilities must follow an effective program in all animal holding areas for the control of insects, ectoparasites, and birds and mammals that are pests to dogs and cats.

(c) Ventilation. Ventilation must be provided in any animal holding area in a terminal facility containing dogs or cats, by means of windows, doors, vents, or air conditioning. The air must be circulated by fans, blowers, or air conditioning so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation. Auxiliary ventilation, such as exhaust fans, vents, fans, blowers, or air conditioning must be used in any animal holding area containing dogs and cats, when the ambient temperature is 85 °F (29.5 °C) or higher

(d) Temperature. The ambient temperature in an animal holding area containing dogs or cats must not fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C) or rise above 85 °F (29.5 °C) for more than four consecutive hours at any time dogs or cats are present. The ambient temperature must be measured in the animal holding area by the carrier, intermediate handler, or a person transporting dogs or cats who is subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3), outside any primary enclosure containing a dog or cat at a point not more than 3 feet (0.91 m) away from an outside wall of the primary enclosure, and approximately midway up the side of the enclosure. The preceding requirements are in addition to, not in place of, all other requirements pertaining to climatic conditions in parts 2 and 3 of this chapter.

(e) Shelter. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) holding a live dog or cat in an animal holding area of a terminal facility must provide the following:

(1) Shelter from sunlight and extreme heat. Shade must be provided that is sufficient to protect the dog or cat from the direct rays of the sun.

(2) Shelter from rain or snow. Sufficient protection must be provided to allow the dogs and cats to remain dry during rain, snow, and other precipitation.

(f) Duration. The length of time any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) can hold dogs and cats in animal holding areas of terminal facilities upon arrival is the same as that provided in §3.13(f) of this subpart.

[56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991, as amended at 63 FR 10499, Mar. 4, 1998]

§3.19   Handling.

(a) Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) who moves (including loading and unloading) dogs or cats within, to, or from the animal holding area of a terminal facility or a primary conveyance must do so as quickly and efficiently as possible and must provide the following during movement of the dog or cat:

(1) Shelter from sunlight and extreme heat. Sufficient shade must be provided to protect the dog or cat from the direct rays of the sun. The dog or cat must not be exposed to an ambient air temperature above 85 °F (29.5 °C) for a period of more than 45 minutes while being moved to or from a primary conveyance or a terminal facility. The temperature must be measured in the manner provided in §3.18(d) of this subpart. The preceding requirements are in addition to, not in place of, all other requirements pertaining to climatic conditions in parts 2 and 3 of this chapter.

(2) Shelter from rain and snow. Sufficient protection must be provided to allow the dogs and cats to remain dry during rain, snow, and other precipitation.

(3) Shelter from cold temperatures. Transporting devices on which live dogs or cats are placed to move them must be covered to protect the animals when the outdoor temperature falls below 50 °F (10 °C). The dogs or cats must not be exposed to an ambient temperature below 45 °F (7.2 °C) for a period of more than 45 minutes, unless they are accompanied by a certificate of acclimation to lower temperatures as provided in §3.13(e). The temperature must be measured in the manner provided in §3.18(d) of this subpart. The preceding requirements are in addition to, not in place of, all other requirements pertaining to climatic conditions in parts 2 and 3 of this chapter.

(b) Any person handling a primary enclosure containing a dog or cat must use care and must avoid causing physical harm or distress to the dog or cat.

(1) A primary enclosure containing a live dog or cat must not be placed on unattended conveyor belts, or on elevated conveyor belts, such as baggage claim conveyor belts and inclined conveyor ramps that lead to baggage claim areas, at any time; except that a primary enclosure may be placed on inclined conveyor ramps used to load and unload aircraft if an attendant is present at each end of the conveyor belt.

(2) A primary enclosure containing a dog or cat must not be tossed, dropped, or needlessly tilted, and must not be stacked in a manner that may reasonably be expected to result in its falling. It must be handled and positioned in the manner that written instructions and arrows on the outside of the primary enclosure indicate.

(c) This section applies to movement of a dog or cat from primary conveyance to primary conveyance, within a primary conveyance or terminal facility, and to or from a terminal facility or a primary conveyance.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0093)

[56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991, as amended at 63 FR 10499, Mar. 4, 1998]

Subpart B—Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters

Facilities and Operating Standards

§3.25   Facilities, general.

(a) Structural strength. Indoor and outdoor housing facilities for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be structurally sound and shall be maintained in good repair, to protect the animals from injury, to contain the animals, and to restrict the entrance of other animals.

(b) Water and electric power. Reliable and adequate electric power, if required to comply with other provisions of this subpart, and adequate potable water shall be available.

(c) Storage. Supplies of food and bedding shall be stored in facilities which adequately protect such supplies against spoilage or deterioration and infestation or contamination by vermin. Food supplies shall be stored in containers with tightly fitting lids or covers or in the original containers as received from the commercial sources of supply. Refrigeration shall be provided for supplies of perishable food.

(d) Waste disposal. Provisions shall be made for the removal and disposal of animal and food wastes, bedding, dead animals, and debris. Disposal facilities shall be so provided and operated as to minimize vermin infestation, odors, and disease hazards.

(e) Washroom and sinks. Facilities, such as washrooms, basins, or sinks, shall be provided to maintain cleanliness among animal caretakers.

[32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967, as amended at 44 FR 63492, Nov. 2, 1979]

§3.26   Facilities, indoor.

(a) Heating. Indoor housing facilities for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be sufficiently heated when necessary to protect the animals from the cold, and to provide for their health and comfort. The ambient temperature shall not be allowed to fall below 60 °F. nor to exceed 85 °F.

(b) Ventilation. Indoor housing facilities for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be adequately ventilated to provide for the health and comfort of the animals at all times. Such facilities shall be provided with fresh air either by means of windows, doors, vents, or air conditioning, and shall be ventilated so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation. The ambient temperature shall not be allowed to rise above 85 °F.

(c) Lighting. Indoor housing facilities for guinea pigs or hamsters shall have ample light, by natural or artificial means, or both, of good quality and well distributed. Such lighting shall provide uniformly distributed illumination of sufficient light intensity to permit routine inspection and cleaning during the entire working period. Primary enclosures shall be so placed as to protect the guinea pigs or hamsters from excessive illumination.

(d) Interior surfaces. The interior building surfaces of indoor housing facilities shall be constructed and maintained so that they are substantially impervious to moisture and may be readily sanitized.

§3.27   Facilities, outdoor.

(a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities.

(b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities unless such facilities are located in an appropriate climate and prior approval for such outdoor housing is obtained from the Deputy Administrator.

§3.28   Primary enclosures.

All primary enclosures for guinea pigs and hamsters shall conform to the following requirements:

(a) General. (1) Primary enclosures shall be structurally sound and maintained in good repair to protect the guinea pigs and hamsters from injury. Such enclosures, including their racks, shelving and other accessories, shall be constructed of smooth material substantially impervious to liquids and moisture.

(2) Primary enclosures shall be constructed and maintained so that the guinea pigs or hamsters contained therein have convenient access to clean food and water as required in this subpart.

(3) Primary enclosures having a solid floor shall be provided with clean bedding material.

(4) Primary enclosures equipped with mesh or wire floors shall be so constructed as to allow feces to pass through the spaces of the mesh or wire: Provided, however, That such floors shall be constructed so as to protect the animals' feet and legs from injury.

(b) Space requirements for primary enclosures acquired before August 15, 1990—(1) Guinea pigs and hamsters. Primary enclosures shall be constructed and maintained so as to provide sufficient space for each animal contained therein to make normal postural adjustments with adequate freedom of movement.

(2) Guinea pigs. In addition to the provisions of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the following space requirements are applicable to primary enclosures for guinea pigs:

(i) The interior height of any primary enclosure used to confine guinea pigs shall be at least 612 inches.

(ii) Each guinea pig housed in a primary enclosure shall be provided a minimum amount of floor space in accordance with the following table:

Weight or stage of maturityMinimum space per guinea pig (square inches)
Weaning to 350 grams60
350 grams or more90
Breeders180

(3) Hamsters. In addition to the provisions of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the following space requirements are applicable to primary enclosures for hamsters:

(i) The interior height of any primary enclosure used to confine hamsters shall be at least 512 inches, except that in the case of dwarf hamsters, such interior height shall be at least 5 inches.

(ii) A nursing female hamster, together with her litter, shall be housed in a primary enclosure which contains no other hamsters and which provides at least 121 square inches of floor space: Provided, however, That in the case of dwarf hamsters such floor space shall be at least 25 square inches.

(iii) The minimum amount of floor space per individual hamster and the maximum number of hamsters allowed in a single primary enclosure, except as provided for nursing females in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section, shall be in accordance with the following table:

AgeMinimum space per hamster (square inches)Maximum population per enclosure
DwarfOther
Weaning to 5 wks5.010.020
5 to 10 wks7.512.516
10 wks. or more915.013

(c) Space requirements for primary enclosures acquired on or after August 15, 1990—(1) Guinea pigs. (i) Primary enclosures shall be constructed and maintained so as to provide sufficient space for each guinea pig contained therein to make normal postural adjustments with adequte freedom of movement.

(ii) The interior height of any primary enclosure used to confine guinea pigs shall be at least 7 inches (17.78 cm).

(iii) Each guinea pig shall be provided a minimum amount of floor space in any primary enclosure as follows:

Weight or stage of maturity Minimum floor space
in2 cm2
Weaning to 350 grams60387.12
>350 grams101651.65
Nursing females with their litters101651.65

(2) Hamsters. (i) Primary enclosures shall be constructed and maintained so as to provide sufficient space for each hamster contained therein to make normal postural adjustments with adequate freedom of movement.

(ii) The interior height of any primary enclosure used to confine hamsters shall be at least 6 inches (15.24 cm).

(iii) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(iv) of this section, each hamster shall be provided a minimum amount of floor space in any primary enclosure as follows:

WeightMinimum floor space per hamster
g ozsin2 cm2
<60<2.11064.52
60 to 802.1-2.81383.88
80 to 1002.8-3.516103.23
>100>3.519122.59

(iv) A nursing female hamster, together with her litter, shall be housed in a primary enclosure that contains no other hamsters and that provides at least 121 square inches of floor space: Provided, however, That in the case of nursing female dwarf hamsters such floor space shall be at least 25 square inches.

(3) Innovative primary enclosures that do not precisely meet the space requirements of paragraph (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section, but that do provide guinea pigs or hamsters with a sufficient volume of space and the opportunity to express species-typical behavior, may be used at research facilities when approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, and by dealers and exhibitors when approved by the Administrator.

[32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967, as amended at 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990]

Animal Health and Husbandry Standards

§3.29   Feeding.

(a) Guinea pigs and hamsters shall be fed each day except as otherwise might be required to provide adequate veterinary care. The food shall be free from contamination, wholesome, palatable and of sufficient quantity and nutritive value to meet the normal daily requirements for the condition and size of the guinea pig or hamster.

(b) Food comprising the basic diet shall be at least equivalent in quality and content to pelleted rations produced commercially and commonly available from feed suppliers.

(c) The basic diet of guinea pigs and hamsters may be supplemented with good quality fruits or vegetables consistent with their individual dietary requirements.

(d) Food receptacles, if used, shall be accessible to all guinea pigs or hamsters in a primary enclosure and shall be located so as to minimize contamination by excreta. All food receptacles shall be kept clean and shall be sanitized at least once every 2 weeks. If self-feeders are used for the feeding of pelleted feed, measures must be taken to prevent molding, deterioration or caking of the feed. Hamsters may be fed pelleted feed on the floor of a primary enclosure.

(e) Fruit or vegetable food supplements may be placed upon the bedding within the primary enclosure: Provided, however, That the uneaten portion of such supplements and any bedding soiled as a result of such feeding practices shall be removed from the primary enclosure when such uneaten supplements accumulate or such bedding becomes soiled to a degree that might be harmful or uncomfortable to animals therein.

§3.30   Watering.

Unless food supplements consumed by guinea pigs or hamsters supply them with their normal water requirements, potable water shall be provided daily except as might otherwise be required to provide adequate veterinary care. Open containers used for dispensing water to guinea pigs or hamsters shall be so placed in or attached to the primary enclosure as to minimize contamination from excreta. All watering receptacles shall be sanitized when dirty: Provided, however, That such receptacles shall be sanitized at least once every 2 weeks.

§3.31   Sanitation.

(a) Cleaning and sanitation of primary enclosures. (1) Primary enclosures shall be cleaned and sanitized often enough to prevent an accumulation of excreta or debris: Provided, however, That such enclosures shall be sanitized at least once every 2 weeks in the manner provided in paragraph (a)(4) of this section.

(2) In the event a primary enclosure becomes soiled or wet to a degree that might be harmful or uncomfortable to the animals therein due to leakage of the watering system, discharges from dead or dying animals, spoiled perishable foods, or moisture condensation, the guinea pigs or hamsters shall be transferred to clean primary enclosures.

(3) Prior to the introduction of guinea pigs or hamsters into empty primary enclosures previously occupied, such enclosures shall be sanitized in the manner provided in paragraph (a)(4) of this section.

(4) Primary enclosures for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be sanitized by washing them with hot water (180 °F.) and soap or detergent as in a mechanical cage washer, or by washing all soiled surfaces with a detergent solution followed by a safe and effective disinfectant, or by cleaning all soiled surfaces with live steam.

(b) Housekeeping. Premises (buildings and grounds) shall be kept clean and in good repair in order to protect the animals from injury and to facilitate the prescribed husbandry practices set forth in this subpart. Premises shall remain free of accumulations of trash.

(c) Pest control. An effective program for the control of insects, ectoparasites, and avian and mammalian pests shall be established and maintained.

§3.32   Employees.

A sufficient number of employees shall be utilized to maintain the prescribed level of husbandry practices set forth in this subpart. Such practices shall be under the supervision of an animal caretaker who has a background in animal husbandry or care.

§3.33   Classification and separation.

Animals housed in the same primary enclosure shall be maintained in compatible groups, with the following additional restrictions:

(a) Except where harem breeding is practiced, preweanling guinea pigs shall not be housed in the same primary enclosure with adults other than their parents.

(b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in the same primary enclosure with hamsters, nor shall guinea pigs or hamsters be housed in the same primary enclosure with any other species of animals.

(c) Guinea pigs or hamsters under quarantine or treatment for a communicable disease shall be separated from other guinea pigs or hamsters and other susceptible species of animals in such a manner as to minimize dissemination of such disease.

§3.34   [Reserved]

Transportation Standards

Authority: Sections 3.35 through 3.41 issued under secs. 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, 14, 16, 17, 21; 80 Stat. 353; 84 Stat. 1561, 1562, 1563, 1564; 90 Stat. 418, 419, 420, 423; (7 U.S.C. 2133, 2135, 2136, 2140, 2141, 2144, 2146, 2147, 2151); 37 FR 28464, 28477, 38 FR 19141.

§3.35   Consignments to carriers and intermediate handlers.

(a) Carriers and intermediate handlers shall not accept any live guinea pig or hamster presented by any dealer, research facility, exhibitor, operator of an auction sale, or other person, or any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States or any State or local government for shipment, in commerce, more than 4 hours prior to the scheduled departure of the primary conveyance on which it is to be transported: Provided, however, That the carrier or intermediate handler and any dealer, research facility, exhibitor, operator of an auction sale, or other person, or any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States or any State or local government may mutually agree to extend the time of acceptance to not more than 6 hours if specific prior scheduling of the animal shipment to destination has been made.

(b) Any carrier or intermediate handler shall only accept for transportation or transport, in commerce any live guinea pig or hamster in a primary enclosure which conforms to the requirements set forth in §3.36 of the standards: Provided, however, That any carrier or intermediate handler may accept for transportation or transport, in commerce, any live guinea pig or hamster consigned by any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States having laboratory animal facilities or exhibiting animals, or any licensed or registered dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale, if such consignor furnishes to the carrier or intermediate handler a certificate, signed by the consignor, stating that the primary enclosure complies with §3.36 of the standards, unless such primary enclosure is obviously defective or damaged and it is apparent that it cannot reasonably be expected to contain the live guinea pig or hamster without causing suffering or injury to such live guinea pig or hamster. A copy of such certificate shall accompany the shipment to destination. The certificate of compliance shall include at least the following information:

(1) Name and address of the consignor;

(2) The number of guinea pigs or hamsters in the primary enclosure(s);

(3) A certifying statement (e.g., “I hereby certify that the __ (number) primary enclosure(s) which are used to transport the animal(s) in this shipment complies (comply) with USDA standards for primary enclosures (9 CFR part 3).”); and

(4) The signature of the consignor, and date.

(c) Carriers or intermediate handlers whose facilities fail to meet the minimum temperature allowed by the standards may accept for transportation or transport, in commerce, any live hamster consigned by any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States or of any State or local government, or by any person (including any licensee or registrant under the Act, as well as any private individual) if the consignor furnishes to the carrier or intermediate handler a certificate executed by a veterinarian accredited by this Department pursuant to part 160 of this title on a specified date which shall not be more than 10 days prior to delivery of such hamster for transportation in commerce, stating that such live hamster is acclimated to air temperatures lower than those prescribed in §§3.40 and 3.41. A copy of such certificate shall accompany the shipment to destination. The certificate shall include the following information:

(1) Name and address of the consignor;

(2) The number of hamsters in the shipment;

(3) A certifying statement (e.g., “I hereby certify that the animal(s) in this shipment is (are), to the best of my knowledge, acclimated to air temperatures lower than 7.2 °C. (45 °F.).”); and

(4) The signature of the USDA accredited veterinarian, assigned accreditation number, and date.

(d) Carriers and intermediate handlers shall attempt to notify the consignee at least once in every 6 hour period following the arrival of any live guinea pig or hamster at the animal holding area of the terminal cargo facility. The time, date, and method of each attempted notification and the final notification to the consignee and the name of the person notifying the consignee shall be recorded on the copy of the shipping document retained by the carrier or intermediate handler and on a copy of the shipping document accompanying the animal shipment.

[42 FR 31563, June 21, 1977, as amended at 43 FR 22163, May 16, 1978; 44 FR 63492, Nov. 2, 1979]

§3.36   Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall offer for transportation, or transport, in commerce any live guinea pig or hamster in a primary enclosure that does not conform to the following requirements:

(a) Primary enclosures, such as compartments, transport cages, cartons, or crates, used to transport live guinea pigs or hamsters shall be constructed in such a manner that (1) the structural strength of the enclosure shall be sufficient to contain the live guinea pigs or hamsters and to withstand the normal rigors of transportation; (2) the interior of the enclosure shall be free from any protrusions that could be injurious to the live guinea pigs or hamsters contained therein; (3) the inner surfaces of corrugated fiberboard, cardboard, or plastic containers shall be covered or laminated with wire mesh or screen where necessary to prevent escape of the animals; (4) the openings of such enclosures are easily accessible at all times for emergency removal of the live guinea pigs or hamsters; (5) except as provided in paragraph (i) of this section, there are ventilation openings located on two opposite walls of the primary enclosure and the ventilation openings on each such wall shall be at least 16 percent of the total surface area of each such wall, or there are ventilation openings located on all four walls of the primary enclosure and the ventilation openings on each such wall shall be at least 8 percent of the total surface area of each such wall: Provided, however, That at least one-third of the total minimum area required for ventilation of the primary enclosure shall be located on the lower one-half of the primary enclosure and at least one-third of the total minimum area required for ventilation of the primary enclosure shall be located on the upper one-half of the primary enclosure; (6) except as provided in paragraph (i) of this section, projecting rims or other devices shall be on the exterior of the outside walls with any ventilation openings to prevent obstruction of the ventilation openings and to provide a minimum air circulation space of 1.9 centimeters (.75 inches) between the primary enclosure and any adjacent cargo or conveyance wall; and (7) except as provided in paragraph (i) of this section, adequate handholds or other devices for lifting shall be provided on the exterior of the primary enclosure to enable the primary enclosure to be lifted without tilting and to ensure that the person handling the primary enclosure will not be in contact with the guinea pigs or hamsters.

(b) Live guinea pigs or hamsters tranported in the same primary enclosure shall be of the same species and maintained in compatible groups.

(c) Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs or hamsters shall be large enough to ensure that each animal contained therein has sufficient space to turn about freely and to make normal postural adjustments.

(d) Not more than 15 live guinea pigs shall be transported in the same primary enclosure. No more than 50 live hamsters shall be transported in the same primary enclosure.

(e) In addition to the other provisions of this section, the following requirements shall also apply to primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs or hamsters:

(1) Guinea pigs. (i) The interior height of primary enclosures used to tranport live guinea pigs weighing up to 500 grams shall be at least 15.2 centimeters (6 inches) and the interior height of primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs weighing over 500 grams shall be at least 17.8 centimeters (7 inches).

(ii) Each live guinea pig transported in a primary enclosure shall be provided a minimum amount of floor space in accordance with the following table:

Minimum space per live guinea pig

Weight (grams)Square centimetersSquare inches
Up to 350193.630
350 to 600290.345
Over 600354.855

(2) Hamsters. (i) The interior height of primary enclosures used to transport live hamsters shall be at least 15.2 centimeters (6 inches) except that in the case of dwarf hamsters such interior height shall be at least 12.7 centimeters (5 inches).

(ii) Each live hamster transported in a primary enclosure shall be provided a minimum amount of floor space in accordance with the following table:

Minimum space per live hamster

AgeDwarfOther
Square centimetersSquare inchesSquare centimetersSquare inches
Weaning to 5 wks32.25.045.27
5 to 10 wks48.37.571.011
Over 10 wks58.19.096.815

(f) Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs or hamsters as provided in this section shall have solid bottoms to prevent leakage in shipment and shall be cleaned and sanitized in a manner prescribed in §3.31 of the standards, if previously used. Such primary enclosures shall contain clean litter of a suitable absorbent material, which is safe and nontoxic to the guinea pigs or hamsters, in sufficient quantity to absorb and cover excreta, unless the guinea pigs or hamsters are on wire or other nonsolid floors.

(g) Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs or hamsters, except where such primary enclosures are permanently affixed in the animal cargo space of the primary conveyance, shall be clearly marked on top and on one or more sides with the words “Live Animals” in letters not less than 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) in height, and with arrows or other markings, to indicate the correct upright position of the container.

(h) Documents accompanying the shipment shall be attached in an easily accessible manner to the outside of a primary enclosure which is part of such shipment.

(i) When a primary enclosure is permanently affixed within the animal cargo space of the primary conveyance so that the front opening is the only source of ventilation for such primary enclosure, the front opening shall open directly to the outside or to an unobstructed aisle or passageway within the primary conveyance. Such front ventilation opening shall be at least 90 percent of the total surface area of the front wall of the primary enclosure and covered with bars, wire mesh or smooth expanded metal.

[42 FR 31563, June 21, 1977, as amended at 43 FR 21163, May 16, 1978; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990]

§3.37   Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

(a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in transporting live guinea pigs and hamsters shall be designed and constructed to protect the health, and ensure the safety and comfort of the live guinea pigs and hamsters at all times.

(b) The animal cargo space shall be constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent the ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases from the primary conveyance during transportation in commerce.

(c) No live guinea pig or hamster shall be placed in an animal cargo space that does not have a supply of air sufficient for normal breathing for each live animal contained therein, and the primary enclosures shall be positioned in the animal cargo space in such a manner that each live guinea pig or hamster has access to sufficient air for normal breathing.

(d) Primary enclosures shall be positioned in the primary conveyance in such a manner that in an emergency the live guinea pigs or hamsters can be removed from the primary conveyance as soon as possible.

(e) The interior of the animal cargo space shall be kept clean.

(f) Live guinea pigs and hamsters shall not be transported with any material, substance (e.g., dry ice) or device which may reasonably be expected to be injurious to the health and well-being of the guinea pigs and hamsters unless proper precaution is taken to prevent such injury.

(g) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used to transport guinea pigs or hamsters shall be mechanically sound and provide fresh air by means of windows, doors, vents, or air conditioning so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation. Auxiliary ventilation, such as fans, blowers, or air conditioners, shall be used in any cargo space containing live guinea pigs or hamsters when the ambient temperature in the animal cargo space is 75 °F (23.9 °C) or higher. The ambient temperature within the animal cargo space shall not exceed 85 °F (29.5 °C) or fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C), except that the ambient temperature in the cargo space may be below 45 °F (7.2 °C) for hamsters if the hamsters are accompanied by a certificate of acclimation to lower temperatures, as provided in §3.35(c) of this part.

[42 FR 31563, June 21, 1977, as amended at 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990]

§3.38   Food and water requirements.

(a) If live guinea pigs or hamsters are to be transported for a period of more than 6 hours, the animals shall have access to food and water or a type of food, which provides the requirements for food and water in quantity and quality sufficient to satisfy their food and water needs, during transit.

(b) Any dealer, research facility, exhibitor or operator of an auction sale offering any live guinea pig or hamster to any carrier or intermediate handler for transportation, in commerce, shall provide an adequate supply of food or type of food, which provides the requirements for food and water, within the primary enclosure to meet the requirements of this section.

(c) No carrier or intermediate handler shall accept for transportation, in commerce, any live guinea pig or hamster without an adequate supply of food or type of food, which provides the requirements for food and water, within the primary enclosure to meet the requirements of this section.

[42 FR 31563, June 21, 1977]

§3.39   Care in transit.

(a) During surface transportation, it shall be the responsibility of the driver or other employee to visually observe the live guinea pigs or hamsters as frequently as circumstances may dictate, but not less than once every 4 hours, to assure that they are receiving sufficient air for normal breathing, their ambient temperatures are within the prescribed limits, all other applicable standards are being complied with and to determine whether any of the live guinea pigs or hamsters are in obvious physical distress and to provide any needed veterinary care as soon as possible. When transported by air, live guinea pigs and hamsters shall be visually observed by the carrier as frequently as circumstances may dictate, but not less than once every 4 hours, if the animal cargo space is accessible during flight. If the animal cargo space is not accessible during flight, the carrier shall visually observe the live guinea pigs or hamsters whenever loaded and unloaded and whenever the animal cargo space is otherwise accessible to assure that they are receiving sufficient air for normal breathing, their ambient temperatures are within the prescribed limits, all other applicable standards are being complied with and to determine whether any such live guinea pigs or hamsters are in obvious physical distress. The carrier shall provide any needed veterinary care as soon as possible. No guinea pig or hamster in obvious physical distress shall be transported in commerce.

(b) During the course of transportation, in commerce, live guinea pigs or hamsters shall not be removed from their primary enclosures unless placed in other primary enclosures or facilities conforming to the requirements provided in this subpart.

[42 FR 31563, June 21, 1977]

§3.40   Terminal facilities.

No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall commingle shipments of live guinea pigs or hamsters with inanimate cargo. All animal holding areas of a terminal facility where shipments of live guinea pigs or hamsters are maintained shall be cleaned and sanitized as prescribed in §3.31 of the standards often enough to prevent an accumulation of debris or excreta, to minimize vermin infestation, and to prevent a disease hazard. An effective program for the control of insects, ectoparasites, and avian and mammalian pests shall be established and maintained for all animal holding areas. Any animal holding area containing live guinea pigs or hamsters shall be provided with fresh air by means of windows, doors, vents, or air conditioning and may be ventilated or air circulated by means of fans, blowers, or an air conditioning system so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation. Auxiliary ventilation, such as exhaust fans and vents or fans or blowers or air conditioning shall be used for any animal holding area containing live guinea pigs and hamsters when the air temperature within such animal holding area is 23.9 °C. (75. °F.) or higher. The air temperature around any live guinea pig or hamster in any animal holding area shall not be allowed to fall below 7.2 °C. (45 °F.) nor be allowed to exceed 29.5 °C. (85 °F.) at any time. To ascertain compliance with the provisions of this paragraph, the air temperature around any live guinea pig or hamster shall be measured and read outside the primary enclosure which contains such guinea pig or hamster at a distance not to exceed .91 meters (3 feet) from any one of the external walls of the primary enclosure and measured on a level parallel to the bottom of such primary enclosure at a point which approximates half the distance between the top and bottom of such primary enclosure.

[43 FR 56215, Dec. 1, 1978, as amended at 55 FR 28883, July 16, 1990]

§3.41   Handling.

(a) Any person who is subject to the Animal Welfare regulations and who moves live guinea pigs or hamsters from an animal holding area of a terminal facility to a primary conveyance or vice versa shall do so as quickly and efficiently as possible. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare Act and holding any live guinea pig or hamster in an animal holding area of a terminal facility or transporting any live guinea pig or hamster to or from a terminal facility shall provide the following:

(1) Shelter from sunlight. When sunlight is likely to cause overheating or discomfort, sufficient shade shall be provided to protect the live guinea pigs and hamsters from the direct rays of the sun and such live guinea pigs or hamsters shall not be subjected to surrounding air temperatures which exceed 29.5 °C. (85 °F.), and which shall be measured and read in the manner prescribed §3.40 of this part, for a period of more than 45 minutes.

(2) Shelter from rain or snow. Live guinea pigs and hamsters shall be provided protection to allow them to remain dry during rain or snow.

(3) Shelter from cold weather. Transporting devices shall be covered to provide protection for live guinea pigs and hamsters when the outdoor air temperature falls below 10 °C. (50 °F.), and such live guinea pigs and hamsters shall not be subjected to surrounding air temperatures which fall below 7.2 °C. (45 °F.), and which shall be measured and read in the manner prescribed in §3.40 of this part, for a period of more than 45 minutes.

(b) Care shall be exercised to avoid handling of the primary enclosure in such a manner that may cause physical or emotional trauma to the live guinea pig or hamster contained therein.

(c) Primary enclosures used to transport any live guinea pig or hamster shall not be tossed, dropped, or needlessly tilted and shall not be stacked in a manner which may reasonably be expected to result in their falling.

[43 FR 21163, May 16, 1978, as amended at 43 FR 56216, Dec. 1, 1978; 55 FR 28883, July 16, 1990]

Subpart C—Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits

Facilities and Operating Standards

§3.50   Facilities, general.

(a) Structural strength. Indoor and outdoor housing facilities for rabbits shall be structurally sound and shall be maintained in good repair, to protect the animals from injury, to contain the animals, and to restrict the entrance of other animals.

(b) Water and electric power. Reliable and adequate electric power, if required to comply with other provisions of this subpart, and adequate potable water shall be available.

(c) Storage. Supplies of food and bedding shall be stored in facilities which adequately protect such supplies against infestation or contamination by vermin. Refrigeration shall be provided for supplies of perishable food.

(d) Waste disposal. Provision shall be made for the removal and disposal of animal and food wastes, bedding, dead animals, and debris. Disposal facilities shall be so provided and operated as to minimize vermin infestation, odors, and disease hazards.

(e) Washroom and sinks. Facilities, such as washrooms, basins, or sinks, shall be provided to maintain cleanliness among animal caretakers.

[32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967, as amended at 44 FR 63492, Nov. 2, 1979]

§3.51   Facilities, indoor.

(a) Heating. Indoor housing facilities for rabbits need not be heated.

(b) Ventilation. Indoor housing facilities for rabbits shall be adequately ventilated to provide for the health and comfort of the animals at all times. Such facilities shall be provided with fresh air either by means of windows, doors, vents, or air conditioning and shall be ventilated so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation. Auxiliary ventilation, such as exhaust fans and vents or air conditioning, shall be provided when the ambient temperature is 85 °F. or higher.

(c) Lighting. Indoor housing facilities for rabbits shall have ample light, by natural or artificial means, or both, of good quality and well distributed. Such lighting shall provide uniformly distributed illumination of sufficient light intensity to permit routine inspection and cleaning during the entire working period. Primary enclosures shall be so placed as to protect the rabbits from excessive illumination.

(d) Interior surfaces. The interior building surfaces of indoor housing facilities shall be constructed and maintained so that they are substantially impervious to moisture and may be readily sanitized.

§3.52   Facilities, outdoor.

(a) Shelter from sunlight. When sunlight is likely to cause overheating or discomfort, sufficient shade shall be provided to allow all rabbits kept outdoors to protect themselves from the direct rays of the sun. When the atmospheric temperature exceeds 90 °F. artificial cooling shall be provided by a sprinkler system or other means.

(b) Shelter from rain or snow. Rabbits kept outdoors shall be provided with access to shelter to allow them to remain dry during rain or snow.

(c) Shelter from cold weather. Shelter shall be provided for all rabbits kept outdoors when the atmospheric temperature falls below 40 °F.

(d) Protection from predators. Outdoor housing facilities for rabbits shall be fenced or otherwise enclosed to minimize the entrance of predators.

(e) Drainage. A suitable method shall be provided to rapidly eliminate excess water.

§3.53   Primary enclosures.

All primary enclosures for rabbits shall conform to the following requirements:

(a) General. (1) Primary enclosures shall be structurally sound and maintained in good repair to protect the rabbits from injury, to contain them, and to keep predators out.

(2) Primary enclosures shall be constructed and maintained so as to enable the rabbits to remain dry and clean.

(3) Primary enclosures shall be constructed and maintained so that the rabbits contained therein have convenient access to clean food and water as required in this subpart.

(4) The floors of the primary enclosures shall be constructed so as to protect the rabbits' feet and legs from injury. Litter shall be provided in all primary enclosures having solid floors.

(5) A suitable nest box containing clean nesting material shall be provided in each primary enclosure housing a female with a litter less than one month of age.

(b) Space requirements for primary enclosures acquired before August 15, 1990. Primary enclosures shall be constructed and maintained so as to provide sufficient space for the animal to make normal postural adjustments with adequate freedom of movement. Each rabbit housed in a primary enclosure shall be provided a minimum amount of floor space, exclusive of the space taken up by food and water receptacles, in accordance with the following table:

CategoryIndividual weights (pounds)Minimum space per rabbit (square inches)
Groups3 through 5144
   6 through 8288
   9 or more432
Individual adults3 through 5180
   6 through 8360
   9 through 11540
   12 or more720
Nursing females3 through 5576
   6 through 8720
   9 through 11864
   12 or more1080

(c) Space requirements for primary enclosures acquired on or after August 15, 1990. (1) Primary enclosures shall be constructed and maintained so as to provide sufficient space for the animal to make normal postural adjustments with adequate freedom of movement.

(2) Each rabbit housed in a primary enclosure shall be provided a minimum amount of floor space, exclusive of the space taken up by food and water receptacles, in accordance with the following table:

   Individual weightsMinimum floor spaceMinimum interior height
kglbsm2ft2cmin
Individual rabbits (weaned)<2
2-4
4-5.4
>5.4
<4.4
4.4-8.8
8.8-11.9
>11.9
0.14
0.28
0.37
0.46
1.5
3.0
4.0
5.0
35.56
35.56
35.56
35.56
14
14
14
14
   Weight of nursing femaleMinimum floor space/female & litterMinimum interior height
kglbsm2ft2cmin
Females with litters<2
2-4
4-5.4
>5.4
<4.4
4.4-8.8
8.8-11.9
>11.9
0.37
0.46
0.56
0.70
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.5
35.56
35.56
35.56
35.56
14
14
14
14

(3) Innovative primary enclosures that do not precisely meet the space requirements of paragraph (c)(2) of this section, but that do provide rabbits with a sufficient volume of space and the opportunity to express species-typical behavior, may be used at research facilities when approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, and by dealers and exhibitors when approved by the Administrator.

[32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967, as amended at 55 FR 28883, July 16, 1990]

Animal Health and Husbandry Standards

§3.54   Feeding.

(a) Rabbits shall be fed at least once each day except as otherwise might be required to provide adequate veterinary care. The food shall be free from contamination, wholesome, palatable and of sufficient quantity and nutritive value to meet the normal daily requirements for the condition and size of the rabbit.

(b) Food receptacles shall be accessible to all rabbits in a primary enclosure and shall be located so as to minimize contamination by excreta. All food receptacles shall be kept clean and sanitized at least once every 2 weeks. If self feeders are used for the feeding of dry feed, measures must be taken to prevent molding, deterioration or caking of the feed.

§3.55   Watering.

Sufficient potable water shall be provided daily except as might otherwise be required to provide adequate veterinary care. All watering receptacles shall be sanitized when dirty: Provided, however, That such receptacles shall be sanitized at least once every 2 weeks.

§3.56   Sanitation.

(a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. (1) Primary enclosures shall be kept reasonably free of excreta, hair, cobwebs and other debris by periodic cleaning. Measures shall be taken to prevent the wetting of rabbits in such enclosures if a washing process is used.

(2) In primary enclosures equipped with solid floors, soiled litter shall be removed and replaced with clean litter at least once each week.

(3) If primary enclosures are equipped with wire or mesh floors, the troughs or pans under such enclosures shall be cleaned at least once each week. If worm bins are used under such enclosures they shall be maintained in a sanitary condition.

(b) Sanitization of primary enclosures. (1) Primary enclosures for rabbits shall be sanitized at least once every 30 days in the manner provided in paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(2) Prior to the introduction of rabbits into empty primary enclosures previously occupied, such enclosures shall be sanitized in the manner provided in paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(3) Primary enclosures for rabbits shall be sanitized by washing them with hot water (180 °F.) and soap or detergent as in a mechanical cage washer, or by washing all soiled surfaces with a detergent solution followed by a safe and effective disinfectant, or by cleaning all soiled surfaces with live steam or flame.

(c) Housekeeping. Premises (buildings and grounds) shall be kept clean and in good repair in order to protect the animals from injury and to facilitate the prescribed husbandry practices set forth in this subpart. Premises shall remain free of accumulations of trash.

(d) Pest control. An effective program for the control of insects, ectoparasites, and avian and mammalian pests shall be established and maintained.

§3.57   Employees.

A sufficient number of employees shall be utilized to maintain the prescribed level of husbandry practices set forth in this subpart. Such practices shall be under the supervision of an animal caretaker who has a background in animal husbandry or care.

§3.58   Classification and separation.

Animals housed in the same primary enclosure shall be maintained in compatible groups, with the following additional restrictions:

(a) Rabbits shall not be housed in the same primary enclosure with any other species of animals unless required for scientific reasons.

(b) Rabbits under quarantine or treatment for a communicable disease shall be separated from other rabbits and other susceptible species of animals in such a manner as to minimize dissemination of such disease.

§3.59   [Reserved]

Transportation Standards

Authority: Sections 3.60 through 3.66 issued under secs. 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, 14, 16, 17, 21; 80 Stat. 353; 84 Stat. 1561, 1562, 1563, 1564; 90 Stat. 418, 420, 423 (7 U.S.C. 2133, 2135, 2136, 2140, 2141, 2144, 2146, 2147, 2151); 37 FR 28464, 28477, 38 FR 19141.

Source: Sections 3.60 through 3.66 appear at 42 FR 31565, June 21, 1977, unless otherwise noted.

§3.60   Consignments to carriers and intermediate handlers.

(a) Carriers and intermediate handlers shall not accept any live rabbit presented by any dealer, research facility, exhibitor, operator of an auction sale, or other person, or any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States or any State or local government for shipment, in commerce, more than 4 hours prior to the scheduled departure of the primary conveyance on which it is to be transported: Provided, however, That the carrier or intermediate handler and any dealer, research facility, exhibitor, operator of an auction sale, or other person, or any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States or any State or local government may mutually agree to extend the time of acceptance to not more than 6 hours if specific prior scheduling of the animal shipment to destination has been made.

(b) Any carrier or intermediate handler shall only accept for transportation or transport, in commerce, any live rabbit in a primary enclosure which conforms to the requirements set forth in §3.61 of the standards: Provided, however, That any carrier or intermediate handler may accept for transportation or transport, in commerce, any live rabbit consigned by any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States having laboratory animal facilities or exhibiting animals or any licensed or registered dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of any auction sale, if such consignor furnishes to the carrier or intermediate handler a certificate, signed by the consignor, stating that the primary enclosure complies with §3.61 of the standards, unless such primary enclosure is obviously defective or damaged and it is apparent that it cannot reasonably be expected to contain the live rabbit without causing suffering or injury to such live rabbit. A copy of such certificate shall accompany the shipment to destination. The certificate shall include at least the following information:

(1) Name and address of the consignor;

(2) The number of rabbits in the primary enclosure(s);

(3) A certifying statement (e.g., “I hereby certify that the __ (number) primary enclosure(s) which are used to transport the animal(s) in this shipment complies (comply) with USDA standards for primary enclosures (9 CFR part 3).”); and

(4) The signature of the consignor, and date.

(c) Carriers or intermediate handlers whose facilities fail to meet the minimum temperature allowed by the standards may accept for transportation or transport, in commerce, any live rabbit consigned by any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States or of any State or local government, or by any person (including any licensee or registrant under the Act, as well as any private individual) if the consignor furnishes to the carrier or intermediate handler a certificate executed by a veterinarian accredited by this Department pursuant to part 160 of this title on a specified date which shall not be more than 10 days prior to delivery of such rabbit for transportation in commerce, stating that such live rabbit is acclimated to air temperatures lower than those prescribed in §§3.65 and 3.66. A copy of such certificate shall accompany the shipment to destination. The certificate shall include at least the following information:

(1) Name and address of the consignor;

(2) The number of rabbits in the shipment;

(3) A certifying statement (e.g., “I hereby certify that the animal(s) in this shipment is (are), to the best of my knowledge, acclimated to air temperatures lower than 7.2 °C. (45 °F.).)”; and

(4) The signature of the USDA accredited veterinarian, assigned accreditation number, and date.

(d) Carriers and intermediate handlers shall attempt to notify the consignee at least once in every 6 hour period following the arrival of any live rabbit at the animal holding area of the terminal cargo facility. The time, date, and method of each attempted notification and the final notification to the consignee and the name of the person notifying the consignee shall be recorded on the copy of the shipping document retained by the carrier or intermediate handler and on a copy of the shipping document accompanying the animal shipment.

[42 FR 31565, June 21, 1977, as amended at 43 FR 21164, May 16, 1978; 44 FR 63493, Nov. 2, 1979]

§3.61   Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits.

No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall offer for transportation or transport in commerce any live rabbit in a primary enclosure that does not conform to the following requirements:

(a) Primary enclosures, such as compartments, transport cages, cartons, or crates, used to transport live rabbits shall be constructed in such a manner that:

(1) The stuctural strength of the enclosure shall be sufficient to contain the live rabbits and to withstand the normal rigors of transportation;

(2) The interior of the enclosure shall be free from any protrusions that could be injurious to the live rabbits contained therein;

(3) The openings of such enclosures are easily accessible at all times for emergency removal of the live rabbits;

(4) Except as provided in paragraph (h) of this section, there are ventilation openings located on two opposite walls of the primary enclosure and the ventilation openings on each such wall shall be at least 16 percent of the total surface area of each such wall, or there are ventilation openings located on all four walls of the primary enclosure and the ventilation openings on each such wall shall be at least 8 percent of the total surface area of each such wall: Provided, however, That at least one-third of the total minimum area required for ventilation of the primary enclosure shall be located on the lower one-half of the primary enclosure and at least one-third of the total minimum area required for ventilation of the primary enclosure shall be located on the upper one-half of the primary enclosure;

(5) Except as provided in paragraph (h) of this section, projecting rims or other devices shall be on the exterior of the outside walls with any ventilation openings to prevent obstruction of the ventilation openings and to provide a minimum air circulation space 1.9 centimeters (.75 inch) between the primary enclosure and any adjacent cargo or conveyance wall; and

(6) Except as provided in paragraph (h) of this section, adequate handholds or other devices for lifting shall be provided on the exterior of the primary enclosure to enable the primary enclosure to be lifted without tilting and to ensure that the person handling the primary enclosure will not be in contact with the rabbit.

(b) Live rabbits transported in the same primary enclosure shall be maintained in compatible groups and shall not be transported in the same primary enclosure with other specie of animals.

(c) Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits shall be large enough to ensure that each rabbit contained therein has sufficient space to turn about freely and to make normal postural adjustments.

(d) Not more than 15 live rabbits shall be transported in the same primary enclosure.

(e) Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits as provided in this section shall have solid bottoms to prevent leakage in shipment and shall be cleaned and sanitized in a manner prescribed in §3.56 of the standards, if previously used. Such primary enclosures shall contain clean litter of a suitable absorbent material which is safe and nontoxic to the rabbits, in sufficient quantity to absorb and cover excreta, unless the rabbits are on wire or other nonsolid floors.

(f) Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits, except where such primary enclosures are permanently affixed in the animal cargo space of the primary conveyance, shall be clearly marked on top and on one or more sides with the works “Live Animal” in letters not less than 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) in height, and with arrows or other markings, to indicate the correct upright position of the container.

(g) Documents accompanying the shipment shall be attached in an easily accessible manner to the outside of a primary enclosure which is part of such shipment.

(h) When a primary enclosure is permanently affixed within the animal cargo space of the primary conveyance so that the front opening is the only source of ventilation for such primary enclosure, the front opening shall open directly to the outside or to an unobstructed aisle or passageway within the primary conveyance. Such front ventilation opening shall be at least 90 percent of the total surface area of the front wall of the primary enclosure and covered with bars, wire mesh or smooth expanded metal.

[42 FR 31565, June 21, 1977, as amended at 43 FR 21164, May 16, 1978; 55 FR 28883, July 16, 1990]

§3.62   Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

(a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in transporting live rabbits shall be designed and constructed to protect the health, and ensure the safety and comfort of the rabbits contained therein at all times.

(b) The animal cargo space shall be constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent the ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases from the primary conveyance during transportation in commerce.

(c) No live rabbit shall be placed in an animal cargo space that does not have a supply of air sufficient for normal breathing for each live animal contained therein, and the primary enclosures shall be positioned in the animal cargo space in such a manner that each rabbit has access to sufficient air for normal breathing.

(d) Primary enclosures shall be positioned in the primary conveyance in such a manner that in an emergency the live rabbits can be removed from the primary conveyance as soon as possible.

(e) The interior of the animal cargo space shall be kept clean.

(f) Live rabbits shall not be transported with any material, substance (e.g., dry ice) or device which may reasonably be expected to be injurious to the health and well-being of the rabbits unless proper precaution is taken to prevent such injury.

(g) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used to transport rabbits shall be mechanically sound and provide fresh air by means of windows, doors, vents, or air conditioning so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation. Auxiliary ventilation, such as fans, blowers, or air conditioners, shall be used in any cargo space containing live rabbits when the ambient temperature in the animal cargo space is 75 °F (23.9 °C) or higher. The ambient temperature within the animal cargo space shall not exceed 85 °F (29.5 °C) or fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C), except that the ambient temperature in the cargo space may be below 45 °F (7.2 °C) if the rabbits are accompanied by a certificate of acclimation to lower temperatures, as provided in §3.60(c) of this part.

[42 FR 31565, June 21, 1977, as amended at 55 FR 28883, July 16, 1990]

§3.63   Food and water requirements.

(a) If live rabbits are to be transported for a period of more than 6 hours, they shall have access to food and water or a type of food, which provides the requirements for food and water in quantity and quality sufficient to satisfy their food and water needs, during transit.

(b) Any dealer, research facility, exhibitor or operator of an auction sale offering any live rabbit to any carrier or intermediate handler for transportation, in commerce, shall provide an adequate supply of food or type of food, which provides the requirements for food and water, within the primary enclosure to meet the requirements of this section.

(c) No carrier or intermediate handler shall accept for transportation, in commerce, any live rabbit without an adequate supply of food or type of food, which provides the requirements for food and water, within the primary enclosure to meet the requirements of this section.

§3.64   Care in transit.

(a) During surface transportation, it shall be the responsibility of the driver or other employee to visually observe the live rabbits as frequently as circumstances may dictate, but not less than once every 4 hours, to assure that they are receiving sufficient air for normal breathing, their ambient temperatures are within the prescribed limits, all other applicable standards are being complied with and to determine whether any of the live rabbits are in obvious physical disress and to provide any needed veterinary care as soon as possible. When transported by air, live rabbits shall be visually observed by the carrier as frequently as circumstances may dictate, but not less than once every 4 hours, if the cargo space is accessible during flight. If the animal cargo space is not accessible during flight, the carrier shall visually observe the live rabbits whenever loaded and unloaded and whenever the animal cargo space is otherwise accessible to assure that they are receiving sufficient air for normal breathing, their ambient temperatures are within the prescribed limits, all other applicable standards are being complied with and to determine whether any such live rabbits are in obvious physical distress. The carrier shall provide any needed veterinary care as soon as possible. No rabbit in obvious physical distress shall be transported in commerce.

(b) During the course of transportation, in commerce, live rabbits shall not be removed from their primary enclosures unless placed in other primary enclosures or facilities conforming to the requirements provided in this subpart.

§3.65   Terminal facilities.

No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall commingle shipments of live rabbits with inanimate cargo. All animal holding areas of a terminal facility where shipments of rabbits are maintained shall be cleaned and sanitized as prescribed in §3.56 of the standards often enough to prevent an accumulation of debris or excreta, to minimize vermin infestation, and to prevent a disease hazard. An effective program for the control of insects, ectoparasites, and avian and mammalian pests shall be established and maintained for all animal holding areas. Any animal holding area containing live rabbits shall be provided with fresh air by means of windows, doors, vents, or air conditioning and may be ventilated or air circulated by means of fans, blowers, or an air conditioning system so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation. Auxiliary ventilation, such as exhaust fans and vents or fans or blowers or air conditioning shall be used for any animal holding area containing live rabbits when the air temperature within such animal holding area is 23.9 °C. (75 °F.) or higher. The air temperature around any live rabbit in any animal holding area shall not be allowed to fall below 7.2 °C. (45 °F.) nor be allowed to exceed 29.5 °C. (85 °F.) at any time. To ascertain compliance with the provisions of this paragraph, the air temperature around any live rabbit shall be measured and read outside the primary enclosure which contains such rabbit at a distance not to exceed .91 meters (3 feet) from any one of the external walls of the primary enclosure and on a level parallel to the bottom of such primary enclosure at a point which approximates half the distance between the top and bottom of such primary enclosure.

[43 FR 56216, Dec. 1, 1978, as amended at 55 FR 28883, July 16, 1990]]

§3.66   Handling.

(a) Any person who is subject to the Animal Welfare regulations and who moves live rabbits from an animal holding area of a terminal facility to a primary conveyance or vice versa shall do so as quickly and efficiently as possible. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations and holding any live rabbit in an animal holding area of a terminal facility or transporting any live rabbit to or from a terminal facility shall provide the following:

(1) Shelter from sunlight. When sunlight is likely to cause overheating or discomfort, sufficient shade shall be provided to protect the live rabbits from the direct rays of the sun and such live rabbits shall not be subjected to surrounding air temperatures which exceed 29.5 °C. (85 °F.), and which shall be measured and read in the manner prescribed in §3.65 of this part, for a period of more than 45 minutes.

(2) Shelter from rain or snow. Live rabbits shall be provided protection to allow them to remain dry during rain or snow.

(3) Shelter from cold weather. Transporting devices shall be covered to provide protection for live rabbits when the outdoor air temperature falls below 10 °C. (50 °F.), and such live rabbits shall not be subjected to surrounding air temperatures which fall below 7.2 °C. (45 °F.), and which shall be measured and read in the manner prescribed in §3.65 of this part, for a period of more than 45 minutes unless such rabbits are accompanied by a certificate of acclimation to lower temperatures as prescribed in §3.60(c).

(b) Care shall be exercised to avoid handling of the primary enclosure in such a manner that may cause physical or emotional trauma to the live rabbit contained therein.

(c) Primary enclosures used to transport any live rabbit shall not be tossed, dropped, or needlessly tilted and shall not be stacked in a manner which may reasonably be expected to result in their falling.

[43 FR 21164, May 16, 1978, as amended at 43 FR 56216, Dec. 1, 1978; 55 FR 28883, July 16, 1990]

Subpart D—Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Nonhuman Primates2

Source: 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991, unless otherwise noted.

Facilities and Operating Standards

§3.75   Housing facilities, general.

(a) Structure: construction. Housing facilities for nonhuman primates must be designed and constructed so that they are structurally sound for the species of nonhuman primates housed in them. They must be kept in good repair, and they must protect the animals from injury, contain the animals securely, and restrict other animals from entering.

2Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

(b) Condition and site. Housing facilities and areas used for storing animal food or bedding must be free of any accumulation of trash, waste material, junk, weeds, and other discarded materials. Animal areas inside of housing facilities must be kept neat and free of clutter, including equipment, furniture, or stored material, but may contain materials actually used and necessary for cleaning the area, and fixtures and equipment necessary for proper husbandry practices and research needs. Housing facilities other than those maintained by research facilities and Federal research facilities must be physically separated from any other businesses. If a housing facility is located on the same premises as any other businesses, it must be physically separated from the other businesses so that animals the size of dogs, skunks, and raccoons, are prevented from entering it.

(c) Surfaces—(1) General requirements. The surfaces of housing facilities—including perches, shelves, swings, boxes, houses, dens, and other furniture-type fixtures or objects within the facility—must be constructed in a manner and made of materials that allow them to be readily cleaned and sanitized, or removed or replaced when worn or soiled. Furniture-type fixtures or objects must be sturdily constructed and must be strong enough to provide for the safe activity and welfare of nonhuman primates. Floors may be made of dirt, absorbent bedding, sand, gravel, grass, or other similar material that can be readily cleaned, or can be removed or replaced whenever cleaning does not eliminate odors, diseases, pests, insects, or vermin. Any surfaces that come in contact with nonhuman primates must:

(i) Be free of excessive rust that prevents the required cleaning and sanitization, or that affects the structural strength of the surface; and

(ii) Be free of jagged edges or sharp points that might injure the animals.

(2) Maintenance and replacement of surfaces. All surfaces must be maintained on a regular basis. Surfaces of housing facilities—including houses, dens, and other furniture-type fixtures and objects within the facility—that cannot be readily cleaned and sanitized, must be replaced when worn or soiled.

(3) Cleaning. Hard surfaces with which nonhuman primates come in contact must be spot-cleaned daily and sanitized in accordance with §3.84 of this subpart to prevent accumulation of excreta or disease hazards. If the species scent mark, the surfaces must be sanitized or replaced at regular intervals as determined by the attending veterinarian in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices. Floors made of dirt, absorbent bedding, sand, gravel, grass, or other similar material, and planted enclosures must be raked or spot-cleaned with sufficient frequency to ensure all animals the freedom to avoid contact with excreta. Contaminated material must be removed or replaced whenever raking and spot cleaning does not eliminate odors, diseases, insects, pests, or vermin infestation. All other surfaces of housing facilities must be cleaned and sanitized when necessary to satisfy generally accepted husbandry standards and practices. Sanitization may be done by any of the methods provided in §3.84(b)(3) of this subpart for primary enclosures.

(d) Water and electric power. The housing facility must have reliable electric power adequate for heating, cooling, ventilation, and lighting, and for carrying out other husbandry requirements in accordance with the regulations in this subpart. The housing facility must provide running potable water for the nonhuman primates' drinking needs. It must be adequate for cleaning and for carrying out other husbandry requirements.

(e) Storage. Supplies of food and bedding must be stored in a manner that protects the supplies from spoilage, contamination, and vermin infestation. The supplies must be stored off the floor and away from the walls, to allow cleaning underneath and around the supplies. Food requiring refrigeration must be stored accordingly, and all food must be stored in a manner that prevents contamination and deterioration of its nutritive value. Only the food and bedding currently being used may be kept in animal areas, and when not in actual use, open food and bedding supplies must be kept in leakproof containers with tightly fitting lids to prevent spoilage and contamination. Substances that are toxic to the nonhuman primates but that are required for normal husbandry practices must not be stored in food storage and preparation areas, but may be stored in cabinets in the animal areas.

(f) Drainage and waste disposal. Housing facility operators must provide for regular and frequent collection, removal, and disposal of animal and food wastes, bedding, dead animals, debris, garbage, water, and any other fluids and wastes, in a manner that minimizes contamination and disease risk. Housing facilities must be equipped with disposal facilities and drainage systems that are constructed and operated so that animal wastes and water are rapidly eliminated and the animals stay dry. Disposal and drainage systems must minimize vermin and pest infestation, insects, odors, and disease hazards. All drains must be properly constructed, installed, and maintained. If closed drainage systems are used, they must be equipped with traps and prevent the backflow of gases and the backup of sewage onto the floor. If the facility uses sump ponds, settlement ponds, or other similar systems for drainage and animal waste disposal, the system must be located far enough away from the animal area of the housing facility to prevent odors, diseases, insects, pests, and vermin infestation. If drip or constant flow watering devices are used to provide water to the animals, excess water must be rapidly drained out of the animal areas by gutters or pipes so that the animals stay dry. Standing puddles of water in animal areas must be mopped up or drained so that the animals remain dry. Trash containers in housing facilities and in food storage and food preparation areas must be leakproof and must have tightly fitted lids on them at all times. Dead animals, animal parts, and animal waste must not be kept in food storage or food preparation areas, food freezers, food refrigerators, and animal areas.

(g) Washrooms and sinks. Washing facilities, such as washrooms, basins, sinks, or showers must be provided for animal caretakers and must be readily accessible.

§3.76   Indoor housing facilities.

(a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Indoor housing facilities must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect nonhuman primates from temperature extremes and to provide for their health and well-being. The ambient temperature in the facility must not fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when nonhuman primates are present, and must not rise above 85 °F (29.5 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when nonhuman primates are present. The ambient temperature must be maintained at a level that ensures the health and well-being of the species housed, as directed by the attending veterinarian, in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices.

(b) Ventilation. Indoor housing facilities must be sufficiently ventilated at all times when nonhuman primates are present to provide for their health and well-being and to minimize odors, drafts, ammonia levels, and moisture condensation. Ventilation must be provided by windows, doors, vents, fans, or air conditioning. Auxiliary ventilation, such as fans, blowers, or air conditioning, must be provided when the ambient temperature is 85 °F (29.5 °C) or higher. The relative humidity maintained must be at a level that ensures the health and well-being of the animals housed, as directed by the attending veterinarian, in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices.

(c) Lighting. Indoor housing facilities must be lighted well enough to permit routine inspection and cleaning of the facility, and observation of the nonhuman primates. Animal areas must be provided a regular diurnal lighting cycle of either natural or artificial light. Lighting must be uniformly diffused throughout animal facilities and provide sufficient illumination to aid in maintaining good housekeeping practices, adequate cleaning, adequate inspection of animals, and for the well-being of the animals. Primary enclosures must be placed in the housing facility so as to protect the nonhuman primates from excessive light.

§3.77   Sheltered housing facilities.

(a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the nonhuman primates from temperature extremes, and to provide for their health and well-being. The ambient temperature in the sheltered part of the facility must not fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when nonhuman primates are present, and must not rise above 85 °F (29.5 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when nonhuman primates are present, unless temperatures above 85 °F (29.5 °C) are approved by the attending veterinarian, in accordance with generally accepted husbandry practices. The ambient temperature must be maintained at a level that ensures the health and well-being of the species housed, as directed by the attending veterinarian, in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices.

(b) Ventilation. The sheltered part of sheltered animal facilities must be sufficiently ventilated at all times to provide for the health and well-being of nonhuman primates and to minimize odors, drafts, ammonia levels, and moisture condensation. Ventilation must be provided by windows, doors, vents, fans, or air conditioning. Auxiliary ventilation, such as fans, blowers, or air conditioning, must be provided when the ambient temperature is 85 °F (29.5 °C) or higher. The relative humidity maintained must be at a level that ensures the health and well-being of the species housed, as directed by the attending veterinarian, in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices.

(c) Lighting. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities must be lighted well enough to permit routine inspection and cleaning of the facility, and observation of the nonhuman primates. Animal areas must be provided a regular diurnal lighting cycle of either natural or artificial light. Lighting must be uniformly diffused throughout animal facilities and provide sufficient illumination to aid in maintaining good housekeeping practices, adequate cleaning, adequate inspection of animals, and for the well-being of the animals. Primary enclosures must be placed in the housing facility so as to protect the nonhuman primates from excessive light.

(d) Shelter from the elements. Sheltered housing facilities for nonhuman primates must provide adequate shelter from the elements at all times. They must provide protection from the sun, rain, snow, wind, and cold, and from any weather conditions that may occur.

(e) Capacity: multiple shelters. Both the sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities and any other necessary shelter from the elements must be sufficiently large to provide protection comfortably to each nonhuman primate housed in the facility. If aggressive or dominant animals are housed in the facility with other animals, there must be multiple shelters or other means to ensure that each nonhuman primate has access to shelter.

(f) Perimeter fence. On and after February 15, 1994, the outdoor area of a sheltered housing facility must be enclosed by a fence that is of sufficient height to keep unwanted species out. Fences less than 6 feet high must be approved by the Administrator. The fence must be constructed so that it protects nonhuman primates by restricting unauthorized humans, and animals the size of dogs, skunks, and raccoons from going through it or under it and having contact with the nonhuman primates. It must be of sufficient distance from the outside wall or fence of the primary enclosure to prevent physical contact between animals inside the enclosure and outside the perimeter fence. Such fences less than 3 feet in distance from the primary enclosure must be approved by the Administrator. A perimeter fence is not required if:

(1) The outside walls of the primary enclosure are made of a sturdy, durable material such as concrete, wood, plastic, metal, or glass, and are high enough and constructed in a manner that restricts contact with or entry by humans and animals that are outside the sheltered housing facility; or

(2) The housing facility is surrounded by a natural barrier that restricts the nonhuman primates to the housing facility and protects them from contact with unauthorized humans and animals that are outside the sheltered housing facility, and the Administrator gives written permission

(g) Public barriers. Fixed public exhibits housing nonhuman primates, such as zoos, must have a barrier between the primary enclosure and the public at any time the public is present, that restricts physical contact between the public and the nonhuman primates. Nonhuman primates used in trained animal acts or in uncaged public exhibits must be under the direct control and supervision of an experienced handler or trainer at all times when the public is present. Trained nonhuman primates may be permitted physical contact with the public, as allowed under §2.131, but only if they are under the direct control and supervision of an experienced handler or trainer at all times during the contact.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0093)

§3.78   0utdoor housing facilities.

(a) Acclimation. Only nonhuman primates that are acclimated, as determined by the attending veterinarian, to the prevailing temperature and humidity at the outdoor housing facility during the time of year they are at the facility, and that can tolerate the range of temperatures and climatic conditions known to occur at the facility at that time of year without stress or discomfort, may be kept in outdoor facilities.

(b) Shelter from the elements. Outdoor housing facilities for nonhuman primates must provide adequate shelter from the elements at all times. It must provide protection from the sun, rain, snow, wind, and cold, and from any weather conditions that may occur. The shelter must safely provide heat to the nonhuman primates to prevent the ambient temperature from falling below 45 °F (7.2 °C), except as directed by the attending veterinarian and in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices.

(c) Capacity: multiple shelters. The shelter must be sufficiently large to comfortably provide protection for each nonhuman primate housed in the facility. If aggressive or dominant animals are housed in the facility with other animals there must be multiple shelters, or other means to ensure protection for each nonhuman primate housed in the facility.

(d) Perimeter fence. On and after February 15, 1994, an outdoor housing facility must be enclosed by a fence that is of sufficient height to keep unwanted species out. Fences less than 6 feet high must be approved by the Administrator. The fence must be constructed so that it protects nonhuman primates by restricting unauthorized humans, and animals the size of dogs, skunks, and raccoons from going through it or under it and having contact with the nonhuman primates. It must be of sufficient distance from the outside wall or fence of the primary enclosure to prevent physical contact between animals inside the enclosure and outside the perimeter fence. Such fences less than 3 feet in distance from the primary enclosure must be approved by the Administrator. A perimeter fence is not required if:

(1) The outside walls of the primary enclosure are made of a sturdy, durable material such as concrete, wood, plastic, metal, or glass, and are high enough and constructed in a manner that restricts contact with or entry by humans and animals that are outside the housing facility; or

(2) The housing facility is surrounded by a natural barrier that restricts the nonhuman primates to the housing facility and protects them from contact with unauthorized humans and animals that are outside the housing facility, and the Administrator gives written permission.

(e) Public barriers. Fixed public exhibits housing nonhuman primates, such as zoos, must have a barrier between the primary enclosure and the public at any time the public is present, in order to restrict physical contact between the public and the nonhuman primates. Nonhuman primates used in trained animal acts or in uncaged public exhibits must be under the direct control and supervision of an experienced handler or trainer at all times when the public is present. Trained nonhuman primates may be allowed physical contact with the public, but only if they are under the direct control and supervision of an experienced handler or trainer at all times during the contact.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0093)

§3.79   Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

(a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect nonhuman primates from temperature extremes and to provide for their health and well-being. The ambient temperature in the traveling housing facility must not fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when nonhuman primates are present, and must not rise above 85 °F (29.5 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when nonhuman primates are present. The ambient temperature must be maintained at a level that ensures the health and well-being of the species housed, as directed by the attending veterinarian, and in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices.

(b) Ventilation. Traveling housing facilities must be sufficiently ventilated at all times when nonhuman primates are present to provide for the health and well-being of nonhuman primates and to minimize odors, drafts, ammonia levels, moisture condensation, and exhaust fumes. Ventilation must be provided by means of windows, doors, vents, fans, or air conditioning. Auxiliary ventilation, such as fans, blowers, or air conditioning, must be provided when the ambient temperature in the traveling housing facility is 85 °F (29.5 °C) or higher.

(c) Lighting. Mobile or traveling housing facilities must be lighted well enough to permit routine inspection and cleaning of the facility, and observation of the nonhuman primates. Animal areas must be provided a regular diurnal lighting cycle of either natural or artificial light. Lighting must be uniformly diffused throughout animal facilities and provide sufficient illumination to aid in maintaining good housekeeping practices, adequate cleaning, adequate inspection of animals, and for the well-being of the animals. Primary enclosures must be placed in the housing facility so as to protect the nonhuman primates from excessive light.

(d) Public barriers. There must be a barrier between a mobile or traveling housing facility and the public at any time the public is present, in order to restrict physical contact between the nonhuman primates and the public. Nonhuman primates used in traveling exhibits, trained animal acts, or in uncaged public exhibits must be under the direct control and supervision of an experienced handler or trainer at all times when the public is present. Trained nonhuman primates may be allowed physical contact with the public, but only if they are under the direct control and supervision of an experienced handler or trainer at all times during the contact.

§3.80   Primary enclosures.

Primary enclosures for nonhuman primates must meet the following minimum requirements:

(a) General requirements. (1) Primary enclosures must be designed and constructed of suitable materials so that they are structurally sound for the species of nonhuman primates contained in them. They must be kept in good repair.

(2) Primary enclosures must be constructed and maintained so that they:

(i) Have no sharp points or edges that could injure the nonhuman primates;

(ii) Protect the nonhuman primates from injury;

(iii) Contain the nonhuman primates securely and prevent accidental opening of the enclosure, including opening by the animal;

(iv) Keep other unwanted animals from entering the enclosure or having physical contact with the nonhuman primates;

(v) Enable the nonhuman primates to remain dry and clean;

(vi) Provide shelter and protection from extreme temperatures and weather conditions that may be uncomfortable or hazardous to the species of nonhuman primate contained;

(vii) Provide sufficient shade to shelter all the nonhuman primates housed in the primary enclosure at one time;

(viii) Provide the nonhuman primates with easy and convenient access to clean food and water;

(ix) Enable all surfaces in contact with nonhuman primates to be readily cleaned and sanitized in accordance with §3.84(b)(3) of this subpart, or replaced when worn or soiled;

(x) Have floors that are constructed in a manner that protects the nonhuman primates from injuring themselves; and

(xi) Provide sufficient space for the nonhuman primates to make normal postural adjustments with freedom of movement.

(b) Minimum space requirements. Primary enclosures must meet the minimum space requirements provided in this subpart. These minimum space requirements must be met even if perches, ledges, swings, or other suspended fixtures are placed in the enclosure. Low perches and ledges that do not allow the space underneath them to be comfortably occupied by the animal will be counted as part of the floor space.

(1) The minimum space that must be provided to each nonhuman primate, whether housed individually or with other nonhuman primates, will be determined by the typical weight of animals of its species, except for brachiating species and great apes3 and will be calculated by using the following table:4

3The different species of nonhuman primates are divided into six weight groups for determining minimum space requirements, except that all brachiating species of any weight are grouped together since they require additional space to engage in species-typical behavior. The grouping provided is based upon the typical weight for various species and not on changes associated with obesity, aging, or pregnancy. These conditions will not be considered in determining a nonhuman primate's weight group unless the animal is obviously unable to make normal postural adjustments and movements within the primary enclosure. Different species of prosimians vary in weight and should be grouped with their appropriate weight group. They have not been included in the weight table since different species typically fall into different weight groups. Infants and juveniles of certain species are substantially lower in weight than adults of those species and require the minimum space requirements of lighter weight species, unless the animal is obviously unable to make normal postural adjustments and movements within the primary enclosure.

4Examples of the kinds of nonhuman primates typically included in each age group are:

Group 1—marmosets, tamarins, and infants (less than 6 months of age) of various species.

Group 2—capuchins, squirrel monkeys and similar size species, and juveniles (6 months to 3 years of age) of various species.

Group 3—macaques and African species.

Group 4—male macaques and large African species.

Group 5—baboons and nonbrachiating species larger than 33.0 lbs. (15 kg.).

Group 6—great apes over 55.0 lbs. (25 kg.), except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, and brachiating species.

Group Weight Floor area/animal Height
lbs. (kg.) ft.2 (m2) in. (cm.)
1under 2.2(under 1)1.6(0.15)20(50.8)
22.2-6.6(1-3)3.0(0.28)30(76.2)
36.6-22.0(3-10)4.3(0.40)30(76.2)
422.0-33.0(10-15)6.0(0.56)32(81.28)
533.0-55.0(15-25)8.0(0.74)36(91.44)
6over 55.0(over 25)25.1(2.33)84(213.36)

(2) Dealers. exhibitors, and research facilities, including Federal research facilities, must provide great apes weighing over 110 lbs. (50 kg) an additional volume of space in excess of that required for Group 6 animals as set forth in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, to allow for normal postural adjustments.

(3) In the case of research facilities, any exemption from these standards must be required by a research proposal or in the judgment of the attending veterinarian and must be approved by the Committee. In the case of dealers and exhibitors, any exemption from these standards must be required in the judgment of the attending veterinarian and approved by the Administrator.

(4) When more than one nonhuman primate is housed in a primary enclosure, the minimum space requirement for the enclosure is the sum of the minimum floor area space required for each individual nonhuman primate in the table in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, and the minimum height requirement for the largest nonhuman primate housed in the enclosure. Provided however, that mothers with infants less than 6 months of age may be maintained together in primary enclosures that meet the floor area space and height requirements of the mother.

(c) Innovative primary enclosures not precisely meeting the floor area and height requirements provided in paragraph (b) of this section, but that do provide nonhuman primates with a sufficient volume of space and the opportunity to express species-typical behavior, may be used at research facilities when approved by the Committee, and by dealers and exhibitors when approved by the Administrator.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0093)

[56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991, as amended at 83 FR 25555, June 4, 2018]

§3.81   Environment enhancement to promote psychological well-being.

Dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities must develop, document, and follow an appropriate plan for environment enhancement adequate to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates. The plan must be in accordance with the currently accepted professional standards as cited in appropriate professional journals or reference guides, and as directed by the attending veterinarian. This plan must be made available to APHIS upon request, and, in the case of research facilities, to officials of any pertinent funding agency. The plan, at a minimum, must address each of the following:

(a) Social grouping. The environment enhancement plan must include specific provisions to address the social needs of nonhuman primates of species known to exist in social groups in nature. Such specific provisions must be in accordance with currently accepted professional standards, as cited in appropriate professional journals or reference guides, and as directed by the attending veterinarian. The plan may provide for the following exceptions:

(1) If a nonhuman primate exhibits vicious or overly aggressive behavior, or is debilitated as a result of age or other conditions (e.g., arthritis), it should be housed separately;

(2) Nonhuman primates that have or are suspected of having a contagious disease must be isolated from healthy animals in the colony as directed by the attending veterinarian. When an entire group or room of nonhuman primates is known to have or believed to be exposed to an infectious agent, the group may be kept intact during the process of diagnosis, treatment, and control.

(3) Nonhuman primates may not be housed with other species of primates or animals unless they are compatible, do not prevent access to food, water, or shelter by individual animals. and are not known to be hazardous to the health and well-being of each other. Compatibility of nonhuman primates must be determined in accordance with generally accepted professional practices and actual observations, as directed by the attending veterinarian, to ensure that the nonhuman primates are in fact compatible. Individually housed nonhuman primates must be able to see and hear nonhuman primates of their own or compatible species unless the attending veterinarian determines that it would endanger their health, safety, or well-being.

(b) Environmental enrichment. The physical environment in the primary enclosures must be enriched by providing means of expressing noninjurious species-typical activities. Species differences should be considered when determining the type or methods of enrichment. Examples of environmental enrichments include providing perches, swings, mirrors, and other increased cage complexities; providing objects to manipulate; varied food items; using foraging or task-oriented feeding methods; and providing interaction with the care giver or other familiar and knowledgeable person consistent with personnel safety precautions.

(c) Special considerations. Certain nonhuman primates must be provided special attention regarding enhancement of their environment, based on the needs of the individual species and in accordance with the instructions of the attending veterinarian. Nonhuman primates requiring special attention are the following:

(1) Infants and young juveniles;

(2) Those that show signs of being in psychological distress through behavior or appearance;

(3) Those used in research for which the Committee-approved protocol requires restricted activity;

(4) Individually housed nonhuman primates that are unable to see and hear nonhuman primates of their own or compatible species; and

(5) Great apes weighing over 110 lbs. (50 kg). Dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities must include in the environment enhancement plan special provisions for great apes weighing over 110 lbs. (50 kg), including additional opportunities to express species-typical behavior.

(d) Restraint devices. Nonhuman primates must not be maintained in restraint devices unless required for health reasons as determined by the attending veterinarian or by a research proposal approved by the Committee at research facilities. Maintenance under such restraint must be for the shortest period possible. In instances where long-term (more than 12 hours) restraint is required, the nonhuman primate must be provided the opportunity daily for unrestrained activity for at least one continuous hour during the period of restraint, unless continuous restraint is required by the research proposal approved by the Committee at research facilities.

(e) Exemptions. (1) The attending veterinarian may exempt an individual nonhuman primate from participation in the environment enhancement plan because of its health or condition, or in consideration of its well-being. The basis of the exemption must be recorded by the attending veterinarian for each exempted nonhuman primate. Unless the basis for the exemption is a permanent condition, the exemption must be reviewed at least every 30 days by the attending veterinarian.

(2) For a research facility, the Committee may exempt an individual nonhuman primate from participation in some or all of the otherwise required environment enhancement plans for scientific reasons set forth in the research proposal. The basis of the exemption shall be documented in the approved proposal and must be reviewed at appropriate intervals as determined by the Committee, but not less than annually.

(3) Records of any exemptions must be maintained by the dealer, exhibitor, or research facility and must be made available to USDA officials or officials of any pertinent funding Federal agency upon request.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0093)

Animal Health and Husbandry Standards

§3.82   Feeding.

(a) The diet for nonhuman primates must be appropriate for the species, size, age, and condition of the animal, and for the conditions in which the nonhuman primate is maintained, according to generally accepted professional and husbandry practices and nutritional standards. The food must be clean, wholesome, and palatable to the animals. It must be of sufficient quantity and have sufficient nutritive value to maintain a healthful condition and weight range of the animal and to meet its normal daily nutritional requirements.

(b) Nonhuman primates must be fed at least once each day except as otherwise might be required to provide adequate veterinary care. Infant and juvenile nonhuman primates must be fed as often as necessary in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices and nutritional standards, based upon the animals' age and condition.

(c) Food and food receptacles, if used, must be readily accessible to all the nonhuman primates being fed. If members of dominant nonhuman primate or other species are fed together with other nonhuman primates, multiple feeding sites must be provided. The animals must be observed to determine that all receive a sufficient quantity of food.

(d) Food and food receptacles, if used, must be located so as to minimize any risk of contamination by excreta and pests. Food receptacles must be kept clean and must be sanitized in accordance with the procedures listed in §3.84(b)(3) of this subpart at least once every 2 weeks. Used food receptacles must be sanitized before they can be used to provide food to a different nonhuman primate or social grouping of nonhuman primates. Measures must be taken to ensure there is no molding, deterioration, contamination, or caking or wetting of food placed in self-feeders.

§3.83   Watering.

Potable water must be provided in sufficient quantity to every nonhuman primate housed at the facility. If potable water is not continually available to the nonhuman primates, it must be offered to them as often as necessary to ensure their health and well-being, but no less than twice daily for at least l hour each time, unless otherwise required by the attending veterinarian, or as required by the research proposal approved by the Committee at research facilities. Water receptacles must be kept clean and sanitized in accordance with methods provided in §3.84(b)(3) of this subpart at least once every 2 weeks or as often as necessary to keep them clean and free from contamination. Used water receptacles must be sanitized before they can be used to provide water to a different nonhuman primate or social grouping of nonhuman primates.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0093)

§3.84   Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

(a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. Excreta and food waste must be removed from inside each indoor primary enclosure daily and from underneath them as often as necessary to prevent an excessive accumulation of feces and food waste, to prevent the nonhuman primates from becoming soiled, and to reduce disease hazards, insects, pests, and odors. Dirt floors, floors with absorbent bedding, and planted areas in primary enclosures must be spot-cleaned with sufficient frequency to ensure all animals the freedom to avoid contact with excreta, or as often as necessary to reduce disease hazards, insects, pests, and odors. When steam or water is used to clean the primary enclosure, whether by hosing, flushing, or other methods, nonhuman primates must be removed, unless the enclosure is large enough to ensure the animals will not be harmed, wetted, or distressed in the process. Perches, bars, and shelves must be kept clean and replaced when worn. If the species of the nonhuman primates housed in the primary enclosure engages in scent marking, hard surfaces in the primary enclosure must be spot-cleaned daily.

(b) Sanitization of primary enclosures and food and water receptacles. (1) A used primary enclosure must be sanitized in accordance with this section before it can be used to house another nonhuman primate or group of nonhuman primates.

(2) Indoor primary enclosures must be sanitized at least once every 2 weeks and as often as necessary to prevent an excessive accumulation of dirt, debris, waste, food waste, excreta, or disease hazard, using one of the methods prescribed in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. However, if the species of nonhuman primates housed in the primary enclosure engages in scent marking, the primary enclosure must be sanitized at regular intervals determined in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices.

(3) Hard surfaces of primary enclosures and food and water receptacles must be sanitized using one of the following methods:

(i) Live steam under pressure;

(ii) Washing with hot water (at least 180 °F (82.2 °C)) and soap or detergent, such as in a mechanical cage washer;

(iii) Washing all soiled surfaces with appropriate detergent solutions or disinfectants, or by using a combination detergent/disinfectant product that accomplishes the same purpose, with a thorough cleaning of the surfaces to remove organic material, so as to remove all organic material and mineral buildup, and to provide sanitization followed by a clean water rinse.

(4) Primary enclosures containing material that cannot be sanitized using the methods provided in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, such as sand, gravel, dirt, absorbent bedding, grass, or planted areas, must be sanitized by removing the contaminated material as necessary to prevent odors, diseases, pests, insects, and vermin infestation.

(c) Housekeeping for premises. Premises where housing facilities are located, including buildings and surrounding grounds, must be kept clean and in good repair in order to protect the nonhuman primates from injury, to facilitate the husbandry practices required in this subpart, and to reduce or eliminate breeding and living areas for rodents, pests, and vermin. Premises must be kept free of accumulations of trash, junk, waste, and discarded matter. Weeds, grass, and bushes must be controlled so as to facilitate cleaning of the premises and pest control.

(d) Pest control. An effective program for control of insects, external parasites affecting nonhuman primates, and birds and mammals that are pests, must be established and maintained so as to promote the health and well-being of the animals and reduce contamination by pests in animal areas.

§3.85   Employees.

Every person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) maintaining nonhuman primates must have enough employees to carry out the level of husbandry practices and care required in this subpart. The employees who provide husbandry practices and care, or handle nonhuman primates, must be trained and supervised by an individual who has the knowledge, background, and experience in proper husbandry and care of nonhuman primates to supervise others. The employer must be certain that the supervisor can perform to these standards.

Transportation Standards

§3.86   Consignments to carriers and intermediate handlers.

(a) Carriers and intermediate handlers must not accept a nonhuman primate for transport in commerce more than 4 hours before the scheduled departure time of the primary conveyance on which the animal is to be transported. However, a carrier or intermediate handler may agree with anyone consigning a nonhuman primate to extend this time by up to 2 hours.

(b) Carriers and intermediate handlers must not accept a nonhuman primate for transport in commerce unless they are provided with the name, address, telephone number, and telex number, if applicable, of the consignee.

(c) Carriers and intermediate handlers must not accept a nonhuman primate for transport in commerce unless the consignor certifies in writing to the carrier or intermediate handler that the nonhuman primate was offered food and water during the 4 hours before delivery to the carrier or intermediate handler. The certification must be securely attached to the outside of the primary enclosure in a manner that makes it easily noticed and read. Instructions for no food or water are not acceptable unless directed by the attending veterinarian. Instructions must be in compliance with §3.89 of this subpart. The certification must include the following information for each nonhuman primate:

(1) The consignor's name and address;

(2) The species of nonhuman primate;

(3) The time and date the animal was last fed and watered and the specific instructions for the next feeding(s) and watering(s) for a 24-hour period; and

(4) The consignor's signature and the date and time the certification was signed.

(d) Carriers and intermediate handlers must not accept a nonhuman primate for transport in commerce unless the primary enclosure meets the requirements of §3.87 of this subpart. A carrier or intermediate handler must not accept a nonhuman primate for transport if the primary enclosure is obviously defective or damaged and cannot reasonably be expected to safely and comfortably contain the nonhuman primate without suffering or injury.

(e) Carriers and intermediate handlers must not accept a nonhuman primate for transport in commerce unless their animal holding area facilities meet the minimum temperature requirements provided in §§3.91 and 3.92 of this subpart, or unless the consignor provides them with a certificate signed by a veterinarian and dated no more than 10 days before delivery of the animal to the carrier or intermediate handler for transport in commerce, certifying that the animal is acclimated to temperatures lower than those that are required in §§3.91 and 3.92 of this subpart. Even if the carrier or intermediate handler receives this certification, the temperatures the nonhuman primate is exposed to while in the carrier's or intermediate handler's custody must not be lower than the minimum temperature specified by the veterinarian in accordance with paragraph (e)(4) of this section, and must be reasonably within the generally and professionally accepted temperature range for the nonhuman primate, as determined by the veterinarian, considering its age, condition, and species. A copy of the certification must accompany the nonhuman primate to its destination and must include the following information for each primary enclosure:

(1) The consignor's name and address;

(2) The number of nonhuman primates contained in the primary enclosure;

(3) The species of nonhuman primate contained in the primary enclosure;

(4) A statement by a veterinarian that to the best of his or her knowledge, each of the nonhuman primates contained in the primary enclosure is acclimated to air temperatures lower than 50 °F (10 °C), but not lower than a minimum temperature specified on the certificate based on the generally and professionally accepted temperature range for the nonhuman primate, considering its age, condition, and species; and

(5) The veterinarian's signature and the date the certification was signed.

(f) When a primary enclosure containing a nonhuman primate has arrived at the animal holding area of a terminal facility after transport, the carrier or intermediate handler must attempt to notify the consignee upon arrival and at least once in every 6-hour period after arrival. The time, date, and method of all attempted notifications and the actual notification of the consignee, and the name of the person who notifies or attempts to notify the consignee must be written either on the carrier's or intermediate handler's copy of the shipping document or on the copy that accompanies the primary enclosure. If the consignee cannot be notified within 24 hours after the nonhuman primate has arrived at the terminal facility, the carrier or intermediate handler must return the animal to the consignor or to whomever the consignor designates. If the consignee is notified of the arrival and does not take physical delivery of the nonhuman primate within 48 hours after arrival of the nonhuman primate, the carrier or intermediate handler must return the animal to the consignor or to whomever the consignor designates. The carrier or intermediate handler must continue to provide proper care, feeding, and housing to the nonhuman primate, and maintain the nonhuman primate in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices until the consignee accepts delivery of the nonhuman primate or until it is returned to the consignor or to whomever the consignor designates. The carrier or intermediate handler must obligate the consignor to reimburse the carrier or intermediate handler for the cost of return transportation and care.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0093)

§3.87   Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) must not transport or deliver for transport in commerce a nonhuman primate unless it is contained in a primary enclosure, such as a compartment, transport cage, carton, or crate, and the following requirements are met:

(a) Construction of primary enclosures. Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates may be connected or attached to each other and must be constructed so that:

(1) The primary enclosure is strong enough to contain the nonhuman primate securely and comfortably and to withstand the normal rigors of transportation;

(2) The interior of the enclosure has no sharp points or edges and no protrusions that could injure the animal contained in it;

(3) The nonhuman primate is at all times securely contained within the enclosure and cannot put any part of its body outside the enclosure in a way that could result in injury to the animal, or to persons or animals nearby;

(4) The nonhuman primate can be easily and quickly removed from the enclosure in an emergency;

(5) The doors or other closures that provide access into the enclosure are secured with animal-proof devices that prevent accidental opening of the enclosure, including opening by the nonhuman primate;

(6) Unless the enclosure is permanently affixed to the conveyance, adequate devices such as handles or handholds are provided on its exterior, and enable the enclosure to be lifted without tilting it, and ensure that anyone handling the enclosure will not come into physical contact with the animal contained inside;

(7) Any material, treatment, paint, preservative, or other chemical used in or on the enclosure is nontoxic to the animal and not harmful to the health or well-being of the animal;

(8) Proper ventilation is provided to the nonhuman primate in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section;

(9) Ventilation openings are covered with bars, wire mesh, or smooth expanded metal having air spaces; and

(10) The primary enclosure has a solid, leak-proof bottom, or a removable, leak-proof collection tray under a slatted or wire mesh floor that prevents seepage of waste products, such as excreta and body fluids, outside of the enclosure. If a slatted or wire mesh floor is used in the enclosure, it must be designed and constructed so that the animal cannot put any part of its body between the slats or through the holes in the mesh. It must contain enough previously unused litter to absorb and cover excreta. The litter must be of a suitably absorbent material that is safe and nontoxic to the nonhuman primate and is appropriate for the species transported in the primary enclosure.

(b) Cleaning of primary enclosures. A primary enclosure used to hold or transport nonhuman primates in commerce must be cleaned and sanitized before each use in accordance with the methods provided in §3.84(b)(3) of this subpart.

(c) Ventilation. (1) If the primary enclosure is movable, ventilation openings must be constructed in one of the following ways:

(i) If ventilation openings are located on two opposite walls of the primary enclosure, the openings on each wall must be at least 16 percent of the total surface area of each such wall and be located above the midline of the enclosure; or

(ii) If ventilation openings are located on all four walls of the primary enclosure, the openings on every wall must be at least 8 percent of the total surface area of each such wall and be located above the midline of the enclosure.

(2) Unless the primary enclosure is permanently affixed to the conveyance, projecting rims or similar devices must be located on the exterior of each enclosure wall having a ventilation opening, in order to prevent obstruction of the openings. The projecting rims or similar devices must be large enough to provide a minimum air circulation space of 0.75 inches (1.9 centimeters) between the primary enclosure and anything the enclosure is placed against.

(3) If a primary enclosure is permanently affixed to the primary conveyance so that there is only a front ventilation opening for the enclosure, the primary enclosure must be affixed to the primary conveyance in such a way that the front ventilation opening cannot be blocked, and the front ventilation opening must open directly to an unobstructed aisle or passageway inside of the conveyance. The ventilation opening must be at least 90 percent of the total area of the front wall of the enclosure, and must be covered with bars, wire mesh, or smooth expanded metal having air spaces.

(d) Compatibility. (1) Only one live nonhuman primate may be transported in a primary enclosure, except as follows:

(i) A mother and her nursing infant may be transported together;

(ii) An established male-female pair or family group may be transported together, except that a female in estrus must not be transported with a male nonhuman primate;

(iii) A compatible pair of juveniles of the same species that have not reached puberty may be transported together.

(2) Nonhuman primates of different species must not be transported in adjacent or connecting primary enclosures.

(e) Space requirements. Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates must be large enough so that each animal contained in the primary enclosure has enough space to turn around freely in a normal manner and to sit in an upright, hands down position without its head touching the top of the enclosure. However, certain larger species may be restricted in their movements, in accordance with professionally accepted standards of care, when greater freedom of movement would be dangerous to the animal, its handler, or to other persons.

(f) Marking and labeling. Primary enclosures, other than those that are permanently affixed to a conveyance, must be clearly marked in English on the top and on one or more sides with the words “Wild Animals,” or “Live Animals,” in letters at least 1 inch (2.5 cm.) high, and with arrows or other markings to indicate the correct upright position of the primary enclosure. Permanently affixed primary enclosures must be clearly marked in English with the words “Wild Animals” or “Live Animals,” in the same manner.

(g) Accompanying documents and records. Shipping documents that must accompany shipments of nonhuman primates may be held by the operator of the primary conveyance, for surface transportation only, or must be securely attached in a readily accessible manner to the outside of any primary enclosure that is part of the shipment, in a manner that allows them to be detached for examination and securely reattached, such as in a pocket or sleeve. Instructions for administration of drugs, medication, and other special care must be attached to each primary enclosure in a manner that makes them easy to notice, to detach for examination, and to reattach securely. Food and water instructions must be attached in accordance with §3.86(c) of this subpart.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0093)

§3.88   Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

(a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used to transport nonhuman primates must be designed, constructed, and maintained in a manner that at all times protects the health and well-being of the animals transported in it, ensures their safety and comfort, and prevents the entry of engine exhaust from the primary conveyance during transportation.

(b) The animal cargo space must have a supply of air that is sufficient for the normal breathing of all the animals being transported in it.

(c) Each primary enclosure containing nonhuman primates must be positioned in the animal cargo space in a manner that provides protection from the elements and that allows each nonhuman primate enough air for normal breathing.

(d) During air transportation, the ambient temperature inside a primary conveyance used to transport nonhuman primates must be maintained at a level that ensures the health and well-being of the species housed, in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices, at all times a nonhuman primate is present.

(e) During surface transportation, the ambient temperature inside a primary conveyance used to transport nonhuman primates must be maintained between 45 °F (7.2 °C) and 85 °F (30 °C) at all times a nonhuman primate is present.

(f) A primary enclosure containing a nonhuman primate must be placed far enough away from animals that are predators or natural enemies of nonhuman primates, whether the other animals are in primary enclosures or not, so that the nonhuman primate cannot touch or see the other animals.

(g) Primary enclosures must be positioned in the primary conveyance in a manner that allows the nonhuman primates to be quickly and easily removed from the primary conveyance in an emergency.

(h) The interior of the animal cargo space must be kept clean

(i) Nonhuman primates must not be transported with any material, substance (e.g., dry ice), or device in a manner that may reasonably be expected to harm the nonhuman primates or cause inhumane conditions.

§3.89   Food and water requirements.

(a) Each nonhuman primate that is 1 year of age or more must be offered food5 at least once every 24 hours. Each nonhuman primate that is less than 1 year of age must be offered food at least once every 12 hours. Each nonhuman primate must be offered potable water at least once every 12 hours. These time periods apply to dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities, including Federal research facilities, who transport nonhuman primates in their own primary conveyances, starting from the time the nonhuman primate was last offered food and potable water before transportation was begun. These time periods apply to carriers and intermediate handlers starting from the date and time stated on the certification provided under §3.86(c) of this subpart. Each nonhuman primate must be offered food and potable water within 4 hours before being transported in commerce. Consignors who are subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) must certify that each nonhuman primate was offered food and potable water within the 4 hours preceding delivery of the nonhuman primate to a carrier or intermediate handler for transportation in commerce, and must certify the date and time the food and potable water was offered, in accordance with §3.86(c) of this subpart.

5Proper food for purposes of this section is described in §3.82 of this subpart, with the necessities and circumstances of the mode of travel taken into account.

(b) Any dealer, exhibitor, or research facility, including a Federal research facility, offering a nonhuman primate to a carrier or intermediate handler for transportation in commerce must securely attach to the outside of the primary enclosure used for transporting the nonhuman primate, written instructions for a 24-hour period for the in-transit food and water requirements of the nonhuman primate(s) contained in the enclosure. The instructions must be attached in a manner that makes them easily noticed and read.

(c) Food and water receptacles must be securely attached inside the primary enclosure and placed so that the receptacles can be filled from outside of the enclosure without opening the door. Food and water receptacles must be designed, constructed, and installed so that a nonhuman primate cannot leave the primary enclosure through the food or water opening.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0093)

§3.90   Care in transit.

(a) Surface transportation (ground and water). Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) transporting nonhuman primates in commerce must ensure that the operator of the conveyance or a person accompanying the operator of the conveyance observes the nonhuman primates as often as circumstances allow, but not less than once every 4 hours, to make sure that they have sufficient air for normal breathing, that the ambient temperature is within the limits provided in §3.88(d) of this subpart, and that all other applicable standards of this subpart are being complied with. The regulated person transporting the nonhuman primates must ensure that the operator or the person accompanying the operator determines whether any of the nonhuman primates are in obvious physical distress, and obtains any veterinary care needed for the nonhuman primates at the closest available veterinary facility.

(b) Air transportation. During air transportation of nonhuman primates, it is the responsibility of the carrier to observe the nonhuman primates as frequently as circumstances allow, but not less than once every 4 hours if the animal cargo area is accessible during flight. If the animal cargo area is not accessible during flight, the carrier must observe the nonhuman primates whenever they are loaded and unloaded and whenever the animal cargo space is otherwise accessible to make sure that the nonhuman primates have sufficient air for normal breathing, that the ambient temperature is within the limits provided in §3.88(d) of this subpart, and that all other applicable standards of this subpart are being complied with. The carrier must determine whether any of the nonhuman primates is in obvious physical distress, and arrange for any needed veterinary care for the nonhuman primates as soon as possible.

(c) If a nonhuman primate is obviously ill, injured, or in physical distress, it must not be transported in commerce, except to receive veterinary care for the condition.

(d) During transportation in commerce, a nonhuman primate must not be removed from its primary enclosure unless it is placed in another primary enclosure or a facility that meets the requirements of §3.80 or §3.87 of this subpart. Only persons who are experienced and authorized by the shipper, or authorized by the consignor or the consignee upon delivery, if the animal is consigned for transportation, may remove nonhuman primates from their primary enclosure during transportation in commerce, unless required for the health or well-being of the animal.

(e) The transportation regulations contained in this subpart must be complied with until a consignee takes physical delivery of the animal if the animal is consigned for transportation, or until the animal is returned to the consignor.

§3.91   Terminal facilities.

(a) Placement. Any persons subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts l, 2, and 3) must not commingle shipments of nonhuman primates with inanimate cargo or with other animals in animal holding areas of terminal facilities. Nonhuman primates must not be placed near any other animals, including other species of nonhuman primates, and must not be able to touch or see any other animals, including other species of nonhuman primates.

(b) Cleaning, sanitization, and pest control. All animal holding areas of terminal facilities must be cleaned and sanitized in a manner prescribed in §3.84(b)(3) of this subpart, as often as necessary to prevent an accumulation of debris or excreta and to minimize vermin infestation and disease hazards. Terminal facilities must follow an effective program in all animal holding areas for the control of insects, ectoparasites, and birds and mammals that are pests of nonhuman primates.

(c) Ventilation. Ventilation must be provided in any animal holding area in a terminal facility containing nonhuman primates by means of windows, doors, vents, or air conditioning. The air must be circulated by fans, blowers, or air conditioning so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation. Auxiliary ventilation, such as exhaust fans, vents, fans, blowers, or air conditioning, must be used in any animal holding area containing nonhuman primates when the ambient temperature is 85 °F (29.5 °C) or higher.

(d) Temperature. The ambient temperature in an animal holding area containing nonhuman primates must not fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C) or rise above 85 °F (29.5 °C) for more than four consecutive hours at any time nonhuman primates are present. The ambient temperature must be measured in the animal holding area by the carrier, intermediate handler, or a person transporting nonhuman primates who is subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3), outside any primary enclosure containing a nonhuman primate at a point not more than 3 feet (0.91 m.) away from an outside wall of the primary enclosure, on a level that is even with the enclosure and approximately midway up the side of the enclosure.

(e) Shelter. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts l, 2, and 3) holding a nonhuman primate in an animal holding area of a terminal facility must provide the following:

(1) Shelter from sunlight and extreme heat. Shade must be provided that is sufficient to protect the nonhuman primate from the direct rays of the sun.

(2) Shelter from rain or snow. Sufficient protection must be provided to allow nonhuman primates to remain dry during rain, snow, and other precipitation.

(f) Duration. The length of time any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) can hold a nonhuman primate in an animal holding area of a terminal facility upon arrival is the same as that provided in §3.86(f) of this subpart.

§3.92   Handling.

(a) Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) who moves (including loading and unloading) nonhuman primates within, to, or from the animal holding area of a terminal facility or a primary conveyance must do so as quickly and efficiently as possible, and must provide the following during movement of the nonhuman primate:

(1) Shelter from sunlight and extreme heat. Sufficient shade must be provided to protect the nonhuman primate from the direct rays of the sun. A nonhuman primate must not be exposed to an ambient temperature above 85 °F (29.5 °C) for a period of more than 45 minutes while being moved to or from a primary conveyance or a terminal facility, The ambient temperature must be measured in the manner provided in §3.91(d) of this subpart.

(2) Shelter from rain or snow. Sufficient protection must be provided to allow nonhuman primates to remain dry during rain, snow, and other precipitation.

(3) Shelter from cold temperatures. Transporting devices on which nonhuman primates are placed to move them must be covered to protect the animals when the outdoor temperature falls below 45 °F (7.2 °C). A nonhuman primate must not be exposed to an ambient air temperature below 45 °F (7.2 °C) for a period of more than 45 minutes, unless it is accompanied by a certificate of acclimation to lower temperatures as provided in §3.86(e) of this subpart. The ambient temperature must be measured in the manner provided in §3.91(d) of this subpart.

(b) Any person handling a primary enclosure containing a nonhuman primate must use care and must avoid causing physical harm or distress to the nonhuman primate.

(1) A primary enclosure containing a nonhuman primate must not be placed on unattended conveyor belts or on elevated conveyor belts, such as baggage claim conveyor belts and inclined conveyor ramps that lead to baggage claim areas, at any time; except that a primary enclosure may be placed on inclined conveyor ramps used to load and unload aircraft if an attendant is present at each end of the conveyor belt.

(2) A primary enclosure containing a nonhuman primate must not be tossed, dropped, or needlessly tilted, and must not be stacked in a manner that may reasonably be expected to result in its falling. It must be handled and positioned in the manner that written instructions and arrows on the outside of the primary enclosure indicate.

(c) This section applies to movement of a nonhuman primate from primary conveyance to primary conveyance, within a primary conveyance or terminal facility, and to or from a terminal facility or a primary conveyance.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0093)

Subpart E—Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals

Source: 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979, unless otherwise noted.

Facilities and Operating Standards

§3.100   Special considerations regarding compliance and/or variance.

(a) All persons subject to the Animal Welfare Act who maintain or otherwise handle marine mammals in captivity must comply with the provisions of this subpart, except that they may apply for and be granted a variance,6 by the Deputy Administrator, from one or more specified provisions of §3.104. The provisions of this subpart shall not apply, however, in emergency circumstances where compliance with one or more requirements would not serve the best interest of the marine mammals concerned.

6Written permission from the Deputy Administrator to operate as a licensee or registrant under the Act without being in full compliance with one or more specified provisions of §3.104.

(b) An application for a variance must be made to the Deputy Administrator in writing. The request must include:

(1) The species and number of animals involved,

(2) A statement from the attending veterinarian concerning the age and health status of the animals involved, and concerning whether the granting of a variance would be detrimental to the marine mammals involved,

(3) Each provision of the regulations that is not met,

(4) The time period requested for a variance,

(5) The specific reasons why a variance is requested, and

(6) The estimated cost of coming into compliance, if construction is involved.

(c) After receipt of an application for a variance, the Deputy Administrator may require the submission in writing of a report by two experts recommended by the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums and approved by the Deputy Administrator concerning potential adverse impacts on the animals involved or on other matters relating to the effects of the requested variance on the health and well-being of such marine mammals. Such a report will be required only in those cases when the Deputy Administrator determines that such expertise is necessary to determine whether the granting of a variance would cause a situation detrimental to the health and well-being of the marine mammals involved. The cost of such report is to be paid by the applicant.

(d) Variances granted for facilities because of ill or infirm marine mammals that cannot be moved without placing their well-being in jeopardy, or for facilities within 0.3048 meters (1 foot) of compliance with any space requirement may be granted for up to the life of the marine mammals involved. Otherwise, variances shall be granted for a period not exceeding July 30, 1986, Provided, however, That under circumstances deemed justified by the Deputy Administrator, a maximum extension of 1 year may be granted to attain full compliance. A written request for the extension must be received by the Deputy Administrator by May 30, 1986. Consideration for extension by the Deputy Administrator will be limited to unforeseen or unusual situations such as when necessary public funds cannot be allocated in an appropriate time frame for a facility to attain full compliance by July 30, 1986.

(e) The Deputy Administrator shall deny any application for a variance if he determines that it is not justified under the circumstances or that allowing it will be detrimental to the health and well-being of the marine mammals involved.

(f) Any facility housing marine mammals that does not meet all of the space requirements as of July 30, 1984, must meet all of the requirements by September 28, 1984, or may operate without meeting such requirements until action is taken on an application for a variance if the application is submitted to the Deputy Administrator on or before September 28, 1984.

(g) A research facility may be granted a variance from specified requirements of this subpart when such variance is necessary for research purposes and is fully explained in the experimental design. Any time limitation stated in this section shall not be applicable in such case.

[49 FR 26681, June 28, 1984; 63 FR 2, Jan. 2, 1998]

§3.101   Facilities, general.

(a) Construction requirements. (1) Indoor and outdoor housing facilities for marine mammals must be structurally sound and must be maintained in good repair to protect the animals from injury, to contain the animals within the facility, and to restrict the entrance of unwanted animals. Lagoon and similar natural seawater facilities must maintain effective barrier fences extending above the high tide water level, or other appropriate measures, on all sides of the enclosure not contained by dry land to fulfill the requirements of this section.

(2) All marine mammals must be provided with protection from abuse and harassment by the viewing public by the use of a sufficient number of uniformed or readily identifiable employees or attendants to supervise the viewing public, or by physical barriers, such as fences, walls, glass partitions, or distance, or any combination of these.

(3) All surfaces in a primary enclosure must be constructed of durable, nontoxic materials that facilitate cleaning, and disinfection as appropriate, sufficient to maintain water quality parameters as designated in §3.106. All surfaces must be maintained in good repair as part of a regular, ongoing maintenance program. All facilities must implement a written protocol on cleaning so that surfaces do not constitute a health hazard to animals.

(4) Facilities that utilize natural water areas, such as tidal basins, bays, or estuaries (subject to natural tidewater action), for housing marine mammals are exempt from the drainage requirements of paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

(b) Water and power supply. Reliable and adequate sources of water and electric power must be provided by the facility housing marine mammals. Written contingency plans must be submitted to and approved by the Deputy Administrator regarding emergency sources of water and electric power in the event of failure of the primary sources, when such failure could reasonably be expected to be detrimental to the good health and well-being of the marine mammals housed in the facility. Contingency plans must include, but not be limited to, specific animal evacuation plans in the event of a disaster and should describe back-up systems and/or arrangements for relocating marine mammals requiring artificially cooled or heated water. If the emergency contingency plan includes release of marine mammals, the plan must include provision for recall training and retrieval of such animals. Facilities handling marine mammals must also comply with the requirements of §2.134 of this subchapter.

(c) Drainage. (1) Adequate drainage must be provided for all primary enclosure pools and must be located so that all of the water contained in such pools may be effectively eliminated when necessary for cleaning the pool or for other purposes. Drainage effluent from primary enclosure pools must be disposed of in a manner that complies with all applicable Federal, State, and local pollution control laws.

(2) Drainage must be provided for primary enclosures and areas immediately surrounding pools. All drain covers and strainers must be securely fastened in order to minimize the potential risk of animal entrapment. Drains must be located so as to rapidly eliminate excess water (except in pools). Drainage effluent must be disposed of in a manner that complies with all applicable Federal, State, and local pollution control laws.

(d) Storage. Supplies of food must be stored in facilities that adequately protect such supplies from deterioration, spoilage (harmful microbial growth), and vermin or other contamination. Refrigerators and freezers (or chilled and/or iced coolers for under 12 hours) must be used for perishable food. No substances that are known to be or may be toxic or harmful to marine mammals may be stored or maintained in the marine mammal food storage or preparation areas, except that cleaning agents may be kept in secured cabinets designed and located to prevent food contamination. Food, supplements, and medications may not be used beyond commonly accepted shelf life or date listed on the label.

(e) Waste disposal. Provision must be made for the removal and disposal of animal and food wastes, dead animals, trash, and debris. Disposal facilities must be provided and operated in a manner that will minimize odors and the risk of vermin infestation and disease hazards. All waste disposal procedures must comply with all applicable Federal, State, and local laws pertaining to pollution control, protection of the environment, and public health.

(f) Employee washroom facilities. Washroom facilities containing basins, sinks, and, as appropriate, showers, must be provided and conveniently located to maintain cleanliness among employees, attendants, and volunteers. These facilities must be cleaned and sanitized daily.

(g) Enclosure or pool environmental enhancements. Any nonfood objects provided for the entertainment or stimulation of marine mammals must be of sufficient size and strength to not be ingestible, readily breakable, or likely to cause injury to marine mammals, and be able to be cleaned, sanitized, and/or replaced effectively.

[66 FR 251, Jan. 3, 2001, as amended at 77 FR 76824, Dec. 31, 2012]

§3.102   Facilities, indoor.

(a) Ambient temperature. The air and water temperatures in indoor facilities shall be sufficiently regulated by heating or cooling to protect the marine mammals from extremes of temperature, to provide for their good health and well-being and to prevent discomfort, in accordance with the currently accepted practices as cited in appropriate professional journals or reference guides, depending upon the species housed therein. Rapid changes in air and water temperatures shall be avoided.

(b) Ventilation. Indoor housing facilities shall be ventilated by natural or artificial means to provide a flow of fresh air for the marine mammals and to minimize the accumulation of chlorine fumes, other gases, and objectionable odors. A vertical air space averaging at least 1.83 meters (6 feet) shall be maintained in all primary enclosures housing marine mammals, including pools of water.

(c) Lighting. Indoor housing facilities for marine mammals shall have ample lighting, by natural or artificial means, or both, of a quality, distribution, and duration which is appropriate for the species involved. Sufficient lighting must be available to provide uniformly distributed illumination which is adequate to permit routine inspections, observations, and cleaning of all parts of the primary enclosure including any den areas. The lighting shall be designed so as to prevent overexposure of the marine mammals contained therein to excessive illumination.7

7Lighting intensity and duration must be consistent with the general well-being and comfort of the animal involved. When possible, it should approximate the lighting conditions encountered by the animal in its natural environment. At no time shall the lighting be such that it will cause the animal discomfort or trauma.

[44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 63 FR 2, Jan. 2, 1998]

§3.103   Facilities, outdoor.

(a) Environmental temperatures. Marine mammals shall not be housed in outdoor facilities unless the air and water temperature ranges which they may encounter during the period they are so housed do not adversely affect their health and comfort. A marine mammal shall not be introduced to an outdoor housing facility until it is acclimated to the air and water temperature ranges which it will encounter therein. The following requirements shall be applicable to all outdoor pools.

(1) The water surface of pools in outdoor primary enclosures housing polar bears and ice or cold water dwelling species of pinnipeds shall be kept sufficiently free of solid ice to allow for entry and exit of the animals.

(2) The water surface of pools in outdoor primary enclosures housing cetaceans and sea otters shall be kept free of ice.

(3) No sirenian or warm water dwelling species of pinnipeds or cetaceans shall be housed in outdoor pools where water temperature cannot be maintained within the temperature range to meet their needs.

(b) Shelter. Natural or artificial shelter which is appropriate for the species concerned, when the local climatic conditions are taken into consideration, shall be provided for all marine mammals kept outdoors to afford them protection from the weather or from direct sunlight.

(c) Perimeter fence. On and after May 17, 2000, all outdoor housing facilities (i.e., facilities not entirely indoors) must be enclosed by a perimeter fence that is of sufficient height to keep animals and unauthorized persons out. Fences less than 8 feet high for polar bears or less than 6 feet high for other marine mammals must be approved in writing by the Administrator. The fence must be constructed so that it protects marine mammals by restricting animals and unauthorized persons from going through it or under it and having contact with the marine mammals, and so that it can function as a secondary containment system for the animals in the facility when appropriate. The fence must be of sufficient distance from the outside of the primary enclosure to prevent physical contact between animals inside the enclosure and animals or persons outside the perimeter fence. Such fences less than 3 feet in distance from the primary enclosure must be approved in writing by the Administrator. For natural seawater facilities, such as lagoons, the perimeter fence must prevent access by animals and unauthorized persons to the natural seawater facility from the abutting land, and must encompass the land portion of the facility from one end of the natural seawater facility shoreline as defined by low tide to the other end of the natural seawater facility shoreline defined by low tide. A perimeter fence is not required:

(1) Where the outside walls of the primary enclosure are made of sturdy, durable material, which may include certain types of concrete, wood, plastic, metal, or glass, and are high enough and constructed in a manner that restricts entry by animals and unauthorized persons and the Administrator gives written approval; or

(2) Where the outdoor housing facility is protected by an effective natural barrier that restricts the marine mammals to the facility and restricts entry by animals and unauthorized persons and the Administrator gives written approval; or

(3) Where appropriate alternative security measures are employed and the Administrator gives written approval; or

(4) For traveling facilities where appropriate alternative security measures are employed.

[44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979, as amended at 64 FR 56147, Oct. 18, 1999]

§3.104   Space requirements.

(a) General. Marine mammals must be housed in primary enclosures that comply with the minimum space requirements prescribed by this part. These enclosures must be constructed and maintained so that the animals contained within are provided sufficient space, both horizontally and vertically, to be able to make normal postural and social adjustments with adequate freedom of movement, in or out of the water. (An exception to these requirements is provided in §3.110(b) for isolation or separation for medical treatment and/or medical training.) Enclosures smaller than required by the standards may be temporarily used for nonmedical training, breeding, holding, and transfer purposes. If maintenance in such enclosures for nonmedical training, breeding, or holding is to last longer than 2 weeks, such extension must be justified in writing by the attending veterinarian on a weekly basis. If maintenance in such enclosures for transfer is to last longer than 1 week, such extension must be justified in writing by the attending veterinarian on a weekly basis. Any enclosure that does not meet the minimum space requirement for primary enclosures (including, but not limited to, medical pools or enclosures, holding pools or enclosures, and gated side pools smaller than the minimum space requirements) may not be used for permanent housing purposes. Rotating animals between enclosures that meet the minimum space requirements and enclosures that do not is not an acceptable means of complying with the minimum space requirements for primary enclosures.

(b) Cetaceans. Primary enclosures housing cetaceans shall contain a pool of water and may consist entirely of a pool of water. In determining the minimum space required in a pool holding cetaceans, four factors must be satisfied. These are MHD, depth, volume, and surface area. For the purposes of this subpart, cetaceans are divided into Group I cetaceans and Group II cetaceans as shown in Table III in this section.

(1)(i) The required minimum horizontal dimension (MHD) of a pool for Group I cetaceans shall be 7.32 meters (24.0 feet) or two times the average adult length of the longest species of Group I cetacean housed therein (as measured in a parallel or horizontal line, from the tip of its upper jaw, or from the most anterior portion of the head in bulbous headed animals, to the notch in the tail fluke8), whichever is greater; except that such MHD measurement may be reduced from the greater number by up to 20 percent if the amount of the reduction is added to the MHD at the 90-degree angle and if the minimum volume and surface area requirements are met based on an MHD of 7.32 meters (24.0 feet) or two times the average adult length of the longest species of Group I cetacean housed therein, whichever is greater.

8The body length of a Monodon monoceros (narwhale) is measured from the tip of the upper incisor tooth to the notch in the tail fluke. If the upper incisor is absent or does not extend beyond the front of the head, then it is measured like other cetaceans, from the tip of the upper jaw to the notch in the tail fluke. Immature males should be anticipated to develop the “tusk” (usually left incisor tooth) beginning at sexual maturity.

(ii) The MHD of a pool for Group II cetaceans shall be 7.32 meters (24.0 feet) or four times the average adult length of the longest species of cetacean to be housed therein (as measured in a parallel or horizontal line from the tip of its upper jaw, or from the most anterior portion of the head in bulbous headed animals, to the notch in the tail fluke), whichever is greater; except that such MHD measurement may be reduced from the greater number by up to 20 percent if the amount of the reduction is added to the MHD at the 90-degree angle and if the minimum volume and surface area requirements are met based on an MHD of 7.32 meters (24.0 feet) or four times the average adult length of the longest species of Group II cetacean housed therein, whichever is greater.

(iii) In a pool housing a mixture of Group I and Group II cetaceans, the MHD shall be the largest required for any cetacean housed therein.

(iv) Once the required MHD has been satisfied, the pool size may be required to be adjusted to increase the surface area and volume when cetaceans are added. Examples of MHD and volume requirements for Group I cetaceans are shown in Table I, and for Group II cetaceans in Table II.

Table I—Group I Cetaceans1

Representative average adult lengthsMinimum horizontal dimension (MHD)Minimum required
depth
Volume of water required for each additional cetacean in excess of two
MetersFeetMetersFeetMetersFeetCubic metersfeet
1.685.57.32241.8368.11284.95
2.297.57.32241.83615.07529.87
2.749.07.32241.83621.57763.02
3.0510.07.32241.83626.73942.00
3.5111.57.32241.83635.401,245.79
3.6612.07.32241.83638.491,356.48
4.2714.08.53282.13760.972,154.04
5.4918.010.97362.749129.654,578.12
5.6418.511.28372.829.25140.834,970.33
5.7919.011.58382.909.50152.645,384.32
6.7122.013.41443.3611237.508,358.68
6.8622.513.72453.4311.25253.428,941.64
7.3224.014.63483.6612307.8910,851.84
8.5328.017.07564.2714487.7817,232.32

1All calculations are rounded off to the nearest hundredth. In converting the length of cetaceans from feet to meters, 1 foot equals .3048 meter. Due to rounding of meter figures as to the length of the cetacean, the correlation of meters to feet in subsequent calculations of MHD and additional volume of water required per cetacean, over two, may vary slightly from a strict feet to meters ratio. Cubic meters is based on: 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 cubic meter.

Table II—Group II Cetaceans1

Representative average adult lengthMinimum horizontal dimension (MHD)Minimum required
depth
Volume of water required for each additional cetacean in excess of four
MetersFeetMetersFeetMetersFeetCubic meters1Cubic feet
1.525.07.32241.83613.28471.00
1.685.57.32241.83616.22569.91
1.836.07.32241.83619.24678.24
2.137.08.53281.83626.07923.16
2.297.59.14301.83630.131,059.75
2.448.09.75321.83634.211,205.76
2.598.510.36341.83638.551,361.19
2.749.010.97361.83643.141,526.04

1Converting cubic feet to cubic meters is based on: 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 of a cubic meter.

Table III—Average Adult Lengths of Marine Mammals Maintained in Captivity1

SpeciesCommon nameAverage adult length
In metersIn feet
Group I Cetaceans:
Balaenoptera acutorostrataMinke whale8.5027.9
Cephalorhynchus commersoniiCommerson's dolphin1.525.0
Delphinapterus leucasBeluga whale4.2714.0
Monodon monocerosNarwhale3.9613.0
Globicephala melaenaLong-finned pilot whale5.7919.0
Globicephala macrorhynchusShort-finned pilot whale5.4918.0
Grampus griseusRisso's dolphin3.6612.0
Orcinus orcaKiller whale7.3224.0
Pseudorca carassidensFalse killer whale4.3514.3
Tursiops truncatus (Atlantic)Bottlenose dolphin2.749.0
Tursiops truncatus (Pacific)Bottlenose dolphin3.0510.0
Inia geoffrensisAmazon porpoise2.448.0
Phocoena phocoenaHarbor porpoise1.685.5
Pontoporia blainvilleiFranciscana1.525.0
Sotalia fluviatilisTucuxi1.685.5
Platanista, all speciesRiver dolphin2.448.0
Group II Cetaceans:
Delphinus delphisCommon dolphin2.598.5
Feresa attenuataPygmy killer whale2.448.0
Kogia brevicepsPygmy sperm whale3.9613.0
Kogia simusDwarf sperm whale2.909.5
Lagenorhynchus acutusAtlantic white-sided dolphin2.909.5
Lagenorhynchus crucigerHourglass dolphin1.705.6
Lagenorhynchus obliquidensPacific white-sided dolphin2.297.5
Lagenorhynchus albirostrisWhite-beaked dolphin2.749.0
Lagenorhynchus obscurusDuskey dolphin2.137.0
Lissodelphis borealisNorthern right whale dolphin2.749.0
Neophocaena phocaenoidesFinless porpoise1.836.0
Peponocephala electraMelon-headed whale2.749.0
Phocoenoides dalliDall's porpoise2.006.5
Stenella longirostrisSpinner dolphin2.137.0
Stenella coeruleoalbaStriped dolphin2.297.5
Stenella attenuataSpotted dolphin2.297.5
Stenella plagiodonSpotted dolphin2.297.5
Steno bredanensisRough-toothed dolphin2.448.0

1This table contains the species of marine mammals known by the Department to be presently in captivity or that are likely to become captive in the future. Anyone who is subject to the Animal Welfare Act having species of marine mammals in captivity which are not included in this table should consult the Deputy Administrator with regard to the average adult length of such animals.

SpeciesCommon nameAverage adult length
In metersIn feet
MaleFemaleMaleFemale
Group I Pinnipeds:
Arctocephalus gazella**Antarctic Fur Seal1.801.205.93.9
Arctocephalus tropicalis**Amsterdam Island Fur Seal1.801.455.94.75
Arctocephalus australis**South American Fur Seal1.881.426.24.7
Arctocephalus pusillis**Cape Fur Seal2.731.838.966.0
Callorhinus ursinus**Northern Fur Seal2.201.457.24.75
Eumetopias jubatus**Steller's Sea Lion2.862.409.47.9
Hydrurga leptonyxLeopard Seal2.903.309.510.8
Mirounga angustirostris**Northern Elephant Seal3.962.4913.08.2
Mirounga leonina**Southern Elephant Seal4.672.5015.38.2
Odobenus rosmarus**Walrus3.152.6010.38.5
Otaria flavescens**South American Sea Lion2.402.007.96.6
Phoca caspicaCaspian Seal1.451.404.754.6
Phoca fasciataRibbon Seal1.751.685.75.5
Phoca largaHarbor Seal1.701.505.64.9
Phoca vitulinaHabor Seal1.701.505.64.9
Zalophus californianusCalifornia Sea Lion2.241.757.35.7
Halichoerus grypus**Grar Seal2.301.957.56.4
Phoca sibiricaBaikal Seal1.701.855.66.1
Phoca groenlandicaHarp Seal1.851.856.16.1
Leptonychotes weddelli**Weddell Seal2.903.159.510.3
Lobodon carcinophagus**Crabeater Seal2.212.217.37.3
Ommatophoca rossi**Ross Seal1.992.136.57.0
Group II Pinnipeds:
Erignathus barbatusBearded Seal2.332.337.67.6
Phoca hispidaRinged Seal1.351.304.44.3
Cystophora cristataHooded Seal2.602.008.56.6

Note. **Any Group I animals maintained together will be considered as Group II when the animals maintained together include two or more sexually mature males from species marked with a double asterisk (**) regardless of whether the sexually mature males from the same species.

SpeciesCommon nameAverage adult length
In metersIn feet
Sirenia:
Dugong dugongDugong3.3511.0
Trichechus manatusWest Indian Manatee3.5111.5
Trichechus inunguisAmazon Manatee2.448.0
Mustelidae:
Enhydra lutrisSea Otter1.254.1

(2) The minimum depth requirement for primary enclosure pools for all cetaceans shall be one-half the average adult length of the longest species to be housed therein, regardless of Group I or Group II classification, or 1.83 meters (6.0 feet), whichever is greater, and can be expressed as d = L/2 or 6 feet, whichever is greater. Those parts of the primary enclosure pool which do not meet the minimum depth requirement cannot be included when calculating space requirements for cetaceans.

(3) Pool volume. A pool of water housing cetaceans which satisfies the MHD and which meets the minimum depth requirement, will have sufficient volume and surface area to hold up to two Group I cetaceans or up to four Group II cetaceans. If additional cetaceans are to be added to the pool, the volume as well as the surface area may have to be adjusted to allow for additional space necessary for such cetaceans. See Tables I, II, and IV for volumes and surface area requirements. The additional volume needed shall be based on the number and kind of cetaceans housed therein and shall be determined in the following manner.

(i) The minimum volume of water required for up to two Group I cetaceans is based upon the following formula:

eCFR graphic ec14no91.010.gif

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When there are more than two Group I cetaceans housed in a primary enclosure pool, the additional volume of water required for each additional Group I cetacean in excess of two is based on the following formula:

eCFR graphic ec14no91.011.gif

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See Table I for required volumes.

(ii) The minimum volume of water required for up to four Group II cetaceans is based upon the following formula:

eCFR graphic ec14no91.012.gif

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When there are more than four Group II cetaceans housed in a primary enclosure pool, the additional volume of water required for each additional Group II cetacean in excess of four is based on the following formula:

Volume = (Average Adult Length)2 × 3.14 × depth

See Table II for required volumes.

(iii) When a mixture of both Group I and Group II cetaceans are housed together, the MHD must be satisfied as stated in §3.104(b)(1), and the minimum depth must be satisfied as stated in §3.104(b)(2). Based on these figures, the resulting volume must then be calculated

eCFR graphic ec14no91.013.gif

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Then the volume necessary for the cetaceans to be housed in the pool must be calculated (by obtaining the sum of the volumes required for each animal). If this volume is greater than that obtained by using the MHD and depth figures, then the additional volume required may be added by enlarging the pool in its lateral dimensions or by increasing its depth, or both. The minimum surface area requirements discussed next must also be satisfied.

(4)(i) The minimum surface area requirements for each cetacean housed in a pool, regardless of Group I or Group II classification, are calculated as follows:

eCFR graphic ec14no91.014.gif

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In a pool containing more than two Group I cetaceans or more than four Group II cetaceans,9 the additional surface area which may be required when animals are added must be calculated for each such animal.

9A pool containing up to two Group I cetaceans or up to four Group II cetaceans which meets the required MHD and depth will have the necessary surface area and volume required for the animals contained therein.

(ii) When a mixture of Group I and Group II cetaceans are to be housed in a pool, the required MHD, depth, and volume must be met. Then the required surface area must be determined for each animal in the pool. The sum of these surface areas must then be compared to the surface area which is obtained by a computation based on the required MHD of the pool.10 The larger of the two figures represents the surface area which is required for a pool housing a mixture of Group I and Group II cetaceans. Pool surfaces where the depth does not meet the minimum requirements cannot be used in determining the required surface area.

10Since the MHD represents the diameter of a circle, the surface area based on the MHD is calculated by use of the following formula:

SA = π × (MHD / 2).2

(iii) Surface area requirements are given in Table IV.

Table IV—Minimum Surface Area Required for Each Cetacean

Average adult length of each cetaceanSurface area required for each cetacean
MetersFeetSq. meters1Sq. feet
1.685.53.3133.62
2.137.05.3657.70
2.297.56.1566.23
2.598.57.9085.07
2.749.08.8695.38
3.0510.010.94117.75
3.5111.514.47155.72
3.6612.015.75169.56
4.2714.021.44230.79
5.4918.035.44381.51
5.6418.537.43403.00
5.7919.039.49425.08
6.7122.052.94569.91
6.8622.555.38596.11
7.3224.063.01678.24
8.5328.085.76923.16

1Square meter = square feet/9 × 0.8361.

(c) Sirenians. Primary enclosures housing sirenians shall contain a pool of water and may consist entirely of a pool of water.

(1) The required MHD of a primary enclosure pool for sirenians shall be two times the average adult length of the longest species of sirenian to be housed therein. Calculations shall be based on the average adult length of such sirenians as measured in a horizontal line from the tip of the muzzle to the notch in the tail fluke of dugongs and from the tip of the muzzle to the most distal point in the rounded tail of the manatee.

(2) The minimum depth requirements for primary enclosure pools for all sirenians shall be one-half the average adult length of the longest species to be housed therein, or 1.52 meters (5.0 feet), whichever is greater. Those parts of the primary enclosure pool which do not meet the minimum depth requirements cannot be included when calculating space requirements for sirenians.

(3) A pool which satisfies the required MHD and depth shall be adequate for one or two sirenians. Volume and surface area requirements for additional animals shall be calculated using the same formula as for Group I cetaceans, except that the figure for depth requirement for sirenians shall be one-half the average adult length or 1.52 meters (5.0 feet), whichever is greater.

(d) Pinnipeds. (1) Primary enclosures housing pinnipeds shall contain a pool of water and a dry resting or social activity area that must be close enough to the surface of the water to allow easy access for entering or leaving the pool. For the purposes of this subpart, pinnipeds have been divided into Group I pinnipeds and Group II pinnipeds as shown in Table III in this section. In certain instances some Group I pinnipeds shall be considered as Group II pinnipeds. (See Table III).

(2) The minimum size of the dry resting or social activity area of the primary enclosure for pinnipeds (exclusive of the pool of water) shall be based on the average adult length of each pinniped contained therein, as measured in a horizontal or extended position in a straight line from the tip of its nose to the tip of its tail. The minimum size of the dry resting or social activity area shall be computed using the following methods:

(i) Group I pinnipeds. Square the average adult length of each pinniped to be contained in the primary enclosure. Add the figures obtained for each of the pinnipeds in the primary enclosure to determine the dry resting or social activity area required for such pinnipeds. If only a single Group I pinniped is maintained in the primary enclosure, the minimum dry resting or social activity area shall be twice the square of the average adult length of that single Group I pinniped. Examples:

(average adult length)2 of 1st Group I pinniped + (average adult length)2 of 2nd Group I pinniped = Total DRA for two pinnipeds

DRA for one pinniped = 2 × (average adult length of Group I pinniped)2

(ii) Group II pinnipeds. List all pinnipeds contained in a primary enclosure by average adult length in descending order from the longest species of pinniped to the shortest species of pinniped. Square the average adult length of each pinniped. Multiply the average adult length squared of the longest pinniped by 1.5, the second longest by 1.4, the third longest by 1.3, the fourth longest by 1.2, and the fifth longest by 1.1, as indicated in the following example. Square the average adult length of the sixth pinniped and each additional pinniped. Add the figures obtained for all the pinnipeds in the primary enclosure to determine the required minimum dry resting or social activity area required for such pinnipeds. If only a single Group II pinniped is maintained in the primary enclosure, the minimum dry resting or social activity area must be computed for a minimum of two pinnipeds.

Examples: DRA for 1 Group II Pinniped = [(Average adult length)2 × 1.5] + [(Average adult length)2 × 1.4]

1st pinniped (avg. adult length)2 × 1.5 = social and DRA required
2nd pinniped (avg. adult length)2 × 1.4 = social and DRA required
3rd pinniped (avg. adult length)1 × 1.3 = social and DRA required
4th pinniped (avg. adult length)2 × 1.2 = social and DRA required
5th pinniped (avg. adult length)2 × 1.1 = social and DRA required
Each pinniped over 5 (avg. adult length)2 = social and DRA required
Total minimum social activity and dry resting area required for all pinnipeds housed in a primary enclosure.

If all the pinnipeds in the primary enclosure are of the same species, the same descending order of calculation shall apply. Example: Hooded seal—average adult length of male = 8.5 feet and female = 6.6 feet. In a primary enclosure containing 2 males and 2 females, the social or DRA required would be the sum of [(8.5)2 × 1.5] + [(8.5)2 × 1.4] + [(6.6)2 × 1.3] + [(6.6)2 × 1.2].

If two or more sexually mature males are maintained together in a primary enclosure, the dry resting or social activity area shall be divided into two or more separate areas with sufficient visual barriers (such as fences, rocks, or foliage) to provide relief from aggressive animals.

(iii) Mixture of Group I and Group II pinnipeds. In a primary enclosure where a mixture of Group I and Group II pinnipeds is to be housed, the dry resting or social activity area shall be calculated as for Group II pinnipeds. The dry resting or social activity area shall be divided into two or more separate areas with sufficient visual barriers (such as fences, rocks, or foliage) to provide relief from aggressive animals.

(3)(i) The minimum surface area of a pool of water for pinnipeds shall be at least equal to the dry resting or social activity area required.

(ii) The MHD of the pool shall be at least one and one-half (1.5) times the average adult length of the largest species of pinniped to be housed in the enclosure; except that such MHD measurement may be reduced by up to 20 percent if the amount of the reduction is added to the MHD at the 90-degree angle.

(iii) The pool of water shall be at least 0.91 meters (3.0 feet) deep or one-half the average adult length of the longest species of pinniped contained therein, whichever is greater. Parts of the pool that do not meet the minimum depth requirement cannot be used in the calculation of the dry resting and social activity area, or as part of the MHD or required surface area of the pool.

(e) Polar bears. Primary enclosures housing polar bears shall consist of a pool of water, a dry resting and social activity area, and a den. A minimum of 37.16 square meters (400 square feet) of dry resting and social activity area shall be provided for up to two polar bears, with an additional 3.72 square meters (40 square feet) of dry resting and social activity area for each additional polar bear. The dry resting and social activity area shall be provided with enough shade to accommodate all of the polar bears housed in such primary enclosure at the same time. The pool of water shall have an MHD of not less than 2.44 meters (8.0 feet) and a surface area of at least 8.93 square meters (96.0 square feet) with a minimum depth of 1.52 meters (5.0 feet) with the exception of any entry and exit area. This size pool shall be adequate for two polar bears. For each additional bear, the surface area of the pool must be increased by 3.72 square meters (40 square feet). In measuring this additional surface area, parts of the pool which do not meet minimum depth cannot be considered. The den shall be at least 1.83 meters (6 feet) in width and depth and not less than 1.52 meters (5 feet) in height. It will be so positioned that the viewing public shall not be visible from the interior of the den. A separate den shall be provided for each adult female of breeding age which is permanently housed in the same primary enclosure with an adult male of breeding age. Female polar bears in traveling acts or shows must be provided a den when pregnancy has been determined.

(f) Sea otters. (1) Primary enclosures for sea otters shall consist of a pool of water and a dry resting area. The MHD of the pool of water for sea otters shall be at least three times the average adult length of the sea otter contained therein (measured in a horizontal line from the tip of its nose to the tip of its tail) and the pool shall be not less than .91 meters (3.0 feet) deep. When more than two sea otters are housed in the same primary enclosure, additional dry resting area as well as pool volume is required to accommodate the additional sea otters. (See Table V).

(2) The minimum volume of water required for a primary enclosure pool for sea otters shall be based on the sea otter's average adult length. The minimum volume of water required in the pool shall be computed using the following method: Multiply the square of the sea otter's average adult length by 3.14 and then multiply the total by 0.91 meters (3.0 feet). This volume is satisfactory for one or two otters. To calculate the additional volume of water for each additional sea otter above two in a primary enclosure, multiply one-half of the square of the sea otter's average adult length by 3.14, then multiply by 0.91 meters (3.0 feet). (See Table V).

(3) The minimum dry resting area required for one or two sea otters shall be based on the sea otter's average adult length. The minimum dry resting area for one or two sea otters shall be computed using the following method: Square the average adult length of the sea otter and multiply the total by 3.14. When the enclosure is to contain more than two sea otters, the dry resting area for each additional animal shall be computed by multiplying one-half of the sea otter's average adult length by 3.14. Using 1.25 meters or 4.1 feet (the average adult length of a sea otter), the calculations for additional space will result in the following figures:

Table V—Additional Space Required for Each Sea Otter When More Than Two in a Primary Enclosure

Average adult length of sea otterResting areaPool Volume
MetersFeetSquare metersSquare FeetCubic metersCubic feet
1.254.11.966.442.2379.17

[44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979, as amended at 45 FR 63261, Sept. 24, 1980; 49 FR 26682, 26685, June 28, 1984; 49 FR 27922, July 9, 1984; 63 FR 2, Jan. 2, 1998; 63 FR 47148, Sept. 4, 1998; 66 FR 252, Jan. 3, 2001]

Animal Health and Husbandry Standards

§3.105   Feeding.

(a) The food for marine mammals must be wholesome, palatable, and free from contamination and must be of sufficient quantity and nutritive value to maintain marine mammals in a state of good health. The diet must be prepared with consideration for factors such as age, species, condition, and size of the marine mammal being fed. Marine mammals must be offered food at least once a day, except as directed by the attending veterinarian.

(b) Food receptacles, if used, must be located so as to be accessible to all marine mammals in the same primary enclosure and must be placed so as to minimize contamination of the food they contain. Such food receptacles must be cleaned and sanitized after each use.

(c) Food, when given to each marine mammal individually, must be given by an employee or attendant responsible to management who has the necessary knowledge to assure that each marine mammal receives an adequate quantity of food to maintain it in good health. Such employee or attendant is required to have the ability to recognize deviations from a normal state of good health in each marine mammal so that the food intake can be adjusted accordingly. Inappetence exceeding 24 hours must be reported immediately to the attending veterinarian. Public feeding may be permitted only in the presence and under the supervision of a sufficient number of knowledgeable, uniformed employees or attendants. Such employees or attendants must assure that the marine mammals are receiving the proper amount and type of food. Only food supplied by the facility where the marine mammals are kept may be fed to the marine mammals by the public. Marine mammal feeding records noting the estimated individual daily consumption must be maintained at the facility for a period of 1 year and must be made available for APHIS inspection. For marine mammals that are individually fed and not subject to public feeding, the feeding records should reflect an accurate account of food intake; for animals fed, in part, by the public, and for large, group-fed colonies of marine mammals where individual rations are not practical or feasible to maintain, the daily food consumption should be estimated as precisely as possible.

(d) Food preparation and handling must be conducted so as to assure the wholesomeness and nutritive value of the food. Frozen fish or other frozen food must be stored in freezers that are maintained at a maximum temperature of −18 °C (0 °F). The length of time food is stored and the method of storage, the thawing of frozen food, and the maintenance of thawed food must be conducted in a manner that will minimize contamination and that will assure that the food retains nutritive value and wholesome quality until the time of feeding. When food is thawed in standing or running water, cold water must be used. All foods must be fed to the marine mammals within 24 hours following the removal of such foods from the freezers for thawing, or if the food has been thawed under refrigeration, it must be fed to the marine mammals within 24 hours of thawing.

[66 FR 252, Jan. 3, 2001]

§3.106   Water quality.

(a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained therein.

(b) Bacterial standards. (1) The coliform bacteria count of the primary enclosure pool shall not exceed 1,000 MPN (most probable number) per 100 ml. of water. Should a coliform bacterial count exceed 1,000 MPN, two subsequent samples may be taken at 48-hour intervals and averaged with the first sample. If such average count does not fall below 1,000 MPN, then the water in the pool shall be deemed unsatisfactory, and the condition must be corrected immediately.

(2) When the water is chemically treated, the chemicals shall be added so as not to cause harm or discomfort to the marine mammals.

(3) Water samples shall be taken and tested at least weekly for coliform count and at least daily for pH and any chemical additives (e.g. chlorine and copper) that are added to the water to maintain water quality standards. Facilities using natural seawater shall be exempt from pH and chemical testing unless chemicals are added to maintain water quality. However, they are required to test for coliforms. Records must be kept documenting the time when all such samples were taken and the results of the sampling. Records of all such test results shall be maintained by management for a 1-year period and must be made available for inspection purposes on request.

(c) Salinity. Primary enclosure pools of water shall be salinized for marine cetaceans as well as for those other marine mammals which require salinized water for their good health and well-being. The salinity of the water in such pools shall be maintained within a range of 15-36 parts per thousand.

(d) Filtration and water flow. Water quality must be maintained by filtration, chemical treatment, or other means so as to comply with the water quality standards specified in this section.

§3.107   Sanitation.

(a) Primary enclosures. (1) Animal and food waste in areas other than the pool of water must be removed from the primary enclosures at least daily, and more often when necessary, in order to provide a clean environment and minimize health and disease hazards.

(2) Particulate animal and food waste, trash, or debris that enters the primary enclosure pools of water must be removed at least daily, or as often as necessary, to maintain the required water quality and to minimize health and disease hazards to the marine mammals.

(3) The wall and bottom surfaces of the primary enclosure pools of water must be cleaned as often as necessary to maintain proper water quality. Natural organisms (such as algae, coelenterates, or molluscs, for example) that do not degrade water quality as defined in §3.106, prevent proper maintenance, or pose a health or disease hazard to the animals are not considered contaminants.

(b) Food preparation. Equipment and utensils used in food preparation must be cleaned and sanitized after each use. Kitchens and other food handling areas where animal food is prepared must be cleaned at least once daily and sanitized at least once every week. Sanitizing must be accomplished by washing with hot water (8 °C, 180 °F, or higher) and soap or detergent in a mechanical dishwasher, or by washing all soiled surfaces with a detergent solution followed by a safe and effective disinfectant, or by cleaning all soiled surfaces with live steam. Substances such as cleansing and sanitizing agents, pesticides, and other potentially toxic agents must be stored in properly labeled containers in secured cabinets designed and located to prevent contamination of food storage preparation surfaces.

(c) Housekeeping. Buildings and grounds, as well as exhibit areas, must be kept clean and in good repair. Fences must be maintained in good repair. Primary enclosures housing marine mammals must not have any loose objects or sharp projections and/or edges which may cause injury or trauma to the marine mammals contained therein.

(d) Pest control. A safe and effective program for the control of insects, ectoparasites, and avian and mammalian pests must be established and maintained. Insecticides or other such chemical agents must not be applied in primary enclosures housing marine mammals except when deemed essential by an attending veterinarian.

[66 FR 253, Jan. 3, 2001]

§3.108   Employees or attendants.

(a) A sufficient number of adequately trained employees or attendants, responsible to management and working in concert with the attending veterinarian, must be utilized to maintain the prescribed level of husbandry practices set forth in this subpart. Such practices must be conducted under the supervision of a marine mammal caretaker who has demonstrable experience in marine mammal husbandry and care.

(b) The facility will provide and document participation in and successful completion of a facility training course for such employees. This training course will include, but is not limited to, species appropriate husbandry techniques, animal handling techniques, and information on proper reporting protocols, such as recordkeeping and notification of veterinary staff for medical concerns.

(c) Any training of marine mammals must be done by or under the direct supervision of experienced trainers.

(d) Trainers and handlers must meet professionally recognized standards for experience and training.

[66 FR 253, Jan. 3, 2001]

§3.109   Separation.

Marine mammals, whenever known to be primarily social in the wild, must be housed in their primary enclosure with at least one compatible animal of the same or biologically related species, except when the attending veterinarian, in consultation with the husbandry/training staff, determines that such housing is not in the best interest of the marine mammal's health or well-being. However, marine mammals that are not compatible must not be housed in the same enclosure. Marine mammals must not be housed near other animals that cause them unreasonable stress or discomfort or interfere with their good health. Animals housed separately must have a written plan, approved by the attending veterinarian, developed in consultation with the husbandry/training staff, that includes the justification for the length of time the animal will be kept separated or isolated, information on the type and frequency of enrichment and interaction, if appropriate, and provisions for periodic review of the plan by the attending veterinarian. Marine mammals that are separated for nonmedical purposes must be held in facilities that meet minimum space requirements as outlined in §3.104.

[66 FR 253, Jan. 3, 2001]

§3.110   Veterinary care.

(a) Newly acquired marine mammals must be isolated from resident marine mammals. Animals with a known medical history must be isolated unless or until the newly acquired animals can be reasonably determined to be in good health by the attending veterinarian. Animals without a known medical history must be isolated until it is determined that the newly acquired animals are determined to be in good health by the attending veterinarian. Any communicable disease condition in a newly acquired marine mammal must be remedied before it is placed with resident marine mammals, unless, in the judgment of the attending veterinarian, the potential benefits of a resident animal as a companion to the newly acquired animal outweigh the risks to the resident animal.

(b) Holding facilities must be in place and available to meet the needs for isolation, separation, medical treatment, and medical training of marine mammals. Marine mammals that are isolated or separated for nonmedical purposes must be held in facilities that meet minimum space requirements as outlined in §3.104. Holding facilities used only for medical treatment and medical training need not meet the minimum space requirements as outlined in §3.104. Holding of a marine mammal in a medical treatment or medical training enclosure that does not meet minimum space requirements for periods longer than 2 weeks must be noted in the animal's medical record and the attending veterinarian must provide a justification in the animal's medical record. If holding in such enclosures for medical treatment and/or medical training is to last longer than 2 weeks, such extension must be justified in writing by the attending veterinarian on a weekly basis. In natural lagoon or coastal enclosures where isolation cannot be accomplished, since water circulation cannot be controlled or isolated, separation of newly acquired marine mammals must be accomplished using separate enclosures situated within the facility to prevent direct contact and to minimize the risk of potential airborne and water cross-contamination between newly acquired and resident animals.

(c) Any holding facility used for medical purposes that has contained a marine mammal with an infectious or contagious disease must be cleaned and/or sanitized in a manner prescribed by the attending veterinarian. No healthy animals may be introduced into this holding facility prior to such cleaning and/or sanitizing procedures. Any marine mammal exposed to a contagious animal must be evaluated by the attending veterinarian and monitored and/or isolated for an appropriate period of time as determined by the attending veterinarian.

(d) Individual animal medical records must be kept and made available for APHIS inspection. These medical records must include at least the following information:

(1) Animal identification/name, a physical description, including any identifying markings, scars, etc., age, and sex; and

(2) Physical examination information, including but not limited to length, weight, physical examination results by body system, identification of all medical and physical problems with proposed plan of action, all diagnostic test results, and documentation of treatment.

(e) A copy of the individual animal medical record must accompany any marine mammal upon its transfer to another facility, including contract or satellite facilities.

(f) All marine mammals must be visually examined by the attending veterinarian at least semiannually and must be physically examined under the supervision of and when determined to be necessary by the attending veterinarian. All cetaceans and sirenians must be physically examined by the attending veterinarian at least annually, unless APHIS grants an exception from this requirement based on considerations related to the health and safety of the cetacean or sirenian. These examinations must include, but are not limited to, a hands-on physical examination, hematology and blood chemistry, and other diagnostic tests as determined by the attending veterinarian.

(g)(1) A complete necropsy, including histopathology samples, microbiological cultures, and other testing as appropriate, must be conducted by or under the supervision of the attending veterinarian on all marine mammals that die in captivity. A preliminary necropsy report must be prepared by the veterinarian listing all pathologic lesions observed. The final necropsy report must include all gross and histopathological findings, the results of all laboratory tests performed, and a pathological diagnosis.

(2) Necropsy records will be maintained at the marine mammal's home facility and at the facility at which it died, if different, for a period of 3 years and must be presented to APHIS inspectors when requested.

[66 FR 253, Jan. 3, 2001]

§3.111   Swim-with-the-dolphin programs.

Swim-with-the-dolphin programs shall comply with the requirements in this section, as well as with all other applicable requirements of the regulations pertaining to marine mammals.

(a) Space requirements. The primary enclosure for SWTD cetaceans shall contain an interactive area, a buffer area, and a sanctuary area. None of these areas shall be made uninviting to the animals. Movement of cetaceans into the buffer or sanctuary area shall not be restricted in any way. Notwithstanding the space requirements set forth in §3.104, each of the three areas required for SWTD programs shall meet the following space requirements:

(1) The horizontal dimension for each area must be at least three times the average adult body length of the species of cetacean used in the program;

(2) The minimum surface area required for each area is calculated as follows:

(i) Up to two cetaceans:

eCFR graphic er04se98.022.gif

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(ii) Three cetaceans:

eCFR graphic er04se98.023.gif

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(iii) Additional SA for each animal in excess of three:

eCFR graphic er04se98.024.gif

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(3) The average depth for sea pens, lagoons, and similar natural enclosures at low tide shall be at least 9 feet. The average depth for any manmade enclosure or other structure not subject to tidal action shall be at least 9 feet. A portion of each area may be excluded when calculating the average depth, but the excluded portion may not be used in calculating whether the interactive, buffer, and sanctuary area meet the requirements of paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), and (a)(4) of this section.

(4) The minimum volume required for each animal is calculated as follows:

Volume = SA × 9

(b) Water clarity. Sufficient water clarity shall be maintained so that attendants are able to observe cetaceans and humans at all times while within the interactive area. If water clarity does not allow these observations, the interactive sessions shall be canceled until the required clarity is provided.

(c) Employees and attendants. Each SWTD program shall have, at the minimum, the following personnel, with the following minimum backgrounds (each position shall be held by a separate individual, with a sufficient number of attendants to comply with §3.111(e)(4)):

(1) Licensee or manager—at least one full-time staff member with at least 6 years experience in a professional or managerial position dealing with captive cetaceans;

(2) Head trainer/behaviorist—at least one full-time staff member with at least 6 years experience in training cetaceans for SWTD behaviors in the past 10 years, or an equivalent amount of experience involving in-water training of cetaceans, who serves as the head trainer for the SWTD program;

(3) Trainer/supervising attendant—at least one full-time staff member with at least 3 years training and/or handling experience involving human/cetacean interaction programs;

(4) Attendant—an adequate number of staff members who are adequately trained in the care, behavior, and training of the program animals. Attendants shall be designated by the trainer, in consultation with the head trainer/behaviorist and licensee/manager, to conduct and monitor interactive sessions in accordance with §3.111(e); and

(5) Attending veterinarian—at least one staff or consultant veterinarian who has at least the equivalent of 2 years full-time experience (4,160 or more hours) with cetacean medicine within the past 10 years, and who is licensed to practice veterinary medicine.

(d) Program animals. Only cetaceans that meet the requirements of §3.111(e)(2) and (3) may be used in SWTD programs.

(e) Handling. (1) Interaction time (i.e., designated interactive swim sessions) for each cetacean shall not exceed 2 hours per day. Each program cetacean shall have at least one period in each 24 hours of at least 10 continuous hours without public interaction.

(2) All cetaceans used in an interactive session shall be adequately trained and conditioned in human interaction so that they respond in the session to the attendants with appropriate behavior for safe interaction. The head trainer/behaviorist, trainer/supervising attendant, or attendant shall, at all times, control the nature and extent of the cetacean interaction with the public during a session, using the trained responses of the program animal.

(3) All cetaceans used in interactive sessions shall be in good health, including, but not limited to, not being infectious. Cetaceans undergoing veterinary treatment may be used in interactive sessions only with the approval of the attending veterinarian.

(4) The ratio of human participants to cetaceans shall not exceed 3:1. The ratio of human participants to attendants or other authorized SWTD personnel (i.e., head trainer/behaviorist or trainer/supervising attendant) shall not exceed 3:1.

(5) Prior to participating in an SWTD interactive session, members of the public shall be provided with oral and written rules and instructions for the session, to include the telephone and FAX numbers for APHIS, Animal Care, for reporting injuries or complaints. Members of the public shall agree, in writing, to abide by the rules and instructions before being allowed to participate in the session. Any participant who fails to follow the rules or instructions shall be removed from the session by the facility.

(6) All interactive sessions shall have at least two attendants or other authorized SWTD personnel (i.e., head trainer/behaviorist or trainer/supervising attendant). At least one attendant shall be positioned out of the water. One or more attendants or other authorized SWTD personnel may be positioned in the water. If a facility has more than two incidents during interactive sessions within a year's time span that have been dangerous or harmful to either a cetacean or a human, APHIS, in consultation with the head trainer/behaviorist, will determine if changes in attendant positions are needed.

(7) All SWTD programs shall limit interaction between cetaceans and humans so that the interaction does not harm the cetaceans, does not remove the element of choice from the cetaceans by actions such as, but not limited to, recalling the animal from the sanctuary area, and does not elicit unsatisfactory, undesirable, or unsafe behaviors from the cetaceans. All SWTD programs shall prohibit grasping or holding of the cetacean's body, unless under the direct and explicit instruction of an attendant eliciting a specific cetacean behavior, and shall prevent the chasing or other harassment of the cetaceans.

(8) In cases where cetaceans used in an interactive session exhibit unsatisfactory, undesirable, or unsafe behaviors, including, but not limited to, charging, biting, mouthing, or sexual contact with humans, such cetaceans shall either be removed from the interactive area or the session shall be terminated. Written criteria shall be developed by each SWTD program, and shall be submitted to and approved by APHIS11 regarding conditions and procedures for maintaining compliance with paragraph (e)(4) of this section; for the termination of a session when removal of a cetacean is not possible; and regarding criteria and protocols for handling program animal(s) exhibiting unsatisfactory, undesirable, or unsafe behaviors, including retraining time and techniques, and removal from the program and/or facility, if appropriate. The head trainer/behaviorist shall determine when operations will be terminated, and when they may resume. In the absence of the head trainer/behaviorist, the determination to terminate a session shall be made by the trainer/supervising attendant. Only the head trainer/behaviorist may determine when a session may be resumed.

11Send to Administrator, c/o Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Animal Care, 4700 River Road Unit 84, Riverdale, Maryland 20737-1234.

(f) Recordkeeping. (1) Each facility shall provide APHIS12 with a description of its program at least 30 days prior to initiation of the program, or in the case of any program in place before September 4, 1998, not later than October 5, 1998. The description shall include at least the following:

12See footnote 11 in §3.111(e)(8).

(i) Identification of each cetacean in the program, by means of name and/or number, sex, age, and any other means the Administrator determines to be necessary to adequately identify the cetacean;

(ii) A description of the educational content and agenda of planned interactive sessions, and the anticipated average and maximum frequency and duration of encounters per cetacean per day;

(iii) The content and method of pre-encounter orientation, rules, and instructions, including restrictions on types of physical contact with the cetaceans;

(iv) A description of the SWTD facility, including the primary enclosure and other SWTD animal housing or holding enclosures at the facility;

(v) A description of the training, including actual or expected number of hours each cetacean has undergone or will undergo prior to participation in the program;

(vi) The resume of the licensee and/or manager, the head trainer/behaviorist, the trainer/supervising attendant, any other attendants, and the attending veterinarian;

(vii) The current behavior patterns and health of each cetacean, to be assessed and submitted by the attending veterinarian;

(viii) For facilities that employ a part-time attending veterinarian or consultant arrangements, a written program of veterinary care (APHIS form 7002), including protocols and schedules of professional visits; and

(ix) A detailed description of the monitoring program to be used to detect and identify changes in the behavior and health of the cetaceans.

(2) All SWTD programs shall comply in all respects with the regulations and standards set forth in parts 2 and 3 of this subchapter.

(3) Individual animal veterinary records, including all examinations, laboratory reports, treatments, and necropsy reports shall be kept at the SWTD site for at least 3 years and shall be made available to an APHIS official upon request during inspection.

(4) The following records shall be kept at the SWTD site for at least 3 years and shall be made available to an APHIS official upon request during inspection:

(i) Individual cetacean feeding records; and

(ii) Individual cetacean behavioral records.

(5) The following reports shall be kept at the SWTD site for at least 3 years and shall be made available to an APHIS official upon request during inspection:

(i) Statistical summaries of the number of minutes per day that each animal participated in an interactive session;

(ii) A statistical summary of the number of human participants per month in the SWTD program; and

(6) A description of any changes made in the SWTD program, which shall be submitted to APHIS13 on a semi-annual basis.

13See footnote 11 in §3.111(e)(8).

(7) All incidents resulting in injury to either cetaceans or humans participating in an interactive session, which shall be reported to APHIS within 24 hours of the incident.14 Within 7 days of any such incident, a written report shall be submitted to the Administrator.15 The report shall provide a detailed description of the incident and shall establish a plan of action for the prevention of further occurrences.

14Telephone numbers for APHIS, Animal Care, regional offices can be found in local telephone books.

15See footnote 11 in §3.111(e)(8).

(g) Veterinary care. (1) The attending veterinarian shall conduct on-site evaluations of each cetacean at least once a month. The evaluation shall include a visual inspection of the animal; examination of the behavioral, feeding, and medical records of the animal; and a discussion of each animal with an animal care staff member familiar with the animal.

(2) The attending veterinarian shall observe an interactive swim session at the SWTD site at least once each month.

(3) The attending veterinarian shall conduct a complete physical examination of each cetacean at least once every 6 months. The examination shall include a profile of the cetacean, including the cetacean's identification (name and/or number, sex, and age), weight,16 length, axillary girth, appetite, and behavior. The attending veterinarian shall also conduct a general examination to evaluate body condition, skin, eyes, mouth, blow hole and cardio-respiratory system, genitalia, and feces (gastrointestinal status). The examination shall also include a complete blood count and serum chemistry analysis. Fecal and blow hole smears shall be obtained for cytology and parasite evaluation.

16Weight may be measured either by scale or calculated using the following formulae:

Females: Natural log of body mass = −8.44 + 1.34(natural log of girth) + 1.28(natural log of standard length).

Males: Natural log of body mass= −10.3 + 1.62(natural log of girth) + 1.38(natural log of standard length).

(4) The attending veterinarian, during the monthly site visit, shall record the nutritional and reproductive status of each cetacean (i.e., whether in an active breeding program, pregnant, or nursing).

(5) The attending veterinarian shall examine water quality records and provide a written assessment, to remain at the SWTD site for at least 3 years, of the overall water quality during the preceding month. Such records shall be made available to an APHIS official upon request during inspection.

(6) In the event that a cetacean dies, complete necropsy results, including all appropriate histopathology, shall be recorded in the cetacean's individual file and shall be made available to APHIS officials during facility inspections, or as requested by APHIS. The necropsy shall be performed within 48 hours of the cetacean's death, by a veterinarian experienced in marine mammal necropsies. If the necropsy is not to be performed within 3 hours of the discovery of the cetacean's death, the cetacean shall be refrigerated until necropsy. Written results of the necropsy shall be available in the cetacean's individual file within 7 days after death for gross pathology and within 45 days after death for histopathology.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control numbers 0579-0036 and 0579-0115)

[63 FR 47148, Sept. 4, 1998]

Effective Date Note: At 64 FR 15920, Apr. 2, 1999, §3.111 was suspended, effective Apr. 2, 1999.

Transportation Standards

§3.112   Consignments to carriers and intermediate handlers.

(a) Carriers and intermediate handlers shall not accept any marine mammal that is presented by any dealer, research facility, exhibitor, operator of an auction sale, or other person, or any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States or any State or local government for shipment, in commerce, more than 4 hours prior to the scheduled departure of the primary conveyance on which it is to be transported, and that is not accompanied by a health certificate signed by the attending veterinarian stating that the animal was examined within the prior 10 days and found to be in acceptable health for transport: Provided, however, That the carrier or intermediate handler and any dealer, research facility, exhibitor, operator of an auction sale, or other person, or any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States or any State or local government may mutually agree to extend the time of acceptance to not more than 6 hours if specific prior scheduling of the animal shipment to destination has been made.

(b) Any carrier or intermediate handler shall only accept for transportation or transport, in commerce, any marine mammal in a primary transport enclosure that conforms to the requirements in §3.113 of this subpart: Provided, however, That any carrier or intermediate handler may accept for transportation or transport, in commerce, any marine mammal consigned by any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States having laboratory animal facilities or exhibiting animals or any licensed or registered dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale if the consignor furnishes to the carrier or intermediate handler a certificate, signed by the consignor, stating that the primary transport enclosure complies with §3.113 of this subpart, unless such primary transport enclosure is obviously defective or damaged and it is apparent that it cannot reasonably be expected to contain the marine mammal without causing suffering or injury to the marine mammal. A copy of any such certificate must accompany the shipment to destination. The certificate must include at least the following information:

(1) Name and address of the consignor;

(2) The number, age, and sex of animals in the primary transport enclosure(s);

(3) A certifying statement (e.g., “I hereby certify that the—(number) primary transport enclosure(s) that are used to transport the animal(s) in this shipment complies (comply) with USDA standards for primary transport enclosures (9 CFR part 3).”); and

(4) The signature of the consignor, and date.

(c) Carriers or intermediate handlers whose facilities fail to maintain a temperature within the range of 7.2 °C (45 °F) to 23.9 °C (75 °F) allowed by §3.117 of this subpart may accept for transportation or transport, in commerce, any marine mammal consigned by any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States or of any State or local government, or by any person (including any licensee or registrant under the Act, as well as any private individual) if the consignor furnishes to the carrier or intermediate handler a certificate executed by the attending veterinarian on a specified date that is not more than 10 days prior to delivery of the animal for transportation in commerce, stating that the marine mammal is acclimated to a specific air temperature range lower or higher than those prescribed in §§3.117 and 3.118. A copy of the certificate must accompany the shipment to destination. The certificate must include at least the following information:

(1) Name and address of the consignor;

(2) The number, age, and sex of animals in the shipment;

(3) A certifying statement (e.g., “I hereby certify that the animal(s) in this shipment is (are), to the best of my knowledge, acclimated to an air temperature range of ____”); and

(4) The signature of the attending veterinarian and the date.

(d) Carriers and intermediate handlers must attempt to notify the consignee (receiving party) at least once in every 6-hour period following the arrival of any marine mammals at the animal holding area of the terminal cargo facility. The time, date, and method of each attempted notification and the final notification to the consignee and the name of the person notifying the consignee must be recorded on the copy of the shipping document retained by the carrier or intermediate handler and on a copy of the shipping document accompanying the animal shipment.

[66 FR 254, Jan. 3, 2001]

§3.113   Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale shall offer for transportation or transport, in commerce, any marine mammal in a primary enclosure that does not conform to the following requirements:

(a) Primary enclosures that are used to transport marine mammals other than cetaceans and sirenians must:

(1) Be constructed from materials of sufficient structural strength to contain the marine mammals;

(2) Be constructed from material that is durable, nontoxic, and cannot be chewed and/or swallowed;

(3) Be able to withstand the normal rigors of transportation;

(4) Have interiors that are free from any protrusions or hazardous openings that could be injurious to the marine mammals contained within;

(5) Be constructed so that no parts of the contained marine mammals are exposed to the outside of the enclosures in any way that may cause injury to the animals or to persons who are nearby or who handle the enclosures;

(6) Have openings that provide access into the enclosures and are secured with locking devices of a type that cannot be accidentally opened;

(7) Have such openings located in a manner that makes them easily accessible at all times for emergency removal and potential treatment of any live marine mammal contained within;

(8) Have air inlets at heights that will provide cross ventilation at all levels (particularly when the marine mammals are in a prone position), are located on all four sides of the enclosures, and cover not less than 20 percent of the total surface area of each side of the enclosures;

(9) Have projecting rims or other devices placed on any ends and sides of the enclosures that have ventilation openings so that there is a minimum air circulation space of 7.6 centimeters (3.0 inches) between the enclosures and any adjacent cargo or conveyance wall;

(10) Be constructed so as to provide sufficient air circulation space to maintain the temperature limits set forth in this subpart; and

(11) Be equipped with adequate handholds or other devices on the exterior of the enclosures to enable them to be lifted without unnecessary tilting and to ensure that the persons handling the enclosures will not come in contact with any marine mammal contained inside.

(b) Straps, slings, harnesses, or other devices used for body support or restraint, when transporting marine mammals such as cetaceans and sirenians must:

(1) Be designed so as not to prevent access to the marine mammals by attendants for the purpose of administering in-transit care;

(2) Be equipped with special padding to prevent trauma or injury at critical weight pressure points on the body of the marine mammals; and

(3) Be capable of keeping the animals from thrashing about and causing injury to themselves or their attendants, and yet be adequately designed so as not to cause injury to the animals.

(c) Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals must be large enough to assure that:

(1) In the case of pinnipeds, polar bears, and sea otters, each animal has sufficient space to turn about freely in a stance whereby all four feet or flippers are on the floor and the animal can sit in an upright position and lie in a natural position;

(2) In the case of cetaceans and sirenians, each animal has sufficient space for support of its body in slings, harnesses, or other supporting devices, if used (as prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section), without causing injury to such cetaceans or sirenians due to contact with the primary transport enclosure: Provided, however, That animals may be restricted in their movements according to professionally accepted standards when such freedom of movement would constitute a danger to the animals, their handlers, or other persons.

(d) Marine mammals transported in the same primary enclosure must be of the same species and maintained in compatible groups. Marine mammals that have not reached puberty may not be transported in the same primary enclosure with adult marine mammals other than their dams. Socially dependent animals (e.g., sibling, dam, and other members of a family group) must be allowed visual and olfactory contact whenever reasonable. Female marine mammals may not be transported in the same primary enclosure with any mature male marine mammals.

(e) Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals as provided in this section must have solid bottoms to prevent leakage in shipment and must be cleaned and sanitized in a manner prescribed in §3.107 of this subpart, if previously used. Within the primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals, the animals will be maintained on sturdy, rigid, solid floors with adequate drainage.

(f) Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals, except where such primary enclosures are permanently affixed in the animal cargo space of the primary conveyance, must be clearly marked on top (when present) and on at least one side, or on all sides whenever possible, with the words “Live Animal” or “Wild Animal” in letters not less than 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) in height, and with arrows or other markings to indicate the correct upright position of the container.

(g) Documents accompanying the shipment must be attached in an easily accessible manner to the outside of a primary enclosure that is part of such shipment or be in the possession of the shipping attendant.

(h) When a primary transport enclosure is permanently affixed within the animal cargo space of the primary conveyance so that the front opening is the only source of ventilation for such primary enclosure, the front opening must open directly to the outside or to an unobstructed aisle or passageway within the primary conveyance. Such front ventilation opening must be at least 90 percent of the total surface area of the front wall of the primary enclosure and covered with bars, wire mesh, or smooth expanded metal.

[66 FR 255, Jan. 3, 2001]

§3.114   Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine).

(a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in transporting live marine mammals must be constructed in a manner that will protect the health and assure the safety and comfort of the marine mammals contained within at all times. All primary conveyances used must be sufficiently temperature-controlled to provide an appropriate environmental temperature for the species involved and to provide for the safety and comfort of the marine mammal, or other appropriate safeguards (such as, but not limited to, cooling the animal with cold water, adding ice to water-filled enclosures, and use of fans) must be employed to maintain the animal at an appropriate temperature.

(b) The animal cargo space must be constructed and maintained in a manner that will prevent the ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases in excess of that ordinarily contained in the passenger compartments.

(c) Marine mammals must only be placed in animal cargo spaces that have a supply of air sufficient for each live animal contained within. Primary transport enclosures must be positioned in the animal cargo spaces of primary conveyances in such a manner that each marine mammal contained within will have access to sufficient air.

(d) Primary transport enclosures must be positioned in primary conveyances in such a manner that, in an emergency, the live marine mammals can be removed from the conveyances as soon as possible.

(e) The interiors of animal cargo spaces in primary conveyances must be kept clean.

(f) Live marine mammals must not knowingly be transported with any material, substance, or device that may be injurious to the health and well-being of the marine mammals unless proper precaution is taken to prevent such injury.

(g) Adequate lighting must be available for marine mammal attendants to properly inspect the animals at any time. If such lighting is not provided by the carrier, provisions must be made by the shipper to supply such lighting.

[66 FR 255, Jan. 3, 2001]

§3.115   Food and drinking water requirements.

(a) Those marine mammals that require drinking water must be offered potable water within 4 hours of being placed in the primary transport enclosure for transport in commerce. Marine mammals must be provided water as often as necessary and appropriate for the species involved to prevent dehydration, which would jeopardize the good health and well-being of the animals.

(b) Marine mammals being transported in commerce must be offered food as often as necessary and appropriate for the species involved or as determined by the attending veterinarian.

[66 FR 256, Jan. 3, 2001]

§3.116   Care in transit.

(a) A licensed veterinarian, employee, and/or attendant of the shipper or receiver of any marine mammal being transported, in commerce, knowledgeable and experienced in the area of marine mammal care and transport, must accompany all marine mammals during periods of transportation to provide for their good health and well-being, to observe such marine mammals to determine whether they need veterinary care, and to obtain any needed veterinary care as soon as possible. Any transport of greater than 2 hours duration requires a transport plan approved by the attending veterinarian that will include the specification of the necessity of the presence of a veterinarian during the transport. If the attending veterinarian does not accompany the animal, communication with the veterinarian must be maintained in accordance with §§2.33(b)(3) and 2.40(b)(3) of this chapter.

(b) The following marine mammals may be transported in commerce only when the transport of such marine mammals has been determined to be appropriate by the attending veterinarian:

(1) A pregnant animal in the last half of pregnancy;

(2) A dependent unweaned young animal;

(3) A nursing mother with young; or

(4) An animal with a medical condition requiring veterinary care, that would be compromised by transport. The attending veterinarian must note on the accompanying health certificate the existence of any of the above conditions. The attending veterinarian must also determine whether a veterinarian should accompany such marine mammals during transport.

(c) Carriers must inform the crew as to the presence of the marine mammals on board the craft, inform the individual accompanying the marine mammals of any unexpected delays as soon as they become known, and accommodate, except as precluded by safety considerations, requests by the shipper or his agent to provide access to the animals or take other necessary actions for the welfare of the animals if a delay occurs.

(d) A sufficient number of employees or attendants of the shipper or receiver of cetaceans or sirenians being transported, in commerce, must provide for such cetaceans and sirenians during periods of transport by:

(1) Keeping the skin moist or preventing the drying of the skin by such methods as intermittent spraying of water or application of a nontoxic emollient;

(2) Assuring that the pectoral flippers are allowed freedom of movement at all times;

(3) Making adjustments in the position of the marine mammals when necessary to prevent necrosis of the skin at weight pressure points;

(4) Keeping the animal cooled and/or warmed sufficiently to prevent overheating, hypothermia, or temperature related stress; and

(5) Calming the marine mammals to avoid struggling, thrashing, and other unnecessary activity that may cause overheating or physical trauma.

(e) A sufficient number of employees or attendants of the shipper or receiver of pinnipeds or polar bears being transported, in commerce, must provide for such pinnipeds and polar bears during periods of transport by:

(1) Keeping the animal cooled and/or warmed sufficiently to prevent overheating, hypothermia, or temperature related stress; and

(2) Calming the marine mammals to avoid struggling, thrashing, and other unnecessary activity that may cause overheating or physical trauma.

(f) Sea otters must be transported in primary enclosures that contain false floors through which water and waste freely pass to keep the interior of the transport unit free from waste materials. Moisture must be provided by water sprayers or ice during transport.

(g) Marine mammals may be removed from their primary transport enclosures only by the attendants or other persons capable of handling such mammals safely.

[66 FR 256, Jan. 3, 2001]

§3.117   Terminal facilities.

Carriers and intermediate handlers must not commingle marine mammal shipments with inanimate cargo. All animal holding areas of a terminal facility of any carrier or intermediate handler where marine mammal shipments are maintained must be cleaned and sanitized in a manner prescribed in §3.107 of this subpart to minimize health and disease hazards. An effective program for the control of insects, ectoparasites, and avian and mammalian pests must be established and maintained for all animal holding areas. Any animal holding area containing marine mammals must be ventilated with fresh air or air circulated by means of fans, blowers, or an air conditioning system so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation. Auxiliary ventilation, such as exhaust fans and vents or fans or blowers or air conditioning must be used for any animal holding area containing marine mammals when the air temperature within such animal holding area is 23.9 °C (75 °F) or higher. The air temperature around any marine mammal in any animal holding area must not be allowed to fall below 7.2 °C (45 °F). The air temperature around any polar bear must not be allowed to exceed 29.5 °C (85 °F) at any time and no polar bear may be subjected to surrounding air temperatures that exceed 23.9 °C (75 °F) for more than 4 hours at any time. The ambient temperature must be measured in the animal holding area upon arrival of the shipment by the attendant, carrier, or intermediate handler. The ambient temperature must be measured halfway up the outside of the primary transport enclosure at a distance from the external wall of the primary transport enclosure not to exceed 0.91 meters (3 feet).

[66 FR 256, Jan. 3, 2001]

§3.118   Handling.

(a) Carriers and intermediate handlers moving marine mammals from the animal holding area of the terminal facility to the primary conveyance or from the primary conveyance to the animal holding area of the terminal facility must provide the following:

(1) Movement of animals as expeditiously as possible.

(2) Shelter from overheating and direct sunlight. When sunlight is likely to cause overheating, sunburn, or discomfort, sufficient shade must be provided to protect the marine mammals. Marine mammals must not be subjected to surrounding air temperatures that exceed 23.9 °C (75 °F) unless accompanied by an acclimation certificate in accordance with §3.112 of this subpart. The temperature must be measured and read within or immediately adjacent to the primary transport enclosure.

(3) Shelter from cold weather. Marine mammals must be provided with species appropriate protection against cold weather, and such marine mammals must not be subjected to surrounding air temperatures that fall below 7.2 °C (45 °F) unless accompanied by an acclimation certificate in accordance with §3.112 of this subpart. The temperature must be measured and read within or immediately adjacent to the primary transport enclosure.

(b) Care must be exercised to avoid handling of the primary transport enclosure in a manner that may cause physical harm or distress to the marine mammal contained within.

(c) Enclosures used to transport any marine mammal must not be tossed, dropped, or needlessly tilted and must not be stacked unless properly secured.

[66 FR 257, Jan. 3, 2001]

Subpart F—Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine Mammals

Source: 36 FR 24925, Dec. 24, 1971, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 44 FR 36874, July 22, 1979.

Facilities and Operating Standards

§3.125   Facilities, general.

(a) Structural strength. The facility must be constructed of such material and of such strength as appropriate for the animals involved. The indoor and outdoor housing facilities shall be structurally sound and shall be maintained in good repair to protect the animals from injury and to contain the animals.

(b) Water and power. Reliable and adequate electric power, if required to comply with other provisions of this subpart, and adequate potable water shall be available on the premises.

(c) Storage. Supplies of food and bedding shall be stored in facilities which adequately protect such supplies against deterioration, molding, or contamination by vermin. Refrigeration shall be provided for supplies of perishable food.

(d) Waste disposal. Provision shall be made for the removal and disposal of animal and food wastes, bedding, dead animals, trash and debris. Disposal facilities shall be so provided and operated as to minimize vermin infestation, odors, and disease hazards. The disposal facilities and any disposal of animal and food wastes, bedding, dead animals, trash, and debris shall comply with applicable Federal, State, and local laws and regulations relating to pollution control or the protection of the environment.

(e) Washroom and sinks. Facilities, such as washrooms, basins, showers, or sinks, shall be provided to maintain cleanliness among animal caretakers.

[36 FR 24925, Dec. 24, 1971. Redesignated at 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979, and amended at 44 FR 63492, Nov. 2, 1979]

§3.126   Facilities, indoor.

(a) Ambient temperatures. Temperature in indoor housing facilities shall be sufficiently regulated by heating or cooling to protect the animals from the extremes of temperature, to provide for their health and to prevent their discomfort. The ambient temperature shall not be allowed to fall below nor rise above temperatures compatible with the health and comfort of the animal.

(b) Ventilation. Indoor housing facilities shall be adequately ventilated by natural or mechanical means to provide for the health and to prevent discomfort of the animals at all times. Such facilities shall be provided with fresh air either by means of windows, doors, vents, fans, or air-conditioning and shall be ventilated so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation.

(c) Lighting. Indoor housing facilities shall have ample lighting, by natural or artificial means, or both, of good quality, distribution, and duration as appropriate for the species involved. Such lighting shall be uniformly distributed and of sufficient intensity to permit routine inspection and cleaning. Lighting of primary enclosures shall be designed to protect the animals from excessive illumination.

(d) Drainage. A suitable sanitary method shall be provided to eliminate rapidly, excess water from indoor housing facilities. If drains are used, they shall be properly constructed and kept in good repair to avoid foul odors and installed so as to prevent any backup of sewage. The method of drainage shall comply with applicable Federal, State, and local laws and regulations relating to pollution control or the protection of the environment.

§3.127   Facilities, outdoor.

(a) Shelter from sunlight. When sunlight is likely to cause overheating or discomfort of the animals, sufficient shade by natural or artificial means shall be provided to allow all animals kept outdoors to protect themselves from direct sunlight.

(b) Shelter from inclement weather. Natural or artificial shelter appropriate to the local climatic conditions for the species concerned shall be provided for all animals kept outdoors to afford them protection and to prevent discomfort to such animals. Individual animals shall be acclimated before they are exposed to the extremes of the individual climate.

(c) Drainage. A suitable method shall be provided to rapidly eliminate excess water. The method of drainage shall comply with applicable Federal, State, and local laws and regulations relating to pollution control or the protection of the environment.

(d) Perimeter fence. On or after May 17, 2000, all outdoor housing facilities (i.e., facilities not entirely indoors) must be enclosed by a perimeter fence that is of sufficient height to keep animals and unauthorized persons out. Fences less than 8 feet high for potentially dangerous animals, such as, but not limited to, large felines (e.g., lions, tigers, leopards, cougars, etc.), bears, wolves, rhinoceros, and elephants, or less than 6 feet high for other animals must be approved in writing by the Administrator. The fence must be constructed so that it protects the animals in the facility by restricting animals and unauthorized persons from going through it or under it and having contact with the animals in the facility, and so that it can function as a secondary containment system for the animals in the facility. It must be of sufficient distance from the outside of the primary enclosure to prevent physical contact between animals inside the enclosure and animals or persons outside the perimeter fence. Such fences less than 3 feet in distance from the primary enclosure must be approved in writing by the Administrator. A perimeter fence is not required:

(1) Where the outside walls of the primary enclosure are made of sturdy, durable material, which may include certain types of concrete, wood, plastic, metal, or glass, and are high enough and constructed in a manner that restricts entry by animals and unauthorized persons and the Administrator gives written approval; or

(2) Where the outdoor housing facility is protected by an effective natural barrier that restricts the animals to the facility and restricts entry by animals and unauthorized persons and the Administrator gives written approval; or

(3) Where appropriate alternative security measures are employed and the Administrator gives written approval; or

(4) For traveling facilities where appropriate alternative security measures are employed; or

(5) Where the outdoor housing facility houses only domesticated farm-type animals, such as, but not limited to, cows, sheep, goats, pigs, horses (for regulated purposes), or donkeys, and the facility has in place effective and customary containment and security measures.

[36 FR 24925, Dec. 24, 1971. Redesignated at 44 FR 36874, July 22, 1979, as amended at 64 FR 56147, Oct. 18, 1999; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000; 83 FR 25555, June 4, 2018]

§3.128   Space requirements.

Enclosures shall be constructed and maintained so as to provide sufficient space to allow each animal to make normal postural and social adjustments with adequate freedom of movement. Inadequate space may be indicated by evidence of malnutrition, poor condition, debility, stress, or abnormal behavior patterns.

Animal Health and Husbandry Standards

§3.129   Feeding.

(a) The food shall be wholesome, palatable, and free from contamination and of sufficient quantity and nutritive value to maintain all animals in good health. The diet shall be prepared with consideration for the age, species, condition, size, and type of the animal. Animals shall be fed at least once a day except as dictated by hibernation, veterinary treatment, normal fasts, or other professionally accepted practices.

(b) Food, and food receptacles, if used, shall be sufficient in quantity and located so as to be accessible to all animals in the enclosure and shall be placed so as to minimize contamination. Food receptacles shall be kept clean and sanitary at all times. If self-feeders are used, adequate measures shall be taken to prevent molding, contamination, and deterioration or caking of food.

§3.130   Watering.

If potable water is not accessible to the animals at all times, it must be provided as often as necessary for the health and comfort of the animal. Frequency of watering shall consider age, species, condition, size, and type of the animal. All water receptacles shall be kept clean and sanitary.

§3.131   Sanitation.

(a) Cleaning of enclosures. Excreta shall be removed from primary enclosures as often as necessary to prevent contamination of the animals contained therein and to minimize disease hazards and to reduce odors. When enclosures are cleaned by hosing or flushing, adequate measures shall be taken to protect the animals confined in such enclosures from being directly sprayed with the stream of water or wetted involuntarily.

(b) Sanitation of enclosures. Subsequent to the presence of an animal with an infectious or transmissible disease, cages, rooms, and hard-surfaced pens or runs shall be sanitized either by washing them with hot water (180 F. at source) and soap or detergent, as in a mechanical washer, or by washing all soiled surfaces with a detergent solution followed by a safe and effective disinfectant, or by cleaning all soiled surfaces with saturated live steam under pressure. Pens or runs using gravel, sand, or dirt, shall be sanitized when necessary as directed by the attending veterinarian.

(c) Housekeeping. Premises (buildings and grounds) shall be kept clean and in good repair in order to protect the animals from injury and to facilitate the prescribed husbandry practices set forth in this subpart. Accumulations of trash shall be placed in designated areas and cleared as necessary to protect the health of the animals.

(d) Pest control. A safe and effective program for the control of insects, ectoparasites, and avian and mammalian pests shall be established and maintained.

§3.132   Employees.

A sufficient number of adequately trained employees shall be utilized to maintain the professionally acceptable level of husbandry practices set forth in this subpart. Such practices shall be under a supervisor who has a background in animal care.

§3.133   Separation.

Animals housed in the same primary enclosure must be compatible. Animals shall not be housed near animals that interfere with their health or cause them discomfort.

§§3.134-3.135   [Reserved]

Transportation Standards

Source: Sections 3.136 through 3.142 appear at 42 FR 31569, June 21, 1977, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 44 FR 36874, July 22, 1979.

§3.136   Consignments to carriers and intermediate handlers.

(a) Carriers and intermediate handlers shall not accept any live animals presented by any dealer, research facility, exhibitor, operator of an auction sale, or other person, or any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States or any State or local government for shipment, in commerce, more than 4 hours prior to the scheduled departure of the primary conveyance on which it is to be transported: Provided, however, That the carrier or intermediate handler and any dealer, research facility, exhibitor, operator of an auction sale, or other person, or any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States or any State or local government may mutually agree to extend the time of acceptance to not more than 6 hours if specific prior scheduling of the animal shipment to destination has been made.

(b) Any carrier or intermediate handler shall only accept for transportation or transport, in commerce, any live animal in a primary enclosure which conforms to the requirements set forth in §3.137 of the standards: Provided, however, That any carrier or intermediate handler may accept for transportation or transport, in commerce, any live animal consigned by any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States having laboratory animal facilities or exhibiting animals or any licensed or registered dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale if the consignor furnishes to the carrier or intermediate handler a certificate, signed by the consignor, stating that the primary enclosure complies with §3.137 of the standards, unless such primary enclosure is obviously defective or damaged and it is apparent that it cannot reasonably be expected to contain the live animal without causing suffering or injury to such live animal. A copy of such certificate shall accompany the shipment to destination. The certificate shall include at least the following information:

(1) Name and address of the consignor;

(2) The number of animals in the primary enclosure(s);

(3) A certifying statement (e.g., “I hereby certify that the __ (number) primary enclosure(s) which are used to transport the animal(s) in this shipment complies (comply) with USDA standards for primary enclosures (9 CFR part 3).”); and

(4) The signature of the consignor, and date.

(c) Carriers or intermediate handlers whose facilities fail to meet the minimum temperature allowed by the standards may accept for transportation or transport, in commerce, any live animal consigned by any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States or of any State or local government, or by any person (including any licensee or registrant under the Act, as well as any private individual) if the consignor furnishes to the carrier or intermediate handler a certificate executed by a veterinarian accredited by this Department pursuant to part 160 of this title on a specified date which shall not be more than 10 days prior to delivery of such animal for transportation in commerce, stating that such live animal is acclimated to air temperatures lower than those prescribed in §§3.141 and 3.142. A copy of such certificate shall accompany the shipment to destination. The certificate shall include at least the following information:

(1) Name and address of the consignor;

(2) The number of animals in the shipment;

(3) A certifying statement (e.g., “I hereby certify that the animal(s) in this shipment is (are), to the best of my knowledge, acclimated to air temperatures lower than 7.2 °C. (45 °F.)”); and

(4) The signature of the USDA accredited veterinarian, assigned accrediation number, and date.

(d) Carriers and intermediate handlers shall attempt to notify the consignee at least once in every 6 hour period following the arrival of any live animals at the animal holding area of the terminal cargo facility. The time, date, and method of each attempted notification and the final notification to the consignee and the name of the person notifying the consignee shall be recorded on the copy of the shipping document retained by the carrier or intermediate handler and on a copy of the shipping document accompanying the animal shipment.

[42 FR 31569, June 21, 1977, as amended at 43 FR 21166, May 16, 1978. Redesignated at 44 FR 36874, July 22, 1979, and amended at 44 FR 63493, Nov. 2, 1979]

§3.137   Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.

No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale shall offer for transportation or transport, in commerce, any live animal in a primary enclosure which does not conform to the following requirements:

(a) Primary enclosures, such as compartments, transport cages, cartons, or crates, used to transport live animals shall be constructed in such a manner that (1) the structural strength of the enclosure shall be sufficient to contain the live animals and to withstand the normal rigors of transportation; (2) the interior of the enclosure shall be free from any protrusions that could be injurious to the live animals contained therein; (3) the opernings of such enclosures are easily accessible at all times for emergency removal of the live animals; (4) except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section, there are ventilation openings located on two opposite walls of the primary enclosure and the ventilation openings on each such wall shall be at least 16 percent of the total surface area of each such wall, or there are ventilation openings located on all four walls of the primary enclosure and the ventilation openings on each such wall shall be at least 8 percent of the total surface area of each such wall: Provided, however, That at least one-third of the total minimum area required for ventilation of the primary enclosure shall be located on the lower one-half of the primary enclosure and at least one-third of the total minimum area required for ventilation of the primary enclosure shall be located on the upper one-half of the primary enclosure; (5) except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section, projecting rims or other devices shall be on the exterior of the outside walls with any ventilation openings to prevent obstruction of the ventilation openings and to provide a minimum air circulation space of 1.9 centimeters (.75 inch) between the primary enclosure and any adjacent cargo or conveyance wall; and (6) except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section, adequate handholds or other devices for lifting shall be provided on the exterior of the primary enclosure to enable the primary enclosure to be lifted without tilting and to ensure that the person handling the primary enclosure will not be in contact with the animal.

(b) Live animals transported in the same primary enclosure shall be of the same species and maintained in compatible groups. Live animals that have not reached puberty shall not be transported in the same primary enclosure with adult animals other than their dams. Socially dependent animals (e.g., sibling, dam, and other members of a family group) must be allowed visual and olfactory contact. Any female animal in season (estrus) shall not be transported in the same primary enclosure with any male animal.

(c) Primary enclosures used to transport live animals shall be large enough to ensure that each animal contained therein has sufficient space to turn about freely and to make normal postural adjustments: Provided, however, That certain species may be restricted in their movements according to professionally acceptable standards when such freedom of movement would constitute a danger to the animals, their handlers, or other persons.

(d) Primary enclosures used to transport live animals as provided in this section shall have solid bottoms to prevent leakage in shipment and still be cleaned and sanitized in a manner prescribed in §3.131 of the standards, if previously used. Such primary enclosures shall contain clean litter of a suitable absorbant material, which is safe and nontoxic to the live animals contained therein, in sufficient quantity to absorb and cover excreta, unless the animals are on wire or other nonsolid floors.

(e) Primary enclosures used to transport live animals, except where such primary enclosures are permanently affixed in the animal cargo space of the primary conveyance, shall be clearly marked on top and on one or more sides with the words “Live Animal” or “Wild Animal”, whichever is appropriate, in letters not less than 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) in height, and with arrows or other markings to indicate the correct upright position of the container.

(f) Documents accompanying the shipment shall be attached in an easily accessible manner to the outside of a primary enclosure which is part of such shipment.

(g) When a primary enclosure is permanently affixed within the animal cargo space of the primary conveyance so that the front opening is the only source of ventilation for such primary enclosure, the front opening shall open directly to the outside or to an unobstructed aisle or passageway within the primary conveyance. Such front ventilation opening shall be at least 90 percent of the total surface area of the front wall of the primary enclosure and covered with bars, wire mesh or smooth expanded metal.

[42 FR 31569, June 21, 1977, as amended at 43 FR 21166, May 16, 1978. Redesignated at 44 FR 36874, July 22, 1979]

§3.138   Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

(a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in transporting live animals shall be designed and constructed to protect the health, and ensure the safety and comfort of the live animals contained therein at all times.

(b) The animal cargo space shall be constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent the ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases from the primary conveyance during transportation in commerce.

(c) No live animal shall be placed in an animal cargo space that does not have a supply of air sufficient for normal breathing for each live animal contained therein, and the primary enclosures shall be positioned in the animal cargo space in such a manner that each live animal has access to sufficient air for normal breathing.

(d) Primary enclosures shall be positioned in the primary conveyance in such a manner that in an emergency the live animals can be removed from the primary conveyance as soon as possible.

(e) The interior of the animal cargo space shall be kept clean.

(f) Live animals shall not be transported with any material, substance (e.g., dry ice) or device which may reasonably be expected to be injurious to the health and well-being of the animals unless proper precaution is taken to prevent such injury.

§3.139   Food and water requirements.

(a) All live animals shall be offered potable water within 4 hours prior to being transported in commerce. Dealers, exhibitors, research facilities and operators of auction sales shall provide potable water to all live animals transported in their own primary conveyance at least every 12 hours after such transportation is initiated, and carriers and intermediate handlers shall provide potable water to all live animals at least every 12 hours after acceptance for transportation in commerce: Provided, however, That except as directed by hibernation, veterinary treatment or other professionally accepted practices, those live animals which, by common accepted practices, require watering more frequently shall be so watered.

(b) Each live animal shall be fed at least once in each 24 hour period, except as directed by hibernation, veterinary treatment, normal fasts, or other professionally accepted practices. Those live animals which, by common accepted practice, require feeding more frequently shall be so fed.

(c) A sufficient quantity of food and water shall accompany the live animal to provide food and water for such animals for a period of at least 24 hours, except as directed by hibernation, veterinary treatment, normal fasts, and other professionally accepted practices.

(d) Any dealer, research facility, exhibitor or operator of an auction sale offering any live animal to any carrier or intermediate handler for transportation in commerce shall affix to the outside of the primary enclosure used for transporting such live animal, written instructions concerning the food and water requirements of such animal while being so transported.

(e) No carrier or intermediate handler shall accept any live animals for transportation in commerce unless written instructions concerning the food and water requirements of such animal while being so transported is affixed to the outside of its primary enclosure.

§3.140   Care in transit.

(a) During surface transportation, it shall be the responsibility of the driver or other employee to visually observe the live animals as frequently as circumstances may dictate, but not less than once every 4 hours, to assure that they are receiving sufficient air for normal breathing, their ambient temperatures are within the prescribed limits, all other applicable standards are being complied with and to determine whether any of the live animals are in obvious physical distress and to provide any needed veterinary care as soon as possible. When transported by air, live animals shall be visually observed by the carrier as frequently as circumstances may dictate, but not less than once every 4 hours, if the animal cargo space is accessible during flight. If the animal cargo space is not accessible during flight, the carrier shall visually observe the live animals whenever loaded and unloaded and whenever the animal cargo space is otherwise accessible to assure that they are receiving sufficient air for normal breathing, their ambient temperatures are within the prescribed limits, all other applicable standards are being complied with and to determine whether any such live animals are in obvious physical distress. The carrier shall provide any needed veterinary care as soon as possible. No animal in obvious physical distress shall be transported in commerce.

(b) Wild or otherwise dangerous animals shall not be taken from their primary enclosure except under extreme emergency conditions: Provided, however, That a temporary primary enclosure may be used, if available, and such temporary primary enclosure is structurally strong enough to prevent the escape of the animal. During the course of transportation, in commerce, live animals shall not be removed from their primary enclosures unless placed in other primary enclosures or facilities conforming to the requirements provided in this subpart.

§3.141   Terminal facilities.

Carriers and intermediate handlers shall not commingle live animal shipments with inanimate cargo. All animal holding areas of a terminal facility of any carrier or intermediate handler wherein live animal shipments are maintained shall be cleaned and sanitized in a manner prescribed in §3.141 of the standards often enough to prevent an accumulation of debris or excreta, to minimize vermin infestation and to prevent a disease hazard. An effective program for the control of insects, ectoparasites, and avian and mammalian pests shall be established and maintained for all animal holding areas. Any animal holding area containing live animals shall be provided with fresh air by means of windows, doors vents, or air conditioning and may be ventilated or air circulated by means of fans, blowers, or an air conditioning system so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation. Auxiliary ventilation, such as exhaust fans and vents or fans or blowers or air conditioning shall be used for any animal holding area containing live animals when the air temperature within such animal holding area is 23.9 °C. (75.°F.) or higher. The air temperature around any live animal in any animal holding area shall not be allowed to fall below 7.2 °C. (45 °F.) nor be allowed to exceed 29.5 °C. (85 °F.) at any time: Provided, however, That no live animal shall be subjected to surrounding air temperatures which exceed 23.9 °C. (75 °F.) for more than 4 hours at any time. To ascertain compliance with the provisions of this paragraph, the air temperature around any live animal shall be measured and read outside the primary enclosure which contains such animal at a distance not to exceed .91 meters (3 feet) from any one of the external walls of the primary enclosure and on a level parallel to the bottom of such primary enclosure at a point which approximates half the distance between the top and bottom of such primary enclosure.

[43 FR 56217, Dec. 1, 1978. Redesignated at 44 FR 36874, July 22, 1979]

§3.142   Handling.

(a) Carriers and intermediate handlers shall move live animals from the animal holding area of the terminal facility to the primary conveyance and from the primary conveyance to the animal holding area of the terminal facility as expeditiously as possible. Carriers and intermediate handlers holding any live animal in an animal holding area of a terminal facility or in transporting any live animal from the animal holding area of the terminal facility to the primary conveyance and from the primary conveyance to the animal holding area of the terminal facility, including loading and unloading procedures, shall provide the following:

(1) Shelter from sunlight. When sunlight is likely to cause overheating or discomfort, sufficient shade shall be provided to protect the live animals from the direct rays of the sun and such live animals shall not be subjected to surrounding air temperatures which exceed 29.5 °C. (85 °F), and which shall be measured and read in the manner prescribed in §3.141 of this part, for a period of more than 45 minutes.

(2) Shelter from rain or snow. Live animals shall be provided protection to allow them to remain dry during rain or snow.

(3) Shelter from cold weather. Transporting devices shall be covered to provide protection for live animals when the outdoor air temperature falls below 10 °C. (50 °F) and such live animals shall not be subjected to surrounding air temperatures which fall below 7.2 °C. (45 °F.), and which shall be measured and read in the manner prescribed in §3.141 of this part, for a period of more than 45 minutes unless such animals are accompanied by a certificate of acclimation to lower temperatures as prescribed in §3.136(c).

(b) Care shall be exercised to avoid handling of the primary enclosure in such a manner that may cause physical or emotional trauma to the live animal contained therein.

(c) Primary enclosures used to transport any live animal shall not be tossed, dropped, or needlessly tilted and shall not be stacked in a manner which may reasonably be expected to result in their falling.

[43 FR 21167, May 16, 1978, as amended at 43 FR 56217, Dec. 1, 1978. Redesignated at 44 FR 36874, July 22, 1979]

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