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e-CFR data is current as of February 25, 2021

Title 32Subtitle AChapter ISubchapter M → Part 243

Title 32: National Defense


§243.1   Purpose.
§243.2   Applicability.
§243.3   Definitions.
§243.4   Ratemaking procedures for Civil Reserve Air Fleet contracts.
§243.5   Commitment of aircraft as a business factor.
§243.6   Exclusions from the uniform negotiated rate.
§243.7   Inapplicable provisions of law.
§243.8   Application of FAR cost principles.
§243.9   Carrier site visits.
§243.10   Disputes.
§243.11   Appeals of USTRANSCOM Contracting Officer Decisions regarding rates.
§243.12   Required records retention.

Authority: Section 366 National Defense Authorization Act for FY12 (Pub. L. 112-81)

10 U.S.C. Chap 931, Section 9511a.

Source: 80 FR 30358, May 28, 2015, unless otherwise noted.

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§243.1   Purpose.

The Secretary of Defense (Secretary) is required to determine a fair and reasonable rate of payment for airlift services provided to the Department of Defense (DoD) by civil air carriers and operators (hereinafter collectively referred to as “air carriers”) who are participants in the Civil Reserve Air Fleet program (CRAF). This regulation provides the authority and methodology for such ratemaking and designates the United Stated Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM) as the rate setter for negotiated uniform rates for DoD airlift service contracts in support of the CRAF. This methodology supports a viable CRAF mobilization base that ensures sufficient capacity in time of war, contingency and humanitarian relief efforts.

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§243.2   Applicability.

This section governs all contracts with the Department of Defense where awards to the air carriers, either through individual contracts or teaming arrangements, are commensurate with the relative amount of airlift capability committed to the Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF).

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§243.3   Definitions.

Air carrier. “Air carrier” is defined in 49 U.S.C. 40102(a)(2) as “a citizen of the United States undertaking by any means, directly or indirectly, to provide air transportation.” Specifically to this ratemaking procedure, individuals or entities that operate commercial fixed and rotary wing aircraft in accordance with the Federal Aviation Regulations (14 CFR chapter I) or equivalent regulations issued by a country's Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and which provide air transportation services are included. Commercial air carriers under contract with, or operating on behalf of, the DoD shall have a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) or CAA certificate. The policy contained in this directive applies only to air carriers operating fixed wing aircraft under CRAF international airlift services.

Aircraft class. Distinct categories of aircraft with similar broad characteristics established for ratemaking purposes. These categories include aircraft such as large passenger, medium passenger, large cargo, etc. They are determined by USTRANSCOM and identified in Published Uniform Rates and Rules for International Service Appendix A (Published in FedBizOps).

Civil Reserve Air Fleet International Airlift Services. Those services provided in support of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet contract, whereby contractors provide personnel, training, supervision, equipment, facilities, supplies and any items and services necessary to perform international long-range and short-range airlift services during peacetime and during CRAF activation in support of the Department of Defense (DoD). Implements the Fly CRAF Act. See 49 U.S.C. 41106.

Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) Assured Business Guarantees. See 10 U.S.C. 9515.

Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) Program. The Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) is a wartime readiness program, based on the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended, (50 U.S.C. App. 2601 et seq.), and Executive Order 13603 (National Defense Resource Preparedness), March 16, 2012, to ensure quantifiable, accessible, and reliable commercial airlift capability to augment DoD airlift and to assure a mobilization base of aircraft available to the Department of Defense for use in the event of any level of national emergency or defense-orientated situations. As a readiness program, CRAF quantifies the number of passenger and cargo commercial assets required to support various levels of wartime requirements and thus allows DoD to account for their use when developing and executing contingency operations/war plans. The CRAF is composed of U.S. registered aircraft owned or controlled by U.S. air carriers specifically allocated (by FAA registration number) for this purpose by the Department of Transportation. As used herein, CRAF aircraft are those allocated aircraft, which the carrier owning or otherwise controlling them, has contractually committed to the DoD, under stated conditions, to meet varying emergency needs for civil airlift augmentation of the military airlift capability. The contractual commitment of the aircraft includes the supporting resources required to provide the contract airlift. In return for a commitment to the CRAF program, airlines are afforded access to day-to-day business under various DoD contracts.

Historical Costs. Those allowable costs for airlift services for a 12 month period, gathered from Department of Transportation (DOT) Uniform System of Accounts and Reports (USAR) (hereinafter referred to as “Form 41”) reporting (required by 14 CFR parts 217 and 241).

Long-range aircraft. Aircraft equipped with navigation, communication, and life support systems/emergency equipment required to operate in trans-oceanic airspace, and on international routes, for a minimum distance of 3,500 nautical miles, while carrying a productive payload (75 percent of the maximum payload it is capable of carrying.) Additionally aircraft must be equipped and able to operate worldwide (e.g., in EUROCONTROL and North Atlantic Minimum Navigation Performance Specification airspace and possess the applicable VHF, Mode-S, RNP, and RVSM communication and navigation capabilities.)

Memorandum of Understanding with attachment (MOU). A written agreement between certificated air carriers willing to participate in the CRAF program and USTRANSCOM with the purpose of establishing guidelines to facilitate establishment of rates for airlift services (e.g., passenger, cargo, combi, and aeromedical evacuation.)

Operational data. Those statistics that are gathered from DOT Form 41 reporting, USTRANSCOM reported monthly round trip (S-1) and one-way (S-2) mileage reports, monthly fuel reports or other data deemed necessary by the USTRANSCOM contracting officer.

Participating carriers. Any properly certified and DoD approved air carrier in the CRAF program which complies with the conditions of the MOU and executes a USTRANSCOM contract.

Projected rates. The estimated rates proposed by carriers based upon historical cost and operational data as further described in §243.4(a) through (g).

Ratemaking methodologies. The methodologies agreed to by USTRANSCOM and air carriers in the MOU for the treatment of certain cost elements to determine the estimated price for the DoD for airlift services.

Short-range aircraft. Aircraft equipped for extended over-water operations and capable of flying a minimum distance of 1,500 nautical miles while carrying a productive payload (75 percent of the maximum payload it is capable of carrying).

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§243.4   Ratemaking procedures for Civil Reserve Air Fleet contracts.

The ratemaking procedures contained within this section apply only to Airlift Service contracts awarded based on CRAF commitment. Competitively awarded contracts may be used by the Department of Defense when it considers such contracts to be in the best interest of the government. See §§243.5(b) and 243.6 for exclusions to ratemaking.

(a) Rates of payment for airlift services. USTRANSCOM may utilize the principles contained in the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), as supplemented, in establishing fair and reasonable rate of payments for airlift service contracts in support of CRAF. Specific exceptions to FAR are noted in §243.8 of this rule. To facilitate uniformity within the ratemaking process, USTRANSCOM will execute a MOU with air carriers to institute the basis for methods upon which the rates will be established. An updated MOU will be executed as warranted and published for public comment on FedBizOps. Under the MOU, air carriers agree to furnish historical cost and operational data, as well as their projected rates for the ensuing fiscal year. USTRANSCOM will conduct a review of air carriers' historical and projected costs and negotiate with the carriers to establish rates using ratemaking methodologies contained in the attachment to the MOU.

(b) Obtaining data from participating carriers. USTRANSCOM will annually notify those participating carriers to provide data using the USTRANSCOM cost package and related instructions. The data provided includes pricing data, cost data, and judgmental information necessary for the USTRANSCOM contracting officer to determine a fair and reasonable price or to determine cost realism. Carriers will be provided 60 calendar days to act upon the request.

(c) Analysis. (1) USTRANSCOM will consider carrier reported DOT Form 41 costs as well as other applicable costs directly assigned to performance in USTRANSCOM service. These costs will be reviewed and analyzed by USTRANSCOM for allowability, allocability, and reasonableness. Costs may also be audited by the Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA), as necessary, in accordance with the DCAA Contract Audit Manual 7640.01.

(2) To determine allocation of these costs to USTRANSCOM service, USTRANSCOM considers carrier reported DOT Form 41 operational data, as well as USTRANSCOM S-1, S-2 mileage reports, fuel reports, and other relevant information requested by the contracting officer.

(d) Rates. Rates will be determined by aircraft class (e.g., large passenger, medium passenger, large cargo, etc.) based on the average efficiency of all participating carriers within the specified class. Application of these rates, under varying conditions (e.g., ferry, one-way, etc), are addressed in the Final Rates published in accordance with §243.4(h).

(e) Components of the rate—(1) Return on Investment (ROI). ROI for USTRANSCOM service is intended to adequately compensate carriers for cost of capital. USTRANSCOM will apply a minimum return applied to the carrier's total operating costs. If a full return on investment applied to a carrier's capital investment base is provided in the MOU, the carrier will receive whichever is greater.

(i) Full ROI. The full ROI will be computed using an optimal capital structure of 45 percent debt and 55 percent equity. The cost-of-debt and cost-of-equity are calculated from revenues of major carriers as reported to the Department of Transportation.

(A) Cost-of-Debt (COD). COD will be calculated considering the Risk Free Rate (RFR) plus the weighted debt spread, with the formula as agreed upon in the MOU.

(B) Cost-of-Equity (COE). COE will be determined by a formula agreed upon in the MOU, which considers RFR, weighted betas, annualized equity risk premium and a future expected return premium.

(C) Owned/Capital/Long-Term Leased Aircraft. New airframes and related support parts will receive full ROI on the net book value of equipment at mid-point of forecast year. USTRANSCOM will apply the economic service life standards to aircraft as indicated in paragraph (e)(2) of this section.

(D) Short-term leased aircraft. As a return on annual lease payments, short-term leased equipment will receive the Full ROI less the cost of money rate per the Secretary of the Treasury under Public Law 92-41 (85 Stat. 97), as provided by the Office of Management and Budget, in accordance with the MOU.

(E) Working capital. Working capital will be provided in the investment base at an established number of days provided in the MOU. The investment base will be computed on total operating cash less non cash expenses (depreciation) as calculated by USTRANSCOM.

(ii) Minimum Return. USTRANSCOM will determine minimum return utilizing the Weighted Guidelines methodology as set forth in DFARS Subpart 215.4, Contract Pricing, or successor and as provided in the MOU.

(2) Depreciation. USTRANSCOM will apply economic life standards for new aircraft at 14 years, 2 percent residual (narrowbody) and 16 years and 10 percent residual (widebody) aircraft. USTRANSCOM will apply economic life standards for used aircraft as indicated in the MOU.

(3) Utilization. Utilization considers the number of airborne hours flown per aircraft per day. USTRANSCOM will calculate aircraft utilization in accordance with the DOT Form 41 reporting and the MOU.

(4) Cost escalation. Escalation is the percentage increase or decrease applied to the historical base year costs to reliably estimate the cost of performance in the contract period. Yearly cost escalation will be calculated in accordance with the MOU.

(5) Weighting of rate. Rates will be weighted based upon the direct relationship between contract performance and cost incurred in execution of the contract. The specific weighting will be as defined in the MOU.

(6) Obtaining data from participating carriers. Carriers participating in USTRANSCOM acquisitions subject to ratemaking shall provide, other than certified cost and pricing data for USTRANSCOM, rate reviews as required in the MOU.

(f) Contingency rate. Authority is reserved to the Commander, USTRANSCOM, at his discretion, during conditions such as outbreak of war, armed conflict, insurrection, civil or military strife, emergency, or similar conditions, to use a temporary contingency rate in order to ensure mission accomplishment. Any such temporary rate would terminate at the Commander's discretion upon his determination that such rate is no longer needed.

(g) Proposed rate. Once the data is analyzed and audit findings considered, USTRANSCOM will prepare a package setting forth proposed airlift rates and supporting data. The proposed rates will be approved by the USTRANSCOM contracting officer and posted publicly on FedBizOps for comment. The comment period will be as specified in the proposed rate package.

(h) Final rate. Upon closing of the comment period, comments and supporting rationale will be addressed and individual negotiations conducted between USTRANSCOM and the air carriers. After negotiations have concluded, USTRANSCOM will prepare a rate package setting forth final airlift rates for each aircraft class, along with supporting data consisting of individual carrier cost elements. Comments and disposition of those comments will be included in the final rate package. The final rates will be approved by the USTRANSCOM contracting officer and publicly posted on FedBizOps for use in the ensuing contract.

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§243.5   Commitment of aircraft as a business factor.

For the purpose of rate making, the average fleet cost of aircraft proposed by the carriers for the forecast year is used. Actual awards to CRAF carriers are based upon the aircraft accepted into the CRAF program. The Secretary may, in determining the quantity of business to be received under an airlift services contract for which the rate of payment is determined in accordance with subsection (a) of 10 U.S.C. 9511a, use as a factor the relative amount of airlift capability committed by each air carrier to the CRAF.

(a) Adjustments in commitment to target specific needs of the contract period. The amount of business awarded in return for commitment to the program under a CRAF contract may be adjusted prior to the award of the contract to reflect increased importance of identified aircraft categories (e.g., Aeromedical Evacuation) or performance factors (e.g., flyer's bonus, superior on-time performers, etc.). These adjustments will be identified in the solicitation.

(b) Exclusions of categories of business from commitment based awards. Where adequate competition is available and USTRANSCOM determines some part of the business is more appropriate for award under competitive procedures, the rate-making will not apply. Changes to areas of business will be reflected in the solicitation.

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§243.6   Exclusions from the uniform negotiated rate.

Domestic CRAF is handled differently than international CRAF in that aircraft committed does not factor into the amount of business awarded during peacetime. If domestic CRAF is activated, carriers will be paid in accordance with pre-negotiated prices that have been determined fair and reasonable, not a uniform rate.

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§243.7   Inapplicable provisions of law.

An airlift services contract for which the rate of payment is determined in accordance with subsection (a) of 10 U.S.C. 9511a shall not be subject to the provisions of 10 U.S.C. 2306a, or to the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of 41 U.S.C. 1502. Specifically, contracts establishing rates for services provided by air carriers who are participants in the CRAF program are not subject to the cost or pricing data provision of the Truth in Negotiations Act (10 U.S.C. 2306a) or the Cost Accounting Standards (41 U.S.C. 1502). CRAF carriers will, however, continue to submit data in accordance with the MOU and the DOT, Form 41.

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§243.8   Application of FAR cost principles.

In establishing fair and reasonable rate of payments for airlift service contracts in support of CRAF, USTRANSCOM, in accordance with10 U.S.C. 9511a, procedures differ from the following provisions of FAR Part 31 and DFARS Part 231, as supplemented:

FAR 31.202, Direct Costs

FAR 31.203, Indirect Costs

FAR 31.205-6, Compensation for Personal Services, subparagraphs (g), (j), and (k)

FAR 31.205-10, Cost of Money

FAR 31.205-11, Depreciation

FAR 31.205-18, Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal Costs

FAR 31.205-19, Insurance and Indemnification

FAR 31.205-26, Material Costs

FAR 31.205-40, Special Tooling and Special Test Equipment Costs

FAR 31.205-41, Taxes

DFARS 231.205-18, Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs

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§243.9   Carrier site visits.

USTRANSCOM may participate in carrier site visits, as required to determine the reasonableness or verification of cost and pricing data.

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§243.10   Disputes.

Carriers should first address concerns to the ratemaking team for resolution. Ratemaking issues that are not resolved to the carrier's satisfaction through discussions with the ratemaking team may be directed to the USTRANSCOM contracting officer.

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§243.11   Appeals of USTRANSCOM Contracting Officer Decisions regarding rates.

If resolution of ratemaking issues cannot be made by the USTRANSCOM contracting officer, concerned parties shall contact the USTRANSCOM Ombudsman appointed to hear and facilitate the resolution of such concerns. In the event a ratemaking issue is not resolved through the ombudsman process, the carrier may request a final agency decision from the Director of Acquisition, USTRANSCOM.

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§243.12   Required records retention.

The air carrier is required to retain copies of data submitted to support rate determination for a period identified in Subpart 4.7 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation, Contractor Records Retention.

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