PART 265 - INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES
Authority:

42 U.S.C. 6905, 6906, 6912, 6922, 6923, 6924, 6925, 6935, 6936, 6937, and 6939g.

Source:

45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A - General
§ 265.1 Purpose, scope, and applicability.

(a) The purpose of this part is to establish minimum national standards that define the acceptable management of hazardous waste during the period of interim status and until certification of final closure or, if the facility is subject to post-closure requirements, until post-closure responsibilities are fulfilled.

(b) Except as provided in § 265.1080(b), the standards of this part, and of 40 CFR 264.552, 264.553, and 264.554, apply to owners and operators of facilities that treat, store or dispose of hazardous waste who have fully complied with the requirements for interim status under section 3005(e) of RCRA and § 270.10 of this chapter until either a permit is issued under section 3005 of RCRA or until applicable part 265 closure and post-closure responsibilities are fulfilled, and to those owners and operators of facilities in existence on November 19, 1980 who have failed to provide timely notification as required by section 3010(a) of RCRA and/or failed to file Part A of the permit application as required by 40 CFR 270.10 (e) and (g). These standards apply to all treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous waste at these facilities after the effective date of these regulations, except as specifically provided otherwise in this part or part 261 of this chapter.

[Comment: As stated in section 3005(a) of RCRA, after the effective date of regulations under that section (i.e., parts 270 and 124 of this chapter), the treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous waste is prohibited except in accordance with a permit. Section 3005(e) of RCRA provides for the continued operation of an existing facility that meets certain conditions, until final administrative disposition of the owner's and operator's permit application is made.]

(c) The requirements of this part do not apply to:

(1) A person disposing of hazardous waste by means of ocean disposal subject to a permit issued under the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act;

[Comment: These part 265 regulations do apply to the treatment or storage of hazardous waste before it is loaded onto an ocean vessel for incineration or disposal at sea, as provided in paragraph (b) of this section.]

(2) [Reserved]

(3) The owner or operator of a POTW which treats, stores, or disposes of hazardous waste;

[Comment: The owner or operator of a facility under paragraphs (c)(1) through (3) of this section is subject to the requirements of part 264 of this chapter to the extent they are included in a permit by rule granted to such a person under part 122 of this chapter, or are required by § 144.14 of this chapter.]

(4) A person who treats, stores, or disposes of hazardous waste in a State with a RCRA hazardous waste program authorized under subpart A or B of part 271 of this chapter, except that the requirements of this part will continue to apply:

(i) If the authorized State RCRA program does not cover disposal of hazardous waste by means of underground injection; or

(ii) To a person who treats, stores, or disposes of hazardous waste in a State authorized under subpart A or B of part 271 of this chapter if the State has not been authorized to carry out the requirements and prohibitions applicable to the treatment, storage, or disposal of hazardous waste at his facility which are imposed pursuant to the Hazardous and Solid Waste Act Amendments of 1984. The requirements and prohibitions that are applicable until a State receives authorization to carry them out include all Federal program requirements identified in § 271.1(j);

(5) The owner or operator of a facility permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to manage municipal or industrial solid waste, if the only hazardous waste the facility treats, stores, or disposes of is excluded from regulation under this part by § 262.14 of this chapter;

(6) The owner or operator of a facility managing recyclable materials described in § 261.6 (a)(2), (3), and (4) of this chapter (except to the extent they are referred to in part 279 or subparts C, F, G, or H of part 266 of this chapter).

(7) A generator accumulating waste on site in compliance with applicable conditions for exemption in §§ 262.14 through 262.17 and subparts K and L of part 262 of this chapter, except to the extent the requirements of this part are included in those sections and subparts;

(8) A farmer disposing of waste pesticides from his own use in compliance with § 262.70 of this chapter; or

(9) The owner or operator of a totally enclosed treatment facility, as defined in § 260.10.

(10) The owner or operator of an elementary neutralization unit or a wastewater treatment unit as defined in § 260.10 of this chapter, provided that if the owner or operator is diluting hazardous ignitable (D001) wastes (other than the D001 High TOC Subcategory defined in § 268.40 of this chapter, Table Treatment Standards for Hazardous Wastes), or reactive (D003) waste, to remove the characteristic before land disposal, the owner/operator must comply with the requirements set out in § 265.17(b).

(11)

(i) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(11)(ii) of this section, a person engaged in treatment or containment activities during immediate response to any of the following situations:

(A) A discharge of a hazardous waste;

(B) An imminent and substantial threat of a discharge of a hazardous waste;

(C) A discharge of a material which, when discharged, becomes a hazardous waste.

(D) An immediate threat to human health, public safety, property, or the environment, from the known or suspected presence of military munitions, other explosive material, or an explosive device, as determined by an explosive or munitions emergency response specialist as defined in 40 CFR 260.10.

(ii) An owner or operator of a facility otherwise regulated by this part must comply with all applicable requirements of subparts C and D.

(iii) Any person who is covered by paragraph (c)(11)(i) of this section and who continues or initiates hazardous waste treatment or containment activities after the immediate response is over is subject to all applicable requirements of this part and parts 122 through 124 of this chapter for those activities.

(iv) In the case of an explosives or munitions emergency response, if a Federal, State, Tribal or local official acting within the scope of his or her official responsibilities, or an explosives or munitions emergency response specialist, determines that immediate removal of the material or waste is necessary to protect human health or the environment, that official or specialist may authorize the removal of the material or waste by transporters who do not have EPA identification numbers and without the preparation of a manifest. In the case of emergencies involving military munitions, the responding military emergency response specialist's organizational unit must retain records for three years identifying the dates of the response, the responsible persons responding, the type and description of material addressed, and its disposition.

(12) A transporter storing manifested shipments of hazardous waste in containers meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 262.30 at a transfer facility for a period of ten days or less.

(13) The addition of absorbent material to waste in a container (as defined in § 260.10 of this chapter) or the addition of waste to the absorbent material in a container provided that these actions occur at the time waste is first placed in the containers; and §§ 265.17(b), 265.171, and 265.172 are complied with.

(14) Universal waste handlers and universal waste transporters (as defined in 40 CFR 260.10) handling the wastes listed below. These handlers are subject to regulation under 40 CFR part 273, when handling the below listed universal wastes.

(i) Batteries as described in 40 CFR 273.2;

(ii) Pesticides as described in § 273.3 of this chapter;

(iii) Mercury-containing equipment as described in § 273.4 of this chapter;

(iv) Lamps as described in § 273.5 of this chapter; and

(v) Aerosol cans as described in § 273.6 of this chapter.

(15) A New York State Utility central collection facility consolidating hazardous waste in accordance with 40 CFR 262.90.

(16) Reverse distributors accumulating potentially creditable hazardous waste pharmaceuticals and evaluated hazardous waste pharmaceuticals, as defined in § 266.500. Reverse distributors are subject to regulation under 40 CFR part 266 subpart P in lieu of this part for the accumulation of potentially creditable hazardous waste pharmaceuticals and evaluated hazardous waste pharmaceuticals.

(d) The following hazardous wastes must not be managed at facilities subject to regulation under this part.

(1) EPA Hazardous Waste Nos. FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, or FO27 unless:

(i) The wastewater treatment sludge is generated in a surface impoundment as part of the plant's wastewater treatment system;

(ii) The waste is stored in tanks or containers;

(iii) The waste is stored or treated in waste piles that meet the requirements of § 264.250(c) as well as all other applicable requirements of subpart L of this part;

(iv) The waste is burned in incinerators that are certified pursuant to the standards and procedures in § 265.352; or

(v) The waste is burned in facilities that thermally treat the waste in a device other than an incinerator and that are certified pursuant to the standards and procedures in § 265.383.

(e) The requirements of this part apply to owners or operators of all facilities which treat, store or dispose of hazardous waste referred to in 40 CFR part 268, and the 40 CFR part 268 standards are considered material conditions or requirements of the part 265 interim status standards.

(f) Section 266.205 of this chapter identifies when the requirements of this part apply to the storage of military munitions classified as solid waste under § 266.202 of this chapter. The treatment and disposal of hazardous waste military munitions are subject to the applicable permitting, procedural, and technical standards in 40 CFR parts 260 through 270.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980]

§§ 265.2-265.3 [Reserved]
§ 265.4 Imminent hazard action.

Notwithstanding any other provisions of these regulations, enforcement actions may be brought pursuant to section 7003 of RCRA.

Subpart B - General Facility Standards
§ 265.10 Applicability.

The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of all hazardous waste facilities, except as § 265.1 provides otherwise.

§ 265.11 Identification number.

Every facility owner or operator must apply to EPA for an EPA identification number in accordance with the EPA notification procedures (45 FR 12746).

§ 265.12 Required notices.

(a) The owner or operator of a facility that is arranging or has arranged to receive hazardous waste subject to 40 CFR part 262, subpart H from a foreign source must submit the following required notices:

(1) As per 40 CFR 262.84(b), for imports where the competent authority of the country of export does not require the foreign exporter to submit to it a notification proposing export and obtain consent from EPA and the competent authorities for the countries of transit, such owner or operator of the facility, if acting as the importer, must provide notification of the proposed transboundary movement in English to EPA using the allowable methods listed in 40 CFR 262.84(b)(1) at least 60 days before the first shipment is expected to depart the country of export. The notification may cover up to one year of shipments of wastes having similar physical and chemical characteristics, the same United Nations classification, the same RCRA waste codes and OECD waste codes, and being sent from the same foreign exporter.

(2) As per 40 CFR 262.84(d)(2)(xv), a copy of the movement document bearing all required signatures within three (3) working days of receipt of the shipment to the foreign exporter; to the competent authorities of the countries of export and transit that control the shipment as an export and transit shipment of hazardous waste respectively; and on or after the electronic import-export reporting compliance date, to EPA electronically using EPA's Waste Import Export Tracking System (WIETS), or its successor system. The original of the signed movement document must be maintained at the facility for at least three (3) years. The owner or operator of a facility may satisfy this recordkeeping requirement by retaining electronically submitted documents in the facility's account on EPA's Waste Import Export Tracking System (WIETS), or its successor system, provided that copies are readily available for viewing and production if requested by any EPA or authorized state inspector. No owner or operator of a facility may be held liable for the inability to produce the documents for inspection under this section if the owner or operator of a facility can demonstrate that the inability to produce the document is due exclusively to technical difficulty with EPA's Waste Import Export Tracking System (WIETS), or its successor system, for which the owner or operator of a facility bears no responsibility.

(3) As per 40 CFR 262.84(f)(4), if the facility has physical control of the waste and it must be sent to an alternate facility or returned to the country of export, such owner or operator of the facility must inform EPA, using the allowable methods listed in 40 CFR 262.84(b)(1) of the need to return or arrange alternate management of the shipment.

(4) As per 40 CFR 262.84(g), such owner or operator shall:

(i) Send copies of the signed and dated confirmation of recovery or disposal, as soon as possible, but no later than thirty days after completing recovery or disposal on the waste in the shipment and no later than one calendar year following receipt of the waste, to the foreign exporter, to the competent authority of the country of export that controls the shipment as an export of hazardous waste, and on or after the electronic import-export reporting compliance date, to EPA electronically using EPA's Waste Import Export Tracking System (WIETS), or its successor system.

(ii) If the facility performed any of recovery operations R12, R13, or RC16, or disposal operations D13 through D15, or DC17, promptly send copies of the confirmation of recovery or disposal that it receives from the final recovery or disposal facility within one year of shipment delivery to the final recovery or disposal facility that performed one of recovery operations R1 through R11, or RC16, or one of disposal operations D1 through D12, or DC15 to DC16, to the competent authority of the country of export that controls the shipment as an export of hazardous waste, and on or after the electronic import-export reporting compliance date, to EPA electronically using EPA's Waste Import Export Tracking System (WIETS), or its successor system. The recovery and disposal operations in this paragraph are defined in 40 CFR 262.81.

(b) Before transferring ownership or operation of a facility during its operating life, or of a disposal facility during the post-closure care period, the owner or operator must notify the new owner or operator in writing of the requirements of this part and part 270 of this chapter. (Also see § 270.72 of this chapter.)

[Comment: An owner's or operator's failure to notify the new owner or operator of the requirements of this part in no way relieves the new owner or operator of his obligation to comply with all applicable requirements.]

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 48 FR 14295, Apr. 1, 1983; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 61 FR 16315, Apr. 12, 1996; 71 FR 40274, July 14, 2006; 75 FR 1260, Jan. 8, 2010; 81 FR 85726, Nov. 28, 2016]

§ 265.13 General waste analysis.

(a)

(1) Before an owner or operator treats, stores, or disposes of any hazardous wastes, or nonhazardous wastes if applicable under § 265.113(d), he must obtain a detailed chemical and physical analysis of a representative sample of the wastes. At a minimum, the analysis must contain all the information which must be known to treat, store, or dispose of the waste in accordance with this part and part 268 of this chapter.

(2) The analysis may include data developed under part 261 of this chapter, and existing published or documented data on the hazardous waste or on waste generated from similar processes.

Comment: For example, the facility's records of analyses performed on the waste before the effective date of these regulations, or studies conducted on hazardous waste generated from processes similar to that which generated the waste to be managed at the facility, may be included in the data base required to comply with paragraph (a)(1) of this section. The owner or operator of an off-site facility may arrange for the generator of the hazardous waste to supply part of the information required by paragraph (a)(1) of this section, except as otherwise specified in 40 CFR 268.7 (b) and (c). If the generator does not supply the information, and the owner or operator chooses to accept a hazardous waste, the owner or operator is responsible for obtaining the information required to comply with this section.]

(3) The analysis must be repeated as necessary to ensure that it is accurate and up to date. At a minimum, the analysis must be repeated:

(i) When the owner or operator is notified, or has reason to believe, that the process or operation generating the hazardous wastes or non-hazardous wastes, if applicable, under § 265.113(d) has changed; and

(ii) For off-site facilities, when the results of the inspection required in paragraph (a)(4) of this section indicate that the hazardous waste received at the facility does not match the waste designated on the accompanying manifest or shipping paper.

(4) The owner or operator of an off-site facility must inspect and, if necessary, analyze each hazardous waste movement received at the facility to determine whether it matches the identity of the waste specified on the accompanying manifest or shipping paper.

(b) The owner or operator must develop and follow a written waste analysis plan which describes the procedures which he will carry out to comply with paragraph (a) of this section. He must keep this plan at the facility. At a minimum, the plan must specify:

(1) The parameters for which each hazardous waste, or non-hazardous waste if applicable under § 265.113(d), will be analyzed and the rationale for the selection of these parameters (i.e., how analysis for these parameters will provide sufficient information on the waste's properties to comply with paragraph (a) of this section);

(2) The test methods which will be used to test for these parameters;

(3) The sampling method which will be used to obtain a representative sample of the waste to be analyzed. A representative sample may be obtained using either:

(i) One of the sampling methods described in appendix I of part 261 of this chapter; or

(ii) An equivalent sampling method.

[Comment: See § 260.20(c) of this chapter for related discussion.]

(4) The frequency with which the initial analysis of the waste will be reviewed or repeated to ensure that the analysis is accurate and up to date;

(5) For off-site facilities, the waste analyses that hazardous waste generators have agreed to supply; and

(6) Where applicable, the methods that will be used to meet the additional waste analysis requirements for specific waste management methods as specified in §§ 265.200, 265.225, 265.252, 265.273, 265.314, 265.341, 265.375, 265.402, 265.1034(d), 265.1063(d), 265.1084, and 268.7 of this chapter.

(7) For surface impoundments exempted from land disposal restrictions under § 268.4(a) of this chapter, the procedures and schedule for:

(i) The sampling of impoundment contents;

(ii) The analysis of test data; and,

(iii) The annual removal of residues which are not delisted under § 260.22 of this chapter or which exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste and either:

(A) Do not meet applicable treatment standards of part 268, subpart D; or

(B) Where no treatment standards have been established;

(1) Such residues are prohibited from land disposal under § 268.32 or RCRA section 3004(d); or

(2) Such residues are prohibited from land disposal under § 268.33(f).

(8) For owners and operators seeking an exemption to the air emission standards of Subpart CC of this part in accordance with § 265.1083 -

(i) If direct measurement is used for the waste determination, the procedures and schedules for waste sampling and analysis, and the results of the analysis of test data to verify the exemption.

(ii) If knowledge of the waste is used for the waste determination, any information prepared by the facility owner or operator or by the generator of the hazardous waste, if the waste is received from off-site, that is used as the basis for knowledge of the waste.

(c) For off-site facilities, the waste analysis plan required in paragraph (b) of this section must also specify the procedures which will be used to inspect and, if necessary, analyze each movement of hazardous waste received at the facility to ensure that it matches the identity of the waste designated on the accompanying manifest or shipping paper. At a minimum, the plan must describe:

(1) The procedures which will be used to determine the identity of each movement of waste managed at the facility; and

(2) The sampling method which will be used to obtain a representative sample of the waste to be identified, if the identification method includes sampling.

(3) The procedures that the owner or operator of an off-site landfill receiving containerized hazardous waste will use to determine whether a hazardous waste generator or treater has added a biodegradable sorbent to the waste in the container.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 50 FR 18374, Apr. 30, 1985; 51 FR 40638, Nov. 7, 1986; 52 FR 25788, July 8, 1987; 54 FR 33396, Aug. 14, 1989; 55 FR 22685, June 1, 1990; 55 FR 25506, June 21, 1990; 56 FR 19290, Apr. 26, 1991; 57 FR 8088, Mar. 6, 1992; 57 FR 54461, Nov. 18, 1992; 59 FR 62935, Dec. 6, 1994; 61 FR 4913, Feb. 9, 1996]

§ 265.14 Security.

(a) The owner or operator must prevent the unknowing entry, and minimize the possibility for the unauthorized entry, of persons or livestock onto the active portion of his facility, unless:

(1) Physical contact with the waste, structures, or equipment with the active portion of the facility will not injure unknowing or unauthorized persons or livestock which may enter the active portion of a facility, and

(2) Disturbance of the waste or equipment, by the unknowing or unauthorized entry of persons or livestock onto the active portion of a facility, will not cause a violation of the requirements of this part.

(b) Unless exempt under paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section, a facility must have:

(1) A 24-hour surveillance system (e.g., television monitoring or surveillance by guards or facility personnel) which continuously monitors and controls entry onto the active portion of the facility; or

(2)

(i) An artificial or natural barrier (e.g., a fence in good repair or a fence combined with a cliff), which completely surrounds the active portion of the facility; and

(ii) A means to control entry, at all times, through the gates or other entrances to the active portion of the facility (e.g., an attendant, television monitors, locked entrance, or controlled roadway access to the facility).

[Comment: The requirements of paragraph (b) of this section are satisfied if the facility or plant within which the active portion is located itself has a surveillance system, or a barrier and a means to control entry, which complies with the requirements of paragraph (b)(1) or (2) of this section.]

(c) Unless exempt under paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this section, a sign with the legend, “Danger - Unauthorized Personnel Keep Out,” must be posted at each entrance to the active portion of a facility, and at other locations, in sufficient numbers to be seen from any approach to this active portion. The legend must be written in English and in any other language predominant in the area surrounding the facility (e.g., facilities in counties bordering the Canadian province of Quebec must post signs in French; facilities in counties bordering Mexico must post signs in Spanish), and must be legible from a distance of at least 25 feet. Existing signs with a legend other than “Danger - Unauthorized Personnel Keep Out” may be used if the legend on the sign indicates that only authorized personnel are allowed to enter the active portion, and that entry onto the active portion can be dangerous.

[Comment: See § 265.117(b) for discussion of security requirements at disposal facilities during the post-closure care period.]

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 71 FR 40274, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.15 General inspection requirements.

(a) The owner or operator must inspect his facility for malfunctions and deterioration, operator errors, and discharges which may be causing - or may lead to:

(1) Release of hazardous waste constituents to the environment or

(2) a threat to human health. The owner or operator must conduct these inspections often enough to identify problems in time to correct them before they harm human health or the environment.

(b)

(1) The owner or operator must develop and follow a written schedule for inspecting all monitoring equipment, safety and emergency equipment, security devices, and operating and structural equipment (such as dikes and sump pumps) that are important to preventing, detecting, or responding to environmental or human health hazards.

(2) He must keep this schedule at the facility.

(3) The schedule must identify the types of problems (e.g., malfunctions or deterioration) which are to be looked for during the inspection (e.g., inoperative sump pump, leaking fitting, eroding dike, etc.).

(4) The frequency of inspection may vary for the items on the schedule. However, the frequency should be based on the rate of deterioration of the equipment and the probability of an environmental or human health incident if the deterioration, malfunction, or operator error goes undetected between inspections. Areas subject to spills, such as loading and unloading areas, must be inspected daily when in use. At a minimum, the inspection schedule must include the items and frequencies called for in §§ 265.174, 265.193, 265.195, 265.226, 265.260, 265.278, 265.304, 265.347, 265.377, 265.403, 265.1033, 265.1052, 265.1053, 265.1058, and 265.1084 through 265.1090, where applicable.

(c) The owner or operator must remedy any deterioration or malfunction of equipment or structures which the inspection reveals on a schedule which ensures that the problem does not lead to an environmental or human health hazard. Where a hazard is imminent or has already occurred, remedial action must be taken immediately.

(d) The owner or operator must record inspections in an inspection log or summary. He must keep these records for at least three years from the date of inspection. At a minimum, these records must include the date and time of the inspection, the name of the inspector, a notation of the observations made, and the date and nature of any repairs or other remedial actions.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 57 FR 3491, Jan. 29, 1992; 59 FR 62935, Dec. 6, 1994; 62 FR 64661, Dec. 8, 1997; 71 FR 16908, Apr. 4, 2006; 81 FR 85827, Nov. 28, 2016]

§ 265.16 Personnel training.

(a)

(1) Facility personnel must successfully complete a program of classroom instruction or on-the-job training that teaches them to perform their duties in a way that ensures the facility's compliance with the requirements of this part. The owner or operator must ensure that this program includes all the elements described in the document required under paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(2) This program must be directed by a person trained in hazardous waste management procedures, and must include instruction which teaches facility personnel hazardous waste management procedures (including contingency plan implementation) relevant to the positions in which they are employed.

(3) At a minimum, the training program must be designed to ensure that facility personnel are able to respond effectively to emergencies by familiarizing them with emergency procedures, emergency equipment, and emergency systems, including where applicable:

(i) Procedures for using, inspecting, repairing, and replacing facility emergency and monitoring equipment;

(ii) Key parameters for automatic waste feed cut-off systems;

(iii) Communications or alarm systems;

(iv) Response to fires or explosions;

(v) Response to ground-water contamination incidents; and

(vi) Shutdown of operations.

(4) For facility employees that receive emergency response training pursuant to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations 29 CFR 1910.120(p)(8) and 1910.120(q), the facility is not required to provide separate emergency response training pursuant to this section, provided that the overall facility training meets all the requirements of this section.

(b) Facility personnel must successfully complete the program required in paragraph (a) of this section within six months after the effective date of these regulations or six months after the date of their employment or assignment to a facility, or to a new position at a facility, whichever is later. Employees hired after the effective date of these regulations must not work in unsupervised positions until they have completed the training requirements of paragraph (a) of this section.

(c) Facility personnel must take part in an annual review of the initial training required in paragraph (a) of this section.

(d) The owner or operator must maintain the following documents and records at the facility:

(1) The job title for each position at the facility related to hazardous waste management, and the name of the employee filling each job;

(2) A written job description for each position listed under paragraph (d)(1) of this Section. This description may be consistent in its degree of specificity with descriptions for other similar positions in the same company location or bargaining unit, but must include the requisite skill, education, or other qualifications, and duties of facility personnel assigned to each position;

(3) A written description of the type and amount of both introductory and continuing training that will be given to each person filling a position listed under paragraph (d)(1) of this section;

(4) Records that document that the training or job experience required under paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this section has been given to, and completed by, facility personnel.

(e) Training records on current personnel must be kept until closure of the facility. Training records on former employees must be kept for at least three years from the date the employee last worked at the facility. Personnel training records may accompany personnel transferred within the same company.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 71 FR 16908, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40274, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.17 General requirements for ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes.

(a) The owner or operator must take precautions to prevent accidental ignition or reaction of ignitable or reactive waste. This waste must be separated and protected from sources of ignition or reaction including but not limited to: Open flames, smoking, cutting and welding, hot surfaces, frictional heat, sparks (static, electrical, or mechanical), spontaneous ignition (e.g., from heat-producing chemical reactions), and radiant heat. While ignitable or reactive waste is being handled, the owner or operator must confine smoking and open flame to specially designated locations. “No Smoking” signs must be conspicuously placed wherever there is a hazard from ignitable or reactive waste.

(b) Where specifically required by other sections of this part, the treatment, storage, or disposal of ignitable or reactive waste, and the mixture or commingling of incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials, must be conducted so that it does not:

(1) Generate extreme heat or pressure, fire or explosion, or violent reaction;

(2) Produce uncontrolled toxic mists, fumes, dusts, or gases in sufficient quantities to threaten human health;

(3) Produce uncontrolled flammable fumes or gases in sufficient quantities to pose a risk of fire or explosions;

(4) Damage the structural integrity of the device or facility containing the waste; or

(5) Through other like means threaten human health or the environment.

§ 265.18 Location standards.

The placement of any hazardous waste in a salt dome, salt bed formation, underground mine or cave is prohibited, except for the Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Project in New Mexico.

[50 FR 28749, July 15, 1985]

§ 265.19 Construction quality assurance program.

(a) CQA program.

(1) A construction quality assurance (CQA) program is required for all surface impoundment, waste pile, and landfill units that are required to comply with §§ 265.221(a), 265.254, and 265.301(a). The program must ensure that the constructed unit meets or exceeds all design criteria and specifications in the permit. The program must be developed and implemented under the direction of a CQA officer who is a registered professional engineer.

(2) The CQA program must address the following physical components, where applicable:

(i) Foundations;

(ii) Dikes;

(iii) Low-permeability soil liners;

(iv) Geomembranes (flexible membrane liners);

(v) Leachate collection and removal systems and leak detection systems; and

(vi) Final cover systems.

(b) Written CQA plan. Before construction begins on a unit subject to the CQA program under paragraph (a) of this section, the owner or operator must develop a written CQA plan. The plan must identify steps that will be used to monitor and document the quality of materials and the condition and manner of their installation. The CQA plan must include:

(1) Identification of applicable units, and a description of how they will be constructed.

(2) Identification of key personnel in the development and implementation of the CQA plan, and CQA officer qualifications.

(3) A description of inspection and sampling activities for all unit components identified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, including observations and tests that will be used before, during, and after construction to ensure that the construction materials and the installed unit components meet the design specifications. The description must cover: Sampling size and locations; frequency of testing; data evaluation procedures; acceptance and rejection criteria for construction materials; plans for implementing corrective measures; and data or other information to be recorded and retained in the operating record under § 265.73.

(c) Contents of program.

(1) The CQA program must include observations, inspections, tests, and measurements sufficient to ensure:

(i) Structural stability and integrity of all components of the unit identified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section;

(ii) Proper construction of all components of the liners, leachate collection and removal system, leak detection system, and final cover system, according to permit specifications and good engineering practices, and proper installation of all components (e.g., pipes) according to design specifications;

(iii) Conformity of all materials used with design and other material specifications under §§ 264.221, 264.251, and 264.301 of this chapter.

(2) The CQA program shall include test fills for compacted soil liners, using the same compaction methods as in the full-scale unit, to ensure that the liners are constructed to meet the hydraulic conductivity requirements of §§ 264.221(c)(1), 264.251(c)(1), and 264.301(c)(1) of this chapter in the field. Compliance with the hydraulic conductivity requirements must be verified by using in-situ testing on the constructed test fill. The test fill requirement is waived where data are sufficient to show that a constructed soil liner meets the hydraulic conductivity requirements of §§ 264.221(c)(1), 264.251(c)(1), and 264.301(c)(1) of this chapter in the field.

(d) Certification. The owner or operator of units subject to § 265.19 must submit to the Regional Administrator by certified mail or hand delivery, at least 30 days prior to receiving waste, a certification signed by the CQA officer that the CQA plan has been successfully carried out and that the unit meets the requirements of §§ 265.221(a), 265.254, or 265.301(a). The owner or operator may receive waste in the unit after 30 days from the Regional Administrator's receipt of the CQA certification unless the Regional Administrator determines in writing that the construction is not acceptable, or extends the review period for a maximum of 30 more days, or seeks additional information from the owner or operator during this period. Documentation supporting the CQA officer's certification must be furnished to the Regional Administrator upon request.

[57 FR 3491, Jan. 29, 1992, as amended at 71 FR 40274, July 14, 2006]

Subpart C - Preparedness and Prevention
§ 265.30 Applicability.

The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of all hazardous waste facilities, except as § 265.1 provides otherwise.

§ 265.31 Maintenance and operation of facility.

Facilities must be maintained and operated to minimize the possibility of a fire, explosion, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water which could threaten human health or the environment.

§ 265.32 Required equipment.

All facilities must be equipped with the following, unless none of the hazards posed by waste handled at the facility could require a particular kind of equipment specified below:

(a) An internal communications or alarm system capable of providing immediate emergency instruction (voice or signal) to facility personnel;

(b) A device, such as a telephone (immediately available at the scene of operations) or a hand-held two-way radio, capable of summoning emergency assistance from local police departments, fire departments, or State or local emergency response teams;

(c) Portable fire extinguishers, fire control equipment (including special extinguishing equipment, such as that using foam, inert gas, or dry chemicals), spill control equipment, and decontamination equipment; and

(d) Water at adequate volume and pressure to supply water hose streams, or foam producing equipment, or automatic sprinklers, or water spray systems.

§ 265.33 Testing and maintenance of equipment.

All facility communications or alarm systems, fire protection equipment, spill control equipment, and decontamination equipment, where required, must be tested and maintained as necessary to assure its proper operation in time of emergency.

§ 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system.

(a) Whenever hazardous waste is being poured, mixed, spread, or otherwise handled, all personnel involved in the operation must have immediate access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or through visual or voice contact with another employee, unless such a device is not required under § 265.32.

(b) If there is ever just one employee on the premises while the facility is operating, he must have immediate access to a device, such as a telephone (immediately available at the scene of operation) or a hand-held two-way radio, capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless such a device is not required under § 265.32.

§ 265.35 Required aisle space.

The owner or operator must maintain aisle space to allow the unobstructed movement of personnel, fire protection equipment, spill control equipment, and decontamination equipment to any area of facility operation in an emergency, unless aisle space is not needed for any of these purposes.

§ 265.36 [Reserved]
§ 265.37 Arrangements with local authorities.

(a) The owner or operator must attempt to make the following arrangements, as appropriate for the type of waste handled at his facility and the potential need for the services of these organizations:

(1) Arrangements to familiarize police, fire departments, and emergency response teams with the layout of the facility, properties of hazardous waste handled at the facility and associated hazards, places where facility personnel would normally be working, entrances to roads inside the facility, and possible evacuation routes;

(2) Where more than one police and fire department might respond to an emergency, agreements designating primary emergency authority to a specific police and a specific fire department, and agreements with any others to provide support to the primary emergency authority;

(3) Agreements with State emergency response teams, emergency response contractors, and equipment suppliers; and

(4) Arrangements to familiarize local hospitals with the properties of hazardous waste handled at the facility and the types of injuries or illnesses which could result from fires, explosions, or releases at the facility.

(b) Where State or local authorities decline to enter into such arrangements, the owner or operator must document the refusal in the operating record.

Subpart D - Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures
§ 265.50 Applicability.

The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of all hazardous waste facilities, except as § 265.1 provides otherwise.

§ 265.51 Purpose and implementation of contingency plan.

(a) Each owner or operator must have a contingency plan for his facility. The contingency plan must be designed to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water.

(b) The provisions of the plan must be carried out immediately whenever there is a fire, explosion, or release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents which could threaten human health or the environment.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985]

§ 265.52 Content of contingency plan.

(a) The contingency plan must describe the actions facility personnel must take to comply with §§ 265.51 and 265.56 in response to fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water at the facility.

(b) If the owner or operator has already prepared a Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan in accordance with Part 112 of this chapter, or some other emergency or contingency plan, he need only amend that plan to incorporate hazardous waste management provisions that are sufficient to comply with the requirements of this Part. The owner or operator may develop one contingency plan which meets all regulatory requirements. EPA recommends that the plan be based on the National Response Team's Integrated Contingency Plan Guidance (“One Plan”). When modifications are made to non-RCRA provisions in an integrated contingency plan, the changes do not trigger the need for a RCRA permit modification.

(c) The plan must describe arrangements agreed to by local police departments, fire departments, hospitals, contractors, and State and local emergency response teams to coordinate emergency services, pursuant to § 265.37.

(d) The plan must list names, addresses, and phone numbers (office and home) of all persons qualified to act as emergency coordinator (see § 265.55), and this list must be kept up to date. Where more than one person is listed, one must be named as primary emergency coordinator and others must be listed in the order in which they will assume responsibility as alternates.

(e) The plan must include a list of all emergency equipment at the facility (such as fire extinguishing systems, spill control equipment, communications and alarm systems (internal and external), and decontamination equipment), where this equipment is required. This list must be kept up to date. In addition, the plan must include the location and a physical description of each item on the list, and a brief outline of its capabilities.

(f) The plan must include an evacuation plan for facility personnel where there is a possibility that evacuation could be necessary. This plan must describe signal(s) to be used to begin evacuation, evacuation routes, and alternate evacuation routes (in cases where the primary routes could be blocked by releases of hazardous waste or fires).

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 46 FR 27480, May 20, 1981; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 71 FR 16908, Apr. 4, 2006; 75 FR 13005, Mar. 18, 2010]

§ 265.53 Copies of contingency plan.

A copy of the contingency plan and all revisions to the plan must be:

(a) Maintained at the facility; and

(b) Submitted to all local police departments, fire departments, hospitals, and State and local emergency response teams that may be called upon to provide emergency services.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985]

§ 265.54 Amendment of contingency plan.

The contingency plan must be reviewed, and immediately amended, if necessary, whenever:

(a) Applicable regulations are revised;

(b) The plan fails in an emergency;

(c) The facility changes - in its design, construction, operation, maintenance, or other circumstances - in a way that materially increases the potential for fires, explosions, or releases of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents, or changes the response necessary in an emergency;

(d) The list of emergency coordinators changes; or

(e) The list of emergency equipment changes.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985]

§ 265.55 Emergency coordinator.

At all times, there must be at least one employee either on the facility premises or on call (i.e., available to respond to an emergency by reaching the facility within a short period of time) with the responsibility for coordinating all emergency response measures. This emergency coordinator must be thoroughly familiar with all aspects of the facility's contingency plan, all operations and activities at the facility, the location and characteristics of waste handled, the location of all records within the facility, and the facility layout. In addition, this person must have the authority to commit the resources needed to carry out the contingency plan.

[Comment: The emergency coordinator's responsibilities are more fully spelled out in § 265.56. Applicable responsibilities for the emergency coordinator vary, depending on factors such as type and variety of waste(s) handled by the facility, and type and complexity of the facility.]

§ 265.56 Emergency procedures.

(a) Whenever there is an imminent or actual emergency situation, the emergency coordinator (or his designee when the emergency coordinator is on call) must immediately:

(1) Activate internal facility alarms or communication systems, where applicable, to notify all facility personnel; and

(2) Notify appropriate State or local agencies with designated response roles if their help is needed.

(b) Whenever there is a release, fire, or explosion, the emergency coordinator must immediately identify the character, exact source, amount, and areal extent of any released materials. He may do this by observation or review of facility records or manifests and, if necessary, by chemical analysis.

(c) Concurrently, the emergency coordinator must assess possible hazards to human health or the environment that may result from the release, fire, or explosion. This assessment must consider both direct and indirect effects of the release, fire, or explosion (e.g., the effects of any toxic, irritating, or asphyxiating gases that are generated, or the effects of any hazardous surface water run-offs from water or chemical agents used to control fire and heat-induced explosions).

(d) If the emergency coordinator determines that the facility has had a release, fire, or explosion which could threaten human health, or the environment, outside the facility, he must report his findings as follows:

(1) If his assessment indicates that evacuation of local areas may be advisable, he must immediately notify appropriate local authorities. He must be available to help appropriate officials decide whether local areas should be evacuated; and

(2) He must immediately notify either the government official designated as the on-scene coordinator for that geographical area, or the National Response Center (using their 24-hour toll free number 800/424-8802). The report must include:

(i) Name and telephone number of reporter;

(ii) Name and address of facility;

(iii) Time and type of incident (e.g., release, fire);

(iv) Name and quantity of material(s) involved, to the extent known;

(v) The extent of injuries, if any; and

(vi) The possible hazards to human health, or the environment, outside the facility.

(e) During an emergency, the emergency coordinator must take all reasonable measures necessary to ensure that fires, explosions, and releases do not occur, recur, or spread to other hazardous waste at the facility. These measures must include, where applicable, stopping processes and operations, collecting and containing released waste, and removing or isolating containers.

(f) If the facility stops operations in response to a fire, explosion or release, the emergency coordinator must monitor for leaks, pressure buildup, gas generation, or ruptures in valves, pipes, or other equipment, wherever this is appropriate.

(g) Immediately after an emergency, the emergency coordinator must provide for treating, storing, or disposing of recovered waste, contaminated soil or surface water, or any other material that results from a release, fire, or explosion at the facility.

[Comment: Unless the owner or operator can demonstrate, in accordance with § 261.3(c) or (d) of this chapter, that the recovered material is not a hazardous waste, the owner or operator becomes a generator of hazardous waste and must manage it in accordance with all applicable requirements of parts 262, 263, and 265 of this chapter.]

(h) The emergency coordinator must ensure that, in the affected area(s) of the facility:

(1) No waste that may be incompatible with the released material is treated, stored, or disposed of until cleanup procedures are completed; and

(2) All emergency equipment listed in the contingency plan is cleaned and fit for its intended use before operations are resumed.

(i) The owner or operator must note in the operating record the time, date, and details of any incident that requires implementing the contingency plan. Within 15 days after the incident, he must submit a written report on the incident to the Regional Administrator. The report must include:

(1) Name, address, and telephone number of the owner or operator;

(2) Name, address, and telephone number of the facility;

(3) Date, time, and type of incident (e.g., fire, explosion);

(4) Name and quantity of material(s) involved;

(5) The extent of injuries, if any;

(6) An assessment of actual or potential hazards to human health or the environment, where this is applicable; and

(7) Estimated quantity and disposition of recovered material that resulted from the incident.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 71 FR 16908, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40274, July 14, 2006; 75 FR 13006, Mar. 18, 2010]

Subpart E - Manifest System, Recordkeeping, and Reporting
§ 265.70 Applicability.

(a) The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of both on-site and off-site facilities, except as § 265.1 provides otherwise. Sections 265.71, 265.72, and 265.76 do not apply to owners and operators of on-site facilities that do not receive any hazardous waste from off-site sources, nor to owners and operators of off-site facilities with respect to waste military munitions exempted from manifest requirements under 40 CFR 266.203(a).

(b) The revised Manifest form and procedures in 40 CFR 260.10, 261.7, 265.70, 265.71. 265.72, and 265.76, shall not apply until September 5, 2006. The Manifest form and procedures in 40 CFR 260.10, 261.7, 265.70, 265.71. 265.72, and 265.76, contained in the 40 CFR, parts 260 to 265, edition revised as of July 1, 2004, shall be applicable until September 5, 2006.

[70 FR 10823, Mar. 4, 2005]

§ 265.71 Use of manifest system.

(a)

(1) If a facility receives hazardous waste accompanied by a manifest, the owner, operator or his/her agent must sign and date the manifest as indicated in paragraph (a)(2) of this section to certify that the hazardous waste covered by the manifest was received, that the hazardous waste was received except as noted in the discrepancy space of the manifest, or that the hazardous waste was rejected as noted in the manifest discrepancy space.

(2) If the facility receives a hazardous waste shipment accompanied by a manifest, the owner, operator, or his agent must:

(i) Sign and date, by hand, each copy of the manifest;

(ii) Note any discrepancies (as defined in § 265.72(a)) on each copy of the manifest;

(iii) Immediately give the transporter at least one copy of the manifest;

(iv) Within 30 days of delivery, send a copy (Page 2) of the manifest to the generator;

(v) Paper manifest submission requirements are:

(A) Options for compliance on June 30, 2018. Beginning on June 30, 2018, send the top copy (Page 1) of any paper manifest and any paper continuation sheet to the e-Manifest system for purposes of data entry and processing, or in lieu of submitting the paper copy to EPA, the owner or operator may transmit to the EPA system an image file of Page 1 of the manifest and any continuation sheet, or both a data file and image file corresponding to Page 1 of the manifest and any continuation sheet, within 30 days of the date of delivery. Submissions of copies to the e-Manifest system shall be made at the mailing address or electronic mail/submission address specified at the e-Manifest program website's directory of services. Beginning on June 30, 2021, EPA will not accept mailed paper manifests from facilities for processing in e-Manifest.

(B) Options for compliance on June 30, 2021. Beginning on June 30, 2021, the requirement to submit the top copy (Page1) of the paper manifest and any paper continuation sheet to the e-Manifest system for purposes of data entry and processing may be met by the owner or operator only by transmitting to the EPA system an image file of Page 1 of the manifest and any continuation sheet, or by transmitting to the EPA system both a data file and the image file corresponding to Page 1 of the manifest and any continuation sheet, within 30 days of the date of delivery. Submissions of copies to the e-Manifest system shall be made to the electronic mail/submission address specified at the e-Manifest program website's directory of services; and (vi) Retain at the facility a copy of each manifest for at least three years from the date of delivery.

(3) The owner or operator of a facility that receives hazardous waste subject to 40 CFR part 262, subpart H from a foreign source must:

(i) Additionally list the relevant consent number from consent documentation supplied by EPA to the facility for each waste listed on the manifest, matched to the relevant list number for the waste from block 9b. If additional space is needed, the owner or operator should use a Continuation Sheet(s) (EPA Form 8700-22A); and

(ii) Send a copy of the manifest to EPA using the addresses listed in 40 CFR 262.82(e) within thirty (30) days of delivery until the facility can submit such a copy to the e-Manifest system per paragraph (a)(2)(v) of this section.

(b) If a facility receives, from a rail or water (bulk shipment) transporter, hazardous waste which is accompanied by a shipping paper containing all the information required on the manifest (excluding the EPA identification numbers, generator's certification, and signatures), the owner or operator, or his agent, must:

(1) Sign and date each copy of the manifest or shipping paper (if the manifest has not been received) to certify that the hazardous waste covered by the manifest or shipping paper was received;

(2) Note any significant discrepancies (as defined in § 265.72(a)) in the manifest or shipping paper (if the manifest has not been received) on each copy of the manifest or shipping paper;

[Comment: The Agency does not intend that the owner or operator of a facility whose procedures under § 265.13(c) include waste analysis must perform that analysis before signing the shipping paper and giving it to the transporter. Section 265.72(b), however, requires reporting an unreconciled discrepancy discovered during later analysis.]

(3) Immediately give the rail or water (bulk shipment) transporter at least one copy of the manifest or shipping paper (if the manifest has not been received);

(4) Within 30 days after the delivery, send a copy of the signed and dated manifest or a signed and dated copy of the shipping paper (if the manifest has not been received within 30 days after delivery) to the generator; and

[Comment: Section 262.23(c) of this chapter requires the generator to send three copies of the manifest to the facility when hazardous waste is sent by rail or water (bulk shipment).]

(5) Retain at the facility a copy of the manifest and shipping paper (if signed in lieu of the manifest at the time of delivery) for at least three years from the date of delivery.

(c) Whenever a shipment of hazardous waste is initiated from a facility, the owner or operator of that facility must comply with the requirements of part 262 of this chapter. The provisions of §§ 262.15, 262.16, and 262.17 of this chapter are applicable to the on-site accumulation of hazardous wastes by generators. Therefore, the provisions of §§ 262.15, 262.16, and 262.17 only apply to owners or operators who are shipping hazardous waste which they generated at that facility or operating as a large quantity generator consolidating hazardous waste from very small quantity generators under § 262.17(f).

[Comment: The provisions of § 262.34 are applicable to the on-site accumulation of hazardous wastes by generators. Therefore, the provisions of § 262.34 only apply to owners or operators who are shipping hazardous waste which they generated at that facility.]

(d) As per 40 CFR 262.84(d)(2)(xv), within three (3) working days of the receipt of a shipment subject to 40 CFR part 262, subpart H, the owner or operator of a facility must provide a copy of the movement document bearing all required signatures to the foreign exporter; to the competent authorities of the countries of export and transit that control the shipment as an export and transit shipment of hazardous waste respectively; and on or after the electronic import-export reporting compliance date, to EPA electronically using EPA's Waste Import Export Tracking System (WIETS), or its successor system. The original copy of the movement document must be maintained at the facility for at least three (3) years from the date of signature. The owner or operator of a facility may satisfy this recordkeeping requirement by retaining electronically submitted documents in the facility's account on EPA's Waste Import Export Tracking System (WIETS), or its successor system, provided that copies are readily available for viewing and production if requested by any EPA or authorized state inspector. No owner or operator of a facility may be held liable for the inability to produce the documents for inspection under this section if the owner or operator of a facility can demonstrate that the inability to produce the document is due exclusively to technical difficulty with EPA's Waste Import Export Tracking System (WIETS), or its successor system, for which the owner or operator of a facility bears no responsibility.

(e) A facility must determine whether the consignment state for a shipment regulates any additional wastes (beyond those regulated Federally) as hazardous wastes under its state hazardous waste program. Facilities must also determine whether the consignment state or generator state requires the facility to submit any copies of the manifest to these states.

(f) Legal equivalence to paper manifests. Electronic manifests that are obtained, completed, and transmitted in accordance with § 262.20(a)(3) of this chapter, and used in accordance with this section in lieu of the paper manifest form are the legal equivalent of paper manifest forms bearing handwritten signatures, and satisfy for all purposes any requirement in these regulations to obtain, complete, sign, provide, use, or retain a manifest.

(1) Any requirement in these regulations for the owner or operator of a facility to sign a manifest or manifest certification by hand, or to obtain a handwritten signature, is satisfied by signing with or obtaining a valid and enforceable electronic signature within the meaning of 40 CFR 262.25.

(2) Any requirement in these regulations to give, provide, send, forward, or to return to another person a copy of the manifest is satisfied when a copy of an electronic manifest is transmitted to the other person.

(3) Any requirement in these regulations for a manifest to accompany a hazardous waste shipment is satisfied when a copy of an electronic manifest is accessible during transportation and forwarded to the person or persons who are scheduled to receive delivery of the hazardous waste shipment.

(4) Any requirement in these regulations for an owner or operator to keep or retain a copy of each manifest is satisfied by the retention of the facility's electronic manifest copies in its account on the e-Manifest system, provided that such copies are readily available for viewing and production if requested by any EPA or authorized state inspector.

(5) No owner or operator may be held liable for the inability to produce an electronic manifest for inspection under this section if the owner or operator can demonstrate that the inability to produce the electronic manifest is due exclusively to a technical difficulty with the EPA system for which the owner or operator bears no responsibility.

(g) An owner or operator may participate in the electronic manifest system either by accessing the electronic manifest system from the owner's or operator's electronic equipment, or by accessing the electronic manifest system from portable equipment brought to the owner's or operator's site by the transporter who delivers the waste shipment to the facility.

(h) Special procedures applicable to replacement manifests. If a facility receives hazardous waste that is accompanied by a paper replacement manifest for a manifest that was originated electronically, the following procedures apply to the delivery of the hazardous waste by the final transporter:

(1) Upon delivery of the hazardous waste to the designated facility, the owner or operator must sign and date each copy of the paper replacement manifest by hand in Item 20 (Designated Facility Certification of Receipt) and note any discrepancies in Item 18 (Discrepancy Indication Space) of the replacement manifest,

(2) The owner or operator of the facility must give back to the final transporter one copy of the paper replacement manifest,

(3) Within 30 days of delivery of the hazardous waste to the designated facility, the owner or operator of the facility must send one signed and dated copy of the paper replacement manifest to the generator, and send an additional signed and dated copy of the paper replacement manifest to the EPA e-Manifest system, and

(4) The owner or operator of the facility must retain at the facility one copy of the paper replacement manifest for at least three years from the date of delivery.

(i) Special procedures applicable to electronic signature methods undergoing tests. If an owner or operator using an electronic manifest signs this manifest electronically using an electronic signature method which is undergoing pilot or demonstration tests aimed at demonstrating the practicality or legal dependability of the signature method, then the owner or operator shall also sign with an ink signature the facility's certification of receipt or discrepancies on the printed copy of the manifest provided by the transporter. Upon executing its ink signature on this printed copy, the owner or operator shall retain this original copy among its records for at least 3 years from the date of delivery of the waste.

(j) Imposition of user fee for electronic manifest use.

(1) As prescribed in § 265.1311, and determined in § 265.1312, an owner or operator who is a user of the electronic manifest system shall be assessed a user fee by EPA for the submission and processing of each electronic and paper manifest. EPA shall update the schedule of user fees and publish them to the user community, as provided in § 265.1313.

(2) An owner or operator subject to user fees under this section shall make user fee payments in accordance with the requirements of § 265.1314, subject to the informal fee dispute resolution process of § 265.1316, and subject to the sanctions for delinquent payments under § 265.1315.

(k) Electronic manifest signatures.

(1) Electronic manifest signatures shall meet the criteria described in § 262.25 of this chapter.

(l) Post-receipt manifest data corrections. After facilities have certified to the receipt of hazardous wastes by signing Item 20 of the manifest, any post-receipt data corrections may be submitted at any time by any interested person (e.g., waste handler) shown on the manifest.

(1) Interested persons must make all corrections to manifest data by electronic submission, either by directly entering corrected data to the web based service provided in e-Manifest for such corrections, or by an upload of a data file containing data corrections relating to one or more previously submitted manifests.

(2) Each correction submission must include the following information:

(i) The Manifest Tracking Number and date of receipt by the facility of the original manifest(s) for which data are being corrected;

(ii) The Item Number(s) of the original manifest that is the subject of the submitted correction(s); and

(iii) For each Item Number with corrected data, the data previously entered and the corresponding data as corrected by the correction submission.

(3) Each correction submission shall include a statement that the person submitting the corrections certifies that to the best of his or her knowledge or belief, the corrections that are included in the submission will cause the information reported about the previously received hazardous wastes to be true, accurate, and complete.

(i) The certification statement must be executed with a valid electronic signature; and

(ii) A batch upload of data corrections may be submitted under one certification statement.

(4) Upon receipt by the system of any correction submission, other interested persons shown on the manifest will be provided electronic notice of the submitter's corrections.

(5) Other interested persons shown on the manifest may respond to the submitter's corrections with comments to the submitter, or by submitting another correction to the system, certified by the respondent as as specified in paragraph (l)(3) of this section, and with notice of the corrections to other interested persons shown on the manifest.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 45 FR 86970, 86974, Dec. 31, 1980; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 61 FR 16315, Apr. 12, 1996; 70 FR 10823, Mar. 4, 2005; 75 FR 1260, Jan. 8, 2010; 79 FR 7560, Feb. 7, 2014; 81 FR 85727, 85827, Nov. 28, 2016; 83 FR 457, Jan. 3, 2018]

§ 265.72 Manifest discrepancies.

(a) Manifest discrepancies are:

(1) Significant differences (as defined by paragraph (b) of this section) between the quantity or type of hazardous waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper, and the quantity and type of hazardous waste a facility actually receives;

(2) Rejected wastes, which may be a full or partial shipment of hazardous waste that the TSDF cannot accept; or

(3) Container residues, which are residues that exceed the quantity limits for “empty” containers set forth in 40 CFR 261.7(b).

(b) Significant differences in quantity are: For bulk waste, variations greater than 10 percent in weight; for batch waste, any variation in piece count, such as a discrepancy of one drum in a truckload. Significant differences in type are obvious differences which can be discovered by inspection or waste analysis, such as waste solvent substituted for waste acid, or toxic constituents not reported on the manifest or shipping paper.

(c) Upon discovering a significant difference in quantity or type, the owner or operator must attempt to reconcile the discrepancy with the waste generator or transporter (e.g., with telephone conversations). If the discrepancy is not resolved within 15 days after receiving the waste, the owner or operator must immediately submit to the Regional Administrator a letter describing the discrepancy and attempts to reconcile it, and a copy of the manifest or shipping paper at issue.

(d)

(1) Upon rejecting waste or identifying a container residue that exceeds the quantity limits for “empty” containers set forth in 40 CFR 261.7(b), the facility must consult with the generator prior to forwarding the waste to another facility that can manage the waste. If it is impossible to locate an alternative facility that can receive the waste, the facility may return the rejected waste or residue to the generator. The facility must send the waste to the alternative facility or to the generator within 60 days of the rejection or the container residue identification.

(2) While the facility is making arrangements for forwarding rejected wastes or residues to another facility under this section, it must ensure that either the delivering transporter retains custody of the waste, or the facility must provide for secure, temporary custody of the waste, pending delivery of the waste to the first transporter designated on the manifest prepared under paragraph (e) or (f) of this section.

(e) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(7) of this section, for full or partial load rejections and residues that are to be sent off-site to an alternate facility, the facility is required to prepare a new manifest in accordance with § 262.20(a) of this chapter and the following instructions:

(1) Write the generator's U.S. EPA ID number in Item 1 of the new manifest. Write the generator's name and mailing address in Item 5 of the new manifest. If the mailing address is different from the generator's site address, then write the generator's site address in the designated space in Item 5.

(2) Write the name of the alternate designated facility and the facility's U.S. EPA ID number in the designated facility block (Item 8) of the new manifest.

(3) Copy the manifest tracking number found in Item 4 of the old manifest to the Special Handling and Additional Information Block of the new manifest, and indicate that the shipment is a residue or rejected waste from the previous shipment.

(4) Copy the manifest tracking number found in Item 4 of the new manifest to the manifest reference number line in the Discrepancy Block of the old manifest (Item 18a).

(5) Write the DOT description for the rejected load or the residue in Item 9 (U.S. DOT Description) of the new manifest and write the container types, quantity, and volume(s) of waste.

(6) Sign the Generator's/Offeror's Certification to certify, as the offeror of the shipment, that the waste has been properly packaged, marked and labeled and is in proper condition for transportation, and mail a signed copy of the manifest to the generator identified in Item 5 of the new manifest.

(7) For full load rejections that are made while the transporter remains present at the facility, the facility may forward the rejected shipment to the alternate facility by completing Item 18b of the original manifest and supplying the information on the next destination facility in the Alternate Facility space. The facility must retain a copy of this manifest for its records, and then give the remaining copies of the manifest to the transporter to accompany the shipment. If the original manifest is not used, then the facility must use a new manifest and comply with paragraphs (e)(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), and (6) of this section.

(f) Except as provided in paragraph (f)(7) of this section, for rejected wastes and residues that must be sent back to the generator, the facility is required to prepare a new manifest in accordance with § 262.20(a) of this chapter and the following instructions:

(1) Write the facility's U.S. EPA ID number in Item 1 of the new manifest. Write the facility's name and mailing address in Item 5 of the new manifest. If the mailing address is different from the facility's site address, then write the facility's site address in the designated space for Item 5 of the new manifest.

(2) Write the name of the initial generator and the generator's U.S. EPA ID number in the designated facility block (Item 8) of the new manifest.

(3) Copy the manifest tracking number found in Item 4 of the old manifest to the Special Handling and Additional Information Block of the new manifest, and indicate that the shipment is a residue or rejected waste from the previous shipment,

(4) Copy the manifest tracking number found in Item 4 of the new manifest to the manifest reference number line in the Discrepancy Block of the old manifest (Item 18a),

(5) Write the DOT description for the rejected load or the residue in Item 9 (U.S. DOT Description) of the new manifest and write the container types, quantity, and volume(s) of waste.

(6) Sign the Generator's/Offeror's Certification to certify, as offeror of the shipment, that the waste has been properly packaged, marked and labeled and is in proper condition for transportation,

(7) For full load rejections that are made while the transporter remains at the facility, the facility may return the shipment to the generator with the original manifest by completing Item 18a and 18b of the manifest and supplying the generator's information in the Alternate Facility space. The facility must retain a copy for its records and then give the remaining copies of the manifest to the transporter to accompany the shipment. If the original manifest is not used, then the facility must use a new manifest and comply with paragraphs (f)(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), and (8) of this section.

(8) For full or partial load rejections and container residues contained in non-empty containers that are returned to the generator, the facility must also comply with the exception reporting requirements in § 262.42(a).

(g) If a facility rejects a waste or identifies a container residue that exceeds the quantity limits for “empty” containers set forth in 40 CFR 261.7(b) after it has signed, dated, and returned a copy of the manifest to the delivering transporter or to the generator, the facility must amend its copy of the manifest to indicate the rejected wastes or residues in the discrepancy space of the amended manifest. The facility must also copy the manifest tracking number from Item 4 of the new manifest to the discrepancy space of the amended manifest, and must re-sign and date the manifest to certify to the information as amended. The facility must retain the amended manifest for at least three years from the date of amendment, and must within 30 days, send a copy of the amended manifest to the transporter and generator that received copies prior to their being amended.

[70 FR 10823, Mar. 4, 2005, as amended at 70 FR 35041, June 16, 2005; 75 FR 13006, Mar. 18, 2010]

§ 265.73 Operating record.

(a) The owner or operator must keep a written operating record at his facility.

(b) The following information must be recorded, as it becomes available, and maintained in the operating record for three years unless noted below:

(1) A description and the quantity of each hazardous waste received, and the method(s) and date(s) of its treatment, storage, or disposal at the facility as required by Appendix I to part 265. This information must be maintained in the operating record until closure of the facility;

(2) The location of each hazardous waste within the facility and the quantity at each location. For disposal facilities, the location and quantity of each hazardous waste must be recorded on a map or diagram of each cell or disposal area. For all facilities, this information must include cross-references to manifest document numbers if the waste was accompanied by a manifest. This information must be maintained in the operating record until closure of the facility;

[Comment: See §§ 265.119, 265.279, and 265.309 for related requirements.]

(3) Records and results of waste analysis, waste determinations, and trial tests performed as specified in §§ 265.13, 265.200, 265.225, 265.252, 265.273, 265.314, 265.341, 265.375, 265.402, 265.1034, 265.1063, 265.1084, 268.4(a), and 268.7 of this chapter.

(4) Summary reports and details of all incidents that require implementing the contingency plan as specified in § 265.56(j);

(5) Records and results of inspections as required by § 265.15(d) (except these data need be kept only three years);

(6) Monitoring, testing or analytical data, and corrective action where required by subpart F of this part and by §§ 265.19, 265.94, 265.191, 265.193, 265.195, 265.224, 265.226, 265.255, 265.260, 265.276, 265.278, 265.280(d)(1), 265.302, 265.304, 265.347, 265.377, 265.1034(c) through 265.1034(f), 265.1035, 265.1063(d) through 265. 265.1063(i), 265.1064, and 265.1083 through 265.1090. Maintain in the operating record for three years, except for records and results pertaining to ground-water monitoring and cleanup, and response action plans for surface impoundments, waste piles, and landfills, which must be maintained in the operating record until closure of the facility.

[Comment: As required by § 265.94, monitoring data at disposal facilities must be kept throughout the post-closure period.]

(7) All closure cost estimates under § 265.142 and, for disposal facilities, all post-closure cost estimates under § 265.144 must be maintained in the operating record until closure of the facility.

(8) Records of the quantities (and date of placement) for each shipment of hazardous waste placed in land disposal units under an extension to the effective date of any land disposal restriction granted pursuant to § 268.5 of this chapter, monitoring data required pursuant to a petition under § 268.6 of this chapter, or a certification under § 268.8 of this chapter, and the applicable notice required by a generator under § 268.7(a) of this chapter. All of this information must be maintained in the operating record until closure of the facility.

(9) For an off-site treatment facility, a copy of the notice, and the certification and demonstration if applicable, required by the generator or the owner or operator under § 268.7 or § 268.8;

(10) For an on-site treatment facility, the information contained in the notice (except the manifest number), and the certification and demonstration if applicable, required by the generator or the owner or operator under § 268.7 or § 268.8;

(11) For an off-site land disposal facility, a copy of the notice, and the certification and demonstration if applicable, required by the generator or the owner or operator of a treatment facility under § 268.7 or § 268.8;

(12) For an on-site land disposal facility, the information contained in the notice (except the manifest number), and the certification and demonstration if applicable, required by the generator or the owner or operator of a treatment facility under § 268.7 or § 268.8.

(13) For an off-site storage facility, a copy of the notice, and the certification and demonstration if applicable, required by the generator or the owner or operator under § 268.7 or § 268.8; and

(14) For an on-site storage facility, the information contained in the notice (except the manifest number), and the certification and demonstration if applicable, required by the generator or the owner or operator of a treatment facility under § 268.7 or § 268.8.

(15) Monitoring, testing or analytical data, and corrective action where required by §§ 265.90, 265.93(d)(2), and 265.93(d)(5), and the certification as required by § 265.196(f) must be maintained in the operating record until closure of the facility.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 50 FR 18374, Apr. 30, 1985; 51 FR 40638, Nov. 7, 1986; 53 FR 31211, Aug. 17, 1988; 54 FR 26648, June 23, 1989; 55 FR 25507, June 21, 1990; 56 FR 19290, Apr. 26, 1991; 57 FR 3492, Jan. 29, 1992; 59 FR 62935, Dec. 6, 1994; 62 FR 64661, Dec. 8, 1997; 71 FR 16908, Apr. 4, 2006]

§ 265.74 Availability, retention, and disposition of records.

(a) All records, including plans, required under this part must be furnished upon request, and made available at all reasonable times for inspection, by any officer, employee, or representative of EPA who is duly designated by the Administrator.

(b) The retention period for all records required under this part is extended automatically during the course of any unresolved enforcement action regarding the facility or as requested by the Administrator.

(c) A copy of records of waste disposal locations and quantities under § 265.73(b)(2) must be submitted to the Regional Administrator and local land authority upon closure of the facility (see § 265.119).

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985]

§ 265.75 Biennial report.

The owner or operator must complete and submit EPA Form 8700-13 A/B to the Regional Administrator by March 1 of the following even numbered year and must cover activities during the previous year.

[81 FR 85827, Nov. 28, 2016]

§ 265.76 Unmanifested waste report.

(a) If a facility accepts for treatment, storage, or disposal any hazardous waste from an off-site source without an accompanying manifest, or without an accompanying shipping paper as described by § 263.20(e) of this chapter, and if the waste is not excluded from the manifest requirement by this chapter, then the owner or operator must prepare and submit a letter to the Regional Administrator within fifteen days after receiving the waste. The unmanifested waste report must contain the following information:

(1) The EPA identification number, name and address of the facility;

(2) The date the facility received the waste;

(3) The EPA identification number, name and address of the generator and the transporter, if available;

(4) A description and the quantity of each unmanifested hazardous waste the facility received;

(5) The method of treatment, storage, or disposal for each hazardous waste;

(6) The certification signed by the owner or operator of the facility or his authorized representative; and

(7) A brief explanation of why the waste was unmanifested, if known.

(b) [Reserved]

[70 FR 10824, Mar. 4, 2005]

§ 265.77 Additional reports.

In addition to submitting the biennial report and unmanifested waste reports described in §§ 265.75 and 265.76, the owner or operator must also report to the Regional Administrator:

(a) Releases, fires, and explosions as specified in § 265.56(j);

(b) Ground-water contamination and monitoring data as specified in §§ 265.93 and 265.94; and

(c) Facility closure as specified in § 265.115.

(d) As otherwise required by Subparts AA, BB, and CC of this part.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 48 FR 3982, Jan. 28, 1983; 55 FR 25507, June 21, 1990; 59 FR 62935, Dec. 6, 1994]

Subpart F - Ground-Water Monitoring
§ 265.90 Applicability.

(a) Within one year after the effective date of these regulations, the owner or operator of a surface impoundment, landfill, or land treatment facility which is used to manage hazardous waste must implement a ground-water monitoring program capable of determining the facility's impact on the quality of ground water in the uppermost aquifer underlying the facility, except as § 265.1 and paragraph (c) of this section provide otherwise.

(b) Except as paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section provide otherwise, the owner or operator must install, operate, and maintain a ground-water monitoring system which meets the requirements of § 265.91, and must comply with §§ 265.92 through 265.94. This ground-water monitoring program must be carried out during the active life of the facility, and for disposal facilities, during the post-closure care period as well.

(c) All or part of the ground-water monitoring requirements of this subpart may be waived if the owner or operator can demonstrate that there is a low potential for migration of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents from the facility via the uppermost aquifer to water supply wells (domestic, industrial, or agricultural) or to surface water. This demonstration must be in writing, and must be kept at the facility. This demonstration must be certified by a qualified geologist or geotechnical engineer and must establish the following:

(1) The potential for migration of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents from the facility to the uppermost aquifer, by an evaluation of:

(i) A water balance of precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff, and infiltration; and

(ii) Unsaturated zone characteristics (i.e., geologic materials, physical properties, and depth to ground water); and

(2) The potential for hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents which enter the uppermost aquifer to migrate to a water supply well or surface water, by an evaluation of:

(i) Saturated zone characteristics (i.e., geologic materials, physical properties, and rate of ground-water flow); and

(ii) The proximity of the facility to water supply wells or surface water.

(d) If an owner or operator assumes (or knows) that ground-water monitoring of indicator parameters in accordance with §§ 265.91 and 265.92 would show statistically significant increases (or decreases in the case of pH) when evaluated under § 265.93(b), he may install, operate, and maintain an alternate ground-water monitoring system (other than the one described in §§ 265.91 and 265.92). If the owner or operator decides to use an alternate ground-water monitoring system he must:

(1) Within one year after the effective date of these regulations, develop a specific plan, certified by a qualified geologist or geotechnical engineer, which satisfies the requirements of § 265.93(d)(3), for an alternate ground-water monitoring system. This plan is to be placed in the facility's operating record and maintained until closure of the facility.

(2) Not later than one year after the effective date of these regulations, initiate the determinations specified in § 265.93(d)(4);

(3) Prepare a report in accordance with § 265.93(d)(5) and place it in the facility's operating record and maintain until closure of the facility.

(4) Continue to make the determinations specified in § 265.93(d)(4) on a quarterly basis until final closure of the facility; and

(5) Comply with the recordkeeping and reporting requirements in § 265.94(b).

(e) The ground-water monitoring requirements of this subpart may be waived with respect to any surface impoundment that

(1) Is used to neutralize wastes which are hazardous solely because they exhibit the corrosivity characteristic under § 261.22 of this chapter or are listed as hazardous wastes in subpart D of part 261 of this chapter only for this reason, and

(2) contains no other hazardous wastes, if the owner or operator can demonstrate that there is no potential for migration of hazardous wastes from the impoundment. The demonstration must establish, based upon consideration of the characteristics of the wastes and the impoundment, that the corrosive wastes will be neutralized to the extent that they no longer meet the corrosivity characteristic before they can migrate out of the impoundment. The demonstration must be in writing and must be certified by a qualified professional.

(f) The Regional Administrator may replace all or part of the requirements of this subpart applying to a regulated unit (as defined in 40 CFR 264.90), with alternative requirements developed for groundwater monitoring set out in an approved closure or post-closure plan or in an enforceable document (as defined in 40 CFR 270.1(c)(7)), where the Regional Administrator determines that:

(1) A regulated unit is situated among solid waste management units (or areas of concern), a release has occurred, and both the regulated unit and one or more solid waste management unit(s) (or areas of concern) are likely to have contributed to the release; and

(2) It is not necessary to apply the requirements of this subpart because the alternative requirements will protect human health and the environment. The alternative standards for the regulated unit must meet the requirements of 40 CFR 264.101(a).

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 47 FR 1255, Jan. 11, 1982; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 63 FR 56734, Oct. 22, 1998; 71 FR 16909, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40274, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system.

(a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:

(1) Monitoring wells (at least one) installed hydraulically upgradient (i.e., in the direction of increasing static head) from the limit of the waste management area. Their number, locations, and depths must be sufficient to yield ground-water samples that are:

(i) Representative of background ground-water quality in the uppermost aquifer near the facility; and

(ii) Not affected by the facility; and

(2) Monitoring wells (at least three) installed hydraulically downgradient (i.e., in the direction of decreasing static head) at the limit of the waste management area. Their number, locations, and depths must ensure that they immediately detect any statistically significant amounts of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents that migrate from the waste management area to the uppermost aquifer.

(3) The facility owner or operator may demonstrate that an alternate hydraulically downgradient monitoring well location will meet the criteria outlined below. The demonstration must be in writing and kept at the facility. The demonstration must be certified by a qualified ground-water scientist and establish that:

(i) An existing physical obstacle prevents monitoring well installation at the hydraulically downgradient limit of the waste management area; and

(ii) The selected alternate downgradient location is as close to the limit of the waste management area as practical; and

(iii) The location ensures detection that, given the alternate location, is as early as possible of any statistically significant amounts of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents that migrate from the waste management area to the uppermost aquifer.

(iv) Lateral expansion, new, or replacement units are not eligible for an alternate downgradient location under this paragraph.

(b) Separate monitoring systems for each waste management component of a facility are not required provided that provisions for sampling upgradient and downgradient water quality will detect any discharge from the waste management area.

(1) In the case of a facility consisting of only one surface impoundment, landfill, or land treatment area, the waste management area is described by the waste boundary (perimeter).

(2) In the case of a facility consisting of more than one surface impoundment, landfill, or land treatment area, the waste management area is described by an imaginary boundary line which circumscribes the several waste management components.

(c) All monitoring wells must be cased in a manner that maintains the integrity of the monitoring well bore hole. This casing must be screened or perforated, and packed with gravel or sand where necessary, to enable sample collection at depths where appropriate aquifer flow zones exist. The annular space (i.e., the space between the bore hole and well casing) above the sampling depth must be sealed with a suitable material (e.g., cement grout or bentonite slurry) to prevent contamination of samples and the ground water.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 56 FR 66369, Dec. 23, 1991]

§ 265.92 Sampling and analysis.

(a) The owner or operator must obtain and analyze samples from the installed ground-water monitoring system. The owner or operator must develop and follow a ground-water sampling and analysis plan. He must keep this plan at the facility. The plan must include procedures and techniques for:

(1) Sample collection;

(2) Sample preservation and shipment;

(3) Analytical procedures; and

(4) Chain of custody control.

[Comment: See “Procedures Manual For Ground-water Monitoring At Solid Waste Disposal Facilities,” EPA-530/SW-611, August 1977 and “Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes,” EPA-600/4-79-020, March 1979 for discussions of sampling and analysis procedures.]

(b) The owner or operator must determine the concentration or value of the following parameters in ground-water samples in accordance with paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section:

(1) Parameters characterizing the suitability of the ground water as a drinking water supply, as specified in appendix III.

(2) Parameters establishing ground-water quality:

(i) Chloride

(ii) Iron

(iii) Manganese

(iv) Phenols

(v) Sodium

(vi) Sulfate

[Comment: These parameters are to be used as a basis for comparison in the event a ground-water quality assessment is required under § 265.93(d).]

(3) Parameters used as indicators of ground-water contamination:

(i) pH

(ii) Specific Conductance

(iii) Total Organic Carbon

(iv) Total Organic Halogen

(c)

(1) For all monitoring wells, the owner or operator must establish initial background concentrations or values of all parameters specified in paragraph (b) of this section. He must do this quarterly for one year.

(2) For each of the indicator parameters specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, at least four replicate measurements must be obtained for each sample and the initial background arithmetic mean and variance must be determined by pooling the replicate measurements for the respective parameter concentrations or values in samples obtained from upgradient wells during the first year.

(d) After the first year, all monitoring wells must be sampled and the samples analyzed with the following frequencies:

(1) Samples collected to establish ground-water quality must be obtained and analyzed for the parameters specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section at least annually.

(2) Samples collected to indicate ground-water contamination must be obtained and analyzed for the parameters specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section at least semi-annually.

(e) Elevation of the ground-water surface at each monitoring well must be determined each time a sample is obtained.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985]

§ 265.93 Preparation, evaluation, and response.

(a) Within one year after the effective date of these regulations, the owner or operator must prepare an outline of a ground-water quality assessment program. The outline must describe a more comprehensive ground-water monitoring program (than that described in §§ 265.91 and 265.92) capable of determining:

(1) Whether hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents have entered the ground water;

(2) The rate and extent of migration of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents in the ground water; and

(3) The concentrations of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents in the ground water.

(b) For each indicator parameter specified in § 265.92(b)(3), the owner or operator must calculate the arithmetic mean and variance, based on at least four replicate measurements on each sample, for each well monitored in accordance with § 265.92(d)(2), and compare these results with its initial background arithmetic mean. The comparison must consider individually each of the wells in the monitoring system, and must use the Student's t-test at the 0.01 level of significance (see appendix IV) to determine statistically significant increases (and decreases, in the case of pH) over initial background.

(c)

(1) If the comparisons for the upgradient wells made under paragraph (b) of this section show a significant increase (or pH decrease), the owner or operator must submit this information in accordance with § 265.94(a)(2)(ii).

(2) If the comparisons for downgradient wells made under paragraph (b) of this section show a significant increase (or pH decrease), the owner or operator must then immediately obtain additional ground-water samples from those downgradient wells where a significant difference was detected, split the samples in two, and obtain analyses of all additional samples to determine whether the significant difference was a result of laboratory error.

(d)

(1) If the analyses performed under paragraph (c)(2) of this section confirm the significant increase (or pH decrease), the owner or operator must provide written notice to the Regional Administrator - within seven days of the date of such confirmation - that the facility may be affecting ground-water quality.

(2) Within 15 days after the notification under paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the owner or operator must develop a specific plan, based on the outline required under paragraph (a) of this section and certified by a qualified geologist or geotechnical engineer, for a ground-water quality assessment at the facility. This plan must be placed in the facility operating record and be maintained until closure of the facility.

(3) The plan to be submitted under § 265.90(d)(1) or paragraph (d)(2) of this section must specify:

(i) The number, location, and depth of wells;

(ii) Sampling and analytical methods for those hazardous wastes or hazardous waste constituents in the facility;

(iii) Evaluation procedures, including any use of previously-gathered ground-water quality information; and

(iv) A schedule of implementation.

(4) The owner or operator must implement the ground-water quality assessment plan which satisfies the requirements of paragraph (d)(3) of this section, and, at a minimum, determine:

(i) The rate and extent of migration of the hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents in the ground water; and

(ii) The concentrations of the hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents in the ground water.

(5) The owner or operator must make his first determination under paragraph (d)(4) of this section, as soon as technically feasible, and prepare a report containing an assessment of ground-water quality. This report must be placed in the facility operating record and be maintained until closure of the facility.

(6) If the owner or operator determines, based on the results of the first determination under paragraph (d)(4) of this section, that no hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents from the facility have entered the ground water, then he may reinstate the indicator evaluation program described in § 265.92 and paragraph (b) of this section. If the owner or operator reinstates the indicator evaluation program, he must so notify the Regional Administrator in the report submitted under paragraph (d)(5) of this section.

(7) If the owner or operator determines, based on the first determination under paragraph (d)(4) of this section, that hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents from the facility have entered the ground water, then he:

(i) Must continue to make the determinations required under paragraph (d)(4) of this section on a quarterly basis until final closure of the facility, if the ground-water quality assessment plan was implemented prior to final closure of the facility; or

(ii) May cease to make the determinations required under paragraph (d)(4) of this section, if the ground-water quality assessment plan was implemented during the post-closure care period.

(e) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subpart, any ground-water quality assessment to satisfy the requirements of § 265.93(d)(4) which is initiated prior to final closure of the facility must be completed and reported in accordance with § 265.93(d)(5).

(f) Unless the ground water is monitored to satisfy the requirements of § 265.93(d)(4), at least annually the owner or operator must evaluate the data on ground-water surface elevations obtained under § 265.92(e) to determine whether the requirements under § 265.91(a) for locating the monitoring wells continues to be satisfied. If the evaluation shows that § 265.91(a) is no longer satisfied, the owner or operator must immediately modify the number, location, or depth of the monitoring wells to bring the ground-water monitoring system into compliance with this requirement.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 71 FR 16909, Apr. 4, 2006]

§ 265.94 Recordkeeping and reporting.

(a) Unless the ground water is monitored to satisfy the requirements of § 265.93(d)(4), the owner or operator must:

(1) Keep records of the analyses required in § 265.92(c) and (d), the associated ground-water surface elevations required in § 265.92(e), and the evaluations required in § 265.93(b) throughout the active life of the facility, and, for disposal facilities, throughout the post-closure care period as well; and

(2) Report the following ground-water monitoring information to the Regional Administrator:

(i) During the first year when initial background concentrations are being established for the facility: concentrations or values of the parameters listed in § 265.92(b)(1) for each ground-water monitoring well within 15 days after completing each quarterly analysis. The owner or operator must separately identify for each monitoring well any parameters whose concentration or value has been found to exceed the maximum contaminant levels listed in appendix III.

(ii) Annually: Concentrations or values of the parameters listed in § 265.92(b)(3) for each ground-water monitoring well, along with the required evaluations for these parameters under § 265.93(b). The owner or operator must separately identify any significant differences from initial background found in the upgradient wells, in accordance with § 265.93(c)(1). During the active life of the facility, this information must be submitted no later than March 1 following each calendar year.

(iii) No later than March 1 following each calendar year: Results of the evaluations of ground-water surface elevations under § 265.93(f), and a description of the response to that evaluation, where applicable.

(b) If the ground water is monitored to satisfy the requirements of § 265.93(d)(4), the owner or operator must:

(1) Keep records of the analyses and evaluations specified in the plan, which satisfies the requirements of § 265.93(d)(3), throughout the active life of the facility, and, for disposal facilities, throughout the post-closure care period as well; and

(2) Annually, until final closure of the facility, submit to the Regional Administrator a report containing the results of his or her ground-water quality assessment program which includes, but is not limited to, the calculated (or measured) rate of migration of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents in the ground water during the reporting period. This information must be submitted no later than March 1 following each calendar year.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 48 FR 3982, Jan. 28, 1983; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985]

Subpart G - Closure and Post-Closure
Source:

51 FR 16451, May 2, 1986, unless otherwise noted.

§ 265.110 Applicability.

Except as § 265.1 provides otherwise:

(a) Sections 265.111 through 265.115 (which concern closure) apply to the owners and operators of all hazardous waste management facilities; and

(b) Sections 265.116 through 265.120 (which concern post-closure care) apply to the owners and operators of:

(1) All hazardous waste disposal facilities;

(2) Waste piles and surface impoundments for which the owner or operator intends to remove the wastes at closure to the extent that these sections are made applicable to such facilities in § 265.228 or § 265.258;

(3) Tank systems that are required under § 265.197 to meet requirements for landfills; and

(4) Containment buildings that are required under § 265.1102 to meet the requirement for landfills.

(c) Section 265.121 applies to owners and operators of units that are subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 270.1(c)(7) and are regulated under an enforceable document (as defined in 40 CFR 270.1(c)(7)).

(d) The Regional Administrator may replace all or part of the requirements of this subpart (and the unit-specific standards in § 265.111(c)) applying to a regulated unit (as defined in 40 CFR 264.90), with alternative requirements for closure set out in an approved closure or post-closure plan, or in an enforceable document (as defined in 40 CFR 270.1(c)(7)), where the Regional Administrator determines that:

(1) A regulated unit is situated among solid waste management units (or areas of concern), a release has occurred, and both the regulated unit and one or more solid waste management unit(s) (or areas of concern) are likely to have contributed to the release, and

(2) It is not necessary to apply the closure requirements of this subpart (and/or those referenced herein) because the alternative requirements will protect human health and the environment, and will satisfy the closure performance standard of § 265.111 (a) and (b).

[51 FR 16451, May 2, 1986, as amended at 51 FR 25479, July 14, 1986; 53 FR 34086, Sept. 2, 1988; 57 FR 37267, Aug. 18, 1992; 63 FR 56734, Oct. 22, 1998; 71 FR 40274, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.111 Closure performance standard.

The owner or operator must close the facility in a manner that:

(a) Minimizes the need for further maintenance, and

(b) Controls, minimizes or eliminates, to the extent necessary to protect human health and the environment, post-closure escape of hazardous waste, hazardous constituents, leachate, contaminated run-off, or hazardous waste decomposition products to the ground or surface waters or to the atmosphere, and

(c) Complies with the closure requirements of this subpart, including, but not limited to, the requirements of §§ 265.197, 265.228, 265.258, 265.280, 265.310, 265.351, 265.381, 265.404, and 265.1102.

[51 FR 16451, May 2, 1986, as amended at 57 FR 37267, Aug. 18, 1992; 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan.

(a) Written plan. By May 19, 1981, or by six months after the effective date of the rule that first subjects a facility to provisions of this section, the owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. Until final closure is completed and certified in accordance with § 265.115, a copy of the most current plan must be furnished to the Regional Administrator upon request, including request by mail. In addition, for facilities without approved plans, it must also be provided during site inspections, on the day of inspection, to any officer, employee, or representative of the Agency who is duly designated by the Administrator.

(b) Content of plan. The plan must identify steps necessary to perform partial and/or final closure of the facility at any point during its active life. The closure plan must include, at least:

(1) A description of how each hazardous waste management unit at the facility will be closed in accordance with § 265.111; and

(2) A description of how final closure of the facility will be conducted in accordance with § 265.111. The description must identify the maximum extent of the operation which will be unclosed during the active life of the facility; and

(3) An estimate of the maximum inventory of hazardous wastes ever on-site over the active life of the facility and a detailed description of the methods to be used during partial and final closure, including, but not limited to methods for removing, transporting, treating, storing or disposing of all hazardous waste, identification of and the type(s) of off-site hazardous waste management unit(s) to be used, if applicable; and

(4) A detailed description of the steps needed to remove or decontaminate all hazardous waste residues and contaminated containment system components, equipment, structures, and soils during partial and final closure including, but not limited to, procedures for cleaning equipment and removing contaminated soils, methods for sampling and testing surrounding soils, and criteria for determining the extent of decontamination necessary to satisfy the closure performance standard; and

(5) A detailed description of other activities necessary during the partial and final closure periods to ensure that all partial closures and final closure satisfy the closure performance standards, including, but not limited to, ground-water monitoring, leachate collection, and run-on and run-off control; and

(6) A schedule for closure of each hazardous waste management unit and for final closure of the facility. The schedule must include, at a minimum, the total time required to close each hazardous waste management unit and the time required for intervening closure activities which will allow tracking of the progress of partial and final closure. (For example, in the case of a landfill unit, estimates of the time required to treat or dispose of all hazardous waste inventory and of the time required to place a final cover must be included.); and

(7) An estimate of the expected year of final closure for facilities that use trust funds to demonstrate financial assurance under § 265.143 or § 265.145 and whose remaining operating life is less than twenty years, and for facilities without approved closure plans.

(8) For facilities where the Regional Administrator has applied alternative requirements at a regulated unit under §§ 265.90(f), 265.110(d), and/or 265.140(d), either the alternative requirements applying to the regulated unit, or a reference to the enforceable document containing those alternative requirements.

(c) Amendment of plan. The owner or operator may amend the closure plan at any time prior to the notification of partial or final closure of the facility. An owner or operator with an approved closure plan must submit a written request to the Regional Administrator to authorize a change to the approved closure plan. The written request must include a copy of the amended closure plan for approval by the Regional Administrator.

(1) The owner or operator must amend the closure plan whenever:

(i) Changes in operating plans or facility design affect the closure plan, or

(ii) There is a change in the expected year of closure, if applicable, or

(iii) In conducting partial or final closure activities, unexpected events require a modification of the closure plan.

(iv) The owner or operator requests the Regional Administrator to apply alternative requirements to a regulated unit under §§ 265.90(f), 265.110(d), and/or 265.140(d).

(2) The owner or operator must amend the closure plan at least 60 days prior to the proposed change in facility design or operation, or no later than 60 days after an unexpected event has occurred which has affected the closure plan. If an unexpected event occurs during the partial or final closure period, the owner or operator must amend the closure plan no later than 30 days after the unexpected event. These provisions also apply to owners or operators of surface impoundments and waste piles who intended to remove all hazardous wastes at closure, but are required to close as landfills in accordance with § 265.310.

(3) An owner or operator with an approved closure plan must submit the modified plan to the Regional Administrator at least 60 days prior to the proposed change in facility design or operation, or no more than 60 days after an unexpected event has occurred which has affected the closure plan. If an unexpected event has occurred during the partial or final closure period, the owner or operator must submit the modified plan no more than 30 days after the unexpected event. These provisions also apply to owners or operators of surface impoundments and waste piles who intended to remove all hazardous wastes at closure but are required to close as landfills in accordance with § 265.310. If the amendment to the plan is a Class 2 or 3 modification according to the criteria in § 270.42, the modification to the plan will be approved according to the procedures in § 265.112(d)(4).

(4) The Regional Administrator may request modifications to the plan under the conditions described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. An owner or operator with an approved closure plan must submit the modified plan within 60 days of the request from the Regional Administrator, or within 30 days if the unexpected event occurs during partial or final closure. If the amendment is considered a Class 2 or 3 modification according to the criteria in § 270.42, the modification to the plan will be approved in accordance with the procedures in § 265.112(d)(4).

(d) Notification of partial closure and final closure.

(1) The owner or operator must submit the closure plan to the Regional Administrator at least 180 days prior to the date on which he expects to begin closure of the first surface impoundment, waste pile, land treatment, or landfill unit, or final closure if it involves such a unit, whichever is earlier. The owner or operator must submit the closure plan to the Regional Administrator at least 45 days prior to the date on which he expects to begin partial or final closure of a boiler or industrial furnace. The owner or operator must submit the closure plan to the Regional Administrator at least 45 days prior to the date on which he expects to begin final closure of a facility with only tanks, container storage, or incinerator units. Owners or operators with approved closure plans must notify the Regional Administrator in writing at least 60 days prior to the date on which he expects to begin closure of a surface impoundment, waste pile, landfill, or land treatment unit, or final closure of a facility involving such a unit. Owners or operators with approved closure plans must notify the Regional Administrator in writing at least 45 days prior to the date on which he expects to begin partial or final closure of a boiler or industrial furnace. Owners or operators with approved closure plans must notify the Regional Administrator in writing at least 45 days prior to the date on which he expects to begin final closure of a facility with only tanks, container storage, or incinerator units.

(2) The date when he “expects to begin closure” must be either:

(i) Within 30 days after the date on which any hazardous waste management unit receives the known final volume of hazardous wastes, or, if there is a reasonable possibility that the hazardous waste management unit will receive additional hazardous wastes, no later than one year after the date on which the unit received the most recent volume of hazardous waste. If the owner or operator of a hazardous waste management unit can demonstrate to the Regional Administrator that the hazardous waste management unit or facility has the capacity to receive additional hazardous wastes and he has taken, and will continue to take, all steps to prevent threats to human health and the environment, including compliance with all interim status requirements, the Regional Administrator may approve an extension to this one-year limit; or

(ii) For units meeting the requirements of § 265.113(d), no later than 30 days after the date on which the hazardous waste management unit receives the known final volume of nonhazardous wastes, or if there is a reasonable possibility that the hazardous waste management unit will receive additional nonhazardous wastes, no later than one year after the date on which the unit received the most recent volume of nonhazardous wastes. If the owner or operator can demonstrate to the Regional Administrator that the hazardous waste management unit has the capacity to receive additional nonhazardous wastes and he has taken, and will continue to take, all steps to prevent threats to human health and the environment, including compliance with all applicable interim status requirements, the Regional Administrator may approve an extension to this one-year limit.

(3) The owner or operator must submit his closure plan to the Regional Administrator no later than 15 days after:

(i) Termination of interim status except when a permit is issued simultaneously with termination of interim status; or

(ii) Issuance of a judicial decree or final order under section 3008 of RCRA to cease receiving hazardous wastes or close.

(4) The Regional Administrator will provide the owner or operator and the public, through a newspaper notice, the opportunity to submit written comments on the plan and request modifications to the plan no later than 30 days from the date of the notice. He will also, in response to a request or at his own discretion, hold a public hearing whenever such a hearing might clarify one or more issues concerning a closure plan. The Regional Administrator will give public notice of the hearing at least 30 days before it occurs. (Public notice of the hearing may be given at the same time as notice of the opportunity for the public to submit written comments, and the two notices may be combined.) The Regional Administrator will approve, modify, or disapprove the plan within 90 days of its receipt. If the Regional Administrator does not approve the plan he shall provide the owner or operator with a detailed written statement of reasons for the refusal and the owner or operator must modify the plan or submit a new plan for approval within 30 days after receiving such written statement. The Regional Administrator will approve or modify this plan in writing within 60 days. If the Regional Administrator modifies the plan, this modified plan becomes the approved closure plan. The Regional Administrator must assure that the approved plan is consistent with §§ 265.111 through 265.115 and the applicable requirements of subpart F of this part, and §§ 265.197, 265.228, 265.258, 265.280, 265.310, 265.351, 265.381, 265.404, and 265.1102. A copy of the modified plan with a detailed statement of reasons for the modifications must be mailed to the owner or operator.

(e) Removal of wastes and decontamination or dismantling of equipment. Nothing in this section shall preclude the owner or operator from removing hazardous wastes and decontaminating or dismantling equipment in accordance with the approved partial or final closure plan at any time before or after notification of partial or final closure.

[51 FR 16451, May 2, 1986, as amended at 54 FR 37935, Sept. 28, 1988; 56 FR 7207, Feb. 21, 1991; 56 FR 42512, Aug. 27, 1991; 57 FR 37267, Aug. 18, 1992; 63 FR 56734, Oct. 22, 1998; 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.113 Closure; time allowed for closure.

(a) Within 90 days after receiving the final volume of hazardous wastes, or the final volume of nonhazardous wastes if the owner or operator complies with all applicable requirements in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section, at a hazardous waste management unit or facility, or within 90 days after approval of the closure plan, whichever is later, the owner or operator must treat, remove from the unit or facility, or dispose of on-site, all hazardous wastes in accordance with the approved closure plan. The Regional Administrator may approve a longer period if the owner or operator demonstrates that:

(1)

(i) The activities required to comply with this paragraph will, of necessity, take longer than 90 days to complete; or

(ii)

(A) The hazardous waste management unit or facility has the capacity to receive additional hazardous wastes, or has the capacity to receive non-hazardous wastes if the facility owner or operator complies with paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section; and

(B) There is a reasonable likelihood that he or another person will recommence operation of the hazardous waste management unit or the facility within one year; and

(C) Closure of the hazardous waste management unit or facility would be incompatible with continued operation of the site; and

(2) He has taken and will continue to take all steps to prevent threats to human health and the environment, including compliance with all applicable interim status requirements.

(b) The owner or operator must complete partial and final closure activities in accordance with the approved closure plan and within 180 days after receiving the final volume of hazardous wastes, or the final volume of nonhazardous wastes if the owner or operator complies with all applicable requirements in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section, at the hazardous waste management unit or facility, or 180 days after approval of the closure plan, if that is later. The Regional Administrator may approve an extension to the closure period if the owner or operator demonstrates that:

(1)

(i) The partial or final closure activities will, of necessity, take longer than 180 days to complete; or

(ii)

(A) The hazardous waste management unit or facility has the capacity to receive additional hazardous wastes, or has the capacity to receive non-hazardous wastes if the facility owner or operator complies with paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section; and

(B) There is reasonable likelihood that he or another person will recommence operation of the hazardous waste management unit or the facility within one year; and

(C) Closure of the hazardous waste management unit or facility would be incompatible with continued operation of the site; and

(2) He has taken and will continue to take all steps to prevent threats to human health and the environment from the unclosed but not operating hazardous waste management unit or facility, including compliance with all applicable interim status requirements.

(c) The demonstrations referred to in paragraphs (a)(1) and (b)(1) of this section must be made as follows:

(1) The demonstrations in paragraph (a)(1) of this section must be made at least 30 days prior to the expiration of the 90-day period in paragraph (a) of this section; and

(2) The demonstration in paragraph (b)(1) of this section must be made at least 30 days prior to the expiration of the 180-day period in paragraph (b) of this section, unless the owner or operator is otherwise subject to the deadlines in paragraph (d) of this section.

(d) The Regional Administrator may allow an owner or operator to receive non-hazardous wastes in a landfill, land treatment, or surface impoundment unit after the final receipt of hazardous wastes at that unit if:

(1) The owner or operator submits an amended part B application, or a part B application, if not previously required, and demonstrates that:

(i) The unit has the existing design capacity as indicated on the part A application to receive non-hazardous wastes; and

(ii) There is a reasonable likelihood that the owner or operator or another person will receive non-hazardous wastes in the unit within one year after the final receipt of hazardous wastes; and

(iii) The non-hazardous wastes will not be incompatible with any remaining wastes in the unit or with the facility design and operating requirements of the unit or facility under this part; and

(iv) Closure of the hazardous waste management unit would be incompatible with continued operation of the unit or facility; and

(v) The owner or operator is operating and will continue to operate in compliance with all applicable interim status requirements; and

(2) The part B application includes an amended waste analysis plan, ground-water monitoring and response program, human exposure assessment required under RCRA section 3019, and closure and post-closure plans, and updated cost estimates and demonstrations of financial assurance for closure and post-closure care as necessary and appropriate to reflect any changes due to the presence of hazardous constituents in the non-hazardous wastes, and changes in closure activities, including the expected year of closure if applicable under § 265.112(b)(7), as a result of the receipt of non-hazardous wastes following the final receipt of hazardous wastes; and

(3) The part B application is amended, as necessary and appropriate, to account for the receipt of non-hazardous wastes following receipt of the final volume of hazardous wastes; and

(4) The part B application and the demonstrations referred to in paragraphs (d)(1) and (d)(2) of this section are submitted to the Regional Administrator no later than 180 days prior to the date on which the owner or operator of the facility receives the known final volume of hazardous wastes, or no later than 90 days after the effective date of this rule in the state in which the unit is located, whichever is later.

(e) In addition to the requirements in paragraph (d) of this section, an owner or operator of a hazardous waste surface impoundment that is not in compliance with the liner and leachate collection system requirements in 42 U.S.C. 3004(o)(1) and 3005(j)(1) or 42 U.S.C. 3004(o)(2) or (3) or 3005(j) (2), (3), (4) or (13) must:

(1) Submit with the part B application:

(i) A contingent corrective measures plan; and

(ii) A plan for removing hazardous wastes in compliance with paragraph (e)(2) of this section; and

(2) Remove all hazardous wastes from the unit by removing all hazardous liquids and removing all hazardous sludges to the extent practicable without impairing the integrity of the liner(s), if any.

(3) Removal of hazardous wastes must be completed no later than 90 days after the final receipt of hazardous wastes. The Regional Administrator may approve an extension to this deadline if the owner or operator demonstrates that the removal of hazardous wastes will, of necessity, take longer than the allotted period to complete and that an extension will not pose a threat to human health and the environment.

(4) If a release that is a statistically significant increase (or decrease in the case of pH) in hazardous constituents over background levels is detected in accordance with the requirements in subpart F of this part, the owner or operator of the unit:

(i) Must implement corrective measures in accordance with the approved contingent corrective measures plan required by paragraph (e)(1) of this section no later than one year after detection of the release, or approval of the contingent corrective measures plan, whichever is later;

(ii) May receive wastes at the unit following detection of the release only if the approved corrective measures plan includes a demonstration that continued receipt of wastes will not impede corrective action; and

(iii) May be required by the Regional Administrator to implement corrective measures in less than one year or to cease receipt of wastes until corrective measures have been implemented if necessary to protect human health and the environment.

(5) During the period of corrective action, the owner or operator shall provide annual reports to the Regional Administrator describing the progress of the corrective action program, compile all ground-water monitoring data, and evaluate the effect of the continued receipt of non-hazardous wastes on the effectiveness of the corrective action.

(6) The Regional Administrator may require the owner or operator to commence closure of the unit if the owner or operator fails to implement corrective action measures in accordance with the approved contingent corrective measures plan within one year as required in paragraph (e)(4) of this section, or fails to make substantial progress in implementing corrective action and achieving the facility's background levels.

(7) If the owner or operator fails to implement corrective measures as required in paragraph (e)(4) of this section, or if the Regional Administrator determines that substantial progress has not been made pursuant to paragraph (e)(6) of this section he shall:

(i) Notify the owner or operator in writing that the owner or operator must begin closure in accordance with the deadline in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section and provide a detailed statement of reasons for this determination, and

(ii) Provide the owner or operator and the public, through a newspaper notice, the opportunity to submit written comments on the decision no later than 20 days after the date of the notice.

(iii) If the Regional Administrator receives no written comments, the decision will become final five days after the close of the comment period. The Regional Administrator will notify the owner or operator that the decision is final, and that a revised closure plan, if necessary, must be submitted within 15 days of the final notice and that closure must begin in accordance with the deadlines in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(iv) If the Regional Administrator receives written comments on the decision, he shall make a final decision within 30 days after the end of the comment period, and provide the owner or operator in writing and the public through a newspaper notice, a detailed statement of reasons for the final decision. If the Regional Administrator determines that substantial progress has not been made, closure must be initiated in accordance with the deadlines in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(v) The final determinations made by the Regional Administrator under paragraphs (e)(7) (iii) and (iv) of this section are not subject to administrative appeal.

[51 FR 16451, May 2, 1986, as amended at 54 FR 33396, Aug. 14, 1989; 56 FR 42512, Aug. 27, 1991; 71 FR 16909, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.114 Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.

During the partial and final closure periods, all contaminated equipment, structures and soil must be properly disposed of, or decontaminated unless specified otherwise in §§ 265.197, 265.228, 265.258, 265.280, or 265.310. By removing all hazardous wastes or hazardous constituents during partial and final closure, the owner or operator may become a generator of hazardous waste and must handle that hazardous waste in accordance with all applicable requirements of part 262 of this chapter.

[51 FR 16451, May 2, 1986, as amended at 53 FR 34086, Sept. 2, 1988]

§ 265.115 Certification of closure.

Within 60 days of completion of closure of each hazardous waste surface impoundment, waste pile, land treatment, and landfill unit, and within 60 days of completion of final closure, the owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator, by registered mail, a certification that the hazardous waste management unit or facility, as applicable, has been closed in accordance with the specifications in the approved closure plan. The certification must be signed by the owner or operator and by a qualified Professional Engineer. Documentation supporting the Professional Engineer's certification must be furnished to the Regional Administrator upon request until he releases the owner or operator from the financial assurance requirements for closure under § 265.143(h).

[71 FR 16909, Apr. 4, 2006]

§ 265.116 Survey plat.

No later than the submission of the certification of closure of each hazardous waste disposal unit, an owner or operator must submit to the local zoning authority, or the authority with jurisdiction over local land use, and to the Regional Administrator, a survey plat indicating the location and dimensions of landfill cells or other hazardous waste disposal units with respect to permanently surveyed benchmarks. This plat must be prepared and certified by a professional land surveyor. The plat filed with the local zoning authority, or the authority with jurisdiction over local land use must contain a note, prominently displayed, which states the owner's or operator's obligation to restrict disturbance of the hazardous waste disposal unit in accordance with the applicable subpart G regulations.

§ 265.117 Post-closure care and use of property.

(a)

(1) Post-closure care for each hazardous waste management unit subject to the requirements of §§ 265.117 through 265.120 must begin after completion of closure of the unit and continue for 30 years after that date. It must consist of at least the following:

(i) Monitoring and reporting in accordance with the requirements of subparts F, K, L, M, and N of this part; and

(ii) Maintenance and monitoring of waste containment systems in accordance with the requirements of subparts F, K, L, M, and N of this part.

(2) Any time preceding closure of a hazardous waste management unit subject to post-closure care requirements or final closure, or any time during the post-closure period for a particular hazardous waste disposal unit, the Regional Administrator may:

(i) Shorten the post-closure care period applicable to the hazardous waste management unit, or facility, if all disposal units have been closed, if he finds that the reduced period is sufficient to protect human health and the environment (e.g., leachate or ground-water monitoring results, characteristics of the hazardous waste, application of advanced technology, or alternative disposal, treatment, or re-use techniques indicate that the hazardous waste management unit or facility is secure); or

(ii) Extend the post-closure care period applicable to the hazardous waste management unit or facility, if he finds that the extended period is necessary to protect human health and the environment (e.g., leachate or ground-water monitoring results indicate a potential for migration of hazardous wastes at levels which may be harmful to human health and the environment).

(b) The Regional Administrator may require, at partial and final closure, continuation of any of the security requirements of § 265.14 during part or all of the post-closure period when:

(1) Hazardous wastes may remain exposed after completion of partial or final closure; or

(2) Access by the public or domestic livestock may pose a hazard to human health.

(c) Post-closure use of property on or in which hazardous wastes remain after partial or final closure must never be allowed to disturb the integrity of the final cover, liner(s), or any other components of the containment system, or the function of the facility's monitoring systems, unless the Regional Administrator finds that the disturbance:

(1) Is necessary to the proposed use of the property, and will not increase the potential hazard to human health or the environment; or

(2) Is necessary to reduce a threat to human health or the environment.

(d) All post-closure care activities must be in accordance with the provisions of the approved post-closure plan as specified in § 265.118.

[51 FR 16451, May 2, 1986, as amended at 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.118 Post-closure plan; amendment of plan.

(a) Written plan. By May 19, 1981, the owner or operator of a hazardous waste disposal unit must have a written post-closure plan. An owner or operator of a surface impoundment or waste pile that intends to remove all hazardous wastes at closure must prepare a post-closure plan and submit it to the Regional Administrator within 90 days of the date that the owner or operator or Regional Administrator determines that the hazardous waste management unit or facility must be closed as a landfill, subject to the requirements of §§ 265.117 through 265.120.

(b) Until final closure of the facility, a copy of the most current post-closure plan must be furnished to the Regional Administrator upon request, including request by mail. In addition, for facilities without approved post-closure plans, it must also be provided during site inspections, on the day of inspection, to any officer, employee or representative of the Agency who is duly designated by the Administrator. After final closure has been certified, the person or office specified in § 265.118(c)(3) must keep the approved post-closure plan during the post-closure period.

(c) For each hazardous waste management unit subject to the requirements of this section, the post-closure plan must identify the activities that will be carried on after closure of each disposal unit and the frequency of these activities, and include at least:

(1) A description of the planned monitoring activities and frequencies at which they will be performed to comply with subparts F, K, L, M, and N of this part during the post-closure care period; and

(2) A description of the planned maintenance activities, and frequencies at which they will be performed, to ensure:

(i) The integrity of the cap and final cover or other containment systems in accordance with the requirements of subparts K, L, M, and N of this part; and

(ii) The function of the monitoring equipment in accordance with the requirements of subparts F, K, L, M, and N of this part; and

(3) The name, address, and phone number of the person or office to contact about the hazardous waste disposal unit or facility during the post-closure care period.

(4) For facilities subject to § 265.121, provisions that satisfy the requirements of § 265.121(a)(1) and (3).

(5) For facilities where the Regional Administrator has applied alternative requirements at a regulated unit under §§ 265.90(f), 265.110(d), and/or 265.140(d), either the alternative requirements that apply to the regulated unit, or a reference to the enforceable document containing those requirements.

(d) Amendment of plan. The owner or operator may amend the post-closure plan any time during the active life of the facility or during the post-closure care period. An owner or operator with an approved post-closure plan must submit a written request to the Regional Administrator to authorize a change to the approved plan. The written request must include a copy of the amended post-closure plan for approval by the Regional Administrator.

(1) The owner or operator must amend the post-closure plan whenever:

(i) Changes in operating plans or facility design affect the post-closure plan, or

(ii) Events which occur during the active life of the facility, including partial and final closures, affect the post-closure plan.

(iii) The owner or operator requests the Regional Administrator to apply alternative requirements to a regulated unit under §§ 265.90(f), 265.110(d), and/or 265.140(d).

(2) The owner or operator must amend the post-closure plan at least 60 days prior to the proposed change in facility design or operation, or no later than 60 days after an unexpected event has occurred which has affected the post-closure plan.

(3) An owner or operator with an approved post-closure plan must submit the modified plan to the Regional Administrator at least 60 days prior to the proposed change in facility design or operation, or no more than 60 days after an unexpected event has occurred which has affected the post-closure plan. If an owner or operator of a surface impoundment or a waste pile who intended to remove all hazardous wastes at closure in accordance with § 265.228(b) or § 265.258(a) is required to close as a landfill in accordance with § 265.310, the owner or operator must submit a post-closure plan within 90 days of the determination by the owner or operator or Regional Administrator that the unit must be closed as a landfill. If the amendment to the post-closure plan is a Class 2 or 3 modification according to the criteria in § 270.42, the modification to the plan will be approved according to the procedures in § 265.118(f).

(4) The Regional Administrator may request modifications to the plan under the conditions described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section. An owner or operator with an approved post-closure plan must submit the modified plan no later than 60 days of the request from the Regional Administrator. If the amendment to the plan is considered a Class 2 or 3 modification according to the criteria in § 270.42, the modifications to the post-closure plan will be approved in accordance with the procedures in § 265.118(f). If the Regional Administrator determines that an owner or operator of a surface impoundment or waste pile who intended to remove all hazardous wastes at closure must close the facility as a landfill, the owner or operator must submit a post-closure plan for approval to the Regional Administrator within 90 days of the determination.

(e) The owner or operator of a facility with hazardous waste management units subject to these requirements must submit his post-closure plan to the Regional Administrator at least 180 days before the date he expects to begin partial or final closure of the first hazardous waste disposal unit. The date he “expects to begin closure” of the first hazardous waste disposal unit must be either within 30 days after the date on which the hazardous waste management unit receives the known final volume of hazardous waste or, if there is a reasonable possibility that the hazardous waste management unit will receive additional hazardous wastes, no later than one year after the date on which the unit received the most recent volume of hazardous wastes. The owner or operator must submit the post-closure plan to the Regional Administrator no later than 15 days after:

(1) Termination of interim status (except when a permit is issued to the facility simultaneously with termination of interim status); or

(2) Issuance of a judicial decree or final orders under section 3008 of RCRA to cease receiving wastes or close.

(f) The Regional Administrator will provide the owner or operator and the public, through a newspaper notice, the opportunity to submit written comments on the post-closure plan and request modifications to the plan no later than 30 days from the date of the notice. He will also, in response to a request or at his own discretion, hold a public hearing whenever such a hearing might clarify one or more issues concerning a post-closure plan. The Regional Administrator will give public notice of the hearing at least 30 days before it occurs. (Public notice of the hearing may be given at the same time as notice of the opportunity for the public to submit written comments, and the two notices may be combined.) The Regional Administrator will approve, modify, or disapprove the plan within 90 days of its receipt. If the Regional Administrator does not approve the plan he shall provide the owner or operator with a detailed written statement of reasons for the refusal and the owner or operator must modify the plan or submit a new plan for approval within 30 days after receiving such written statement. The Regional Administrator will approve or modify this plan in writing within 60 days. If the Regional Administrator modifies the plan, this modified plan becomes the approved post-closure plan. The Regional Administrator must ensure that the approved post-closure plan is consistent with §§ 265.117 through 265.120. A copy of the modified plan with a detailed statement of reasons for the modifications must be mailed to the owner or operator.

(g) The post-closure plan and length of the post-closure care period may be modified any time prior to the end of the post-closure care period in either of the following two ways:

(1) The owner or operator or any member of the public may petition the Regional Administrator to extend or reduce the post-closure care period applicable to a hazardous waste management unit or facility based on cause, or alter the requirements of the post-closure care period based on cause.

(i) The petition must include evidence demonstrating that:

(A) The secure nature of the hazardous waste management unit or facility makes the post-closure care requirement(s) unnecessary or supports reduction of the post-closure care period specified in the current post-closure plan (e.g., leachate or ground-water monitoring results, characteristics of the wastes, application of advanced technology, or alternative disposal, treatment, or re-use techniques indicate that the facility is secure), or

(B) The requested extension in the post-closure care period or alteration of post-closure care requirements is necessary to prevent threats to human health and the environment (e.g., leachate or ground-water monitoring results indicate a potential for migration of hazardous wastes at levels which may be harmful to human health and the environment).

(ii) These petitions will be considered by the Regional Administrator only when they present new and relevant information not previously considered by the Regional Administrator. Whenever the Regional Administrator is considering a petition, he will provide the owner or operator and the public, through a newspaper notice, the opportunity to submit written comments within 30 days of the date of the notice. He will also, in response to a request or at his own discretion, hold a public hearing whenever a hearing might clarify one or more issues concerning the post-closure plan. The Regional Administrator will give the public notice of the hearing at least 30 days before it occurs. (Public notice of the hearing may be given at the same time as notice of the opportunity for written public comments, and the two notices may be combined.) After considering the comments, he will issue a final determination, based upon the criteria set forth in paragraph (g)(1) of this section.

(iii) If the Regional Administrator denies the petition, he will send the petitioner a brief written response giving a reason for the denial.

(2) The Regional Administrator may tentatively decide to modify the post-closure plan if he deems it necessary to prevent threats to human health and the environment. He may propose to extend or reduce the post-closure care period applicable to a hazardous waste management unit or facility based on cause or alter the requirements of the post-closure care period based on cause.

(i) The Regional Administrator will provide the owner or operator and the affected public, through a newspaper notice, the opportunity to submit written comments within 30 days of the date of the notice and the opportunity for a public hearing as in paragraph (g)(1)(ii) of this section. After considering the comments, he will issue a final determination.

(ii) The Regional Administrator will base his final determination upon the same criteria as required for petitions under paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section. A modification of the post-closure plan may include, where appropriate, the temporary suspension rather than permanent deletion of one or more post-closure care requirements. At the end of the specified period of suspension, the Regional Administrator would then determine whether the requirement(s) should be permanently discontinued or reinstated to prevent threats to human health and the environment.

[51 FR 16451, May 2, 1986, as amended at 53 FR 37935, Sept. 28, 1988; 63 FR 56734, Oct. 22, 1998]

§ 265.119 Post-closure notices.

(a) No later than 60 days after certification of closure of each hazardous waste disposal unit, the owner or operator must submit to the local zoning authority, or the authority with jurisdiction over local land use, and to the Regional Administrator, a record of the type, location, and quantity of hazardous wastes disposed of within each cell or other disposal unit of the facility. For hazardous wastes disposed of before January 12, 1981, the owner or operator must identify the type, location and quantity of the hazardous wastes to the best of his knowledge and in accordance with any records he has kept.

(b) Within 60 days of certification of closure of the first hazardous waste disposal unit and within 60 days of certification of closure of the last hazardous waste disposal unit, the owner or operator must:

(1) Record, in accordance with State law, a notation on the deed to the facility property - or on some other instrument which is normally examined during title search - that will in perpetuity notify any potential purchaser of the property that:

(i) The land has been used to manage hazardous wastes; and

(ii) Its use is restricted under 40 CFR part 265, subpart G regulations; and

(iii) The survey plat and record of the type, location, and quantity of hazardous wastes disposed of within each cell or other hazardous waste disposal unit of the facility required by §§ 265.116 and 265.119(a) have been filed with the local zoning authority or the authority with jurisdiction over local land use and with the Regional Administrator; and

(2) Submit a certification signed by the owner or operator that he has recorded the notation specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section and a copy of the document in which the notation has been placed, to the Regional Administrator.

(c) If the owner or operator or any subsequent owner of the land upon which a hazardous waste disposal unit was located wishes to remove hazardous wastes and hazardous waste residues, the liner, if any, and all contaminated structures, equipment, and soils, he must request a modification to the approved post-closure plan in accordance with the requirements of § 265.118(g). The owner or operator must demonstrate that the removal of hazardous wastes will satisfy the criteria of § 265.117(c). By removing hazardous waste, the owner or operator may become a generator of hazardous waste and must manage it in accordance with all applicable requirements of this chapter. If the owner or operator is granted approval to conduct the removal activities, the owner or operator may request that the Regional Administrator approve either:

(1) The removal of the notation on the deed to the facility property or other instrument normally examined during title search, or

(2) The addition of a notation to the deed or instrument indicating the removal of the hazardous waste.

[51 FR 16451, May 2, 1986, as amended at 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.120 Certification of completion of post-closure care.

No later than 60 days after the completion of the established post-closure care period for each hazardous waste disposal unit, the owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator, by registered mail, a certification that the post-closure care period for the hazardous waste disposal unit was performed in accordance with the specifications in the approved post-closure plan. The certification must be signed by the owner or operator and a qualified Professional Engineer. Documentation supporting the Professional Engineer's certification must be furnished to the Regional Administrator upon request until he releases the owner or operator from the financial assurance requirements for post-closure care under § 265.145(h).

[71 FR 16909, Apr. 4, 2006]

§ 265.121 Post-closure requirements for facilities that obtain enforceable documents in lieu of post-closure permits.

(a) Owners and operators who are subject to the requirement to obtain a post-closure permit under 40 CFR 270.1(c), but who obtain enforceable documents in lieu of post-closure permits, as provided under 40 CFR 270.1(c)(7), must comply with the following requirements:

(1) The requirements to submit information about the facility in 40 CFR 270.28;

(2) The requirements for facility-wide corrective action in § 264.101 of this chapter;

(3) The requirements of 40 CFR 264.91 through 264.100.

(b)

(1) The Regional Administrator, in issuing enforceable documents under § 265.121 in lieu of permits, will assure a meaningful opportunity for public involvement which, at a minimum, includes public notice and opportunity for public comment:

(i) When the Agency becomes involved in a remediation at the facility as a regulatory or enforcement matter;

(ii) On the proposed preferred remedy and the assumptions upon which the remedy is based, in particular those related to land use and site characterization; and

(iii) At the time of a proposed decision that remedial action is complete at the facility. These requirements must be met before the Regional Administrator may consider that the facility has met the requirements of 40 CFR 270.1(c)(7), unless the facility qualifies for a modification to these public involvement procedures under paragraph (b)(2) or (3) of this section.

(2) If the Regional Administrator determines that even a short delay in the implementation of a remedy would adversely affect human health or the environment, the Regional Administrator may delay compliance with the requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of this section and implement the remedy immediately. However, the Regional Administrator must assure involvement of the public at the earliest opportunity, and, in all cases, upon making the decision that additional remedial action is not needed at the facility.

(3) The Regional Administrator may allow a remediation initiated prior to October 22, 1998 to substitute for corrective action required under a post-closure permit even if the public involvement requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of this section have not been met so long as the Regional Administrator assures that notice and comment on the decision that no further remediation is necessary to protect human health and the environment takes place at the earliest reasonable opportunity after October 22, 1998.

[63 FR 56734, Oct. 22, 1998]

Subpart H - Financial Requirements
Source:

47 FR 15064, Apr. 7, 1982, unless otherwise noted.

§ 265.140 Applicability.

(a) The requirements of §§ 265.142, 265.143 and 265.147 through 265.150 apply to owners or operators of all hazardous waste facilities, except as provided otherwise in this section or in § 265.1.

(b) The requirements of §§ 265.144 and 265.145 apply only to owners and operators of:

(1) Disposal facilities;

(2) Tank systems that are required under § 265.197 of this chapter to meet the requirements for landfills; and

(3) Containment buildings that are required under § 265.1102 to meet the requirements for landfills.

(c) States and the Federal government are exempt from the requirements of this subpart.

(d) The Regional Administrator may replace all or part of the requirements of this subpart applying to a regulated unit with alternative requirements for financial assurance set out in the permit or in an enforceable document (as defined in 40 CFR 270.1(c)(7)), where the Regional Administrator:

(1) Prescribes alternative requirements for the regulated unit under § 265.90(f) and/or 265.110(d), and

(2) Determines that it is not necessary to apply the requirements of this subpart because the alternative financial assurance requirements will protect human health and the environment.

[47 FR 15064, Apr. 7, 1982, as amended at 51 FR 16455, May 2, 1986; 51 FR 25479, July 14, 1986; 57 FR 37267, Aug. 18, 1992; 63 FR 56734, Oct. 22, 1998; 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.141 Definitions of terms as used in this subpart.

(a) Closure plan means the plan for closure prepared in accordance with the requirements of § 265.112.

(b) Current closure cost estimate means the most recent of the estimates prepared in accordance with § 265.142 (a), (b), and (c).

(c) Current post-closure cost estimate means the most recent of the estimates prepared in accordance with § 265.144 (a), (b), and (c).

(d) Parent corporation means a corporation which directly owns at least 50 percent of the voting stock of the corporation which is the facility owner or operator; the latter corporation is deemed a “subsidiary” of the parent corporation.

(e) Post-closure plan means the plan for post-closure care prepared in accordance with the requirements of §§ 265.117 through 265.120.

(f) The following terms are used in the specifications for the financial tests for closure, post-closure care, and liability coverage. The definitions are intended to assist in the understanding of these regulations and are not intended to limit the meanings of terms in a way that conflicts with generally accepted accounting practices.

Assets means all existing and all probable future economic benefits obtained or controlled by a particular entity.

Current assets means cash or other assets or resources commonly identified as those which are reasonably expected to be realized in cash or sold or consumed during the normal operating cycle of the business.

Current liabilities means obligations whose liquidation is reasonably expected to require the use of existing resources properly classifiable as current assets or the creation of other current liabilities.

Current plugging and abandonment cost estimate means the most recent of the estimates prepared in accordance with § 144.62(a), (b), and (c) of this title.

Independently audited refers to an audit performed by an independent certified public accountant in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards.

Liabilities means probable future sacrifices of economic benefits arising from present obligations to transfer assets or provide services to other entities in the future as a result of past transactions or events.

Net working capital means current assets minus current liabilities.

Net worth means total assets minus total liabilities and is equivalent to owner's equity.

Tangible net worth means the tangible assets that remain after deducting liabilities; such assets would not include intangibles such as goodwill and rights to patents or royalties.

(g) In the liability insurance requirements the terms bodily injury and property damage shall have the meanings given these terms by applicable State law. However, these terms do not include those liabilities which, consistent with standard industry practice, are excluded from coverage in liability policies for bodily injury and property damage. The Agency intends the meanings of other terms used in the liability insurance requirements to be consistent with their common meanings within the insurance industry. The definitions given below of several of the terms are intended to assist in the understanding of these regulations and are not intended to limit their meanings in a way that conflicts with general insurance industry usage.

Accidental occurrence means an accident, including continuous or repeated exposure to conditions, which results in bodily injury or property damage neither expected nor intended from the standpoint of the insured.

Legal defense costs means any expenses that an insurer incurs in defending against claims of third parties brought under the terms and conditions of an insurance policy.

Nonsudden accidental occurrence means an occurrence which takes place over time and involves continuous or repeated exposure.

Sudden accidental occurrence means an occurrence which is not continuous or repeated in nature.

(h) Substantial business relationship means the extent of a business relationship necessary under applicable State law to make a guarantee contract issued incident to that relationship valid and enforceable. A “substantial business relationship” must arise from a pattern of recent or ongoing business transactions, in addition to the guarantee itself, such that a currently existing business relationship between the guarantor and the owner or operator is demonstrated to the satisfaction of the applicable EPA Regional Administrator.

[47 FR 16558, Apr. 16, 1982, as amended at 51 FR 16456, May 2, 1986; 53 FR 33959, Sept. 1, 1988]

§ 265.142 Cost estimate for closure.

(a) The owner or operator must have a detailed written estimate, in current dollars, of the cost of closing the facility in accordance with the requirements in §§ 265.111 through 265.115 and applicable closure requirements in §§ 265.197, 265.228, 265.258, 265.280, 265.310, 265.351, 265.381, 265.404, and 265.1102.

(1) The estimate must equal the cost of final closure at the point in the facility's active life when the extent and manner of its operation would make closure the most expensive, as indicated by its closure plan (see § 265.112(b)); and

(2) The closure cost estimate must be based on the costs to the owner or operator of hiring a third party to close the facility. A third party is a party who is neither a parent nor a subsidiary of the owner or operator. (See definition of parent corporation in § 265.141(d).) The owner or operator may use costs for on-site disposal if he can demonstrate that on-site disposal capacity will exist at all times over the life of the facility.

(3) The closure cost estimate may not incorporate any salvage value that may be realized with the sale of hazardous wastes, or non-hazardous wastes if applicable under § 265.113(d), facility structures or equipment, land, or other assets associated with the facility at the time of partial or final closure.

(4) The owner or operator may not incorporate a zero cost for hazardous wastes, or non-hazardous wastes if applicable under § 265.113(d), that might have economic value.

(b) During the active life of the facility, the owner or operator must adjust the closure cost estimate for inflation within 60 days prior to the anniversary date of the establishment of the financial instrument(s) used to comply with § 265.143. For owners and operators using the financial test or corporate guarantee, the closure cost estimate must be updated for inflation within 30 days after the close of the firm's fiscal year and before submission of updated information to the Regional Administrator as specified in § 265.143(e)(3). The adjustment may be made by recalculating the closure cost estimate in current dollars, or by using an inflation factor derived from the most recent Implicit Price Deflator for Gross National Product published by the U.S. Department of Commerce in its Survey of Current Business, as specified in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section. The inflation factor is the result of dividing the latest published annual Deflator by the Deflator for the previous year.

(1) The first adjustment is made by multiplying the closure cost estimate by the inflation factor. The result is the adjusted closure cost estimate.

(2) Subsequent adjustments are made by multiplying the latest adjusted closure cost estimate by the latest inflation factor.

(c) During the active life of the facility, the owner or operator must revise the closure cost estimate no later than 30 days after a revision has been made to the closure plan which increases the cost of closure. If the owner or operator has an approved closure plan, the closure cost estimate must be revised no later than 30 days after the Regional Administrator has approved the request to modify the closure plan, if the change in the closure plan increases the cost of closure. The revised closure cost estimate must be adjusted for inflation as specified in § 265.142(b).

(d) The owner or operator must keep the following at the facility during the operating life of the facility: The latest closure cost estimate prepared in accordance with §§ 265.142 (a) and (c) and, when this estimate has been adjusted in accordance with § 265.142(b), the latest adjusted closure cost estimate.

[47 FR 15064, Apr. 7, 1982, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 51 FR 16456, May 2, 1986; 54 FR 33397, Aug. 14, 1989; 57 FR 37267, Aug. 18, 1992; 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.143 Financial assurance for closure.

By the effective date of these regulations, an owner or operator of each facility must establish financial assurance for closure of the facility. He must choose from the options as specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section.

(a) Closure trust fund.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by establishing a closure trust fund which conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting an originally signed duplicate of the trust agreement to the Regional Administrator. The trustee must be an entity which has the authority to act as a trustee and whose trust operations are regulated and examined by a Federal or State agency.

(2) The wording of the trust agreement must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(a)(1), and the trust agreement must be accompanied by a formal certification of acknowledgment (for example, see § 264.151(a)(2)). Schedule A of the trust agreement must be updated within 60 days after a change in the amount of the current closure cost estimate covered by the agreement.

(3) Payments into the trust fund must be made annually by the owner or operator over the 20 years beginning with the effective date of these regulations or over the remaining operating life of the facility as estimated in the closure plan, whichever period is shorter; this period is hereafter referred to as the “pay-in period.” The payments into the closure trust fund must be made as follows:

(i) The first payment must be made by the effective date of these regulations, except as provided in paragraph (a)(5) of this section. The first payment must be at least equal to the current closure cost estimate, except as provided in § 265.143(f), divided by the number of years in the pay-in period.

(ii) Subsequent payments must be made no later than 30 days after each anniversary date of the first payment. The amount of each subsequent payment must be determined by this formula:

where CE is the current closure cost estimate, CV is the current value of the trust fund, and Y is the number of years remaining in the pay-in period.

(4) The owner or operator may accelerate payments into the trust fund or he may deposit the full amount of the current closure cost estimate at the time the fund is established. However, he must maintain the value of the fund at no less than the value that the fund would have if annual payments were made as specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this section.

(5) If the owner or operator establishes a closure trust fund after having used one or more alternate mechanisms specified in this section, his first payment must be in at least the amount that the fund would contain if the trust fund were established initially and annual payments made as specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this section.

(6) After the pay-in period is completed, whenever the current closure cost estimate changes, the owner or operator must compare the new estimate with the trustee's most recent annual valuation of the trust fund. If the value of the fund is less than the amount of the new estimate, the owner or operator, within 60 days after the change in the cost estimate, must either deposit an amount into the fund so that its value after this deposit at least equals the amount of the current closure cost estimate, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section to cover the difference.

(7) If the value of the trust fund is greater than the total amount of the current closure cost estimate, the owner or operator may submit a written request to the Regional Administrator for release of the amount in excess of the current closure cost estimate.

(8) If an owner or operator substitutes other financial assurance as specified in this section for all or part of the trust fund, he may submit a written request to the Regional Administrator for release of the amount in excess of the current closure cost estimate covered by the trust fund.

(9) Within 60 days after receiving a request from the owner or operator for release of funds as specified in paragraph (a) (7) or (8) of this section, the Regional Administrator will instruct the trustee to release to the owner or operator such funds as the Regional Administrator specifies in writing.

(10) After beginning partial or final closure, an owner or operator or another person authorized to conduct partial or final closure may request reimbursements for partial or final closure expenditures by submitting itemized bills to the Regional Administrator. The owner or operator may request reimbursements for partial closure only if sufficient funds are remaining in the trust fund to cover the maximum costs of closing the facility over its remaining operating life. No later than 60 days after receiving bills for partial or final closure activities, the Regional Administrator will instruct the trustee to make reimbursements in those amounts as the Regional Administrator specifies in writing, if the Regional Administrator determines that the partial or final closure expenditures are in accordance with the approved closure plan, or otherwise justified. If the Regional Administrator has reason to believe that the maximum cost of closure over the remaining life of the facility will be significantly greater than the value of the trust fund, he may withhold reimbursements of such amounts as he deems prudent until he determines, in accordance with § 265.143(h) that the owner or operator is no longer required to maintain financial assurance for final closure of the facility. If the Regional Administrator does not instruct the trustee to make such reimbursements, he will provide to the owner or operator a detailed written statement of reasons.

(11) The Regional Administrator will agree to termination of the trust when:

(i) An owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section; or

(ii) The Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 265.143(h).

(b) Surety bond guaranteeing payment into a closure trust fund.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by obtaining a surety bond which conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting the bond to the Regional Administrator. The surety company issuing the bond must, at a minimum, be among those listed as acceptable sureties on Federal bonds in Circular 570 of the U.S. Department of the Treasury.

(2) The wording of the surety bond must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(b).

(3) The owner or operator who uses a surety bond to satisfy the requirements of this section must also establish a standby trust fund. Under the terms of the bond, all payments made thereunder will be deposited by the surety directly into the standby trust fund in accordance with instructions from the Regional Administrator. This standby trust fund must meet the requirements specified in § 265.143(a), except that:

(i) An originally signed duplicate of the trust agreement must be submitted to the Regional Administrator with the surety bond; and

(ii) Until the standby trust fund is funded pursuant to the requirements of this section, the following are not required by these regulations:

(A) Payments into the trust fund as specified in § 265.143(a);

(B) Updating of Schedule A of the trust agreement (see § 264.151(a)) to show current closure cost estimates;

(C) Annual valuations as required by the trust agreement; and

(D) Notices of nonpayment as required by the trust agreement.

(4) The bond must guarantee that the owner or operator will:

(i) Fund the standby trust fund in an amount equal to the penal sum of the bond before the beginning of final closure of the facility; or

(ii) Fund the standby trust fund in an amount equal to the penal sum within 15 days after an administrative order to begin final closure issued by the Regional Administrator becomes final, or within 15 days after an order to begin final closure is issued by a U.S. district court or other court of competent jurisdiction; or

(iii) Provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section, and obtain the Regional Administrator's written approval of the assurance provided, within 90 days after receipt by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator of a notice of cancellation of the bond from the surety.

(5) Under the terms of the bond, the surety will become liable on the bond obligation when the owner or operator fails to perform as guaranteed by the bond.

(6) The penal sum of the bond must be in an amount at least equal to the current closure cost estimate, except as provided in § 265.143(f).

(7) Whenever the current closure cost estimate increases to an amount greater than the penal sum, the owner or operator, within 60 days after the increase, must either cause the penal sum to be increased to an amount at least equal to the current closure cost estimate and submit evidence of such increase to the Regional Administrator, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section to cover the increase. Whenever the current closure cost estimate decreases, the penal sum may be reduced to the amount of the current closure cost estimate following written approval by the Regional Administrator.

(8) Under the terms of the bond, the surety may cancel the bond by sending notice of cancellation by certified mail to the owner or operator and to the Regional Administrator. Cancellation may not occur, however, during the 120 days beginning on the date of receipt of the notice of cancellation by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator, as evidenced by the return receipts.

(9) The owner or operator may cancel the bond if the Regional Administrator has given prior written consent based on his receipt of evidence of alternate financial assurance as specified in this section.

(c) Closure letter of credit.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by obtaining an irrevocable standby letter of credit which conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting the letter to the Regional Administrator. The issuing institution must be an entity which has the authority to issue letters of credit and whose letter-of-credit operations are regulated and examined by a Federal or State agency.

(2) The wording of the letter of credit must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(d).

(3) An owner or operator who uses a letter of credit to satisfy the requirements of this section must also establish a standby trust fund. Under the terms of the letter of credit, all amounts paid pursuant to a draft by the Regional Administrator will be deposited by the issuing institution directly into the standby trust fund in accordance with instructions from the Regional Administrator. This standby trust fund must meet the requirements of the trust fund specified in § 265.143(a), except that:

(i) An originally signed duplicate of the trust agreement must be submitted to the Regional Administrator with the letter of credit; and

(ii) Unless the standby trust fund is funded pursuant to the requirements of this section, the following are not required by these regulations:

(A) Payments into the trust fund as specified in § 265.143(a);

(B) Updating of Schedule A of the trust agreement (see § 264.151(a)) to show current closure cost estimates;

(C) Annual valuations as required by the trust agreement; and

(D) Notices of nonpayment as required by the trust agreement.

(4) The letter of credit must be accompanied by a letter from the owner or operator referring to the letter of credit by number, issuing institution, and date, and providing the following information: The EPA Identification Number, name, and address of the facility, and the amount of funds assured for closure of the facility by the letter of credit.

(5) The letter of credit must be irrevocable and issued for a period of at least 1 year. The letter of credit must provide that the expiration date will be automatically extended for a period of at least 1 year unless, at least 120 days before the current expiration date, the issuing institution notifies both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator by certified mail of a decision not to extend the expiration date. Under the terms of the letter of credit, the 120 days will begin on the date when both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator have received the notice, as evidenced by the return receipts.

(6) The letter of credit must be issued in an amount at least equal to the current closure cost estimate, except as provided in § 265.143(f).

(7) Whenever the current closure cost estimate increases to an amount greater than the amount of the credit, the owner or operator, within 60 days after the increase, must either cause the amount of the credit to be increased so that it at least equals the current closure cost estimate and submit evidence of such increase to the Regional Administrator, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section to cover the increase. Whenever the current closure cost estimate decreases, the amount of the credit may be reduced to the amount of the current closure cost estimate following written approval by the Regional Administrator.

(8) Following a final administrative determination pursuant to section 3008 of RCRA that the owner or operator has failed to perform final closure in accordance with the approved closure plan when required to do so, the Regional Administrator may draw on the letter of credit.

(9) If the owner or operator does not establish alternate financial assurance as specified in this section and obtain written approval of such alternate assurance from the Regional Administrator within 90 days after receipt by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator of a notice from the issuing institution that it has decided not to extend the letter of credit beyond the current expiration date, the Regional Administrator will draw on the letter of credit. The Regional Administrator may delay the drawing if the issuing institution grants an extension of the term of the credit. During the last 30 days of any such extension the Regional Administrator will draw on the letter of credit if the owner or operator has failed to provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section and obtain written approval of such assurance from the Regional Administrator.

(10) The Regional Administrator will return the letter of credit to the issuing institution for termination when:

(i) An owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section; or

(ii) The Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 265.143(h).

(d) Closure insurance.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by obtaining closure insurance which conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting a certificate of such insurance to the Regional Administrator. By the effective date of these regulations the owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator a letter from an insurer stating that the insurer is considering issuance of closure insurance conforming to the requirements of this paragraph to the owner or operator. Within 90 days after the effective date of these regulations, the owner or operator must submit the certificate of insurance to the Regional Administrator or establish other financial assurance as specified in this section. At a minimum, the insurer must be licensed to transact the business of insurance, or eligible to provide insurance as an excess or surplus lines insurer, in one or more States.

(2) The wording of the certificate of insurance must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(e).

(3) The closure insurance policy must be issued for a face amount at least equal to the current closure cost estimate, except as provided in § 265.143(f). The term “face amount” means the total amount the insurer is obligated to pay under the policy. Actual payments by the insurer will not change the face amount, although the insurer's future liability will be lowered by the amount of the payments.

(4) The closure insurance policy must guarantee that funds will be available to close the facility whenever final closure occurs. The policy must also guarantee that once final closure begins, the insurer will be responsible for paying out funds, up to an amount equal to the face amount of the policy, upon the direction of the Regional Administrator, to such party or parties as the Regional Administrator specifies.

(5) After beginning partial or final closure, an owner or operator or any other person authorized to conduct closure may request reimbursements for closure expenditures by submitting itemized bills to the Regional Administrator. The owner or operator may request reimbursements for partial closure only if the remaining value of the policy is sufficient to cover the maximum costs of closing the facility over its remaining operating life. Within 60 days after receiving bills for closure activities, the Regional Administrator will instruct the insurer to make reimbursements in such amounts as the Regional Administrator specifies in writing if the Regional Administrator determines that the partial or final closure expenditures are in accordance with the approved closure plan or otherwise justified. If the Regional Administrator has reason to believe that the maximum cost of closure over the remaining life of the facility will be significantly greater than the face amount of the policy, he may withhold reimbursement of such amounts as he deems prudent until he determines, in accordance with § 265.143(h), that the owner or operator is no longer required to maintain financial assurance for final closure of the particular facility. If the Regional Administrator does not instruct the insurer to make such reimbursements, he will provide to the owner or operator a detailed written statement of reasons.

(6) The owner or operator must maintain the policy in full force and effect until the Regional Administrator consents to termination of the policy by the owner or operator as specified in paragraph (d)(10) of this section. Failure to pay the premium, without substitution of alternate financial assurance as specified in this section, will constitute a significant violation of these regulations, warranting such remedy as the Regional Administrator deems necessary. Such violation will be deemed to begin upon receipt by the Regional Administrator of a notice of future cancellation, termination, or failure to renew due to nonpayment of the premium, rather than upon the date of expiration.

(7) Each policy must contain a provision allowing assignment of the policy to a successor owner or operator. Such assignment may be conditional upon consent of the insurer, provided such consent is not unreasonably refused.

(8) The policy must provide that the insurer may not cancel, terminate, or fail to renew the policy except for failure to pay the premium. The automatic renewal of the policy must, at a minimum, provide the insured with the option of renewal at the face amount of the expiring policy. If there is a failure to pay the premium, the insurer may elect to cancel, terminate, or fail to renew the policy by sending notice by certified mail to the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator. Cancellation, termination, or failure to renew may not occur, however, during the 120 days beginning with the date of receipt of the notice by both the Regional Administrator and the owner or operator, as evidenced by the return receipts. Cancellation, termination, or failure to renew may not occur and the policy will remain in full force and effect in the event that on or before the date of expiration:

(i) The Regional Administrator deems the facility abandoned; or

(ii) Interim status is terminated or revoked; or

(iii) Closure is ordered by the Regional Administrator or a U.S. district court or other court of competent jurisdiction; or

(iv) The owner or operator is named as debtor in a voluntary or involuntary proceeding under Title 11 (Bankruptcy), U.S. Code; or

(v) The premium due is paid.

(9) Whenever the current closure cost estimate increases to an amount greater than the face amount of the policy, the owner or operator, within 60 days after the increase, must either cause the face amount to be increased to an amount at least equal to the current closure cost estimate and submit evidence of such increase to the Regional Administrator, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section to cover the increase. Whenever the current closure cost estimate decreases, the face amount may be reduced to the amount of the current closure cost estimate following written approval by the Regional Administrator.

(10) The Regional Administrator will give written consent to the owner or operator that he may terminate the insurance policy when:

(i) An owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section; or

(ii) The Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 265.143(h).

(e) Financial test and corporate guarantee for closure.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by demonstrating that he passes a financial test as specified in this paragraph. To pass this test the owner or operator must meet the criteria of either paragraph (e)(1)(i) or (ii) of this section:

(i) The owner or operator must have:

(A) Two of the following three ratios: A ratio of total liabilities to net worth less than 2.0; a ratio of the sum of net income plus depreciation, depletion, and amortization to total liabilities greater than 0.1; and a ratio of current assets to current liabilities greater than 1.5; and

(B) Net working capital and tangible net worth each at least six times the sum of the current closure and post-closure cost estimates and the current plugging and abandonment cost estimates; and

(C) Tangible net worth of at least $10 million; and

(D) Assets located in the United States amounting to at least 90 percent of total assets or at least six times the sum of the current closure and post-closure cost estimates and the current plugging and abandonment cost estimates.

(ii) The owner or operator must have:

(A) A current rating for his most recent bond issuance of AAA, AA, A, or BBB as issued by Standard and Poor's or Aaa, Aa, A, or Baa as issued by Moody's; and

(B) Tangible net worth at least six times the sum of the current closure and post-closure cost estimates and the current plugging and abandonment cost estimates; and

(C) Tangible net worth of at least $10 million; and

(D) Assets located in the United States amounting to at least 90 percent of total assets or at least six times the sum of the current closure and post-closure cost estimates and the current plugging and abandonment cost estimates.

(2) The phrase “current closure and post-closure cost estimates” as used in paragraph (e)(1) of this section refers to the cost estimates required to be shown in paragraphs 1-4 of the letter from the owner's or operator's chief financial officer (§ 264.151(f)). The phrase “current plugging and abandonment cost estimates” as used in paragraph (e)(1) of this section refers to the cost estimates required to be shown in paragraphs 1-4 of the letter from the owner's or operator's chief financial officer (§ 144.70(f) of this title).

(3) To demonstrate that he meets this test, the owner or operator must submit the following items to the Regional Administrator:

(i) A letter signed by the owner's or operator's chief financial officer and worded as specified in § 264.151(f); and

(ii) A copy of the independent certified public accountant's report on examination of the owner's or operator's financial statements for the latest completed fiscal year; and

(iii) A special report from the owner's or operator's independent certified public accountant to the owner or operator stating that:

(A) He has compared the data which the letter from the chief financial officer specifies as having been derived from the independently audited, year-end financial statements for the latest fiscal year with the amounts in such financial statements; and

(B) In connection with that procedure, no matters came to his attention which caused him to believe that the specified data should be adjusted.

(4) The owner or operator may obtain an extension of the time allowed for submission of the documents specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section if the fiscal year of the owner or operator ends during the 90 days prior to the effective date of these regulations and if the year-end financial statements for that fiscal year will be audited by an independent certified public accountant. The extension will end no later than 90 days after the end of the owner's or operator's fiscal year. To obtain the extension, the owner's or operator's chief financial officer must send, by the effective date of these regulations, a letter to the Regional Administrator of each Region in which the owner's or operator's facilities to be covered by the financial test are located. This letter from the chief financial officer must:

(i) Request the extension;

(ii) Certify that he has grounds to believe that the owner or operator meets the criteria of the financial test;

(iii) Specify for each facility to be covered by the test the EPA Identification Number, name, address, and current closure and post-closure cost estimates to be covered by the test;

(iv) Specify the date ending the owner's or operator's last complete fiscal year before the effective date of these regulations;

(v) Specify the date, no later than 90 days after the end of such fiscal year, when he will submit the documents specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section; and

(vi) Certify that the year-end financial statements of the owner or operator for such fiscal year will be audited by an independent certified public accountant.

(5) After the initial submission of items specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, the owner or operator must send updated information to the Regional Administrator within 90 days after the close of each succeeding fiscal year. This information must consist of all three items specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section.

(6) If the owner or operator no longer meets the requirements of paragraph (e)(1) of this section, he must send notice to the Regional Administrator of intent to establish alternate financial assurance as specified in this section. The notice must be sent by certified mail within 90 days after the end of the fiscal year for which the year-end financial data show that the owner or operator no longer meets the requirements. The owner or operator must provide the alternate financial assurance within 120 days after the end of such fiscal year.

(7) The Regional Administrator may, based on a reasonable belief that the owner or operator may no longer meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(1) of this section, require reports of financial condition at any time from the owner or operator in addition to those specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section. If the Regional Administrator finds, on the basis of such reports or other information, that the owner or operator no longer meets the requirements of paragraph (e)(1) of this section, the owner or operator must provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section within 30 days after notification of such a finding.

(8) The Regional Administrator may disallow use of this test on the basis of qualifications in the opinion expressed by the independent certified public accountant in his report on examination of the owner's or operator's financial statements (see paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section). An adverse opinion or a disclaimer of opinion will be cause for disallowance. The Regional Administrator will evaluate other qualifications on an individual basis. The owner or operator must provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section within 30 days after notification of the disallowance.

(9) The owner or operator is no longer required to submit the items specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section when:

(i) An owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section; or

(ii) The Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 265.143(h).

(10) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a written guarantee. The guarantor must be the direct or higher-tier parent corporation of the owner or operator, a firm whose parent corporation is also the parent corporation of the owner or operator, or a firm with a “substantial business relationship” with the owner or operator. The guarantor must meet the requirements for owners or operators in paragraphs (e)(1) through (8) of this section and must comply with the terms of the guarantee. The wording of the guarantee must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(h). A certified copy of the guarantee must accompany the items sent to the Regional Administrator as specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section. One of these items must be the letter from the guarantor's chief financial officer. If the guarantor's parent corporation is also the parent corporation of the owner or operator, the letter must describe the value received in consideration of the guarantee. If the guarantor is a firm with a “substantial business relationship” with the owner or operator, this letter must describe this “substantial business relationship” and the value received in consideration of the guarantee. The terms of the guarantee must provide that:

(i) If the owner or operator fails to perform final closure of a facility covered by the corporate guarantee in accordance with the closure plan and other interim status requirements whenever required to do so, the guarantor will do so or establish a trust fund as specified in § 265.143(a) in the name of the owner or operator.

(ii) The corporate guarantee will remain in force unless the guarantor sends notice of cancellation by certified mail to the owner or operator and to the Regional Administrator. Cancellation may not occur, however, during the 120 days beginning on the date of receipt of the notice of cancellation by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator, as evidenced by the return receipts.

(iii) If the owner or operator fails to provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section and obtain the written approval of such alternate assurance from the Regional Administrator within 90 days after receipt by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator of a notice of cancellation of the corporate guarantee from the guarantor, the guarantor will provide such alternate financial assurance in the name of the owner or operator.

(f) Use of multiple financial mechanisms. An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by establishing more than one financial mechanism per facility. These mechanisms are limited to trust funds, surety bonds, letters of credit, and insurance. The mechanisms must be as specified in paragraphs (a) through (d), respectively, of this section, except that it is the combination of mechanisms, rather than the single mechanism, which must provide financial assurance for an amount at least equal to the current closure cost estimate. If an owner or operator uses a trust fund in combination with a surety bond or a letter of credit, he may use the trust fund as the standby trust fund for the other mechanisms. A single standby trust fund may be established for two or more mechanisms. The Regional Administrator may use any or all of the mechanisms to provide for closure of the facility.

(g) Use of a financial mechanism for multiple facilities. An owner or operator may use a financial assurance mechanism specified in this section to meet the requirements of this section for more than one facility. Evidence of financial assurance submitted to the Regional Administrator must include a list showing, for each facility, the EPA Identification Number, name, address, and the amount of funds for closure assured by the mechanism. If the facilities covered by the mechanism are in more than one Region, identical evidence of financial assurance must be submitted to and maintained with the Regional Administrators of all such Regions. The amount of funds available through the mechanism must be no less than the sum of funds that would be available if a separate mechanism had been established and maintained for each facility. In directing funds available through the mechanism for closure of any of the facilities covered by the mechanism, the Regional Administrator may direct only the amount of funds designated for that facility, unless the owner or operator agrees to the use of additional funds available under the mechanism.

(h) Release of the owner or operator from the requirements of this section. Within 60 days after receiving certifications from the owner or operator and a qualified Professional Engineer that final closure has been completed in accordance with the approved closure plan, the Regional Administrator will notify the owner or operator in writing that he is no longer required by this section to maintain financial assurance for final closure of the facility, unless the Regional Administrator has reason to believe that final closure has not been in accordance with the approved closure plan. The Regional Administrator shall provide the owner or operator a detailed written statement of any such reason to believe that closure has not been in accordance with the approved closure plan.

[47 FR 15064, Apr. 7, 1982, as amended at 51 FR 16456, May 2, 1986; 57 FR 42843, Sept. 16, 1992; 71 FR 16909, Apr. 4, 2006]

§ 265.144 Cost estimate for post-closure care.

(a) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste disposal unit must have a detailed written estimate, in current dollars, of the annual cost of post-closure monitoring and maintenance of the facility in accordance with the applicable post-closure regulations in §§ 265.117 through 265.120, 265.228, 265.258, 265.280, and 265.310.

(1) The post-closure cost estimate must be based on the costs to the owner or operator of hiring a third party to conduct post-closure care activities. A third party is a party who is neither a parent nor subsidiary of the owner or operator. (See definition of parent corporation in § 265.141(d).)

(2) The post-closure cost estimate is calculated by multiplying the annual post-closure cost estimate by the number of years of post-closure care required under § 265.117.

(b) During the active life of the facility, the owner or operator must adjust the post-closure cost estimate for inflation within 60 days prior to the anniversary date of the establishment of the financial instrument(s) used to comply with § 265.145. For owners or operators using the financial test or corporate guarantee, the post-closure care cost estimate must be updated for inflation no later than 30 days after the close of the firm's fiscal year and before submission of updated information to the Regional Administrator as specified in § 265.145(d)(5). The adjustment may be made by recalculating the post-closure cost estimate in current dollars or by using an inflation factor derived from the most recent Implicit Price Deflator for Gross National Product published by the U.S. Department of Commerce in its Survey of Current Business as specified in § 265.145 (b)(1) and (2). The inflation factor is the result of dividing the latest published annual Deflator by the Deflator for the previous year.

(1) The first adjustment is made by multiplying the post-closure cost estimate by the inflation factor. The result is the adjusted post-closure cost estimate.

(2) Subsequent adjustments are made by multiplying the latest adjusted post-closure cost estimate by the latest inflation factor.

(c) During the active life of the facility, the owner or operator must revise the post-closure cost estimate no later than 30 days after a revision to the post-closure plan which increases the cost of post-closure care. If the owner or operator has an approved post-closure plan, the post-closure cost estimate must be revised no later than 30 days after the Regional Administrator has approved the request to modify the plan, if the change in the post-closure plan increases the cost of post-closure care. The revised post-closure cost estimate must be adjusted for inflation as specified in § 265.144(b).

(d) The owner or operator must keep the following at the facility during the operating life of the facility: the latest post-closure cost estimate prepared in accordance with § 265.144 (a) and (c) and, when this estimate has been adjusted in accordance with § 265.144(b), the latest adjusted post-closure cost estimate.

[47 FR 15064, Apr. 7, 1982, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 51 FR 16457, May 2, 1986]

§ 265.145 Financial assurance for post-closure care.

By the effective date of these regulations, an owner or operator of a facility with a hazardous waste disposal unit must establish financial assurance for post-closure care of the disposal unit(s).

(a) Post-closure trust fund.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by establishing a post-closure trust fund which conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting an originally signed duplicate of the trust agreement to the Regional Administrator. The trustee must be an entity which has the authority to act as a trustee and whose trust operations are regulated and examined by a Federal or State agency.

(2) The wording of the trust agreement must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(a)(1), and the trust agreement must be accompanied by a formal certification of acknowledgment (for example, see § 264.151(a)(2)). Schedule A of the trust agreement must be updated within 60 days after a change in the amount of the current post-closure cost estimate covered by the agreement.

(3) Payments into the trust fund must be made annually by the owner or operator over the 20 years beginning with the effective date of these regulations or over the remaining operating life of the facility as estimated in the closure plan, whichever period is shorter; this period is hereafter referred to as the “pay-in period.” The payments into the post-closure trust fund must be made as follows:

(i) The first payment must be made by the effective date of these regulations, except as provided in paragraph (a)(5) of this section. The first payment must be at least equal to the current post-closure cost estimate, except as provided in § 265.145(f), divided by the number of years in the pay-in period.

(ii) Subsequent payments must be made no later than 30 days after each anniversary date of the first payment. The amount of each subsequent payment must be determined by this formula:

where CE is the current post-closure cost estimate, CV is the current value of the trust fund, and Y is the number of years remaining in the pay-in period.

(4) The owner or operator may accelerate payments into the trust fund or he may deposit the full amount of the current post-closure cost estimate at the time the fund is established. However, he must maintain the value of the fund at no less than the value that the fund would have if annual payments were made as specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this section.

(5) If the owner or operator establishes a post-closure trust fund after having used one or more alternate mechanisms specified in this section, his first payment must be in at least the amount that the fund would contain if the trust fund were established initially and annual payments made as specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this section.

(6) After the pay-in period is completed, whenever the current post-closure cost estimate changes during the operating life of the facility, the owner or operator must compare the new estimate with the trustee's most recent annual valuation of the trust fund. If the value of the fund is less than the amount of the new estimate, the owner or operator, within 60 days after the change in the cost estimate, must either deposit an amount into the fund so that its value after this deposit at least equals the amount of the current post-closure cost estimate, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section to cover the difference.

(7) During the operating life of the facility, if the value of the trust fund is greater than the total amount of the current post-closure cost estimate, the owner or operator may submit a written request to the Regional Administrator for release of the amount in excess of the current post-closure cost estimate.

(8) If an owner or operator substitutes other financial assurance as specified in this section for all or part of the trust fund, he may submit a written request to the Regional Administrator for release of the amount in excess of the current post-closure cost estimate covered by the trust fund.

(9) Within 60 days after receiving a request from the owner or operator for release of funds as specified in paragraph (a) (7) or (8) of this section, the Regional Administrator will instruct the trustee to release to the owner or operator such funds as the Regional Administrator specifies in writing.

(10) During the period of post-closure care, the Regional Administrator may approve a release of funds if the owner or operator demonstrates to the Regional Administrator that the value of the trust fund exceeds the remaining cost of post-closure care.

(11) An owner or operator or any other person authorized to conduct post-closure care may request reimbursements for post-closure expenditures by submitting itemized bills to the Regional Administrator. Within 60 days after receiving bills for post-closure care activities, the Regional Administrator will instruct the trustee to make reimbursements in those amounts as the Regional Administrator specifies in writing, if the Regional Administrator determines that the post-closure expenditures are in accordance with the approved post-closure plan or otherwise justified. If the Regional Administrator does not instruct the trustee to make such reimbursements, he will provide the owner or operator with a detailed written statement of reasons.

(12) The Regional Administrator will agree to termination of the trust when:

(i) An owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section; or

(ii) The Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 265.145(h).

(b) Surety bond guaranteeing payment into a post-closure trust fund.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by obtaining a surety bond which conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting the bond to the Regional Administrator. The surety company issuing the bond must, at a minimum, be among those listed as acceptable sureties on Federal bonds in Circular 570 of the U.S. Department of the Treasury.

(2) The wording of the surety bond must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(b).

(3) The owner or operator who uses a surety bond to satisfy the requirements of this section must also establish a standby trust fund. Under the terms of the bond, all payments made thereunder will be deposited by the surety directly into the standby trust fund in accordance with instructions from the Regional Administrator. This standby trust fund must meet the requirements specified in § 265.145(a), except that:

(i) An originally signed duplicate of the trust agreement must be submitted to the Regional Administrator with the surety bond; and

(ii) Until the standby trust fund is funded pursuant to the requirements of this section, the following are not required by these regulations:

(A) Payments into the trust fund as specified in § 265.145(a);

(B) Updating of Schedule A of the trust agreement (see § 264.151(a)) to show current post-closure cost estimates;

(C) Annual valuations as required by the trust agreement; and

(D) Notices of nonpayment as required by the trust agreement.

(4) The bond must guarantee that the owner or operator will:

(i) Fund the standby trust fund in an amount equal to the penal sum of the bond before the beginning of final closure of the facility; or

(ii) Fund the standby trust fund in an amount equal to the penal sum within 15 days after an administrative order to begin final closure issued by the Regional Administrator becomes final, or within 15 days after an order to begin final closure is issued by a U.S. district court or other court of competent jurisdiction; or

(iii) Provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section, and obtain the Regional Administrator's written approval of the assurance provided, within 90 days after receipt by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator of a notice of cancellation of the bond from the surety.

(5) Under the terms of the bond, the surety will become liable on the bond obligation when the owner or operator fails to perform as guaranteed by the bond.

(6) The penal sum of the bond must be in an amount at least equal to the current post-closure cost estimate, except as provided in § 265.145(f).

(7) Whenever the current post-closure cost estimate increases to an amount greater than the penal sum, the owner or operator, within 60 days after the increase, must either cause the penal sum to be increased to an amount at least equal to the current post-closure cost estimate and submit evidence of such increase to the Regional Administrator, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section to cover the increase. Whenever the current post-closure cost estimate decreases, the penal sum may be reduced to the amount of the current post-closure cost estimate following written approval by the Regional Administrator.

(8) Under the terms of the bond, the surety may cancel the bond by sending notice of cancellation by certified mail to the owner or operator and to the Regional Administrator. Cancellation may not occur, however, during the 120 days beginning on the date of receipt of the notice of cancellation by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator, as evidenced by the return receipts.

(9) The owner or operator may cancel the bond if the Regional Administrator has given prior written consent based on his receipt of evidence of alternate financial assurance as specified in this section.

(c) Post-closure letter of credit.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by obtaining an irrevocable standby letter of credit which conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting the letter to the Regional Administrator. The issuing institution must be an entity which has the authority to issue letters of credit and whose letter-of-credit operations are regulated and examined by a Federal or State agency.

(2) The wording of the letter of credit must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(d).

(3) An owner or operator who uses a letter of credit to satisfy the requirements of this section must also establish a standby trust fund. Under the terms of the letter of credit, all amounts paid pursuant to a draft by the Regional Administrator will be deposited by the issuing institution directly into the standby trust fund in accordance with instructions from the Regional Administrator. This standby trust fund must meet the requirements of the trust fund specified in § 265.145(a), except that:

(i) An originally signed duplicate of the trust agreement must be submitted to the Regional Administrator with the letter of credit; and

(ii) Unless the standby trust fund is funded pursuant to the requirements of this section, the following are not required by these regulations:

(A) Payments into the trust fund as specified in § 265.145(a);

(B) Updating of Schedule A of the trust agreement (see § 264.151(a)) to show current post-closure cost estimates;

(C) Annual valuations as required by the trust agreement; and

(D) Notices of nonpayment as required by the trust agreement.

(4) The letter of credit must be accompanied by a letter from the owner or operator referring to the letter of credit by number, issuing institution, and date, and providing the following information: The EPA Identification Number, name, and address of the facility, and the amount of funds assured for post-closure care of the facility by the letter of credit.

(5) The letter of credit must be irrevocable and issued for a period of at least 1 year. The letter of credit must provide that the expiration date will be automatically extended for a period of at least 1 year unless, at least 120 days before the current expiration date, the issuing institution notifies both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator by certified mail of a decision not to extend the expiration date. Under the terms of the letter of credit, the 120 days will begin on the date when both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator have received the notice, as evidenced by the return receipts.

(6) The letter of credit must be issued in an amount at least equal to the current post-closure cost estimate, except as provided in § 265.145(f).

(7) Whenever the current post-closure cost estimate increases to an amount greater than the amount of the credit during the operating life of the facility, the owner or operator, within 60 days after the increase, must either cause the amount of the credit to be increased so that it at least equals the current post-closure cost estimate and submit evidence of such increase to the Regional Administrator, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section to cover the increase. Whenever the current post-closure cost estimate decreases during the operating life of the facility, the amount of the credit may be reduced to the amount of the current post-closure cost estimate following written approval by the Regional Administrator.

(8) During the period of post-closure care, the Regional Administrator may approve a decrease in the amount of the letter of credit if the owner or operator demonstrates to the Regional Administrator that the amount exceeds the remaining cost of post-closure care.

(9) Following a final administrative determination pursuant to section 3008 of RCRA that the owner or operator has failed to perform post-closure care in accordance with the approved post-closure plan and other permit requirements, the Regional Administrator may draw on the letter of credit.

(10) If the owner or operator does not establish alternate financial assurance as specified in this section and obtain written approval of such alternate assurance from the Regional Administrator within 90 days after receipt by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator of a notice from the issuing institution that it has decided not to extend the letter of credit beyond the current expiration date, the Regional Administrator will draw on the letter of credit. The Regional Administrator may delay the drawing if the issuing institution grants an extension of the term of the credit. During the last 30 days of any such extension the Regional Administrator will draw on the letter of credit if the owner or operator has failed to provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section and obtain written approval of such assurance from the Regional Administrator.

(11) The Regional Administrator will return the letter of credit to the issuing institution for termination when:

(i) An owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section; or

(ii) The Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 265.145(h).

(d) Post-closure insurance.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by obtaining post-closure insurance which conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting a certificate of such insurance to the Regional Administrator. By the effective date of these regulations the owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator a letter from an insurer stating that the insurer is considering issuance of post- closure insurance conforming to the requirements of this paragraph to the owner or operator. Within 90 days after the effective date of these regulations, the owner or operator must submit the certificate of insurance to the Regional Administrator or establish other financial assurance as specified in this section. At a minimum, the insurer must be licensed to transact the business of insurance, or eligible to provide insurance as an excess or surplus lines insurer, in one or more States.

(2) The wording of the certificate of insurance must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(e).

(3) The post-closure insurance policy must be issued for a face amount at least equal to the current post-closure cost estimate, except as provided in § 265.145(f). The term “face amount” means the total amount the insurer is obligated to pay under the policy. Actual payments by the insurer will not change the face amount, although the insurer's future liability will be lowered by the amount of the payments.

(4) The post-closure insurance policy must guarantee that funds will be available to provide post-closure care of the facility whenever the post-closure period begins. The policy must also guarantee that once post-closure care begins the insurer will be responsible for paying out funds, up to an amount equal to the face amount of the policy, upon the direction of the Regional Administrator, to such party or parties as the Regional Administrator specifies.

(5) An owner or operator or any other person authorized to perform post-closure care may request reimbursement for post-closure care expenditures by submitting itemized bills to the Regional Administrator. Within 60 days after receiving bills for post-closure care activities, the Regional Administrator will instruct the insurer to make reimbursements in those amounts as the Regional Administrator specifies in writing, if the Regional Administrator determines that the post-closure expenditures are in accordance with the approved post-closure plan or otherwise justified. If the Regional Administrator does not instruct the insurer to make such reimbursements, he will provide a detailed written statement of reasons.

(6) The owner or operator must maintain the policy in full force and effect until the Regional Administrator consents to termination of the policy by the owner or operator as specified in paragraph (d)(11) of this section. Failure to pay the premium, without substitution of alternate financial assurance as specified in the section, will constitute a significant violation of these regulations, warranting such remedy as the Regional Administrator deems necessary. Such violation will be deemed to begin upon receipt by the Regional Administrator of a notice of future cancellation, termination, or failure to renew due to nonpayment of the premium, rather than upon the date of expiration.

(7) Each policy most contain a provision allowing assignment of the policy to a successor owner or operator. Such assignment may be conditional upon consent of the insurer, provided such consent is not unreasonably refused.

(8) The policy must provide that the insurer may not cancel, terminate, or fail to renew the policy except for failure to pay the premium. The automatic renewal of the policy must, at a minimum, provide the insured with the option of renewal at the face amount of the expiring policy. If there is a failure to pay the premium, the insurer may elect to cancel, terminate, or fail to renew the policy by sending notice by certified mail to the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator. Cancellation, termination, or failure to renew may not occur, however, during the 120 days beginning with the date of receipt of the notice by both the Regional Administrator and the owner or operator, as evidenced by the return receipts. Cancellation, termination, or failure to renew may not occur and the policy will remain in full force and effect in the event that on or before the date of expiration:

(i) The Regional Administrator deems the facility abandoned; or

(ii) Interim status is terminated or revoked; or

(iii) Closure is ordered by the Regional Administrator or a U.S. district court or other court of competent jurisdiction; or

(iv) The owner or operator is named as debtor in a voluntary or involuntary proceeding under Title 11 (Bankruptcy), U.S. Code; or

(v) The premium due is paid.

(9) Whenever the current post-closure cost estimate increases to an amount greater than the face amount of the policy during the operating life of the facility, the owner or operator, within 60 days after the increase, must either cause the face amount to be increased to an amount at least equal to the current post-closure cost estimate and submit evidence of such increase to the Regional Administrator, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section to cover the increase. Whenever the current post-closure cost estimate decreases during the operating life of the facility, the face amount may be reduced to the amount of the current post-closure cost estimate following written approval by the Regional Administrator.

(10) Commencing on the date that liability to make payments pursuant to the policy accrues, the insurer will thereafter annually increase the face amount of the policy. Such increase must be equivalent to the face amounts of the policy, less any payments made, multiplied by an amount equivalent to 85 percent of the most recent investment rate or of the equivalent coupon-issue yield announced by the U.S. Treasury for 26-week Treasury securities.

(11) The Regional Administrator will give written consent to the owner or operator that he may terminate the insurance policy when:

(i) An owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section; or

(ii) The Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 265.145(h).

(e) Financial test and corporate guarantee for post-closure care.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by demonstrating that he passes a financial test as specified in this paragraph. To pass this test the owner or operator must meet the criteria either of paragraph (e)(1)(i) or (ii) of this section:

(i) The owner or operator must have:

(A) Two of the following three ratios: a ratio of total liabilities to net worth less than 2.0; a ratio of the sum of net income plus depreciation, depletion, and amortization to total liabilities greater than 0.1; and a ratio of current assets to current liabilities greater than 1.5; and

(B) Net working capital and tangible net worth each at least six times the sum of the current closure and post-closure cost estimates and the current plugging and abandonment cost estimates; and

(C) Tangible net worth of at least $10 million; and

(D) Assets in the United States amounting to at least 90 percent of his total assets or at least six times the sum of the current closure and post-closure cost estimates and the current plugging and abandonment cost estimates.

(ii) The owner or operator must have:

(A) A current rating for his most recent bond issuance of AAA, AA, A, or BBB as issued by Standard and Poor's or Aaa, Aa, A, or Baa as issued by Moody's; and

(B) Tangible net worth at least six times the sum of the current closure and post-closure cost estimates and the current plugging and abandonment cost estimates; and

(C) Tangible net worth of at least $10 million; and

(D) Assets located in the United States amounting to at least 90 percent of his total assets or at least six times the sum of the current closure and post-closure cost estimates and the current plugging and abandonment cost estimates.

(2) The phrase “current closure and post-closure cost estimates” as used in paragraph (e)(1) of this section refers to the cost estimates required to be shown in paragraphs 1-4 of the letter from the owner's or operator's chief financial officer (§ 264.151(f)). The phrase “current plugging and abandonment cost estimates” as used in paragraph (e)(1) of this section refers to the cost estimates required to be shown in paragraphs 1-4 of the letter from the owner's or operator's chief financial officer (§ 144.70(f) of this title).

(3) To demonstrate that he meets this test, the owner or operator must submit the following items to the Regional Administrator:

(i) A letter signed by the owner's or operator's chief financial officer and worded as specified in § 264.151(f); and

(ii) A copy of the independent certified public accountant's report on examination of the owner's or operator's financial statements for the latest completed fiscal year; and

(iii) A special report from the owner's or operator's independent certified public accountant to the owner or operator stating that:

(A) He has compared the data which the letter from the chief financial officer specifies as having been derived from the independently audited, year-end financial statements for the latest fiscal year with the amounts in such financial statements; and

(B) In connection with that procedure, no matters came to his attention which caused him to believe that the specified data should be adjusted.

(4) The owner or operator may obtain an extension of the time allowed for submission of the documents specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section if the fiscal year of the owner or operator ends during the 90 days prior to the effective date of these regulations and if the year-end financial statements for that fiscal year will be audited by an independent certified public accountant. The extension will end no later than 90 days after the end of the owner's or operator's fiscal year. To obtain the extension, the owner's or operator's chief financial officer must send, by the effective date of these regulations, a letter to the Regional Administrator of each Region in which the owner's or operator's facilities to be covered by the financial test are located. This letter from the chief financial officer must:

(i) Request the extension;

(ii) Certify that he has grounds to believe that the owner or operator meets the criteria of the financial test;

(iii) Specify for each facility to be covered by the test the EPA Identification Number, name, address, and the current closure and post-closure cost estimates to be covered by the test;

(iv) Specify the date ending the owner's or operator's latest complete fiscal year before the effective date of these regulations;

(v) Specify the date, no later than 90 days after the end of such fiscal year, when he will submit the documents specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section; and

(vi) Certify that the year-end financial statements of the owner or operator for such fiscal year will be audited by an independent certified public accountant.

(5) After the initial submission of items specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, the owner or operator must send updated information to the Regional Administrator within 90 days after the close of each succeeding fiscal year. This information must consist of all three items specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section.

(6) If the owner or operator no longer meets the requirements of paragraph (e)(1) of this section, he must send notice to the Regional Administrator of intent to establish alternate financial assurance as specified in this section. The notice must be sent by certified mail within 90 days after the end of the fiscal year for which the year-end financial data show that the owner or operator no longer meets the requirements. The owner or operator must provide the alternate financial assurance within 120 days after the end of such fiscal year.

(7) The Regional Administrator may, based on a reasonable belief that the owner or operator may no longer meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(1) of this section, require reports of financial condition at any time from the owner or operator in addition to those specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section. If the Regional Administrator finds, on the basis of such reports or other information, that the owner or operator no longer meets the requirements of paragraph (e)(1) of this section, the owner or operator must provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section within 30 days after notification of such a finding.

(8) The Regional Administrator may disallow use of this test on the basis of qualifications in the opinion expressed by the independent certified public accountant in his report on examination of the owner's or operator's financial statements (see paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section). An adverse opinion or a disclaimer of opinion will be cause for disallowance. The Regional Administrator will evaluate other qualifications on an individual basis. The owner or operator must provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section within 30 days after notification of the disallowance.

(9) During the period of post-closure care, the Regional Administrator may approve a decrease in the current post-closure cost estimate for which this test demonstrates financial assurance if the owner or operator demonstrates to the Regional Administrator that the amount of the cost estimate exceeds the remaining cost of post-closure care.

(10) The owner or operator is no longer required to submit the items specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section when:

(i) An owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section; or

(ii) The Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 265.145(h).

(11) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a written guarantee. The guarantor must be the direct or higher-tier parent corporation of the owner or operator, a firm whose parent corporation is also the parent corporation of the owner or operator, or a firm with a “substantial business relationship” with the owner or operator. The guarantor must meet the requirements for owners or operators in paragraphs (e)(1) through (9) of this section and must comply with the terms of the guarantee. The wording of the guarantee must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(h). A certified copy of the guarantee must accompany the items sent to the Regional Administrator as specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section. One of these items must be the letter from the guarantor's chief financial officer. If the guarantor's parent corporation is also the parent corporation of the owner or operator, the letter must describe the value received in consideration of the guarantee. If the guarantor is a firm with a “substantial business relationship” with the owner or operator, this letter must describe this “substantial business relationship” and the value received in consideration of the guarantee. The terms of the guarantee must provide that:

(i) If the owner or operator fails to perform post-closure care of a facility covered by the corporate guarantee in accordance with the post-closure plan and other interim status requirements whenever required to do so, the guarantor will do so or establish a trust fund as specified in § 265.145(a) in the name of the owner or operator.

(ii) The corporate guarantee will remain in force unless the guarantor sends notice of cancellation by certified mail to the owner or operator and to the Regional Administrator. Cancellation may not occur, however, during the 120 days beginning on the date of receipt of the notice of cancellation by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator, as evidenced by the return receipts.

(iii) If the owner or operator fails to provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section and obtain the written approval of such alternate assurance from the Regional Administrator within 90 days after receipt by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator of a notice of cancellation of the corporate guarantee from the guarantor, the guarantor will provide such alternate financial assurance in the name of the owner or operator.

(f) Use of multiple financial mechanisms. An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by establishing more than one financial mechanism per facility. These mechanisms are limited to trust funds, surety bonds, letters of credit, and insurance. The mechanisms must be as specified in paragraphs (a) through (d), respectively, of this section, except that it is the combination of mechanisms, rather than the single mechanism, which must provide financial assurance for an amount at least equal to the current post-closure cost estimate. If an owner or operator uses a trust fund in combination with a surety bond or a letter of credit, he may use the trust fund as the standby trust fund for the other mechanisms. A single standby trust fund may be established for two or more mechanisms. The Regional Administrator may use any or all of the mechanisms to provide for post-closure care of the facility.

(g) Use of a financial mechanism for multiple facilities. An owner or operator may use a financial assurance mechanism specified in this section to meet the requirements of this section for more than one facility. Evidence of financial assurance submitted to the Regional Administrator must include a list showing, for each facility, the EPA Identification Number, name, address, and the amount of funds for post-closure care assured by the mechanism. If the facilities covered by the mechanism are in more than one Region, identical evidence of financial assurance must be submitted to and maintained with the Regional Administrators of all such Regions. The amount of funds available through the mechanism must be no less than the sum of funds that would be available if a separate mechanism had been established and maintained for each facility. In directing funds available through the mechanism for post-closure care of any of the facilities covered by the mechanism, the Regional Administrator may direct only the amount of funds designated for that facility, unless the owner or operator agrees to the use of additional funds available under the mechanism.

(h) Release of the owner or operator from the requirements of this section. Within 60 days after receiving certifications from the owner or operator and a qualified Professional Engineer that the post-closure care period has been completed for a hazardous waste disposal unit in accordance with the approved plan, the Regional Administrator will notify the owner or operator in writing that he is no longer required to maintain financial assurance for post-closure care of that unit, unless the Regional Administrator has reason to believe that post-closure care has not been in accordance with the approved post-closure plan. The Regional Administrator shall provide the owner or operator a detailed written statement of any such reason to believe that post-closure care has not been in accordance with the approved post-closure plan.

[47 FR 15064, Apr. 7, 1982, as amended at 51 FR 16457, May 2, 1986; 57 FR 42843, Sept. 16, 1992; 71 FR 16909, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.146 Use of a mechanism for financial assurance of both closure and post-closure care.

An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements for financial assurance for both closure and post-closure care for one or more facilities by using a trust fund, surety bond, letter of credit, insurance, financial test, or corporate guarantee that meets the specifications for the mechanism in both §§ 265.143 and 265.145. The amount of funds available through the mechanism must be no less than the sum of funds that would be available if a separate mechanism had been established and maintained for financial assurance of closure and of post-closure care.

§ 265.147 Liability requirements.

(a) Coverage for sudden accidental occurrences. An owner or operator of a hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility, or a group of such facilities, must demonstrate financial responsibility for bodily injury and property damage to third parties caused by sudden accidental occurrences arising from operations of the facility or group of facilities. The owner or operator must have and maintain liability coverage for sudden accidental occurrences in the amount of at least $1 million per occurrence with an annual aggregate of at least $2 million, exclusive of legal defense costs. This liability coverage may be demonstrated as specified in paragraphs (a) (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), or (6) of this section:

(1) An owner or operator may demonstrate the required liability coverage by having liability insurance as specified in this paragraph.

(i) Each insurance policy must be amended by attachment of the Hazardous Waste Facility Liability Endorsement, or evidenced by a Certificate of Liability Insurance. The wording of the endorsement must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(i). The wording of the certificate of insurance must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(j). The owner or operator must submit a signed duplicate original of the endorsement or the certificate of insurance to the Regional Administrator, or Regional Administrator if the facilities are located in more than one Region. If requested by a Regional Administrator, the owner or operator must provide a signed duplicate original of the insurance policy.

(ii) Each insurance policy must be issued by an insurer which, at a minimum, is licensed to transact the business of insurance, or eligible to provide insurance as an excess or surplus lines insurer, in one or more States.

(2) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by passing a financial test or using the guarantee for liability coverage as specified in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section.

(3) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a letter of credit for liability coverage as specified in paragraph (h) of this section.

(4) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a surety bond for liability coverage as specified in paragraph (i) of this section.

(5) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a trust fund for liability coverage as specified in paragraph (j) of this section.

(6) An owner or operator may demonstrate the required liability coverage through the use of combinations of insurance, financial test, guarantee, letter of credit, surety bond, and trust fund, except that the owner or operator may not combine a financial test covering part of the liability coverage requirement with a guarantee unless the financial statement of the owner or operator is not consolidated with the financial statement of the guarantor. The amounts of coverage demonstrated must total at least the minimum amounts required by this section. If the owner or operator demonstrates the required coverage through the use of a combination of financial assurances under this paragraph, the owner or operator shall specify at least one such assurance as “primary” coverage and shall specify other assurance as “excess” coverage.

(7) An owner or operator shall notify the Regional Administrator in writing within 30 days whenever:

(i) A claim results in a reduction in the amount of financial assurance for liability coverage provided by a financial instrument authorized in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(6) of this section; or

(ii) A Certification of Valid Claim for bodily injury or property damages caused by a sudden or non-sudden accidental occurrence arising from the operation of a hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility is entered between the owner or operator and third-party claimant for liability coverage under paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(6) of this section; or

(iii) A final court order establishing a judgment for bodily injury or property damage caused by a sudden or non-sudden accidental occurrence arising from the operation of a hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility is issued against the owner or operator or an instrument that is providing financial assurance for liability coverage under paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(6) of this section.

(b) Coverage for nonsudden accidental occurrences. An owner or operator of a surface impoundment, landfill, or land treatment facility which is used to manage hazardous waste, or a group of such facilities, must demonstrate financial responsibility for bodily injury and property damage to third parties caused by nonsudden accidental occurrences arising from operations of the facility or group of facilities. The owner or operator must have and maintain liability coverage for nonsudden accidental occurrences in the amount of at least $3 million per occurrence with an annual aggregate of at least $6 million, exclusive of legal defense costs. An owner or operator who must meet the requirements of this section may combine the required per-occurrence coverage levels for sudden and nonsudden accidental occurrences into a single per-occurrence level, and combine the required annual aggregate coverage levels for sudden and nonsudden accidental occurrences into a single annual aggregate level. Owners or operators who combine coverage levels for sudden and nonsudden accidental occurrences must maintain liability coverage in the amount of at least $4 million per occurrence and $8 million annual aggregate. This liability coverage may be demonstrated as specified in paragraph (b) (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), or (6) of this section:

(1) An owner or operator may demonstrate the required liability coverage by having liability insurance as specified in this paragraph.

(i) Each insurance policy must be amended by attachment of the Hazardous Waste Facility Liability Endorsement or evidenced by a Certificate of Liability Insurance. The wording of the endorsement must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(i). The wording of the certificate of insurance must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(j). The owner or operator must submit a signed duplicate original of the endorsement or the certificate of insurance to the Regional Administrator, or Regional Administrators if the facilities are located in more than one Region. If requested by a Regional Administrator, the owner or operator must provide a signed duplicate original of the insurance policy.

(ii) Each insurance policy must be issued by an insurer which, at a minimum, is licensed to transact the business of insurance, or eligible to provide insurance as an excess or surplus lines insurer, in one or more States.

(2) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by passing a financial test or using the guarantee for liability coverage as specified in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section.

(3) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a letter of credit for liability coverage as specified in paragraph (h) of this section.

(4) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a surety bond for liability coverage as specified in paragraph (i) of this section.

(5) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a trust fund for liability coverage as specified in paragraph (j) of this section.

(6) An owner or operator may demonstrate the required liability coverage through the use of combinations of insurance, financial test, guarantee, letter of credit, surety bond, and trust fund, except that the owner or operator may not combine a financial test covering part of the liability coverage requirement with a guarantee unless the financial statement of the owner or operator is not consolidated with the financial statement of the guarantor. The amounts of coverage demonstrated must total at least the minimum amounts required by this section. If the owner or operator demonstrates the required coverage through the use of a combination of financial assurances under this paragraph, the owner or operator shall specify at least one such assurance as “primary” coverage and shall specify other assurance as “excess” coverage.

(7) An owner or operator shall notify the Regional Administrator in writing within 30 days whenever:

(i) A claim results in a reduction in the amount of financial assurance for liability coverage provided by a financial instrument authorized in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(6) of this section; or

(ii) A Certification of Valid Claim for bodily injury or property damages caused by a sudden or non-sudden accidental occurrence arising from the operation of a hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility is entered between the owner or operator and third-party claimant for liability coverage under paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(6) of this section; or

(iii) A final court order establishing a judgment for bodily injury or property damage caused by a sudden or non-sudden accidental occurrence arising from the operation of a hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility is issued against the owner or operator or an instrument that is providing financial assurance for liability coverage under paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(6) of this section.

(c) Request for variance. If an owner or operator can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Regional Administrator that the levels of financial responsibility required by paragraph (a) or (b) of this section are not consistent with the degree and duration of risk associated with treatment, storage, or disposal at the facility or group of facilities, the owner or operator may obtain a variance from the Regional Administrator. The request for a variance must be submitted in writing to the Regional Administrator. If granted, the variance will take the form of an adjusted level of required liability coverage, such level to be based on the Regional Administrator's assessment of the degree and duration of risk associated with the ownership or operation of the facility or group of facilities. The Regional Administrator may require an owner or operator who requests a variance to provide such technical and engineering information as is deemed necessary by the Regional Administrator to determine a level of financial responsibility other than that required by paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. The Regional Administrator will process a variance request as if it were a permit modification request under § 270.41(a)(5) of this chapter and subject to the procedures of § 124.5 of this chapter. Notwithstanding any other provision, the Regional Administrator may hold a public hearing at his discretion or whenever he finds, on the basis of requests for a public hearing, a significant degree of public interest in a tentative decision to grant a variance.

(d) Adjustments by the Regional Administrator. If the Regional Administrator determines that the levels of financial responsibility required by paragraph (a) or (b) of this section are not consistent with the degree and duration of risk associated with treatment, storage, or disposal at the facility or group of facilities, the Regional Administrator may adjust the level of financial responsibility required under paragraph (a) or (b) of this section as may be necessary to protect human health and the environment. This adjusted level will be based on the Regional Administrator's assessment of the degree and duration of risk associated with the ownership or operation of the facility or group of facilities. In addition, if the Regional Administrator determines that there is a significant risk to human health and the environment from nonsudden accidental occurrences resulting from the operations of a facility that is not a surface impoundment, landfill, or land treatment facility, he may require that an owner or operator of the facility comply with paragraph (b) of this section. An owner or operator must furnish to the Regional Administrator, within a reasonable time, any information which the Regional Administrator requests to determine whether cause exists for such adjustments of level or type of coverage. The Regional Administrator will process an adjustment of the level of required coverage as if it were a permit modification under § 270.41(a)(5) of this chapter and subject to the procedures of § 124.5 of this chapter. Notwithstanding any other provision, the Regional Administrator may hold a public hearing at his discretion or whenever he finds, on the basis of requests for a public hearing, a significant degree of public interest in a tentative decision to adjust the level or type of required coverage.

(e) Period of coverage. Within 60 days after receiving certifications from the owner or operator and a qualified Professional Engineer that final closure has been completed in accordance with the approved closure plan, the Regional Administrator will notify the owner or operator in writing that he is no longer required by this section to maintain liability coverage for that facility, unless the Regional Administrator has reason to believe that closure has not been in accordance with the approved closure plan.

(f) Financial test for liability coverage.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by demonstrating that he passes a financial test as specified in this paragraph. To pass this test the owner or operator must meet the criteria of paragraph (f)(1) (i) or (ii) of this section:

(i) The owner or operator must have:

(A) Net working capital and tangible net worth each at least six times the amount of liability coverage to be demonstrated by this test; and

(B) Tangible net worth of at least $10 million; and

(C) Assets in the United States amounting to either:

(1) At least 90 percent of his total assets; or

(2) at least six times the amount of liability coverage to be demonstrated by this test.

(ii) The owner or operator must have:

(A) A current rating for his most recent bond issuance of AAA, AA, A, or BBB as issued by Standard and Poor's, or Aaa, Aa, A, or Baa as issued by Moody's; and

(B) Tangible net worth of at least $10 million; and

(C) Tangible net worth at least six times the amount of liability coverage to be demonstrated by this test; and

(D) Assets in the United States amounting to either:

(1) At least 90 percent of his total assets; or

(2) at least six times the amount of liability coverage to be demonstrated by this test.

(2) The phrase “amount of liability coverage” as used in paragraph (f)(1) of this section refers to the annual aggregate amounts for which coverage is required under paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(3) To demonstrate that he meets this test, the owner or operator must submit the following three items to the Regional Administrator:

(i) A letter signed by the owner's or operator's chief financial officer and worded as specified in § 264.151(g). If an owner or operator is using the financial test to demonstrate both assurance for closure or post-closure care, as specified by §§ 264.143(f), 264.145(f), 265.143(e), and 265.145(e), and liability coverage, he must submit the letter specified in § 264.151(g) to cover both forms of financial responsibility; a separate letter as specified in § 264.151(f) is not required.

(ii) A copy of the independent certified public accountant's report on examination of the owner's or operator's financial statements for the latest completed fiscal year.

(iii) A special report from the owner's or operator's independent certified public accountant to the owner or operator stating that:

(A) He has compared the data which the letter from the chief financial officer specifies as having been derived from the independently audited, year-end financial statements for the latest fiscal year with the amounts in such financial statements; and

(B) In connection with that procedure, no matters came to his attention which caused him to believe that the specified data should be adjusted.

(4) The owner or operator may obtain a one-time extension of the time allowed for submission of the documents specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section if the fiscal year of the owner or operator ends during the 90 days prior to the effective date of these regulations and if the year-end financial statements for that fiscal year will be audited by an independent certified public accountant. The extension will end no later than 90 days after the end of the owner's or operator's fiscal year. To obtain the extension, the owner's or operator's chief financial officer must send, by the effective date of these regulations, a letter to the Regional Administrator of each Region in which the owner's or operator's facilities to be covered by the financial test are located. This letter from the chief financial officer must:

(i) Request the extension;

(ii) Certify that he has grounds to believe that the owner or operator meets the criteria of the financial test;

(iii) Specify for each facility to be covered by the test the EPA Identification Number, name, address, the amount of liability coverage and, when applicable, current closure and post-closure cost estimates to be covered by the test;

(iv) Specify the date ending the owner's or operator's last complete fiscal year before the effective date of these regulations;

(v) Specify the date, no later than 90 days after the end of such fiscal year, when he will submit the documents specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section; and

(vi) Certify that the year-end financial statements of the owner or operator for such fiscal year will be audited by an independent certified public accountant.

(5) After the initial submission of items specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section, the owner or operator must send updated information to the Regional Administrator within 90 days after the close of each succeeding fiscal year. This information must consist of all three items specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(6) If the owner or operator no longer meets the requirements of paragraph (f)(1) of this section, he must obtain insurance, a letter of credit, a surety bond, a trust fund, or a guarantee for the entire amount of required liability coverage as specified in this section. Evidence of liability coverage must be submitted to the Regional Administrator within 90 days after the end of the fiscal year for which the year-end financial data show that the owner or operator no longer meets the test requirements.

(7) The Regional Administrator may disallow use of this test on the basis of qualifications in the opinion expressed by the independent certified public accountant in his report on examination of the owner's or operator's financial statements (see paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section). An adverse opinion or a disclaimer of opinion will be cause for disallowance. The Regional Administrator will evaluate other qualifications on an individual basis. The owner or operator must provide evidence of insurance for the entire amount of required liability coverage as specified in this section within 30 days after notification of disallowance.

(g) Guarantee for liability coverage.

(1) Subject to paragraph (g)(2) of this section, an owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a written guarantee, hereinafter referred to as “guarantee.” The guarantor must be the direct or higher-tier parent corporation of the owner or operator, a firm whose parent corporation is also the parent corporation of the owner or operator, or a firm with a “substantial business relationship” with the owner or operator. The guarantor must meet the requirements for owners or operators in paragraphs (f)(1) through (f)(6) of this section. The wording of the guarantee must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(h)(2) of this chapter. A certified copy of the guarantee must accompany the items sent to the Regional Administrator as specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section. One of these items must be the letter from the guarantor's chief financial officer. If the guarantor's parent corporation is also the parent corporation of the owner or operator, this letter must describe the value received in consideration of the guarantee. If the guarantor is a firm with a “substantial business relationship” with the owner or operator, this letter must describe this “substantial business relationship” and the value received in consideration of the guarantee.

(i) If the owner or operator fails to satisfy a judgment based on a determination of liability for bodily injury or property damage to third parties caused by sudden or nonsudden accidental occurrences (or both as the case may be), arising from the operation of facilities covered by this corporate guarantee, or fails to pay an amount agreed to in settlement of claims arising from or alleged to arise from such injury or damage, the guarantor will do so up to the limits of coverage.

(ii) [Reserved]

(2)

(i) In the case of corporations incorporated in the United States, a guarantee may be used to satisfy the requirements of this section only if the Attorneys General or Insurance Commissioners of

(A) the State in which the guarantor is incorporated, and

(B) each State in which a facility covered by the guarantee is located have submitted a written statement to EPA that a guarantee executed as described in this section and § 264.151(h)(2) is a legally valid and enforceable obligation in that State.

(ii) In the case of corporations incorporated outside the United States, a guarantee may be used to satisfy the requirements of this section only if

(A) the non-U.S. corporation has identified a registered agent for service of process in each State in which a facility covered by the guarantee is located and in the State in which it has its principal place of business, and if

(B) the Attorney General or Insurance Commissioner of each State in which a facility covered by the guarantee is located and the State in which the guarantor corporation has its principal place of business, has submitted a written statement to EPA that a guarantee executed as described in this section and § 264.151(h)(2) is a legally valid and enforceable obligation in that State.

(h) Letter of credit for liability coverage.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by obtaining an irrevocable standby letter of credit that conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting a copy of the letter of credit to the Regional Administrator.

(2) The financial institution issuing the letter of credit must be an entity that has the authority to issue letters of credit and whose letter of credit operations are regulated and examined by a Federal or State agency.

(3) The wording of the letter of credit must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(k) of this chapter.

(4) An owner or operator who uses a letter of credit to satisfy the requirements of this section may also establish a standby trust fund. Under the terms of such a letter of credit, all amounts paid pursuant to a draft by the trustee of the standby trust will be deposited by the issuing institution into the standby trust in accordance with instructions from the trustee. The trustee of the standby trust fund must be an entity which has the authority to act as a trustee and whose trust operations are regulated and examined by a Federal or State agency.

(5) The wording of the standby trust fund must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(n).

(i) Surety bond for liability coverage.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by obtaining a surety bond that conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting a copy of the bond to the Regional Administrator.

(2) The surety company issuing the bond must be among those listed as acceptable sureties on Federal bonds in the most recent Circular 570 of the U.S. Department of the Treasury.

(3) The wording of the surety bond must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(l) of this chapter.

(4) A surety bond may be used to satisfy the requirements of this section only if the Attorneys General or Insurance Commissioners of

(i) the State in which the surety is incorporated, and

(ii) each State in which a facility covered by the surety bond is located have submitted a written statement to EPA that a surety bond executed as described in this section and § 264.151(l) of this chapter is a legally valid and enforceable obligation in that State.

(j) Trust fund for liability coverage.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by establishing a trust fund that conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting an originally signed duplicate of the trust agreement to the Regional Administrator.

(2) The trustee must be an entity which has the authority to act as a trustee and whose trust operations are regulated and examined by a Federal or State agency.

(3) The trust fund for liability coverage must be funded for the full amount of the liability coverage to be provided by the trust fund before it may be relied upon to satisfy the requirements of this section. If at any time after the trust fund is created the amount of funds in the trust fund is reduced below the full amount of the liability coverage to be provided, the owner or operator, by the anniversary date of the establishment of the Fund, must either add sufficient funds to the trust fund to cause its value to equal the full amount of liability coverage to be provided, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section to cover the difference. For purposes of this paragraph, “the full amount of the liability coverage to be provided” means the amount of coverage for sudden and/or nonsudden occurrences required to be provided by the owner or operator by this section, less the amount of financial assurance for liability coverage that is being provided by other financial assurance mechanisms being used to demonstrate financial assurance by the owner or operator.

(4) The wording of the trust fund must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(m) of this part.

(k) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, an owner or operator using liability insurance to satisfy the requirements of this section may use, until October 16, 1982, a Hazardous Waste Facility Liability Endorsement or Certificate of Liability Insurance that does not certify that the insurer is licensed to transact the business of insurance, or eligible as an excess or surplus lines insurer, in one or more States.

[47 FR 16558, Apr. 16, 1982, as amended at 47 FR 28627, July 1, 1982; 47 FR 30447, July 13, 1982; 48 FR 30115, June 30, 1983; 51 FR 16458, May 2, 1986; 51 FR 25355, July 11, 1986; 52 FR 44321, Nov. 18, 1987; 53 FR 33959, Sept. 1, 1988; 56 FR 30200, July 1, 1991; 56 FR 47912, Sept. 23, 1991; 57 FR 42843, Sept. 16, 1992; 71 FR 16910, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.148 Incapacity of owners or operators, guarantors, or financial institutions.

(a) An owner or operator must notify the Regional Administrator by certified mail of the commencement of a voluntary or involuntary proceeding under Title 11 (Bankruptcy), U.S. Code, naming the owner or operator as debtor, within 10 days after commencement of the proceeding. A guarantor of a corporate guarantee as specified in §§ 265.143(e) and 265.145(e) must make such a notification if he is named as debtor, as required under the terms of the corporate guarantee (§ 264.151(h)).

(b) An owner or operator who fulfills the requirements of § 265.143, § 265.145, or § 265.147 by obtaining a trust fund, surety bond, letter of credit, or insurance policy will be deemed to be without the required financial assurance or liability coverage in the event of bankruptcy of the trustee or issuing institution, or a suspension or revocation of the authority of the trustee institution to act as trustee or of the institution issuing the surety bond, letter of credit, or insurance policy to issue such instruments. The owner or operator must establish other financial assurance or liability coverage within 60 days after such an event.

§ 265.149 Use of State-required mechanisms.

(a) For a facility located in a State where EPA is administering the requirements of this subpart but where the State has hazardous waste regulations that include requirements for financial assurance of closure or post-closure care or liability coverage, an owner or operator may use State-required financial mechanisms to meet the requirements of § 265.143, § 265.145, or § 265.147 if the Regional Administrator determines that the State mechanisms are at least equivalent to the financial mechanisms specified in this subpart. The Regional Administrator will evaluate the equivalency of the mechanisms principally in terms of

(1) certainty of the availability of funds for the required closure or post-closure care activities or liability coverage and

(2) the amount of funds that will be made available. The Regional Administrator may also consider other factors as he deems appropriate. The owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator evidence of the establishment of the mechanism together with a letter requesting that the State-required mechanism be considered acceptable for meeting the requirements of this subpart. The submission must include the following information: The facility's EPA Identification Number, name, and address, and the amount of funds for closure or post-closure care or liability coverage assured by the mechanism. The Regional Administrator will notify the owner or operator of his determination regarding the mechanism's acceptability in lieu of financial mechanisms specified in this subpart. The Regional Administrator may require the owner or operator to submit additional information as is deemed necessary to make this determination. Pending this determination, the owner or operator will be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of § 265.143, § 265.145, or § 265.147, as applicable.

(b) If a State-required mechanism is found acceptable as specified in paragraph (a) of this section except for the amount of funds available, the owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this subpart by increasing the funds available through the State-required mechanism or using additional financial mechanisms as specified in this subpart. The amount of funds available through the State and Federal mechanisms must at least equal the amount required by this subpart.

§ 265.150 State assumption of responsibility.

(a) If a State either assumes legal responsibility for an owner's or operator's compliance with the closure, post-closure care, or liability requirements of this part or assures that funds will be available from State sources to cover those requirements, the owner or operator will be in compliance with the requirements of § 265.143, § 265.145, or § 265.147 if the Regional Administrator determines that the State's assumption of responsibility is at least equivalent to the financial mechanisms specified in this subpart. The Regional Administrator will evaluate the equivalency of State guarantees principally in terms of

(1) certainty of the availability of funds for the required closure or post-closure care activities or liability coverage and

(2) the amount of funds that will be made available. The Regional Administrator may also consider other factors as he deems appropriate. The owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator a letter from the State describing the nature of the State's assumption of responsibility together with a letter from the owner or operator requesting that the State's assumption of responsibility be considered acceptable for meeting the requirements of this subpart. The letter from the State must include, or have attached to it, the following information: The facility's EPA Identification Number, name, and address, and the amount of funds for closure or post-closure care or liability coverage that are guaranteed by the State. The Regional Administrator will notify the owner or operator of his determination regarding the acceptability of the State's guarantee in lieu of financial mechanisms specified in this subpart. The Regional Administrator may require the owner or operator to submit additional information as is deemed necessary to make this determination. Pending this determination, the owner or operator will be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of §§ 265.143, § 265.145, or § 265.147, as applicable.

(b) If a State's assumption of responsibility is found acceptable as specified in paragraph (a) of this section except for the amount of funds available, the owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this subpart by use of both the State's assurance and additional financial mechanisms as specified in this subpart. The amount of funds available through the State and Federal mechanisms must at least equal the amount required by this subpart.

Subpart I - Use and Management of Containers
§ 265.170 Applicability.

The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of all hazardous waste facilities that store containers of hazardous waste, except as § 265.1 provides otherwise.

§ 265.171 Condition of containers.

If a container holding hazardous waste is not in good condition, or if it begins to leak, the owner or operator must transfer the hazardous waste from this container to a container that is in good condition, or manage the waste in some other way that complies with the requirements of this part.

§ 265.172 Compatibility of waste with container.

The owner or operator must use a container made of or lined with materials which will not react with, and are otherwise compatible with, the hazardous waste to be stored, so that the ability of the container to contain the waste is not impaired.

§ 265.173 Management of containers.

(a) A container holding hazardous waste must always be closed during storage, except when it is necessary to add or remove waste.

(b) A container holding hazardous waste must not be opened, handled, or stored in a manner which may rupture the container or cause it to leak.

[Comment: Re-use of containers in transportation is governed by U.S. Department of Transportation regulations, including those set forth in 49 CFR 173.28.]

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 45 FR 78529, Nov. 25, 1980]

§ 265.174 Inspections.

At least weekly, the owner or operator must inspect areas where containers are stored. The owner or operator must look for leaking containers and for deterioration of containers caused by corrosion or other factors. See § 265.171 for remedial action required if deterioration or leaks are detected.

[81 FR 85827, Nov. 28, 2016]

§ 265.175 [Reserved]
§ 265.176 Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

Containers holding ignitable or reactive waste must be located at least 15 meters (50 feet) from the facility's property line.

[Comment: See § 265.17(a) for additional requirements.]

§ 265.177 Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

(a) Incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials, (see appendix V for examples) must not be placed in the same container, unless § 265.17(b) is complied with.

(b) Hazardous waste must not be placed in an unwashed container that previously held an incompatible waste or material (see appendix V for examples), unless § 265.17(b) is complied with.

(c) A storage container holding a hazardous waste that is incompatible with any waste or other materials stored nearby in other containers, piles, open tanks, or surface impoundments must be separated from the other materials or protected from them by means of a dike, berm, wall, or other device.

[Comment: The purpose of this is to prevent fires, explosions, gaseous emissions, leaching, or other discharge of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents which could result from the mixing of incompatible wastes or materials if containers break or leak.]

§ 265.178 Air emission standards.

The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous waste placed in a container in accordance with the applicable requirements of subparts AA, BB, and CC of this part.

[61 FR 59968, Nov. 25, 1996]

Subpart J - Tank Systems
Source:

51 FR 25479, July 14, 1986, unless otherwise noted.

§ 265.190 Applicability.

The requirements of this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities that use tank systems for storing or treating hazardous waste except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this section or in § 265.1 of this part.

(a) Tank systems that are used to store or treat hazardous waste which contains no free liquids and are situated inside a building with an impermeable floor are exempted from the requirements in § 265.193. To demonstrate the absence or presence of free liquids in the stored/treated waste, the following test must be used: Method 9095B (Paint Filter Liquids Test) as described in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication SW-846, as incorporated by reference in § 260.11 of this chapter.

(b) Tank systems, including sumps, as defined in § 260.10, that serve as part of a secondary containment system to collect or contain releases of hazardous wastes are exempted from the requirements in § 265.193(a).

(c) Tanks, sumps, and other collection devices used in conjunction with drip pads, as defined in § 260.10 of this chapter and regulated under 40 CFR part 265 subpart W, must meet the requirements of this subpart.

[51 FR 25479, July 14, 1986, as amended at 53 FR 34087, Sept. 2, 1988; 55 FR 50486, Dec. 6, 1990; 58 FR 46050, Aug. 31, 1993; 70 FR 34585, June 14, 2005]

§ 265.191 Assessment of existing tank system's integrity.

(a) For each existing tank system that does not have secondary containment meeting the requirements of § 265.193, the owner or operator must determine that the tank system is not leaking or is unfit for use. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator must obtain and keep on file at the facility a written assessment reviewed and certified by a qualified Professional Engineer in accordance with § 270.11(d) of this chapter, that attests to the tank system's integrity by January 12, 1988.

(b) This assessment must determine that the tank system is adequately designed and has sufficient structural strength and compatibility with the waste(s) to be stored or treated to ensure that it will not collapse, rupture, or fail. At a minimum, this assessment must consider the following:

(1) Design standard(s), if available, according to which the tank and ancillary equipment were constructed;

(2) Hazardous characteristics of the waste(s) that have been or will be handled;

(3) Existing corrosion protection measures;

(4) Documented age of the tank system, if available, (otherwise, an estimate of the age); and

(5) Results of a leak test, internal inspection, or other tank integrity examination such that:

(i) For non-enterable underground tanks, this assessment must consist of a leak test that is capable of taking into account the effects of temperature variations, tank end deflection, vapor pockets, and high water table effects,

(ii) For other than non-enterable underground tanks and for ancillary equipment, this assessment must be either a leak test, as described above, or an internal inspection and/or other tank integrity examination certified by a qualified Professional Engineer in accordance with § 270.11(d) of this chapter that addresses cracks, leaks, corrosion, and erosion.

[Note: The practices described in the American Petroleum Institute (API) Publication, Guide for Inspection of Refinery Equipment, Chapter XIII, “Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks,” 4th edition, 1981, may be used, where applicable, as guidelines in conducting the integrity examination of an other than non-enterable underground tank system.]

(c) Tank systems that store or treat materials that become hazardous wastes subsequent to July 14, 1986 must conduct this assessment within 12 months after the date that the waste becomes a hazardous waste.

(d) If, as a result of the assessment conducted in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, a tank system is found to be leaking or unfit for use, the owner or operator must comply with the requirements of § 265.196.

[51 FR 25479, July 14, 1986, as amended at 71 FR 16910, Apr. 4, 2006]

§ 265.192 Design and installation of new tank systems or components.

(a) Owners or operators of new tank systems or components must ensure that the foundation, structural support, seams, connections, and pressure controls (if applicable) are adequately designed and that the tank system has sufficient structural strength, compatibility with the waste(s) to be stored or treated, and corrosion protection so that it will not collapse, rupture, or fail. The owner or operator must obtain a written assessment reviewed and certified by a qualified Professional Engineer in accordance with § 270.11(d) of this chapter attesting that the system has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for the storing and treating of hazardous waste. This assessment must include the following information:

(1) Design standard(s) according to which the tank(s) and ancillary equipment is or will be constructed.

(2) Hazardous characteristics of the waste(s) to be handled.

(3) For new tank systems or components in which the external shell of a metal tank or any external metal component of the tank system is or will be in contact with the soil or with water, a determination by a corrosion expert of:

(i) Factors affecting the potential for corrosion, including but not limited to:

(A) Soil moisture content;

(B) Soil pH;

(C) Soil sulfides level;

(D) Soil resistivity;

(E) Structure to soil potential;

(F) Influence of nearby underground metal structures (e.g., piping);

(G) Stray electric current; and,

(H) Existing corrosion-protection measures (e.g., coating, cathodic protection), and

(ii) The type and degree of external corrosion protection that are needed to ensure the integrity of the tank system during the use of the tank system or component, consisting of one or more of the following:

(A) Corrosion-resistant materials of construction such as special alloys or fiberglass-reinforced plastic;

(B) Corrosion-resistant coating (such as epoxy or fiberglass) with cathodic protection (e.g., impressed current or sacrificial anodes); and

(C) Electrical isolation devices such as insulating joints and flanges.

Note:

The practices described in the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) standard, “Recommended Practice (RP-02-85) - Control of External Corrosion on Metallic Buried, Partially Buried, or Submerged Liquid Storage Systems,” and the American Petroleum Institute (API) Publication 1632, “Cathodic Protection of Underground Petroleum Storage Tanks and Piping Systems,” may be used, where applicable, as guidelines in providing corrosion protection for tank systems.

(4) For underground tank system components that are likely to be affected by vehicular traffic, a determination of design or operational measures that will protect the tank system against potential damage; and

(5) Design considerations to ensure that:

(i) Tank foundations will maintain the load of a full tank;

(ii) Tank systems will be anchored to prevent flotation or dislodgement where the tank system is placed in a saturated zone, or is located within a seismic fault zone; and

(iii) Tank systems will withstand the effects of frost heave.

(b) The owner or operator of a new tank system must ensure that proper handling procedures are adhered to in order to prevent damage to the system during installation. Prior to covering, enclosing, or placing a new tank system or component in use, an independent, qualified installation inspector or a qualified Professional Engineer, either of whom is trained and experienced in the proper installation of tank systems, must inspect the system or component for the presence of any of the following items:

(1) Weld breaks;

(2) Punctures;

(3) Scrapes of protective coatings;

(4) Cracks;

(5) Corrosion;

(6) Other structural damage or inadequate construction or installation.

All discrepancies must be remedied before the tank system is covered, enclosed, or placed in use.

(c) New tank systems or components and piping that are placed underground and that are backfilled must be provided with a backfill material that is a noncorrosive, porous, homogeneous substance and that is carefully installed so that the backfill is placed completely around the tank and compacted to ensure that the tank and piping are fully and uniformly supported.

(d) All new tanks and ancillary equipment must be tested for tightness prior to being covered, enclosed or placed in use. If a tank system is found not to be tight, all repairs necessary to remedy the leak(s) in the system must be performed prior to the tank system being covered, enclosed, or placed in use.

(e) Ancillary equipment must be supported and protected against physical damage and excessive stress due to settlement, vibration, expansion or contraction.

Note:

The piping system installation procedures described in American Petroleum Institute (API) Publication 1615 (November 1979), “Installation of Underground Petroleum Storage Systems,” or ANSI Standard B31.3, “Petroleum Refinery System,” may be used, where applicable, as guidelines for proper installation of piping systems.

(f) The owner or operator must provide the type and degree of corrosion protection necessary, based on the information provided under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, to ensure the integrity of the tank system during use of the tank system. The installation of a corrosion protection system that is field fabricated must be supervised by an independent corrosion expert to ensure proper installation.

(g) The owner or operator must obtain and keep on file at the facility written statements by those persons required to certify the design of the tank system and supervise the installation of the tank system in accordance with the requirements of paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section to attest that the tank system was properly designed and installed and that repairs, pursuant to paragraphs (b) and (d) of this section were performed. These written statements must also include the certification statement as required in § 270.11(d) of this chapter.

[51 FR 25479, July 14, 1986; 51 FR 29430, Aug. 15, 1986; 71 FR 16910, Apr. 4, 2006]

§ 265.193 Containment and detection of releases.

(a) In order to prevent the release of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents to the environment, secondary containment that meets the requirements of this section must be provided (except as provided in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section):

(1) For all new and existing tank systems or components, prior to their being put into service.

(2) For tank systems that store or treat materials that become hazardous wastes, within 2 years of the hazardous waste listing, or when the tank system has reached 15 years of age, whichever comes later.

(b) Secondary containment systems must be:

(1) Designed, installed, and operated to prevent any migration of wastes or accumulated liquid out of the system to the soil, ground water, or surface water at any time during the use of the tank system; and

(2) Capable of detecting and collecting releases and accumulated liquids until the collected material is removed.

(c) To meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section, secondary containment systems must be at a minimum:

(1) Constructed of or lined with materials that are compatible with the waste(s) to be placed in the tank system and must have sufficient strength and thickness to prevent failure due to pressure gradients (including static head and external hydrological forces), physical contact with the waste to which they are exposed, climatic conditions, the stress of installation, and the stress of daily operation (including stresses from nearby vehicular traffic);

(2) Placed on a foundation or base capable of providing support to the secondary containment system and resistance to pressure gradients above and below the system and capable of preventing failure due to settlement, compression, or uplift;

(3) Provided with a leak detection system that is designed and operated so that it will detect the failure of either the primary and secondary containment structure or any release of hazardous waste or accumulated liquid in the secondary containment system within 24 hours, or at the earliest practicable time if the existing detection technology or site conditions will not allow detection of a release within 24 hours;

(4) Sloped or otherwise designed or operated to drain and remove liquids resulting from leaks, spills, or precipitation. Spilled or leaked waste and accumulated precipitation must be removed from the secondary containment system within 24 hours, or in as timely a manner as is possible to prevent harm to human health or the environment, if removal of the released waste or accumulated precipitation cannot be accomplished within 24 hours.

Note:

If the collected material is a hazardous waste under part 261 of this chapter, it is subject to management as a hazardous waste in accordance with all applicable requirements of parts 262 through 265 of this chapter. If the collected material is discharged through a point source to waters of the United States, it is subject to the requirements of sections 301, 304, and 402 of the Clean Water Act, as amended. If discharged to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs), it is subject to the requirements of section 307 of the Clear Water Act, as amended. If the collected material is released to the environment, it may be subject to the reporting requirements of 40 CFR part 302.

(d) Secondary containment for tanks must include one or more of the following devices:

(1) A liner (external to the tank);

(2) A vault;

(3) A double-walled tank; or

(4) An equivalent device as approved by the Regional Administrator.

(e) In addition to the requirements of paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, secondary containment systems must satisfy the following requirements:

(1) External liner systems must be:

(i) Designed or operated to contain 100 percent of the capacity of the largest tank within its boundary;

(ii) Designed or operated to prevent run-on or infiltration of precipitation into the secondary containment system unless the collection system has sufficient excess capacity to contain run-on or infiltration. Such additional capacity must be sufficient to contain precipitation from a 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event;

(iii) Free of cracks or gaps; and

(iv) Designed and installed to completely surround the tank and to cover all surrounding earth likely to come into contact with the waste if released from the tank(s) (i.e., capable of preventing lateral as well as vertical migration of the waste).

(2) Vault systems must be:

(i) Designed or operated to contain 100 percent of the capacity of the largest tank within its boundary;

(ii) Designed or operated to prevent run-on or infiltration of precipitation into the secondary containment system unless the collection system has sufficient excess capacity to contain run-on or infiltration. Such additional capacity must be sufficient to contain precipitation from a 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event;

(iii) Constructed with chemical-resistant water stops in place at all joints (if any);

(iv) Provided with an impermeable interior coating or lining that is compatible with the stored waste and that will prevent migration of waste into the concrete;

(v) Provided with a means to protect against the formation of and ignition of vapors within the vault, if the waste being stored or treated:

(A) Meets the definition of ignitable waste under § 261.21 of this chapter, or

(B) Meets the definition of reactive waste under § 261.23 of this chapter and may form an ignitable or explosive vapor; and

(vi) Provided with an exterior moisture barrier or be otherwise designed or operated to prevent migration of moisture into the vault if the vault is subject to hydraulic pressure.

(3) Double-walled tanks must be:

(i) Designed as an integral structure (i.e., an inner tank within an outer shell) so that any release from the inner tank is contained by the outer shell;

(ii) Protected, if constructed of metal, from both corrosion of the primary tank interior and the external surface of the outer shell; and

(iii) Provided with a built-in, continuous leak detection system capable of detecting a release within 24 hours or at the earliest practicable time, if the owner or operator can demonstrate to the Regional Administrator, and the Regional Administrator concurs, that the existing leak detection technology or site conditions will not allow detection of a release within 24 hours.

Note:

The provisions outlined in the Steel Tank Institute's (STI) “Standard for Dual Wall Underground Steel Storage Tank” may be used as guidelines for aspects of the design of underground steel double-walled tanks.

(f) Ancillary equipment must be provided with full secondary containment (e.g., trench, jacketing, double-walled piping) that meets the requirements of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section except for:

(1) Aboveground piping (exclusive of flanges, joints, valves, and connections) that are visually inspected for leaks on a daily basis;

(2) Welded flanges, welded joints, and welded connections that are visually inspected for leaks on a daily basis;

(3) Sealless or magnetic coupling pumps and sealless valves, that are visually inspected for leaks on a daily basis; and

(4) Pressurized aboveground piping systems with automatic shut-off devices (e.g., excess flow check valves, flow metering shutdown devices, loss of pressure actuated shut-off devices) that are visually inspected for leaks on a daily basis.

(g) The owner or operator may obtain a variance from the requirements of this Section if the Regional Administrator finds, as a result of a demonstration by the owner or operator, either: that alternative design and operating practices, together with location characteristics, will prevent the migration of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents into the ground water or surface water at least as effectively as secondary containment during the active life of the tank system or that in the event of a release that does migrate to ground water or surface water, no substantial present or potential hazard will be posed to human health or the environment. New underground tank systems may not, per a demonstration in accordance with paragraph (g)(2) of this section, be exempted from the secondary containment requirements of this section. Application for a variance as allowed in paragraph (g) of this section does not waive compliance with the requirements of this subpart for new tank systems.

(1) In deciding whether to grant a variance based on a demonstration of equivalent protection of ground water and surface water, the Regional Administrator will consider:

(i) The nature and quantity of the waste;

(ii) The proposed alternate design and operation;

(iii) The hydrogeologic setting of the facility, including the thickness of soils between the tank system and ground water; and

(iv) All other factors that would influence the quality and mobility of the hazardous constituents and the potential for them to migrate to ground water or surface water.

(2) In deciding whether to grant a variance, based on a demonstration of no substantial present or potential hazard, the Regional Administrator will consider:

(i) The potential adverse effects on ground water, surface water, and land quality taking into account:

(A) The physical and chemical characteristics of the waste in the tank system, including its potential for migration,

(B) The hydrogeological characteristics of the facility and surrounding land,

(C) The potential for health risks caused by human exposure to waste constituents,

(D) The potential for damage to wildlife, crops, vegetation, and physical structures caused by exposure to waste constituents, and

(E) The persistence and permanence of the potential adverse effects;

(ii) The potential adverse effects of a release on ground-water quality, taking into account:

(A) The quantity and quality of ground water and the direction of ground-water flow,

(B) The proximity and withdrawal rates of water in the area,

(C) The current and future uses of ground water in the area, and

(D) The existing quality of ground water, including other sources of contamination and their cumulative impact on the ground-water quality;

(iii) The potential adverse effects of a release on surface water quality, taking into account:

(A) The quantity and quality of ground water and the direction of ground-water flow,

(B) The patterns of rainfall in the region,

(C) The proximity of the tank system to surface waters,

(D) The current and future uses of surface waters in the area and any water quality standards established for those surface waters, and

(E) The existing quality of surface water, including other sources of contamination and the cumulative impact on surface-water quality; and

(iv) The potential adverse effects of a release on the land surrounding the tank system, taking into account:

(A) The patterns of rainfall in the region, and

(B) The current and future uses of the surrounding land.

(3) The owner or operator of a tank system, for which a variance from secondary containment had been granted in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (g)(1) of this section, at which a release of hazardous waste has occurred from the primary tank system but has not migrated beyond the zone of engineering control (as established in the variance), must:

(i) Comply with the requirements of § 265.196, except paragraph (d); and

(ii) Decontaminate or remove contaminated soil to the extent necessary to:

(A) Enable the tank system, for which the variance was granted, to resume operation with the capability for the detection of and response to releases at least equivalent to the capability it had prior to the release, and

(B) Prevent the migration of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents to ground water or surface water; and

(iii) If contaminated soil cannot be removed or decontaminated in accordance with paragraph (g)(3)(ii) of this section, comply with the requirements of § 265.197(b);

(4) The owner or operator of a tank system, for which a variance from secondary containment had been granted in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (g)(1) of this section, at which a release of hazardous waste has occurred from the primary tank system and has migrated beyond the zone of engineering control (as established in the variance), must:

(i) Comply with the requirements of § 265.196(a), (b), (c), and (d); and

(ii) Prevent the migration of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents to ground water or surface water, if possible, and decontaminate or remove contaminated soil. If contaminated soil cannot be decontaminated or removed, or if ground water has been contaminated, the owner or operator must comply with the requirements of § 265.197(b);

(iii) If repairing, replacing, or reinstalling the tank system, provide secondary containment in accordance with the requirements of paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section or reapply for a variance from secondary containment and meet the requirements for new tank systems in § 265.192 if the tank system is replaced. The owner or operator must comply with these requirements even if contaminated soil can be decontaminated or removed, and ground water or surface water has not been contaminated.

(h) The following procedures must be followed in order to request a variance from secondary containment:

(1) The Regional Administrator must be notified in writing by the owner or operator that he intends to conduct and submit a demonstration for a variance from secondary containment as allowed in paragraph (g) of this section according to the following schedule:

(i) For existing tank systems, at least 24 months prior to the date that secondary containment must be provided in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section; and

(ii) For new tank systems, at least 30 days prior to entering into a contract for installation of the tank system.

(2) As part of the notification, the owner or operator must also submit to the Regional Administrator a description of the steps necessary to conduct the demonstration and a timetable for completing each of the steps. The demonstration must address each of the factors listed in paragraph (g)(1) or paragraph (g)(2) of this section.

(3) The demonstration for a variance must be completed and submitted to the Regional Administrator within 180 days after notifying the Regional Administrator of intent to conduct the demonstration.

(4) The Regional Administrator will inform the public, through a newspaper notice, of the availability of the demonstration for a variance. The notice shall be placed in a daily or weekly major local newspaper of general circulation and shall provide at least 30 days from the date of the notice for the public to review and comment on the demonstration for a variance. The Regional Administrator also will hold a public hearing, in response to a request or at his own discretion, whenever such a hearing might clarify one or more issues concerning the demonstration for a variance. Public notice of the hearing will be given at least 30 days prior to the date of the hearing and may be given at the same time as notice of the opportunity for the public to review and comment on the demonstration. These two notices may be combined.

(5) The Regional Administrator will approve or disapprove the request for a variance within 90 days of receipt of the demonstration from the owner or operator and will notify in writing the owner or operator and each person who submitted written comments or requested notice of the variance decision. If the demonstration for a variance is incomplete or does not include sufficient information, the 90-day time period will begin when the Regional Administrator receives a complete demonstration, including all information necessary to make a final determination. If the public comment period in paragraph (h)(4) of this section is extended, the 90-day time period will be similarly extended.

(i) All tank systems, until such time as secondary containment meeting the requirements of this section is provided, must comply with the following:

(1) For non-enterable underground tanks, a leak test that meets the requirements of § 265.191(b)(5) must be conducted at least annually;

(2) For other than non-enterable underground tanks, and for all ancillary equipment, the owner or operator must either conduct a leak test as in paragraph (i)(1) of this section or an internal inspection or other tank integrity examination by a qualified Professional Engineer that addresses cracks, leaks, and corrosion or erosion at least annually. The owner or operator must remove the stored waste from the tank, if necessary, to allow the condition of all internal tank surfaces to be assessed.

Note:

The practices described in the American Petroleum Institute (API) Publication Guide for Inspection of Refining Equipment, Chapter XIII, “Atmospheric and Low Pressure Storage Tanks,” 4th edition, 1981, may be used, when applicable, as guidelines for assessing the overall condition of the tank system.

(3) The owner or operator must maintain on file at the facility a record of the results of the assessments conducted in accordance with paragraphs (i)(1) through (i)(3) of this section.

(4) If a tank system or component is found to be leaking or unfit-for-use as a result of the leak test or assessment in paragraphs (i)(1) through (i)(3) of this section, the owner or operator must comply with the requirements of § 265.196.

[51 FR 25479, July 14, 1986; 51 FR 29430, Aug. 15, 1986, as amended at 53 FR 34087, Sept. 2, 1988; 71 FR 16910, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.194 General operating requirements.

(a) Hazardous wastes or treatment reagents must not be placed in a tank system if they could cause the tank, its ancillary equipment, or the secondary containment system to rupture, leak, corrode, or otherwise fail.

(b) The owner or operator must use appropriate controls and practices to prevent spills and overflows from tank or secondary containment systems. These include at a minimum:

(1) Spill prevention controls (e.g., check valves, dry disconnect couplings);

(2) Overfill prevention controls (e.g., level sensing devices, high level alarms, automatic feed cutoff, or bypass to a standby tank); and

(3) Maintenance of sufficient freeboard in uncovered tanks to prevent overtopping by wave or wind action or by precipitation.

(c) The owner or operator must comply with the requirements of § 265.196 if a leak or spill occurs in the tank system.

[51 FR 25479, July 14, 1986, as amended at 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.195 Inspections.

(a) The owner or operator must inspect, where present, at least once each operating day, data gathered from monitoring and leak detection equipment (e.g., pressure or temperature gauges, monitoring wells) to ensure that the tank system is being operated according to its design.

Note:

Section 265.15(c) requires the owner or operator to remedy any deterioration or malfunction he finds. Section 265.196 requires the owner or operator to notify the Regional Administrator within 24 hours of confirming a release. Also, 40 CFR part 302 may require the owner or operator to notify the National Response Center of a release.

(b) Except as noted under the paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator must inspect at least once each operating day:

(1) Overfill/spill control equipment (e.g., waste-feed cutoff systems, bypass systems, and drainage systems) to ensure that it is in good working order;

(2) Above ground portions of the tank system, if any, to detect corrosion or releases of waste; and

(3) The construction materials and the area immediately surrounding the externally accessible portion of the tank system, including the secondary containment system (e.g., dikes) to detect erosion or signs of releases of hazardous waste (e.g., wet spots, dead vegetation).

(c) Owners or operators of tank systems that either use leak detection equipment to alert facility personnel to leaks, or implement established workplace practices to ensure leaks are promptly identified, must inspect at least weekly those areas described in paragraphs (b)(1) through (3) of this section. Use of the alternate inspection schedule must be documented in the facility's operating record. This documentation must include a description of the established workplace practices at the facility.

(d) [Reserved]

(e) Ancillary equipment that is not provided with secondary containment, as described in § 265.193(f)(1) through (4), must be inspected at least once each operating day.

(f) The owner or operator must inspect cathodic protection systems, if present, according to, at a minimum, the following schedule to ensure that they are functioning properly:

(1) The proper operation of the cathodic protection system must be confirmed within six months after initial installation, and annually thereafter; and

(2) All sources of impressed current must be inspected and/or tested, as appropriate, at least bimonthly (i.e., every other month).

Note:

The practices described in the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) standard, “Recommended Practice (RP-02-85) - Control of External Corrosion on Metallic Buried, Partially Buried, or Submerged Liquid Storage Systems,” and the American Petroleum Institute (API) Publication 1632, “Cathodic Protection of Underground Petroleum Storage Tanks and Piping Systems,” may be used, where applicable, as guidelines in maintaining and inspecting cathodic protection systems.

(g) The owner or operator must document in the operating record of the facility an inspection of those items in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

[51 FR 25479, July 14, 1986; 51 FR 29430, Aug. 15, 1986, as amended at 71 FR 16910, Apr. 4, 2006; 81 FR 85827, Nov. 28, 2016]

§ 265.196 Response to leaks or spills and disposition of leaking or unfit-for-use tank systems.

A tank system or secondary containment system from which there has been a leak or spill, or which is unfit for use, must be removed from service immediately, and the owner or operator must satisfy the following requirements:

(a) Cessation of use; prevent flow or addition of wastes. The owner or operator must immediately stop the flow of hazardous waste into the tank system or secondary containment system and inspect the system to determine the cause of the release.

(b) Removal of waste from tank system or secondary containment system.

(1) If the release was from the tank system, the owner or operator must, within 24 hours after detection of the leak or, if the owner or operator demonstrates that that is not possible, at the earliest practicable time remove as much of the waste as is necessary to prevent further release of hazardous waste to the environment and to allow inspection and repair of the tank system to be performed.

(2) If the release was to a secondary containment system, all released materials must be removed within 24 hours or in as timely a manner as is possible to prevent harm to human health and the environment.

(c) Containment of visible releases to the environment. The owner or operator must immediately conduct a visual inspection of the release and, based upon that inspection:

(1) Prevent further migration of the leak or spill to soils or surface water; and

(2) Remove, and properly dispose of, any visible contamination of the soil or surface water.

(d) Notifications, reports.

(1) Any release to the environment, except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, must be reported to the Regional Administrator within 24 hours of detection. If the release has been reported pursuant to 40 CFR part 302, that report will satisfy this requirement.

(2) A leak or spill of hazardous waste that is:

(i) Less than or equal to a quantity of one (1) pound, and

(ii) Immediately contained and cleaned-up is exempted from the requirements of this paragraph.

(3) Within 30 days of detection of a release to the environment, a report containing the following information must be submitted to the Regional Administrator:

(i) Likely route of migration of the release;

(ii) Characteristics of the surrounding soil (soil composition, geology, hydrogeology, climate);

(iii) Results of any monitoring or sampling conducted in connection with the release, (if available). If sampling or monitoring data relating to the release are not available within 30 days, these data must be submitted to the Regional Administrator as soon as they become available;

(iv) Proximity to downgradient drinking water, surface water, and population areas; and

(v) Description of response actions taken or planned.

(e) Provision of secondary containment, repair, or closure.

(1) Unless the owner or operator satisfies the requirements of paragraphs (e) (2) through (4) of this section, the tank system must be closed in accordance with § 265.197.

(2) If the cause of the release was a spill that has not damaged the integrity of the system, the owner/operator may return the system to service as soon as the released waste is removed and repairs, if necessary, are made.

(3) If the cause of the release was a leak from the primary tank system into the secondary containment system, the system must be repaired prior to returning the tank system to service.

(4) If the source of the release was a leak to the environment from a component of a tank system without secondary containment, the owner/operator must provide the component of the system from which the leak occurred with secondary containment that satisfies the requirements of § 265.193 before it can be returned to service, unless the source of the leak is an aboveground portion of a tank system. If the source is an aboveground component that can be inspected visually, the component must be repaired and may be returned to service without secondary containment as long as the requirements of paragraph (f) of this section are satisfied. If a component is replaced to comply with the requirements of this subparagraph, that component must satisfy the requirements for new tank systems or components in §§ 265.192 and 265.193. Additionally, if a leak has occurred in any portion of a tank system component that is not readily accessible for visual inspection (e.g., the bottom of an inground or onground tank), the entire component must be provided with secondary containment in accordance with § 265.193 prior to being returned to use.

(f) Certification of major repairs. If the owner/operator has repaired a tank system in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section, and the repair has been extensive (e.g., installation of an internal liner; repair of a ruptured primary containment or secondary containment vessel), the tank system must not be returned to service unless the owner/operator has obtained a certification by a qualified Professional Engineer in accordance with § 270.11(d) that the repaired system is capable of handling hazardous wastes without release for the intended life of the system. This certification is to be placed in the operating record and maintained until closure of the facility.

Note:

The Regional Administrator may, on the basis of any information received that there is or has been a release of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents into the environment, issue an order under RCRA section 3004(v), 3008(h), or 7003(a) requiring corrective action or such other response as deemed necessary to protect human health or the environment.

Note:

See § 265.15(c) for the requirements necessary to remedy a failure. Also, 40 CFR Part 302 requires the owner or operator to notify the National Response Center of a release of any “reportable quantity.”

[51 FR 25479, July 14, 1986, as amended at 53 FR 34087, Sept. 2, 1988; 71 FR 16911, Apr. 4, 2006]

§ 265.197 Closure and post-closure care.

(a) At closure of a tank system, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners, etc.), contaminated soils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste, and manage them as hazardous waste, unless § 261.3(d) of this Chapter applies. The closure plan, closure activities, cost estimates for closure, and financial responsibility for tank systems must meet all of the requirements specified in subparts G and H of this part.

(b) If the owner or operator demonstrates that not all contaminated soils can be practicably removed or decontaminated as required in paragraph (a) of this section, then the owner or operator must close the tank system and perform post-closure care in accordance with the closure and post-closure care requirements that apply to landfills (§ 265.310). In addition, for the purposes of closure, post-closure, and financial responsibility, such a tank system is then considered to be a landfill, and the owner or operator must meet all of the requirements for landfills specified in subparts G and H of this part.

(c) If an owner or operator has a tank system which does not have secondary containment that meets the requirements of § 265.193(b) through (f) and which is not exempt from the secondary containment requirements in accordance with § 265.193(g), then,

(1) The closure plan for the tank system must include both a plan for complying with paragraph (a) of this section and a contingent plan for complying with paragraph (b) of this section.

(2) A contingent post-closure plan for complying with paragraph (b) of this section must be prepared and submitted as part of the permit application.

(3) The cost estimates calculated for closure and post-closure care must reflect the costs of complying with the contingent closure plan and the contingent post-closure plan, if these costs are greater than the costs of complying with the closure plan prepared for the expected closure under paragraph (a) of this section.

(4) Financial assurance must be based on the cost estimates in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(5) For the purposes of the contingent closure and post-closure plans, such a tank system is considered to be a landfill, and the contingent plans must meet all of the closure, post-closure, and financial responsibility requirements for landfills under subparts G and H of this part.

[51 FR 25479, July 14, 1986, as amended at 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.198 Special requirements for ignitable or reactive wastes.

(a) Ignitable or reactive waste must not be placed in a tank system, unless:

(1) The waste is treated, rendered, or mixed before or immediately after placement in the tank system so that:

(i) The resulting waste, mixture, or dissolved material no longer meets the definition of ignitable or reactive waste under §§ 261.21 or 261.23 of this chapter; and

(ii) Section 265.17(b) is complied with; or

(2) The waste is stored or treated in such a way that it is protected from any material or conditions that may cause the waste to ignite or react; or

(3) The tank system is used solely for emergencies.

(b) The owner or operator of a facility where ignitable or reactive waste is stored or treated in tanks must comply with the requirements for the maintenance of protective distances between the waste management area and any public ways, streets, alleys, or an adjoining property line that can be built upon as required in Tables 2-1 through 2-6 of the National Fire Protection Association's “Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code,” (1977 or 1981), (incorporated by reference, see § 260.11).

§ 265.199 Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

(a) Incompatible wastes, or incompatible waste and materials, must not be placed in the same tank system, unless § 265.17(b) is complied with.

(b) Hazardous waste must not be placed in a tank system that has not been decontaminated and that previously held an incompatible waste or material, unless § 265.17(b) is complied with.

§ 265.200 Waste analysis and trial tests.

In addition to performing the waste analysis required by § 265.13, the owner or operator must, whenever a tank system is to be used to treat chemically or to store a hazardous waste that is substantially different from waste previously treated or stored in that tank system; or treat chemically a hazardous waste with a substantially different process than any previously used in that tank system:

(a) Conduct waste analyses and trial treatment or storage tests (e.g., bench-scale or pilot-plant scale tests); or

(b) Obtain written, documented information on similar waste under similar operating conditions to show that the proposed treatment or storage will meet the requirements of § 265.194(a).

Note:

Section 265.13 requires the waste analysis plan to include analyses needed to comply with §§ 265.198 and 265.199. Section 265.73 requires the owner or operator to place the results from each waste analysis and trial test, or the documented information, in the operating record of the facility.

§ 265.201 [Reserved]
§ 265.202 Air emission standards.

The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous waste placed in a tank in accordance with the applicable requirements of subparts AA, BB, and CC of this part.

[61 FR 59968, Nov. 25, 1996]

Subpart K - Surface Impoundments
§ 265.220 Applicability.

The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities that use surface impoundments to treat, store, or dispose of hazardous waste, except as § 265.1 provides otherwise.

§ 265.221 Design and operating requirements.

(a) The owner or operator of each new surface impoundment unit, each lateral expansion of a surface impoundment unit, and each replacement of an existing surface impoundment unit must install two or more liners, and a leachate collection and removal system between the liners, and operate the leachate collection and removal system, in accordance with § 264.221(c), unless exempted under § 264.221(d), (e), or (f) of this Chapter.

(b) The owner or operator of each unit referred to in paragraph (a) of this section must notify the Regional Administrator at least sixty days prior to receiving waste. The owner or operator of each facility submitting notice must file a part B application within six months of the receipt of such notice.

(c) The owner or operator of any replacement surface impoundment unit is exempt from paragraph (a) of this section if:

(1) The existing unit was constructed in compliance with the design standards of § 3004(o)(1)(A)(i) and (o)(5) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and

(2) There is no reason to believe that the liner is not functioning as designed.

(d) The double liner requirement set forth in paragraph (a) of this section may be waived by the Regional Administrator for any monofill, if:

(1) The monofill contains only hazardous wastes from foundry furnace emission controls or metal casting molding sand, and such wastes do not contain constituents which would render the wastes hazardous for reasons other than the Toxicity Characteristic in § 261.24 of this chapter, with EPA Hazardous Waste Numbers D004 through D017; and

(2)

(i)

(A) The monofill has at least one liner for which there is no evidence that such liner is leaking. For the purposes of this paragraph the term “liner” means a liner designed, constructed, installed, and operated to prevent hazardous waste from passing into the liner at any time during the active life of the facility, or a liner designed, constructed, installed, and operated to prevent hazardous waste from migrating beyond the liner to adjacent subsurface soil, ground water, or surface water at any time during the active life of the facility. In the case of any surface impoundment which has been exempted from the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section on the basis of a liner designed, constructed, installed, and operated to prevent hazardous waste from passing beyond the liner, at the closure of such impoundment the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, all contaminated liner material, and contaminated soil to the extent practicable. If all contaminated soil is not removed or decontaminated, the owner or operator of such impoundment must comply with appropriate post-closure requirements, including but not limited to ground-water monitoring and corrective action;

(B) The monofill is located more than one-quarter mile from an “underground source of drinking water” (as that term is defined in 40 CFR 270.2); and

(C) The monofill is in compliance with generally applicable ground-water monitoring requirements for facilities with permits under RCRA section 3005(c); or

(ii) The owner or operator demonstrates that the monofill is located, designed and operated so as to assure that there will be no migration of any hazardous constituent into ground water or surface water at any future time.

(e) In the case of any unit in which the liner and leachate collection system has been installed pursuant to the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section and in good faith compliance with paragraph (a) of this section and with guidance documents governing liners and leachate collection systems under paragraph (a) of this section, no liner or leachate collection system which is different from that which was so installed pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section will be required for such unit by the Regional Administrator when issuing the first permit to such facility, except that the Regional Administrator will not be precluded from requiring installation of a new liner when the Regional Administrator has reason to believe that any liner installed pursuant to the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section is leaking.

(f) A surface impoundment must maintain enough freeboard to prevent any overtopping of the dike by overfilling, wave action, or a storm. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, there must be at least 60 centimeters (two feet) of freeboard.

(g) A freeboard level less than 60 centimeters (two feet) may be maintained if the owner or operator obtains certification by a qualified engineer that alternate design features or operating plans will, to the best of his knowledge and opinion, prevent overtopping of the dike. The certification, along with a written identification of alternate design features or operating plans preventing overtopping, must be maintained at the facility.

(h) Surface impoundments that are newly subject to RCRA section 3005(j)(1) due to the promulgation of additional listings or characteristics for the identification of hazardous waste must be in compliance with paragraphs (a), (c) and (d) of this section not later than 48 months after the promulgation of the additional listing or characteristic. This compliance period shall not be cut short as the result of the promulgation of land disposal prohibitions under part 268 of this chapter or the granting of an extension to the effective date of a prohibition pursuant to § 268.5 of this chapter, within this 48-month period.

[50 FR 16048, Apr. 23, 1985. Redesignated at 57 FR 3492, Jan. 29, 1992. 50 FR 28749, July 15, 1985, as amended at 55 FR 11876, Mar. 29, 1990; 57 FR 3492, Jan. 29, 1992; 57 FR 37267, Aug. 18, 1992; 71 FR 16911, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.222 Action leakage rate.

(a) The owner or operator of surface impoundment units subject to § 265.221(a) must submit a proposed action leakage rate to the Regional Administrator when submitting the notice required under § 265.221(b). Within 60 days of receipt of the notification, the Regional Administrator will: Establish an action leakage rate, either as proposed by the owner or operator or modified using the criteria in this section; or extend the review period for up to 30 days. If no action is taken by the Regional Administrator before the original 60 or extended 90 day review periods, the action leakage rate will be approved as proposed by the owner or operator.

(b) The Regional Administrator shall approve an action leakage rate for surface impoundment units subject to § 265.221(a). The action leakage rate is the maximum design flow rate that the leak detection system (LDS) can remove without the fluid head on the bottom liner exceeding 1 foot. The action leakage rate must include an adequate safety margin to allow for uncertainties in the design (e.g., slope, hydraulic conductivity, thickness of drainage material), construction, operation, and location of the LDS, waste and leachate characteristics, likelihood and amounts of other sources of liquids in the LDS, and proposed response actions (e.g., the action leakage rate must consider decreases in the flow capacity of the system over time resulting from siltation and clogging, rib layover and creep of synthetic components of the system, overburden pressures, etc.).

(c) To determine if the action leakage rate has been exceeded, the owner or operator must convert the weekly or monthly flow rate from the monitoring data obtained under § 265.226(b), to an average daily flow rate (gallons per acre per day) for each sump. Unless the Regional Administrator approves a different calculation, the average daily flow rate for each sump must be calculated weekly during the active life and closure period, and if the unit closes in accordance with § 265.228(a)(2), monthly during the post-closure care period when monthly monitoring is required under § 265.226(b).

[57 FR 3492, Jan. 29, 1992]

§ 265.223 Containment system.

All earthen dikes must have a protective cover, such as grass, shale, or rock, to minimize wind and water erosion and to preserve their structural integrity.

§ 265.224 Response actions.

(a) The owner or operator of surface impoundment units subject to § 265.221(a) must develop and keep on site until closure of the facility a response action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate for any sump, the owner or operator must:

(1) Notify the Regional Administrator in writing of the exceedance within 7 days of the determination;

(2) Submit a preliminary written assessment to the Regional Administrator within 14 days of the determination, as to the amount of liquids, likely sources of liquids, possible location, size, and cause of any leaks, and short-term actions taken and planned;

(3) Determine to the extent practicable the location, size, and cause of any leak;

(4) Determine whether waste receipt should cease or be curtailed, whether any waste should be removed from the unit for inspection, repairs, or controls, and whether or not the unit should be closed;

(5) Determine any other short-term and longer-term actions to be taken to mitigate or stop any leaks; and

(6) Within 30 days after the notification that the action leakage rate has been exceeded, submit to the Regional Administrator the results of the analyses specified in paragraphs (b)(3), (4), and (5) of this section, the results of actions taken, and actions planned. Monthly thereafter, as long as the flow rate in the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate, the owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator a report summarizing the results of any remedial actions taken and actions planned.

(c) To make the leak and/or remediation determinations in paragraphs (b)(3), (4), and (5) of this section, the owner or operator must:

(1)

(i) Assess the source of liquids and amounts of liquids by source,

(ii) Conduct a fingerprint, hazardous constituent, or other analyses of the liquids in the leak detection system to identify the source of liquids and possible location of any leaks, and the hazard and mobility of the liquid; and

(iii) Assess the seriousness of any leaks in terms of potential for escaping into the environment; or

(2) Document why such assessments are not needed.

[57 FR 3492, Jan. 29, 1992. Redesignated and amended at 71 FR 16911, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.225 Waste analysis and trial tests.

(a) In addition to the waste analyses required by § 265.13, whenever a surface impoundment is to be used to:

(1) Chemically treat a hazardous waste which is substantially different from waste previously treated in that impoundment; or

(2) Chemically treat hazardous waste with a substantially different process than any previously used in that impoundment; the owner or operator must, before treating the different waste or using the different process:

(i) Conduct waste analyses and trial treatment tests (e.g., bench scale or pilot plant scale tests); or

(ii) Obtain written, documented information on similar treatment of similar waste under similar operating conditions; to show that this treatment will comply with § 265.17(b).

[Comment: As required by § 265.13, the waste analysis plan must include analyses needed to comply with §§ 265.229 and 265.230. As required by § 265.73, the owner or operator must place the results from each waste analysis and trial test, or the documented information, in the operating record of the facility.]

(b) [Reserved]

§ 265.226 Monitoring and inspection.

(a) The owner or operator must inspect:

(1) The freeboard level at least once each operating day to ensure compliance with § 265.222, and

(2) The surface impoundment, including dikes and vegetation surrounding the dike, at least once a week to detect any leaks, deterioration, or failures in the impoundment.

(b)

(1) An owner or operator required to have a leak detection system under § 265.221(a) must record the amount of liquids removed from each leak detection system sump at least once each week during the active life and closure period.

(2) After the final cover is installed, the amount of liquids removed from each leak detection system sump must be recorded at least monthly. If the liquid level in the sump stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive months, the amount of liquids in the sumps must be recorded at least quarterly. If the liquid level in the sump stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive quarters, the amount of liquids in the sumps must be recorded at least semi-annually. If at any time during the post-closure care period the pump operating level is exceeded at units on quarterly or semi-annual recording schedules, the owner or operator must return to monthly recording of amounts of liquids removed from each sump until the liquid level again stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive months.

(3) “Pump operating level” is a liquid level proposed by the owner or operator and approved by the Regional Administrator based on pump activation level, sump dimensions, and level that avoids backup into the drainage layer and minimizes head in the sump. The timing for submission and approval of the proposed “pump operating level” will be in accordance with § 265.222(a).

[Comment: As required by § 265.15(c), the owner or operator must remedy any deterioration or malfunction he finds.]

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 57 FR 3493, Jan. 29, 1992]

§ 265.227 [Reserved]
§ 265.228 Closure and post-closure care.

(a) At closure, the owner or operator must:

(1) Remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste and leachate, and manage them as hazardous waste unless § 261.3(d) of this chapter applies; or

(2) Close the impoundment and provide post-closure care for a landfill under subpart G and § 265.310, including the following:

(i) Eliminate free liquids by removing liquid wastes or solidifying the remaining wastes and waste residues;

(ii) Stabilize remaining wastes to a bearing capacity sufficient to support the final cover; and

(iii) Cover the surface impoundment with a final cover designed and constructed to:

(A) Provide long-term minimization of the migration of liquids through the closed impoundment;

(B) Function with minimum maintenance;

(C) Promote drainage and minimize erosion or abrasion of the cover;

(D) Accommodate settling and subsidence so that the cover's integrity is maintained; and

(E) Have a permeability less than or equal to the permeability of any bottom liner system or natural subsoils present.

(b) In addition to the requirements of subpart G, and § 265.310, during the post-closure care period, the owner or operator of a surface impoundment in which wastes, waste residues, or contaminated materials remain after closure in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (a)(2) of this section must:

(1) Maintain the integrity and effectiveness of the final cover, including making repairs to the cover as necessary to correct the effects of settling, subsidence, erosion, or other events;

(2) Maintain and monitor the leak detection system in accordance with §§ 264.221(c)(2)(iv) and (3) of this chapter and 265.226(b) and comply with all other applicable leak detection system requirements of this part;

(3) Maintain and monitor the ground-water monitoring system and comply with all other applicable requirements of subpart F of this part; and

(4) Prevent run-on and run-off from eroding or otherwise damaging the final cover.

[52 FR 8708, Mar. 19, 1987, as amended at 57 FR 3493, Jan. 29, 1992; 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.229 Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

Ignitable or reactive waste must not be placed in a surface impoundment, unless the waste and impoundment satisfy all applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 268, and:

(a) The waste is treated, rendered, or mixed before or immediately after placement in the impoundment so that:

(1) The resulting waste, mixture, or dissolution of material no longer meets the definition of ignitable or reactive waste under § 261.21 or § 261.23 of this chapter; and

(2) Section 265.17(b) is complied with; or

(b)

(1) The waste is managed in such a way that it is protected from any material or conditions which may cause it to ignite or react; and

(2) The owner or operator obtains a certification from a qualified chemist or engineer that, to the best of his knowledge and opinion, the design features or operating plans of the facility will prevent ignition or reaction; and

(3) The certification and the basis for it are maintained at the facility; or

(c) The surface impoundment is used solely for emergencies.

[50 FR 16048, Apr. 23, 1985, as amended at 55 FR 22685, June 1, 1990; 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.230 Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

Incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials, (see appendix V for examples) must not be placed in the same surface impoundment, unless § 265.17(b) is complied with.

§ 265.231 Air emission standards.

The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous waste placed in a surface impoundment in accordance with the applicable requirements of subparts BB and CC of this part.

[61 FR 59968, Nov. 25, 1996]

Subpart L - Waste Piles
§ 265.250 Applicability.

The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities that treat or store hazardous waste in piles, except as § 265.1 provides otherwise. Alternatively, a pile of hazardous waste may be managed as a landfill under subpart N.

§ 265.251 Protection from wind.

The owner or operator of a pile containing hazardous waste which could be subject to dispersal by wind must cover or otherwise manage the pile so that wind dispersal is controlled.

§ 265.252 Waste analysis.

In addition to the waste analyses required by § 265.13, the owner or operator must analyze a representative sample of waste from each incoming movement before adding the waste to any existing pile, unless (1) The only wastes the facility receives which are amenable to piling are compatible with each other, or (2) the waste received is compatible with the waste in the pile to which it is to be added. The analysis conducted must be capable of differentiating between the types of hazardous waste the owner or operator places in piles, so that mixing of incompatible waste does not inadvertently occur. The analysis must include a visual comparison of color and texture.

[Comment: As required by § 265.13, the waste analysis plan must include analyses needed to comply with §§ 265.256 and 265.257. As required by § 265.73, the owner or operator must place the results of this analysis in the operating record of the facility.]

(b) [Reserved]

§ 265.253 Containment.

If leachate or run-off from a pile is a hazardous waste, then either:

(a)

(1) The pile must be placed on an impermeable base that is compatible with the waste under the conditions of treatment or storage;

(2) The owner or operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain a run-on control system capable of preventing flow onto the active portion of the pile during peak discharge from at least a 25-year storm;

(3) The owner or operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain a run-off management system to collect and control at least the water volume resulting from a 24-hour, 25-year storm; and

(4) Collection and holding facilities (e.g., tanks or basins) associated with run-on and run-off control systems must be emptied or otherwise managed expeditiously to maintain design capacity of the system; or

(b)

(1) The pile must be protected from precipitation and run-on by some other means; and

(2) No liquids or wastes containing free liquids may be placed in the pile.

[Comment: If collected leachate or run-off is discharged through a point source to waters of the United States, it is subject to the requirements of section 402 of the Clean Water Act, as amended.]

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 47 FR 32367, July 26, 1982]

§ 265.254 Design and operating requirements.

The owner or operator of each new waste pile on which construction commences after January 29, 1992, each lateral expansion of a waste pile unit on which construction commences after July 29, 1992, and each such replacement of an existing waste pile unit that is to commence reuse after July 29, 1992 must install two or more liners and a leachate collection and removal system above and between such liners, and operate the leachate collection and removal systems, in accordance with § 264.251(c), unless exempted under § 264.251(d), (e), or (f), of this chapter; and must comply with the procedures of § 265.221(b). “Construction commences” is as defined in § 260.10 of this chapter under “existing facility”.

[57 FR 3493, Jan. 29, 1992]

§ 265.255 Action leakage rates.

(a) The owner or operator of waste pile units subject to § 265.254 must submit a proposed action leakage rate to the Regional Administrator when submitting the notice required under § 265.254. Within 60 days of receipt of the notification, the Regional Administrator will: Establish an action leakage rate, either as proposed by the owner or operator or modified using the criteria in this section; or extend the review period for up to 30 days. If no action is taken by the Regional Administrator before the original 60 or extended 90 day review periods, the action leakage rate will be approved as proposed by the owner or operator.

(b) The Regional Administrator shall approve an action leakage rate for waste pile units subject to § 265.254. The action leakage rate is the maximum design flow rate that the leak detection system (LDS) can remove without the fluid head on the bottom liner exceeding 1 foot. The action leakage rate must include an adequate safety margin to allow for uncertainties in the design (e.g., slope, hydraulic conductivity, thickness of drainage material), construction, operation, and location of the LDS, waste and leachate characteristics, likelihood and amounts of other sources of liquids in the LDS, and proposed response actions (e.g., the action leakage rate must consider decreases in the flow capacity of the system over time resulting from siltation and clogging, rib layover and creep of synthetic components of the system, overburden pressures, etc.).

(c) To determine if the action leakage rate has been exceeded, the owner or operator must convert the weekly flow rate from the monitoring data obtained under § 265.260, to an average daily flow rate (gallons per acre per day) for each sump. Unless the Regional Administrator approves a different calculation, the average daily flow rate for each sump must be calculated weekly during the active life and closure period.

[57 FR 3493, Jan. 29, 1992, as amended at 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.256 Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

(a) Ignitable or reactive waste must not be placed in a pile unless the waste and pile satisfy all applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 268, and:

(1) Addition of the waste to an existing pile

(i) results in the waste or mixture no longer meeting the definition of ignitable or reactive waste under § 261.21 or § 261.23 of this chapter, and

(ii) complies with § 265.17(b); or

(2) The waste is managed in such a way that it is protected from any material or conditions which may cause it to ignite or react.

(b) [Reserved]

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 55 FR 22685, June 1, 1990]

§ 265.257 Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

(a) Incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials, (see appendix V for examples) must not be placed in the same pile, unless § 265.17(b) is complied with.

(b) A pile of hazardous waste that is incompatible with any waste or other material stored nearby in other containers, piles, open tanks, or surface impoundments must be separated from the other materials, or protected from them by means of a dike, berm, wall, or other device.

[Comment: The purpose of this is to prevent fires, explosions, gaseous emissions, leaching, or other discharge of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents which could result from the contact or mixing of incompatible wastes or materials.]

(c) Hazardous waste must not be piled on the same area where incompatible wastes or materials were previously piled, unless that area has been decontaminated sufficiently to ensure compliance with § 265.17(b).

§ 265.258 Closure and post-closure care.

(a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste and leachate, and manage them as hazardous waste unless § 261.3(d) of this chapter applies; or

(b) If, after removing or decontaminating all residues and making all reasonable efforts to effect removal or decontamination of contaminated components, subsoils, structures, and equipment as required in paragraph (a) of this section, the owner or operator finds that not all contaminated subsoils can be practicably removed or decontaminated, he must close the facility and perform post-closure care in accordance with the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (§ 265.310).

[47 FR 32368, July 26, 1982]

§ 265.259 Response actions.

(a) The owner or operator of waste pile units subject to § 265.254 must develop and keep on-site until closure of the facility a response action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) If the flow rate into the leak determination system exceeds the action leakage rate for any sump, the owner or operator must:

(1) Notify the Regional Administrator in writing of the exceedance within 7 days of the determination;

(2) Submit a preliminary written assessment to the Regional Administrator within 14 days of the determination, as to the amount of liquids, likely sources of liquids, possible location, size, and cause of any leaks, and short-term actions taken and planned;

(3) Determine to the extent practicable the location, size, and cause of any leak;

(4) Determine whether waste receipts should cease or be curtailed, whether any waste should be removed from the unit for inspection, repairs, or controls, and whether or not the unit should be closed;

(5) Determine any other short-term and longer-term actions to be taken to mitigate or stop any leaks; and

(6) Within 30 days after the notification that the action leakage rate has been exceeded, submit to the Regional Administrator the results of the analyses specified in paragraphs (b)(3), (4), and (5) of this section, the results of actions taken, and actions planned. Monthly thereafter, as long as the flow rate in the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate, the owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator a report summarizing the results of any remedial actions taken and actions planned.

(c) To make the leak and/or remediation determinations in paragraphs (b)(3), (4), and (5) of this section, the owner or operator must:

(1)

(i) Assess the source of liquids and amounts of liquids by source,

(ii) Conduct a fingerprint, hazardous constituent, or other analyses of the liquids in the leak detection system to identify the source of liquids and possible location of any leaks, and the hazard and mobility of the liquid; and

(iii) Assess the seriousness of any leaks in terms of potential for escaping into the environment; or

(2) Document why such assessments are not needed.

[57 FR 3494, Jan. 29, 1992, as amended at 71 FR 16911, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.260 Monitoring and inspection.

An owner or operator required to have a leak detection system under § 265.254 must record the amount of liquids removed from each leak detection system sump at least once each week during the active life and closure period.

[57 FR 3494, Jan. 29, 1992]

Subpart M - Land Treatment
§ 265.270 Applicability.

The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of hazardous waste land treatment facilities, except as § 265.1 provides otherwise.

§ 265.271 [Reserved]
§ 265.272 General operating requirements.

(a) Hazardous waste must not be placed in or on a land treatment facility unless the waste can be made less hazardous or nonhazardous by degradation, transformation, or immobilization processes occurring in or on the soil.

(b) The owner or operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain a run-on control system capable of preventing flow onto the active portions of the facility during peak discharge from at least a 25-year storm.

(c) The owner or operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain a run-off management system capable of collecting and controlling a water volume at least equivalent to a 24-hour, 25-year storm.

(d) Collection and holding facilities (e.g., tanks or basins) associated with run-on and run-off control systems must be emptied or otherwise managed expeditiously after storms to maintain design capacity of the system.

(e) If the treatment zone contains particulate matter which may be subject to wind dispersal, the owner or operator must manage the unit to control wind dispersal.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 47 FR 32368, July 26, 1982; 50 FR 16048, Apr. 23, 1985]

§ 265.273 Waste analysis.

In addition to the waste analyses required by § 265.13, before placing a hazardous waste in or on a land treatment facility, the owner or operator must:

(a) Determine the concentrations in the waste of any substances which equal or exceed the maximum concentrations contained in Table 1 of § 261.24 of this chapter that cause a waste to exhibit the Toxicity Characteristic;

(b) For any waste listed in part 261, subpart D, of this chapter, determine the concentrations of any substances which caused the waste to be listed as a hazardous waste; and

(c) If food chain crops are grown, determine the concentrations in the waste of each of the following constituents: arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury, unless the owner or operator has written, documented data that show that the constituent is not present.

[Comment: Part 261 of this chapter specifies the substances for which a waste is listed as a hazardous waste. As required by § 265.13, the waste analysis plan must include analyses needed to comply with §§ 265.281 and 265.282. As required by § 265.73, the owner or operator must place the results from each waste analysis, or the documented information, in the operating record of the facility.]

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 55 FR 11876, Mar. 29, 1990]

§§ 265.274-265.275 [Reserved]
§ 265.276 Food chain crops.

(a) An owner or operator of a hazardous waste land treatment facility on which food chain crops are being grown, or have been grown and will be grown in the future, must notify the Regional Administrator within 60 days after the effective date of this part.

[Comment: The growth of food chain crops at a facility which has never before been used for this purpose is a significant change in process under § 122.72(c) of this chapter. Owners or operators of such land treatment facilities who propose to grow food chain crops after the effective date of this part must comply with § 122.72(c) of this chapter.]

(b)

(1) Food chain crops must not be grown on the treated area of a hazardous waste land treatment facility unless the owner or operator can demonstrate, based on field testing, that any arsenic, lead, mercury, or other constituents identified under § 265.273(b):

(i) Will not be transferred to the food portion of the crop by plant uptake or direct contact, and will not otherwise be ingested by food chain animals (e.g., by grazing); or

(ii) Will not occur in greater concentrations in the crops grown on the land treatment facility than in the same crops grown on untreated soils under similar conditions in the same region.

(2) The information necessary to make the demonstration required by paragraph (b)(1) of this section must be kept at the facility and must, at a minimum:

(i) Be based on tests for the specific waste and application rates being used at the facility; and

(ii) Include descriptions of crop and soil characteristics, sample selection criteria, sample size determination, analytical methods, and statistical procedures.

(c) Food chain crops must not be grown on a land treatment facility receiving waste that contains cadmium unless all requirements of paragraphs (c)(1) (i) through (iii) of this section or all requirements of paragraphs (c)(2) (i) through (iv) of this section are met.

(1)

(i) The pH of the waste and soil mixture is 6.5 or greater at the time of each waste application, except for waste containing cadmium at concentrations of 2 mg/kg (dry weight) or less;

(ii) The annual application of cadmium from waste does not exceed 0.5 kilograms per hectare (kg/ha) on land used for production of tobacco, leafy vegetables, or root crops grown for human consumption. For other food chain crops, the annual cadmium application rate does not exceed:

Time period Annual Cd application rate (kg/ha)
Present to June 30, 1984 2.0
July 1, 1984 to December 31, 1986 1.25
Beginning January 1, 1987 0.5

(iii) The cumulative application of cadmium from waste does not exceed the levels in either paragraph (c)(1)(iii)(A) or (B) of this section.

(A)

Soil caption exchange capacity (meq/100g) Maximum cumulative application (kg/ha)
Background soil pH less than 6.5 Background soil pH greater than 6.5
Less than 5 5 5
5 to 15 5 10
Greater than 15 5 20

(B) For soils with a background pH of less than 6.5, the cumulative cadmium application rate does not exceed the levels below: Provided, that the pH of the waste and soil mixture is adjusted to and maintained at 6.5 or greater whenever food chain crops are grown.

Soil caption exchange capacity (meq/100g) Maximum cumulative application (kg/ha)
Less than 5 5
5 to 15 10
Greater than 15 20

(2)

(i) The only food chain crop produced is animal feed.

(ii) The pH of the waste and soil mixture is 6.5 or greater at the time of waste application or at the time the crop is planted, whichever occurs later, and this pH level is maintained whenever food chain crops are grown.

(iii) There is a facility operating plan which demonstrates how the animal feed will be distributed to preclude ingestion by humans. The facility operating plan describes the measures to be taken to safeguard against possible health hazards from cadmium entering the food chain, which may result from alternative land uses.

(iv) Future property owners are notified by a stipulation in the land record or property deed which states that the property has received waste at high cadmium application rates and that food chain crops must not be grown except in compliance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

[Comment: As required by § 265.73, if an owner or operator grows food chain crops on his land treatment facility, he must place the information developed in this section in the operating record of the facility.]

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 47 FR 32368, July 26, 1982; 48 FR 14295, Apr. 1, 1983]

§ 265.277 [Reserved]
§ 265.278 Unsaturated zone (zone of aeration) monitoring.

(a) The owner or operator must have in writing, and must implement, an unsaturated zone monitoring plan which is designed to:

(1) Detect the vertical migration of hazardous waste and hazardous waste constituents under the active portion of the land treatment facility, and

(2) Provide information on the background concentrations of the hazardous waste and hazardous waste constituents in similar but untreated soils nearby; this background monitoring must be conducted before or in conjunction with the monitoring required under paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(b) The unsaturated zone monitoring plan must include, at a minimum:

(1) Soil monitoring using soil cores, and

(2) Soil-pore water monitoring using devices such as lysimeters.

(c) To comply with paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the owner or operator must demonstrate in his unsaturated zone monitoring plan that:

(1) The depth at which soil and soil-pore water samples are to be taken is below the depth to which the waste is incorporated into the soil;

(2) The number of soil and soil-pore water samples to be taken is based on the variability of:

(i) The hazardous waste constituents (as identified in § 265.273(a) and (b)) in the waste and in the soil; and

(ii) The soil type(s); and

(3) The frequency and timing of soil and soil-pore water sampling is based on the frequency, time, and rate of waste application, proximity to ground water, and soil permeability.

(d) The owner or operator must keep at the facility his unsaturated zone monitoring plan, and the rationale used in developing this plan.

(e) The owner or operator must analyze the soil and soil-pore water samples for the hazardous waste constituents that were found in the waste during the waste analysis under § 265.273 (a) and (b).

[Comment: As required by § 265.73, all data and information developed by the owner or operator under this section must be placed in the operating record of the facility.]

§ 265.279 Recordkeeping.

The owner or operator must include hazardous waste application dates and rates in the operating record required under § 265.73.

[47 FR 32368, July 26, 1982]

§ 265.280 Closure and post-closure.

(a) In the closure plan under § 265.112 and the post-closure plan under § 265.118, the owner or operator must address the following objectives and indicate how they will be achieved:

(1) Control of the migration of hazardous waste and hazardous waste constituents from the treated area into the ground water;

(2) Control of the release of contaminated run-off from the facility into surface water;

(3) Control of the release of airborne particulate contaminants caused by wind erosion; and

(4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain crops.

(b) The owner or operator must consider at least the following factors in addressing the closure and post-closure care objectives of paragraph (a) of this section:

(1) Type and amount of hazardous waste and hazardous waste constituents applied to the land treatment facility;

(2) The mobility and the expected rate of migration of the hazardous waste and hazardous waste constituents;

(3) Site location, topography, and surrounding land use, with respect to the potential effects of pollutant migration (e.g., proximity to ground water, surface water and drinking water sources);

(4) Climate, including amount, frequency, and pH of precipitation;

(5) Geological and soil profiles and surface and subsurface hydrology of the site, and soil characteristics, including cation exchange capacity, total organic carbon, and pH;

(6) Unsaturated zone monitoring information obtained under § 265.278; and

(7) Type, concentration, and depth of migration of hazardous waste constituents in the soil as compared to their background concentrations.

(c) The owner or operator must consider at least the following methods in addressing the closure and post-closure care objectives of paragraph (a) of this section:

(1) Removal of contaminated soils;

(2) Placement of a final cover, considering:

(i) Functions of the cover (e.g., infiltration control, erosion and run-off control, and wind erosion control); and

(ii) Characteristics of the cover, including material, final surface contours, thickness, porosity and permeability, slope, length of run of slope, and type of vegetation on the cover; and

(3) Monitoring of ground water.

(d) In addition to the requirements of subpart G of this part, during the closure period the owner or operator of a land treatment facility must:

(1) Continue unsaturated zone monitoring in a manner and frequency specified in the closure plan, except that soil pore liquid monitoring may be terminated 90 days after the last application of waste to the treatment zone;

(2) Maintain the run-on control system required under § 265.272(b);

(3) Maintain the run-off management system required under § 265.272(c); and

(4) Control wind dispersal of particulate matter which may be subject to wind dispersal.

(e) For the purpose of complying with § 265.115, when closure is completed the owner or operator may submit to the Regional Administrator certification both by the owner or operator and by an independent, qualified soil scientist, in lieu of a qualified Professional Engineer, that the facility has been closed in accordance with the specifications in the approved closure plan.

(f) In addition to the requirements of § 265.117, during the post-closure care period the owner or operator of a land treatment unit must:

(1) Continue soil-core monitoring by collecting and analyzing samples in a manner and frequency specified in the post-closure plan;

(2) Restrict access to the unit as appropriate for its post-closure use;

(3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies with § 265.276; and

(4) Control wind dispersal of hazardous waste.

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 47 FR 32368, July 26, 1982; 71 FR 16911, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.281 Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

The owner or operator must not apply ignitable or reactive waste to the treatment zone unless the waste and treatment zone meet all applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 268, and:

(a) The waste is immediately incorporated into the soil so that:

(1) The resulting waste, mixture, or dissolution of material no longer meets the definition of ignitable or reactive waste under § 261.21 or § 261.23 of this chapter; and

(2) Section 264.17(b) is complied with; or

(b) The waste is managed in such a way that it is protected from any material or conditions which may cause it to ignite or react.

[47 FR 32368, July 26, 1982, as amended at 55 FR 22686, June 1, 1990; 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.282 Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

Incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials (see appendix V for examples), must not be placed in the same land treatment area, unless § 265.17(b) is complied with.

Subpart N - Landfills
§ 265.300 Applicability.

The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities that dispose of hazardous waste in landfills, except as § 265.1 provides otherwise. A waste pile used as a disposal facility is a landfill and is governed by this subpart.

§ 265.301 Design and operating requirements.

(a) The owner or operator of each new landfill unit, each lateral expansion of a landfill unit, and each replacement of an existing landfill unit must install two or more liners and a leachate collection and removal system above and between such liners, and operate the leachate collection and removal system, in accordance with § 264.301(c), unless exempted under § 264.301(d), (e), or (f) of this chapter.

(b) The owner or operator of each unit referred to in paragraph (a) of this section must notify the Regional Administrator at least sixty days prior to receiving waste. The owner or operator of each facility submitting notice must file a part B application within six months of the receipt of such notice.

(c) The owner or operator of any replacement landfill unit is exempt from paragraph (a) of this section if:

(1) The existing unit was constructed in compliance with the design standards of section 3004(o)(1)(A)(i) and (o)(5) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and

(2) There is no reason to believe that the liner is not functioning as designed.

(d) The double liner requirement set forth in paragraph (a) of this section may be waived by the Regional Administrator for any monofill, if:

(1) The monofill contains only hazardous wastes from foundry furnace emission controls or metal casting molding sand, and such wastes do not contain constituents which would render the wastes hazardous for reasons other than the Toxicity Characteristic in § 261.24 of this chapter, with EPA Hazardous Waste Numbers D004 through D017; and

(2)

(i)

(A) The monofill has at least one liner for which there is no evidence that such liner is leaking;

(B) The monofill is located more than one-quarter mile from an “underground source of drinking water” (as that term is defined in 40 CFR 270.2); and

(C) The monofill is in compliance with generally applicable ground-water monitoring requirements for facilities with permits under RCRA section 3005(c); or

(ii) The owner or operator demonstrates that the monofill is located, designed and operated so as to assure that there will be no migration of any hazardous constituent into ground water or surface water at any future time.

(e) In the case of any unit in which the liner and leachate collection system has been installed pursuant to the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section and in good faith compliance with paragraph (a) of this section and with guidance documents governing liners and leachate collection systems under paragraph (a) of this section, no liner or leachate collection system which is different from that which was so installed pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section will be required for such unit by the Regional Administrator when issuing the first permit to such facility, except that the Regional Administrator will not be precluded from requiring installation of a new liner when the Regional Administrator has reason to believe that any liner installed pursuant to the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section is leaking.

(f) The owner or operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain a run-on control system capable of preventing flow onto the active portion of the landfill during peak discharge from at least a 25-year storm.

(g) The owner or operator must design, construct, operate and maintain a run-off management system to collect and control at least the water volume resulting from a 24-hour, 25-year storm.

(h) Collection and holding facilities (e.g., tanks or basins) associated with run-on and run-off control systems must be emptied or otherwise managed expeditiously after storms to maintain design capacity of the system.

(i) The owner or operator of a landfill containing hazardous waste which is subject to dispersal by wind must cover or otherwise manage the landfill so that wind dispersal of the hazardous waste is controlled.

[Comment: As required by § 265.13, the waste analysis plan must include analyses needed to comply with §§ 265.312, 265.313, and 265.314. As required by § 265.73, the owner or operator must place the results of these analyses in the operating record of the facility.]

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 47 FR 32368, July 26, 1982; 50 FR 18374, Apr. 30, 1985. Redesignated from § 265.302 at 57 FR 3494, Jan. 29, 1992; 50 FR 28750, July 15, 1985, as amended at 57 FR 3494, Jan. 29, 1992; 57 FR 30658, July 10, 1992; 71 FR 16911, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40275, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.302 Action leakage rate.

(a) The owner or operator of landfill units subject to § 265.301(a) must submit a proposed action leakage rate to the Regional Administrator when submitting the notice required under § 265.301(b). Within 60 days of receipt of the notification, the Regional Administrator will: Establish an action leakage rate, either as proposed by the owner or operator or modified using the criteria in this section; or extend the review period for up to 30 days. If no action is taken by the Regional Administrator before the original 60 or extended 90 day review periods, the action leakage rate will be approved as proposed by the owner or operator.

(b) The Regional Administrator shall approve an action leakage rate for land fill units subject to § 265.301(a). The action leakage rate is the maximum design flow rate that the leak detection system (LDS) can remove without the fluid head on the bottom liner exceeding 1 foot. The action leakage rate must include an adequate safety margin to allow for uncertainties in the design (e.g., slope, hydraulic conductivity, thickness of drainage material), construction, operation, and location of the LDS, waste and leachate characteristics, likelihood and amounts of other sources of liquids in the LDS, and proposed response actions (e.g., the action leakage rate must consider decreases in the flow capacity of the system over time resulting from siltation and clogging, rib layover and creep of synthetic components of the system, overburden pressures, etc.).

(c) To determine if the action leakage rate has been exceeded, the owner or operator must convert the weekly or monthly flow rate from the monitoring data obtained under § 265.304 to an average daily flow rate (gallons per acre per day) for each sump. Unless the Regional Administrator approves a different calculation, the average daily flow rate for each sump must be calculated weekly during the active life and closure period, and monthly during the post-closure care period when monthly monitoring is required under § 265.304(b).

[57 FR 3494, Jan. 29, 1992, as amended at 71 FR 40276, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.303 Response actions.

(a) The owner or operator of landfill units subject to § 265.301(a) must develop and keep on site until closure of the facility a response action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate for any sump, the owner or operator must:

(1) Notify the Regional Administrator in writing of the exceedance within 7 days of the determination;

(2) Submit a preliminary written assessment to the Regional Administrator within 14 days of the determination, as to the amount of liquids, likely sources of liquids, possible location, size, and cause of any leaks, and short-term actions taken and planned;

(3) Determine to the extent practicable the location, size, and cause of any leak;

(4) Determine whether waste receipt should cease or be curtailed, whether any waste should be removed from the unit for inspection, repairs, or controls, and whether or not the unit should be closed;

(5) Determine any other short-term and longer-term actions to be taken to mitigate or stop any leaks; and

(6) Within 30 days after the notification that the action leakage rate has been exceeded, submit to the Regional Administrator the results of the analyses specified in paragraphs (b)(3), (4), and (5) of this section, the results of actions taken, and actions planned. Monthly thereafter, as long as the flow rate in the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate, the owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator a report summarizing the results of any remedial actions taken and actions planned.

(c) To make the leak and/or remediation determinations in paragraphs (b)(3), (4), and (5) of this section, the owner or operator must:

(1)

(i) Assess the source of liquids and amounts of liquids by source,

(ii) Conduct a fingerprint, hazardous constituent, or other analyses of the liquids in the leak detection system to identify the source of liquids and possible location of any leaks, and the hazard and mobility of the liquid; and

(iii) Assess the seriousness of any leaks in terms of potential for escaping into the environment; or

(2) Document why such assessments are not needed.

[57 FR 3494, Jan. 29, 1992, as amended at 71 FR 16912, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40276, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.304 Monitoring and inspection.

(a) An owner or operator required to have a leak detection system under § 265.301(a) must record the amount of liquids removed from each leak detection system sump at least once each week during the active life and closure period.

(b) After the final cover is installed, the amount of liquids removed from each leak detection system sump must be recorded at least monthly. If the liquid level in the sump stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive months, the amount of liquids in the sumps must be recorded at least quarterly. If the liquid level in the sump stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive quarters, the amount of liquids in the sumps must be recorded at least semi-annually. If at any time during the post-closure care period the pump operating level is exceeded at units on quarterly or semi-annual recording schedules, the owner or operator must return to monthly recording of amounts of liquids removed from each sump until the liquid level again stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive months.

(c) “Pump operating level” is a liquid level proposed by the owner or operator and approved by the Regional Administrator based on pump activation level, sump dimensions, and level that avoids backup into the drainage layer and minimizes head in the sump. The timing for submission and approval of the proposed “pump operating level” will be in accordance with § 265.302(a).

[57 FR 3495, Jan. 29, 1992]

§§ 265.305-265.308 [Reserved]
§ 265.309 Surveying and recordkeeping.

The owner or operator of a landfill must maintain the following items in the operating record required in § 265.73:

(a) On a map, the exact location and dimensions, including depth, of each cell with respect to permanently surveyed benchmarks; and

(b) The contents of each cell and the approximate location of each hazardous waste type within each cell.

§ 265.310 Closure and post-closure care.

(a) At final closure of the landfill or upon closure of any cell, the owner or operator must cover the landfill or cell with a final cover designed and constructed to:

(1) Provide long-term minimization of migration of liquids through the closed landfill;

(2) Function with minimum maintenance;

(3) Promote drainage and minimize erosion or abrasion of the cover;

(4) Accommodate settling and subsidence so that the cover's integrity is maintained; and

(5) Have a permeability less than or equal to the permeability of any bottom liner system or natural subsoils present.

(b) After final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure requirements contained in §§ 265.117 through 265.120 including maintenance and monitoring throughout the post-closure care period. The owner or operator must:

(1) Maintain the integrity and effectiveness of the final cover, including making repairs to the cover as necessary to correct the effects of settling, subsidence, erosion, or other events;

(2) Maintain and monitor the leak detection system in accordance with §§ 264.301(c)(3)(iv) and (4) of this chapter and 265.304(b), and comply with all other applicable leak detection system requirements of this part;

(3) Maintain and monitor the ground-water monitoring system and comply with all other applicable requirements of subpart F of this part;

(4) Prevent run-on and run-off from eroding or otherwise damaging the final cover; and

(5) Protect and maintain surveyed benchmarks used in complying with § 265.309.

[50 FR 16048, Apr. 23, 1985, as amended at 57 FR 3495, Jan. 29, 1992]

§ 265.311 [Reserved]
§ 265.312 Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, and in § 265.316, ignitable or reactive waste must not be placed in a landfill, unless the waste and landfill meets all applicable requirements of 40 CFR part 268, and:

(1) The resulting waste, mixture, or dissolution of material no longer meets the definition of ignitable or reactive waste under § 261.21 or § 261.23 of this chapter; and

(2) Section 265.17(b) is complied with.

(b) Except for prohibited wastes which remain subject to treatment standards in subpart D of part 268, ignitable wastes in containers may be landfilled without meeting the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, provided that the wastes are disposed of in such a way that they are protected from any material or conditions which may cause them to ignite. At a minimum, ignitable wastes must be disposed of in non-leaking containers which are carefully handled and placed so as to avoid heat, sparks, rupture, or any other condition that might cause ignition of the wastes; must be covered daily with soil or other non-combustible material to minimize the potential for ignition of the wastes; and must not be disposed of in cells that contain or will contain other wastes which may generate heat sufficient to cause ignition of the waste.

[47 FR 32368, July 26, 1982, as amended at 55 FR 22686, June 1, 1990; 71 FR 40276, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.313 Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

Incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials, (see appendix V for examples) must not be placed in the same landfill cell, unless § 265.17(b) is complied with.

§ 265.314 Special requirements for bulk and containerized liquids.

(a) The placement of bulk or non-containerized liquid hazardous waste or hazardous waste containing free liquids (whether or not sorbents have been added) in any landfill is prohibited.

(b) Containers holding free liquids must not be placed in a landfill unless:

(1) All free-standing liquid,

(i) has been removed by decanting, or other methods,

(ii) has been mixed with sorbent or solidified so that free-standing liquid is no longer observed; or

(iii) had been otherwise eliminated; or

(2) The container is very small, such as an ampule; or

(3) The container is designed to hold free liquids for use other than storage, such as a battery or capacitor; or

(4) The container is a lab pack as defined in § 265.316 and is disposed of in accordance with § 265.316.

(c) To demonstrate the absence or presence of free liquids in either a containerized or a bulk waste, the following test must be used: Method 9095B (Paint Filter Liquids Test) as described in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication SW-846, as incorporated by reference in § 260.11 of this chapter.

(d) The date for compliance with paragraph (a) of this section is November 19, 1981. The date for compliance with paragraph (c) of this section is March 22, 1982.

(e) Sorbents used to treat free liquids to be disposed of in landfills must be nonbiodegradable. Nonbiodegradable sorbents are: materials listed or described in paragraph (e)(1) of this section; materials that pass one of the tests in paragraph (e)(2) of this section; or materials that are determined by EPA to be nonbiodegradable through the Part 260 petition process.

(1) Nonbiodegradable sorbents.

(i) Inorganic minerals, other inorganic materials, and elemental carbon (e.g., aluminosilicates, clays, smectites, Fuller's earth, bentonite, calcium bentonite, montmorillonite, calcined montmorillonite, kaolinite, micas (illite), vermiculites, zeolites; calcium carbonate (organic free limestone); oxides/hydroxides, alumina, lime, silica (sand), diatomaceous earth; perlite (volcanic glass); expanded volcanic rock; volcanic ash; cement kiln dust; fly ash; rice hull ash; activated charcoal/activated carbon); or

(ii) High molecular weight synthetic polymers (e.g., polyethylene, high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene, polystyrene, polyurethane, polyacrylate, polynorborene, polyisobutylene, ground synthetic rubber, cross-linked allylstyrene and tertiary butyl copolymers). This does not include polymers derived from biological material or polymers specifically designed to be degradable; or

(iii) Mixtures of these nonbiodegradable materials.

(2) Tests for nonbiodegradable sorbents.

(i) The sorbent material is determined to be nonbiodegradable under ASTM Method G21-70 (1984a) - Standard Practice for Determining Resistance of Synthetic Polymer Materials to Fungi; or

(ii) The sorbent material is determined to be nonbiodegradable under ASTM Method G22-76 (1984b) - Standard Practice for Determining Resistance of Plastics to Bacteria; or

(iii) The sorbent material is determined to be non-biodegradable under OECD test 301B: [CO2 Evolution (Modified Sturm Test)].

(f) The placement of any liquid which is not a hazardous waste in a landfill is prohibited unless the owner or operator of such landfill demonstrates to the Regional Administrator or the Regional Administrator determines that:

(1) The only reasonably available alternative to the placement in such landfill is placement in a landfill or unlined surface impoundment, whether or not permitted or operating under interim status, which contains, or may reasonably be anticipated to contain, hazardous waste; and

(2) Placement in such owner or operator's landfill will not present a risk of contamination of any “underground source of drinking water” (as that term is defined in 40 CFR 270.2).

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 47 FR 12318, Mar. 22, 1982; 47 FR 32369, July 26, 1982; 50 FR 18374, Apr. 30, 1985; 50 FR 28750, July 15, 1985; 51 FR 19177, May 28, 1986; 57 FR 54461, Nov. 18, 1992; 58 FR 46050, Aug. 31, 1993; 60 FR 35705, July 11, 1995; 70 FR 34585, June 14, 2005; 71 FR 16912, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40276, July 14, 2006; 75 FR 13006, Mar. 18, 2010]

§ 265.315 Special requirements for containers.

Unless they are very small, such as an ampule, containers must be either:

(a) At least 90 percent full when placed in the landfill; or

(b) Crushed, shredded, or similarly reduced in volume to the maximum practical extent before burial in the landfill.

[50 FR 16048, Apr. 23, 1985]

§ 265.316 Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:

(a) Hazardous waste must be packaged in non-leaking inside containers. The inside containers must be of a design and constructed of a material that will not react dangerously with, be decomposed by, or be ignited by the waste held therein. Inside containers must be tightly and securely sealed. The inside containers must be of the size and type specified in the Department of Transportation (DOT) hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR parts 173, 178 and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the waste.

(b) The inside containers must be overpacked in an open head DOT-specification metal shipping container (49 CFR parts 178 and 179) of no more than 416-liter (110 gallon) capacity and surrounded by, at a minimum, a sufficient quantity of sorbent material, determined to be nonbiodegradable in accordance with § 265.314(e), to completely sorb all of the liquid contents of the inside containers. The metal outer container must be full after it has been packed with inside containers and sorbent material.

(c) The sorbent material used must not be capable of reacting dangerously with, being decomposed by, or being ignited by the contents of the inside containers in accordance with § 265.17(b).

(d) Incompatible wastes, as defined in § 260.10 of this chapter, must not be placed in the same outside container.

(e) Reactive waste, other than cyanide- or sulfide-bearing waste as defined in § 261.23(a)(5) of this chapter, must be treated or rendered non-reactive prior to packaging in accordance with paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section. Cyanide- and sulfide-bearing reactive waste may be packaged in accordance with paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section without first being treated or rendered non-reactive.

(f) Such disposal is in compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR part 268. Persons who incinerate lab packs according to the requirements in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must meet the DOT specifications in 49 CFR 173.12 and be overpacked according to the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section.

[46 FR 56596, Nov. 17, 1981, as amended at 55 FR 22686, June 1, 1990; 57 FR 54461, Nov. 18, 1992; 71 FR 40276, July 14, 2006; 75 FR 13006, Mar. 18, 2010]

Subpart O - Incinerators
Source:

46 FR 7680, Jan. 23, 1981, unless otherwise noted.

§ 265.340 Applicability.

(a) The regulations of this subpart apply to owners and operators of hazardous waste incinerators (as defined in § 260.10 of this chapter), except as § 265.1 provides otherwise.

(b) Integration of the MACT standards.

(1) Except as provided by paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section, the standards of this part no longer apply when an owner or operator demonstrates compliance with the maximum achievable control technology (MACT) requirements of part 63, subpart EEE, of this chapter by conducting a comprehensive performance test and submitting to the Administrator a Notification of Compliance under §§ 63.1207(j) and 63.1210(d) of this chapter documenting compliance with the requirements of part 63, subpart EEE, of this chapter.

(2) The MACT standards do not replace the closure requirements of § 264.351 or the applicable requirements of subparts A through H, BB and CC of this part.

(3) Section 265.345 generally prohibiting burning of hazardous waste during startup and shutdown remains in effect if you elect to comply with § 270.235(b)(1)(i) of this chapter to minimize emissions of toxic compounds from startup and shutdown.

(c) Owners and operators of incinerators burning hazardous waste are exempt from all of the requirements of this subpart, except § 265.351 (Closure), provided that the owner or operator has documented, in writing, that the waste would not reasonably be expected to contain any of the hazardous constituents listed in part 261, appendix VIII, of this chapter, and such documentation is retained at the facility, if the waste to be burned is:

(1) Listed as a hazardous waste in part 261, subpart D, of this chapter solely because it is ignitable (Hazard Code I), corrosive (Hazard Code C), or both; or

(2) Listed as a hazardous waste in part 261, subpart D, of this chapter solely because it is reactive (Hazard Code R) for characteristics other than those listed in § 261.23(a) (4) and (5), and will not be burned when other hazardous wastes are present in the combustion zone; or

(3) A hazardous waste solely because it possesses the characteristic of ignitability, corrosivity, or both, as determined by the tests for characteristics of hazardous wastes under part 261, subpart C, of this chapter; or

(4) A hazardous waste solely because it possesses the reactivity characteristics described by § 261.23(a) (1), (2), (3), (6), (7), or (8) of this chapter, and will not be burned when other hazardous wastes are present in the combustion zone.

[47 FR 27533, June 24, 1982 and 50 FR 666, Jan. 4, 1985, as amended at 50 FR 49203, Nov. 29, 1985; 56 FR 7208, Feb. 21, 1991; 64 FR 53075, Sept. 30, 1999; 67 FR 6816, Feb. 13, 2002; 70 FR 59575, Oct. 12, 2005]

§ 265.341 Waste analysis.

In addition to the waste analyses required by § 265.13, the owner or operator must sufficiently analyze any waste which he has not previously burned in his incinerator to enable him to establish steady state (normal) operating conditions (including waste and auxiliary fuel feed and air flow) and to determine the type of pollutants which might be emitted. At a minimum, the analysis must determine:

(a) Heating value of the waste;

(b) Halogen content and sulfur content in the waste; and

(c) Concentrations in the waste of lead and mercury, unless the owner or operator has written, documented data that show that the element is not present.

[Comment: As required by § 265.73, the owner or operator must place the results from each waste analysis, or the documented information, in the operating record of the facility.]

§§ 265.342-265.344 [Reserved]
§ 265.345 General operating requirements.

During start-up and shut-down of an incinerator, the owner or operator must not feed hazardous waste unless the incinerator is at steady state (normal) conditions of operation, including steady state operating temperature and air flow.

§ 265.346 [Reserved]
§ 265.347 Monitoring and inspections.

The owner or operator must conduct, as a minimum, the following monitoring and inspections when incinerating hazardous waste:

(a) Existing instruments which relate to combustion and emission control must be monitored at least every 15 minutes. Appropriate corrections to maintain steady state combustion conditions must be made immediately either automatically or by the operator. Instruments which relate to combustion and emission control would normally include those measuring waste feed, auxiliary fuel feed, air flow, incinerator temperature, scrubber flow, scrubber pH, and relevant level controls.

(b) The complete incinerator and associated equipment (pumps, valves, conveyors, pipes, etc.) must be inspected at least daily for leaks, spills, and fugitive emissions, and all emergency shutdown controls and system alarms must be checked to assure proper operation.

[46 FR 7678, Jan. 23, 1981, as amended at 47 FR 27533, June 24, 1982]

§§ 265.348-265.350 [Reserved]
§ 265.351 Closure.

At closure, the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues (including but not limited to ash, scrubber waters, and scrubber sludges) from the incinerator.

[Comment: At closure, as throughout the operating period, unless the owner or operator can demonstrate, in accordance with § 261.3(d) of this chapter, that the residue removed from his incinerator is not a hazardous waste, the owner or operator becomes a generator of hazardous waste and must manage it in accordance with all applicable requirements of parts 262 through 266 of this chapter.]

§ 265.352 Interim status incinerators burning particular hazardous wastes.

(a) Owners or operators of incinerators subject to this subpart may burn EPA Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, or FO27 if they receive a certification from the Assistant Administrator for Solid Waste and Emergency Response that they can meet the performance standards of subpart O of part 264 when they burn these wastes.

(b) The following standards and procedures will be used in determining whether to certify an incinerator:

(1) The owner or operator will submit an application to the Assistant Administrator for Solid Waste and Emergency Response containing applicable information in §§ 270.19 and 270.62 demonstrating that the incinerator can meet the performance standards in subpart O of part 264 when they burn these wastes.

(2) The Assistant Administrator for Solid Waste and Emergency Response will issue a tentative decision as to whether the incinerator can meet the performance standards in subpart O of part 264. Notification of this tentative decision will be provided by newspaper advertisement and radio broadcast in the jurisdiction where the incinerator is located. The Assistant Administrator for Solid Waste and Emergency Response will accept comment on the tentative decision for 60 days. The Assistant Administrator for Solid Waste and Emergency Response also may hold a public hearing upon request or at his discretion.

(3) After the close of the public comment period, the Assistant Administrator for Solid Waste and Emergency Response will issue a decision whether or not to certify the incinerator.

[50 FR 2005, Jan. 14, 1985]

§§ 265.353-265.369 [Reserved]
Subpart P - Thermal Treatment
§ 265.370 Other thermal treatment.

The regulations in this subpart apply to owners or operators of facilities that thermally treat hazardous waste in devices other than enclosed devices using controlled flame combustion, except as § 265.1 provides otherwise. Thermal treatment in enclosed devices using controlled flame combustion is subject to the requirements of subpart O if the unit is an incinerator, and subpart H of part 266, if the unit is a boiler or an industrial furnace as defined in § 260.10.

[50 FR 666, Jan. 4, 1985, as amended at 56 FR 32692, July 17, 1991]

§§ 265.371-265.372 [Reserved]
§ 265.373 General operating requirements.

Before adding hazardous waste, the owner or operator must bring his thermal treatment process to steady state (normal) conditions of operation - including steady state operating temperature - using auxiliary fuel or other means, unless the process is a non-continuous (batch) thermal treatment process which requires a complete thermal cycle to treat a discrete quantity of hazardous waste.

§ 265.374 [Reserved]
§ 265.375 Waste analysis.

In addition to the waste analyses required by § 265.13, the owner or operator must sufficiently analyze any waste which he has not previously treated in his thermal process to enable him to establish steady state (normal) or other appropriate (for a non-continuous process) operating conditions (including waste and auxiliary fuel feed) and to determine the type of pollutants which might be emitted. At a minimum, the analysis must determine:

(a) Heating value of the waste;

(b) Halogen content and sulfur content in the waste; and

(c) Concentrations in the waste of lead and mercury, unless the owner or operator has written, documented data that show that the element is not present.

[Comment: As required by § 265.73, the owner or operator must place the results from each waste analysis, or the documented information, in the operating record of the facility.]

§ 265.376 [Reserved]
§ 265.377 Monitoring and inspections.

(a) The owner or operator must conduct, as a minimum, the following monitoring and inspections when thermally treating hazardous waste:

(1) Existing instruments which relate to temperature and emission control (if an emission control device is present) must be monitored at least every 15 minutes. Appropriate corrections to maintain steady state or other appropriate thermal treatment conditions must be made immediately either automatically or by the operator. Instruments which relate to temperature and emission control would normally include those measuring waste feed, auxiliary fuel feed, treatment process temperature, and relevant process flow and level controls.

(2) The stack plume (emissions), where present, must be observed visually at least hourly for normal appearance (color and opacity). The operator must immediately make any indicated operating corrections necessary to return any visible emissions to their normal appearance.

(3) The complete thermal treatment process and associated equipment (pumps, valves, conveyors, pipes, etc.) must be inspected at least daily for leaks, spills, and fugitive emissions, and all emergency shutdown controls and system alarms must be checked to assure proper operation.

(b) [Reserved]

§§ 265.378-265.380 [Reserved]
§ 265.381 Closure.

At closure, the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues (including, but not limited to, ash) from the thermal treatment process or equipment.

[Comment: At closure, as throughout the operating period, unless the owner or operator can demonstrate, in accordance with § 261.3 (c) or (d) of this chapter, that any solid waste removed from his thermal treatment process or equipment is not a hazardous waste, the owner or operator becomes a generator of hazardous waste and must manage it in accordance with all applicable requirements of parts 262, 263, and 265 of this chapter.]

§ 265.382 Open burning; waste explosives.

Open burning of hazardous waste is prohibited except for the open burning and detonation of waste explosives. Waste explosives include waste which has the potential to detonate and bulk military propellants which cannot safely be disposed of through other modes of treatment. Detonation is an explosion in which chemical transformation passes through the material faster than the speed of sound (0.33 kilometers/second at sea level). Owners or operators choosing to open burn or detonate waste explosives must do so in accordance with the following table and in a manner that does not threaten human health or the environment.

Pounds of waste explosives or propellants Minimum distance from open burning or detonation to the property of others
0 to 100 204 meters (670 feet).
101 to 1,000 380 meters (1,250 feet).
1,001 to 10,000 530 meters (1,730 feet).
10,001 to 30,000 690 meters (2,260 feet).
§ 265.383 Interim status thermal treatment devices burning particular hazardous waste.

(a) Owners or operators of thermal treatment devices subject to this subpart may burn EPA Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, or FO27 if they receive a certification from the Assistant Administrator for Solid Waste and Emergency Response that they can meet the performance standards of subpart O of part 264 when they burn these wastes.

(b) The following standards and procedures will be used in determining whether to certify a thermal treatment unit:

(1) The owner or operator will submit an application to the Assistant Administrator for Solid Waste and Emergency Response containing the applicable information in §§ 270.19 and 270.62 demonstrating that the thermal treatment unit can meet the performance standard in subpart O of part 264 when they burn these wastes.

(2) The Assistant Administrator for Solid Waste and Emergency Response will issue a tentative decision as to whether the thermal treatment unit can meet the performance standards in subpart O of part 264. Notification of this tentative decision will be provided by newspaper advertisement and radio broadcast in the jurisdiction where the thermal treatment device is located. The Assistant Administrator for Solid Waste and Emergency Response will accept comment on the tentative decision for 60 days. The Assistant Administrator for Solid Waste and Emergency Response also may hold a public hearing upon request or at his discretion.

(3) After the close of the public comment period, the Assistant Administrator for Solid Waste and Emergency Response will issue a decision whether or not to certify the thermal treatment unit.

[50 FR 2005, Jan. 14, 1985]

Subpart Q - Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment
§ 265.400 Applicability.

The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities which treat hazardous wastes by chemical, physical, or biological methods in other than tanks, surface impoundments, and land treatment facilities, except as § 265.1 provides otherwise. Chemical, physical, and biological treatment of hazardous waste in tanks, surface impoundments, and land treatment facilities must be conducted in accordance with subparts J, K, and M, respectively.

§ 265.401 General operating requirements.

(a) Chemical, physical, or biological treatment of hazardous waste must comply with § 265.17(b).

(b) Hazardous wastes or treatment reagents must not be placed in the treatment process or equipment if they could cause the treatment process or equipment to rupture, leak, corrode, or otherwise fail before the end of its intended life.

(c) Where hazardous waste is continuously fed into a treatment process or equipment, the process or equipment must be equipped with a means to stop this inflow (e.g., a waste feed cut-off system or by-pass system to a standby containment device).

[Comment: These systems are intended to be used in the event of a malfunction in the treatment process or equipment.]

§ 265.402 Waste analysis and trial tests.

(a) In addition to the waste analysis required by § 265.13, whenever:

(1) A hazardous waste which is substantially different from waste previously treated in a treatment process or equipment at the facility is to be treated in that process or equipment, or

(2) A substantially different process than any previously used at the facility is to be used to chemically treat hazardous waste;

the owner or operator must, before treating the different waste or using the different process or equipment:

(i) Conduct waste analyses and trial treatment tests (e.g., bench scale or pilot plant scale tests); or

(ii) Obtain written, documented information on similar treatment of similar waste under similar operating conditions;

to show that this proposed treatment will meet all applicable requirements of § 265.401 (a) and (b).

[(b) [Reserved]

[Comment: As required by § 265.13, the waste analysis plan must include analyses needed to comply with §§ 265.405 and 265.406. As required by § 265.73, the owner or operator must place the results from each waste analysis and trial test, or the documented information, in the operating record of the facility.]

§ 265.403 Inspections.

(a) The owner or operator of a treatment facility must inspect, where present:

(1) Discharge control and safety equipment (e.g., waste feed cut-off systems, by-pass systems, drainage systems, and pressure relief systems) at least once each operating day, to ensure that it is in good working order;

(2) Data gathered from monitoring equipment (e.g., pressure and temperature gauges), at least once each operating day, to ensure that the treatment process or equipment is being operated according to its design;

(3) The construction materials of the treatment process or equipment, at least weekly, to detect corrosion or leaking of fixtures or seams; and

(4) The construction materials of, and the area immediately surrounding, discharge confinement structures (e.g., dikes), at least weekly, to detect erosion or obvious signs of leakage (e.g., wet spots or dead vegetation).

(b) [Reserved]

[Comment: As required by § 265.15(c), the owner or operator must remedy any deterioration or malfunction he finds.]

§ 265.404 Closure.

At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed from treatment processes or equipment, discharge control equipment, and discharge confinement structures.

[Comment: At closure, as throughout the operating period, unless the owner or operator can demonstrate, in accordance with § 261.3 (c) or (d) of this chapter, that any solid waste removed from his treatment process or equipment is not a hazardous waste, the owner or operator becomes a generator of hazardous waste and must manage it in accordance with all applicable requirements of parts 262, 263, and 265 of this chapter.]

§ 265.405 Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

(a) Ignitable or reactive waste must not be placed in a treatment process or equipment unless:

(1) The waste is treated, rendered, or mixed before or immediately after placement in the treatment process or equipment so that

(i) the resulting waste, mixture, or dissolution of material no longer meets the definition of ignitable or reactive waste under § 261.21 or 261.23 of this chapter, and

(ii) § 265.17(b) is complied with; or

(2) The waste is treated in such a way that it is protected from any material or conditions which may cause the waste to ignite or react.

(b) [Reserved]

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 71 FR 40276, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.406 Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

(a) Incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials, (see appendix V for examples) must not be placed in the same treatment process or equipment, unless § 265.17(b) is complied with.

(b) Hazardous waste must not be placed in unwashed treatment equipment which previously held an incompatible waste or material, unless § 265.17(b) is complied with.

Subpart R - Underground Injection
§ 265.430 Applicability.

Except as § 265.1 provides otherwise:

(a) The owner or operator of a facility which disposes of hazardous waste by underground injection is excluded from the requirements of subparts G and H of this part.

(b) The requirements of this subpart apply to owners and operators of wells used to dispose of hazardous waste which are classified as Class I under § 144.6(a) of this chapter and which are classified as Class IV under § 144.6(d) of this chapter.

[Comment: In addition to the requirements of subparts A through E of this part, the owner or operator of a facility which disposes of hazardous waste by underground injection ultimately must comply with the requirements of §§ 265.431 through 265.437. These sections are reserved at this time. The Agency will propose regulations that would establish those requirements.]

[45 FR 33232, May 19, 1980, as amended at 48 FR 30115, June 30, 1983]

Subparts S-V [Reserved]
Subpart W - Drip Pads
Source:

55 FR 50486, Dec. 6, 1990, unless otherwise noted.

§ 265.440 Applicability.

(a) The requirements of this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities that use new or existing drip pads to convey treated wood drippage, precipitation, and/or surface water run-off to an associated collection system. Existing drip pads are those constructed before December 6, 1990 and those for which the owner or operator has a design and has entered into binding financial or other agreements for construction prior to December 6, 1990. All other drip pads are new drip pads. The requirement at § 265.443(b)(3) to install a leak collection system applies only to those drip pads that are constructed after December 24, 1992 except for those constructed after December 24, 1992 for which the owner or operator has a design and has entered into binding financial or other agreements for construction prior to December 24, 1992.

(b) The owner or operator of any drip pad that is inside or under a structure that provides protection from precipitation so that neither run-off nor run-on is generated is not subject to regulation under § 265.443(e) or § 265.443(f), as appropriate.

(c) The requirements of this subpart are not applicable to the management of infrequent and incidental drippage in storage yards provided that:

(1) The owner or operator maintains and complies with a written contingency plan that describes how the owner or operator will respond immediately to the discharge of such infrequent and incidental drippage. At a minimum, the contingency plan must describe how the facility will do the following:

(i) Clean up the drippage;

(ii) Document the cleanup of the drippage;

(iii) Retain documents regarding cleanup for three years; and

(iv) Manage the contaminated media in a manner consistent with Federal regulations.

[55 FR 50486, Dec. 6, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 30198, July 1, 1991; 57 FR 61503, Dec. 24, 1992]

§ 265.441 Assessment of existing drip pad integrity.

(a) For each existing drip pad as defined in § 265.440, the owner or operator must evaluate the drip pad and determine that it meets all of the requirements of this subpart, except the requirements for liners and leak detection systems of § 265.443(b). No later than the effective date of this rule, the owner or operator must obtain and keep on file at the facility a written assessment of the drip pad, reviewed and certified by a qualified Professional Engineer that attests to the results of the evaluation. The assessment must be reviewed, updated, and re-certified annually until all upgrades, repairs, or modifications necessary to achieve compliance with all the standards of § 265.443 are complete. The evaluation must document the extent to which the drip pad meets each of the design and operating standards of § 265.443, except the standards for liners and leak detection systems, specified in § 265.443(b).

(b) The owner or operator must develop a written plan for upgrading, repairing, and modifying the drip pad to meet the requirements of § 265.443(b), and submit the plan to the Regional Administrator no later than 2 years before the date that all repairs, upgrades, and modifications are complete. This written plan must describe all changes to be made to the drip pad in sufficient detail to document compliance with all the requirements of § 265.443. The plan must be reviewed and certified by a qualified Professional Engineer.

(c) Upon completion of all repairs and modifications, the owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator or State Director, the as-built drawings for the drip pad together with a certification by a qualified Professional Engineer attesting that the drip pad conforms to the drawings.

(d) If the drip pad is found to be leaking or unfit for use, the owner or operator must comply with the provisions of § 265.443(m) of this subpart or close the drip pad in accordance with § 265.445 of this subpart.

[55 FR 50486, Dec. 6, 1990, as amended at 57 FR 61504, Dec. 24, 1992; 71 FR 16912, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40276, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.442 Design and installation of new drip pads.

Owners and operators of new drip pads must ensure that the pads are designed, installed, and operated in accordance with one of the following:

(a) All of the applicable requirements of §§ 265.443 (except § 265.443(a)(4)), 265.444 and 265.445 of this subpart, or

(b) All of the applicable requirements of §§ 265.443 (except § 265.443(b)), 265.444 and 265.445 of this subpart.

[57 FR 61504, Dec. 24, 1992]

§ 265.443 Design and operating requirements.

(a) Drip pads must:

(1) Be constructed of non-earthen materials, excluding wood and non-structurally supported asphalt;

(2) Be sloped to free-drain treated wood drippage, rain and other waters, or solutions of drippage and water or other wastes to the associated collection system;

(3) Have a curb or berm around the perimeter;

(4)

(i) Have a hydraulic conductivity of less than or equal to 1 × 10−7 centimeters per second, e.g., existing concrete drip pads must be sealed, coated, or covered with a surface material with a hydraulic conductivity of less than or equal to 1 × 10−7 centimeters per second such that the entire surface where drippage occurs or may run across is capable of containing such drippage and mixtures of drippage and precipitation, materials, or other wastes while being routed to an associated collection system. This surface material must be maintained free of cracks and gaps that could adversely affect its hydraulic conductivity, and the material must be chemically compatible with the preservatives that contact the drip pad. The requirements of this provision apply only to existing drip pads and those drip pads for which the owner or operator elects to comply with § 265.442(b) instead of § 265.442(a).

(ii) The owner or operator must obtain and keep on file at the facility a written assessment of the drip pad, reviewed and certified by a qualified Professional Engineer that attests to the results of the evaluation. The assessment must be reviewed, updated and recertified annually. The evaluation must document the extent to which the drip pad meets the design and operating standards of this section, except for paragraph (b) of this section.

(5) Be of sufficient structural strength and thickness to prevent failure due to physical contact, climatic conditions, the stress of installation, and the stress of daily operations, e.g., variable and moving loads such as vehicle traffic, movement of wood, etc.

Note:

EPA will generally consider applicable standards established by professional organizations generally recognized by industry such as the American Concrete Institute (ACI) and the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) in judging the structural integrity requirement of this paragraph.

(b) If an owner/operator elects to comply with § 265.442(a) instead of § 265.442(b), the drip pad must have:

(1) A synthetic liner installed below the drip pad that is designed, constructed, and installed to prevent leakage from the drip pad into the adjacent subsurface soil or groundwater or surface water at any time during the active life (including the closure period) of the drip pad. The liner must be constructed of materials that will prevent waste from being absorbed into the liner and prevent releases into the adjacent subsurface soil or ground water or surface water during the active life of the facility. The liner must be:

(i) Constructed of materials that have appropriate chemical properties and sufficient strength and thickness to prevent failure due to pressure gradients (including static head and external hydrogeologic forces), physical contact with the waste or drip pad leakage to which they are exposed, climatic conditions, the stress of installation, and the stress of daily operation (including stresses from vehicular traffic on the drip pad);

(ii) Placed upon a foundation or base capable of providing support to the liner and resistance to pressure gradients above and below the liner to prevent failure of the liner due to settlement, compression or uplift; and

(iii) Installed to cover all surrounding earth that could come in contact with the waste or leakage; and

(2) A leakage detection system immediately above the liner that is designed, constructed, maintained and operated to detect leakage from the drip pad. The leakage detection system must be:

(i) Constructed of materials that are:

(A) Chemically resistant to the waste managed in the drip pad and the leakage that might be generated; and

(B) Of sufficient strength and thickness to prevent collapse under the pressures exerted by overlaying materials and by any equipment used at the drip pad; and

(ii) Designed and operated to function without clogging through the scheduled closure of the drip pad.

(iii) Designed so that it will detect the failure of the drip pad or the presence of a release of hazardous waste or accumulated liquid at the earliest practicable time.

(3) A leakage collection system immediately above the liner that is designed, constructed, maintained and operated to collect leakage from the drip pad such that it can be removed from below the drip pad. The date, time, and quantity of any leakage collected in this system and removed must be documented in the operating log.

(c) Drip pads must be maintained such that they remain free of cracks, gaps, corrosion, or other deterioration that could cause hazardous waste to be released from the drip pad.

Note:

See § 265.443(m) for remedial action required if deterioration or leakage is detected.

(d) The drip pad and associated collection system must be designed and operated to convey, drain, and collect liquid resulting from drippage or precipitation in order to prevent run-off.

(e) Unless protected by a structure, as described in § 265.440(b) of this subpart, the owner or operator must design, construct, operate and maintain a run-on control system capable of preventing flow onto the drip pad during peak discharge from at least a 24-hour, 25-year storm unless the system has sufficient excess capacity to contain any run-on that might enter the system, or the drip pad is protected by a structure or cover, as described in § 265.440(b) of this subpart.

(f) Unless protected by a structure or cover, as described in § 265.440(b) of this subpart, the owner or operator must design, construct, operate and maintain a run-off management system to collect and control at least the water volume resulting from a 24-hour, 25-year storm.

(g) The drip pad must be evaluated to determine that it meets the requirements of paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section and the owner or operator must obtain a statement from a qualified Professional Engineer certifying that the drip pad design meets the requirements of this section.

(h) Drippage and accumulated precipitation must be removed from the associated collection system as necessary to prevent overflow onto the drip pad.

(i) The drip pad surface must be cleaned thoroughly in a manner and frequency such that accumulated residues of hazardous waste or other materials are removed, with residues being properly managed as hazardous waste, so as to allow weekly inspections of the entire drip pad surface without interference or hindrance from accumulated residues of hazardous waste or other materials on the drip pad. The owner or operator must document the date and time of each cleaning and the cleaning procedure used in the facility's operating log.

(j) Drip pads must be operated and maintained in a manner to minimize tracking of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents off the drip pad as a result of activities by personnel or equipment.

(k) After being removed from the treatment vessel, treated wood from pressure and non-pressure processes must be held on the drip pad until drippage has ceased. The owner or operator must maintain records sufficient to document that all treated wood is held on the pad following treatment in accordance with this requirement.

(l) Collection and holding units associated with run-on and run-off control systems must be emptied or otherwise managed as soon as possible after storms to maintain design capacity of the system.

(m) Throughout the active life of the drip pad, if the owner or operator detects a condition that may have caused or has caused a release of hazardous waste, the condition must be repaired within a reasonably prompt period of time following discovery, in accordance with the following procedures:

(1) Upon detection of a condition that may have caused or has caused a release of hazardous waste (e.g., upon detection of leakage by the leak detection system), the owner or operator must:

(i) Enter a record of the discovery in the facility operating log;

(ii) Immediately remove the portion of the drip pad affected by the condition from service;

(iii) Determine what steps must be taken to repair the drip pad, remove any leakage from below the drip pad, and establish a schedule for accomplishing the clean up and repairs;

(iv) Within 24 hours after discovery of the condition, notify the Regional Administrator of the condition and, within 10 working days, provide a written notice to the Regional Administrator with a description of the steps that will be taken to repair the drip pad, and clean up any leakage, and the schedule for accomplishing this work.

(2) The Regional Administrator will review the information submitted, make a determination regarding whether the pad must be removed from service completely or partially until repairs and clean up are complete, and notify the owner or operator of the determination and the underlying rationale in writing.

(3) Upon completing all repairs and clean up, the owner or operator must notify the Regional Administrator in writing and provide a certification, signed by an independent qualified, registered professional engineer, that the repairs and clean up have been completed according to the written plan submitted in accordance with paragraph (m)(1)(iv) of this section.

(n) The owner or operator must maintain, as part of the facility operating log, documentation of past operating and waste handling practices. This must include identification of preservative formulations used in the past, a description of drippage management practices, and a description of treated wood storage and handling practices.

[55 FR 50486, Dec. 6, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 30198, July 1, 1991; 57 FR 5861, Feb. 18, 1992; 57 FR 61504, Dec. 24, 1992; 71 FR 16912, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40276, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.444 Inspections.

(a) During construction or installation, liners and cover systems (e.g., membranes, sheets, or coatings) must be inspected for uniformity, damage and imperfections (e.g., holes, cracks, thin spots, or foreign materials). Immediately after construction or installation, liners must be inspected and certified as meeting the requirements of § 265.443 by a qualified Professional Engineer. This certification must be maintained at the facility as part of the facility operating record. After installation, liners and covers must be inspected to ensure tight seams and joints and the absence of tears, punctures, or blisters.

(b) While a drip pad is in operation, it must be inspected weekly and after storms to detect evidence of any of the following:

(1) Deterioration, malfunctions or improper operation of run-on and run-off control systems;

(2) The presence of leakage in and proper functioning of leakage detection system.

(3) Deterioration or cracking of the drip pad surface.

Note:

See § 265.443(m) for remedial action required if deterioration or leakage is detected.

[55 FR 50486, Dec. 6, 1990, as amended at 71 FR 16912, Apr. 4, 2006]

§ 265.445 Closure.

(a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (pad, liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste and leakage, and manage them as hazardous waste.

(b) If, after removing or decontaminating all residues and making all reasonable efforts to effect removal or decontamination of contaminated components, subsoils, structures, and equipment as required in paragraph (a) of this section, the owner or operator finds that not all contaminated subsoils can be practically removed or decontaminated, he must close the facility and perform post-closure care in accordance with closure and post-closure care requirements that apply to landfills (§ 265.310). For permitted units, the requirement to have a permit continues throughout the post-closure period.

(c)

(1) The owner or operator of an existing drip pad, as defined in § 265.440 of this subpart, that does not comply with the liner requirements of § 265.443(b)(1) must:

(i) Include in the closure plan for the drip pad under § 265.112 both a plan for complying with paragraph (a) of this section and a contingent plan for complying with paragraph (b) of this section in case not all contaminated subsoils can be practicably removed at closure; and

(ii) Prepare a contingent post-closure plan under § 265.118 of this part for complying with paragraph (b) of this section in case not all contaminated subsoils can be practicably removed at closure.

(2) The cost estimates calculated under §§ 265.112 and 265.144 of this part for closure and post-closure care of a drip pad subject to this paragraph must include the cost of complying with the contingent closure plan and the contingent post-closure plan, but are not required to include the cost of expected closure under paragraph (a) of this section.

[55 FR 50486, Dec. 6, 1990, as amended at 71 FR 40276, July 14, 2006]

Subparts X-Z [Reserved]
Subpart AA - Air Emission Standards for Process Vents
Source:

55 FR 25507, June 21, 1990, unless otherwise noted.

§ 265.1030 Applicability.

(a) The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities that treat, store, or dispose of hazardous wastes (except as provided in § 265.1).

(b) Except for §§ 265.1034, paragraphs (d) and (e), this subpart applies to process vents associated with distillation, fractionation, thin-film evaporation, solvent extraction, or air or steam stripping operations that manage hazardous wastes with organic concentrations of at least 10 ppmw, if these operations are conducted in one of the following:

(1) A unit that is subject to the permitting requirements of 40 CFR part 270, or

(2) A unit (including a hazardous waste recycling unit) that is not exempt from permitting under the provisions of 40 CFR 262.17 (i.e., a hazardous waste recycling unit that is not a 90-day tank or container) and that is located at a hazardous waste management facility otherwise subject to the permitting requirements of 40 CFR part 270, or

(3) A unit that is exempt from permitting under the provisions of 40 CFR 262.17 (i.e., a “90-day” tank or container) and is not a recycling unit under the requirements of 40 CFR 261.6.

Note:

The requirements of §§ 265.1032 through 265.1036 apply to process vents on hazardous waste recycling units previously exempt under paragraph 261.6(c)(1). Other exemptions under §§ 261.4, and 265.1(c) are not affected by these requirements.]

(c) The requirements of this subpart do not apply to the pharmaceutical manufacturing facility, commonly referred to as the Stonewall Plant, located at Route 340 South, Elkton, Virginia, provided that facility is operated in compliance with the requirements contained in a Clean Air Act permit issued pursuant to 40 CFR 52.2454. The requirements of this subpart shall apply to the facility upon termination of the Clean Air Act permit issued pursuant to 40 CFR 52.2454.

(d) The requirements of this subpart do not apply to the process vents at a facility where the facility owner or operator certifies that all of the process vents that would otherwise be subject to this subpart are equipped with and operating air emission controls in accordance with the process vent requirements of an applicable Clean Air Act regulation codified under 40 CFR part 60, part 61, or part 63. The documentation of compliance under regulations at 40 CFR part 60, part 61, or part 63 shall be kept with, or made readily available with, the facility operating record.

[55 FR 25507, June 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 19290, Apr. 26, 1991; 61 FR 59968, Nov. 25, 1996; 62 FR 52642, Oct. 8, 1997; 62 FR 64661, Dec. 8, 1997; 81 FR 85827, Nov. 28, 2016]

§ 265.1031 Definitions.

As used in this subpart, all terms shall have the meaning given them in § 264.1031, the Act, and parts 260-266.

§ 265.1032 Standards: Process vents.

(a) The owner or operator of a facility with process vents associated with distillation, fractionation, thin-film evaporation, solvent extraction or air or steam stripping operations managing hazardous wastes with organic concentrations at least 10 ppmw shall either:

(1) Reduce total organic emissions from all affected process vents at the facility below 1.4 kg/h (3 lb/h) and 2.8 Mg/yr (3.1 tons/yr), or

(2) Reduce, by use of a control device, total organic emissions from all affected process vents at the facility by 95 weight percent.

(b) If the owner or operator installs a closed-vent system and control device to comply with the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section, the closed-vent system and control device must meet the requirements of § 265.1033.

(c) Determinations of vent emissions and emission reductions or total organic compound concentrations achieved by add-on control devices may be based on engineering calculations or performance tests. If performance tests are used to determine vent emissions, emission reductions, or total organic compound concentrations achieved by add-on control devices, the performance tests must conform with the requirements of § 265.1034(c).

(d) When an owner or operator and the Regional Administrator do not agree on determinations of vent emissions and/or emission reductions or total organic compound concentrations achieved by add-on control devices based on engineering calculations, the test methods in § 265.1034(c) shall be used to resolve the disagreement.

§ 265.1033 Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

(a)

(1) Owners or operators of closed-vent systems and control devices used to comply with provisions of this part shall comply with the provisions of this section.

(2)

(i) The owner or operator of an existing facility who cannot install a closed-vent system and control device to comply with the provisions of this subpart on the effective date that the facility becomes subject to the requirements of this subpart must prepare an implementation schedule that includes dates by which the closed-vent system and control device will be installed and in operation. The controls must be installed as soon as possible, but the implementation schedule may allow up to 30 months after the effective date that the facility becomes subject to this subpart for installation and startup.

(ii) Any unit that begins operation after December 21, 1990, and is subject to the requirements of this subpart when operation begins, must comply with the rules immediately (i.e., must have control devices installed and operating on startup of the affected unit); the 30-month implementation schedule does not apply.

(iii) The owner or operator of any facility in existence on the effective date of a statutory or EPA regulatory amendment that renders the facility subject to this subpart shall comply with all requirements of this subpart as soon as practicable but no later than 30 months after the amendment's effective date. When control equipment required by this subpart can not be installed and begin operation by the effective date of the amendment, the facility owner or operator shall prepare an implementation schedule that includes the following information: Specific calendar dates for award of contracts or issuance of purchase orders for the control equipment, initiation of on-site installation of the control equipment, completion of the control equipment installation, and performance of any testing to demonstrate that the installed equipment meets the applicable standards of this subpart. The owner or operator shall enter the implementation schedule in the operating record or in a permanent, readily available file located at the facility.

(iv) Owners and operators of facilities and units that become newly subject to the requirements of this subpart after December 8, 1997, due to an action other than those described in paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section must comply with all applicable requirements immediately (i.e., must have control devices installed and operating on the date the facility or unit becomes subject to this subpart; the 30-month implementation schedule does not apply).

(b) A control device involving vapor recovery (e.g., a condenser or adsorber) shall be designed and operated to recover the organic vapors vented to it with an efficiency of 95 weight percent or greater unless the total organic emission limits of § 265.1032(a)(1) for all affected process vents can be attained at an efficiency less than 95 weight percent.

(c) An enclosed combustion device (e.g., a vapor incinerator, boiler, or process heater) shall be designed and operated to reduce the organic emissions vented to it by 95 weight percent or greater; to achieve a total organic compound concentration of 20 ppmv, expressed as the sum of the actual compounds, not carbon equivalents, on a dry basis corrected to 3 percent oxygen; or to provide a minimum residence time of 0.50 seconds at a minimum temperature of 760 °C. If a boiler or process heater is used as the control device, then the vent stream shall be introduced into the flame combustion zone of the boiler or process heater.

(d)

(1) A flare shall be designed for and operated with no visible emissions as determined by the methods specified in paragraph (e)(1) of this section, except for periods not to exceed a total of 5 minutes during any 2 consecutive hours.

(2) A flare shall be operated with a flame present at all times, as determined by the methods specified in paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section.

(3) A flare shall be used only if the net heating value of the gas being combusted is 11.2 MJ/scm (300 Btu/scf) or greater, if the flare is steam-assisted or air-assisted; or if the net heating value of the gas being combusted is 7.45 MJ/scm (200 Btu/scf) or greater if the flare is nonassisted. The net heating value of the gas being combusted shall be determined by the methods specified in paragraph (e)(2) of this section.

(4)

(i) A steam-assisted or nonassisted flare shall be designed for and operated with an exit velocity, as determined by the methods specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, of less than 18.3 m/s (60 ft/s), except as provided in paragraphs (d)(4) (ii) and (iii) of this section.

(ii) A steam-assisted or nonassisted flare designed for and operated with an exit velocity, as determined by the methods specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, equal to or greater than 18.3 m/s (60 ft/s) but less than 122 m/s (400 ft/s) is allowed if the net heating value of the gas being combusted is greater than 37.3 MJ/scm (1,000 Btu/scf).

(iii) A steam-assisted or nonassisted flare designed for and operated with an exit velocity, as determined by the methods specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, less than the velocity, Vmax, as determined by the method specified in paragraph (e)(4) of this section, and less than 122 m/s (400 ft/s) is allowed.

(5) An air-assisted flare shall be designed and operated with an exit velocity less than the velocity, Vmax, as determined by the method specified in paragraph (e)(5) of this section.

(6) A flare used to comply with this section shall be steam-assisted, air-assisted, or nonassisted.

(e)

(1) Reference Method 22 in 40 CFR part 60 shall be used to determine the compliance of a flare with the visible emission provisions of this subpart. The observation period is 2 hours and shall be used according to Method 22.

(2) The net heating value of the gas being combusted in a flare shall be calculated using the following equation:

where:

HT = Net heating value of the sample, MJ/scm; where the net enthalpy per mole of offgas is based on combustion at 25 °C and 760 mm Hg, but the standard temperature for determining the volume corresponding to 1 mol is 20 °C;

K = Constant, 1.74 × 10−7 (1/ppm) (g mol/scm) (MJ/kcal) where standard temperature for (g mol/scm) is 20 °C;

Ci = Concentration of sample component i in ppm on a wet basis, as measured for organics by Reference Method 18 in 40 CFR part 60 and measured for hydrogen and carbon monoxide by ASTM D 1946-82 (incorporated by reference as specified in § 260.11); and

Hi = Net heat of combustion of sample component i, kcal/g mol at 25 °C and 760 mm Hg. The heats of combustion may be determined using ASTM D 2382-83 (incorporated by reference as specified in § 260.11) if published values are not available or cannot be calculated.

(3) The actual exit velocity of a flare shall be determined by dividing the volumetric flow rate (in units of standard temperature and pressure), as determined by Reference Methods 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D in 40 CFR part 60 as appropriate, by the unobstructed (free) cross-sectional area of the flare tip.

(4) The maximum allowed velocity in m/s, Vmax, for a flare complying with paragraph (d)(4)(iii) of this section shall be determined by the following equation:

Log10(Vmax) = (HT + 28.8)/31.7

where:

HT = The net heating value as determined in paragraph (e)(2) of this section.

28.8 = Constant,

31.7 = Constant.

(5) The maximum allowed velocity in m/s, Vmax, for an air-assisted flare shall be determined by the following equation:

Vmax = 8.706 + 0.7084 (HT)

where:

8.706 = Constant.

0.7084 = Constant.

HT = The net heating value as determined in paragraph (e)(2) of this section.

(f) The owner or operator shall monitor and inspect each control device required to comply with this section to ensure proper operation and maintenance of the control device by implementing the following requirements:

(1) Install, calibrate, maintain, and operate according to the manufacturer's specifications a flow indicator that provides a record of vent stream flow from each affected process vent to the control device at least once every hour. The flow indicator sensor shall be installed in the vent stream at the nearest feasible point to the control device inlet, but before being combined with other vent streams.

(2) Install, calibrate, maintain, and operate according to the manufacturer's specifications a device to continuously monitor control device operation as specified below:

(i) For a thermal vapor incinerator, a temperature monitoring device equipped with a continuous recorder. The device shall have an accuracy of ±1 percent of the temperature being monitored in °C or ±0.5 °C, whichever is greater. The temperature sensor shall be installed at a location in the combustion chamber downstream of the combustion zone.

(ii) For a catalytic vapor incinerator, a temperature monitoring device equipped with a continuous recorder. The device shall be capable of monitoring temperature at two locations and have an accuracy of ±1 percent of the temperature being monitored in ° C or ±0.5 ° C, whichever is greater. One temperature sensor shall be installed in the vent stream at the nearest feasible point to the catalyst bed inlet and a second temperature sensor shall be installed in the vent stream at the nearest feasible point to the catalyst bed outlet.

(iii) For a flare, a heat sensing monitoring device equipped with a continuous recorder that indicates the continuous ignition of the pilot flame.

(iv) For a boiler or process heater having a design heat input capacity less than 44 MW, a temperature monitoring device equipped with a continuous recorder. The device shall have an accuracy of ±1 percent of the temperature being monitored in ° C or ±0.5 ° C, whichever is greater. The temperature sensor shall be installed at a location in the furnace downstream of the combustion zone.

(v) For a boiler or process heater having a design heat input capacity greater than or equal to 44 MW, a monitoring device equipped with a continuous recorder to measure a parameter(s) that indicates good combustion operating practices are being used.

(vi) For a condenser, either:

(A) A monitoring device equipped with a continuous recorder to measure the concentration level of the organic compounds in the exhaust vent stream from the condenser; or

(B) A temperature monitoring device equipped with a continuous recorder. The device shall be capable of monitoring temperature with an accuracy of ±1 percent of the temperature being monitored in degrees Celsius (°C) or ±0.5 °C, whichever is greater. The temperature sensor shall be installed at a location in the exhaust vent stream from the condenser exit (i.e., product side).

(vii) For a carbon adsorption system such as a fixed-bed carbon adsorber that regenerates the carbon bed directly in the control device, either:

(A) A monitoring device equipped with a continuous recorder to measure the concentration level of the organic compounds in the exhaust vent stream from the carbon bed, or

(B) A monitoring device equipped with a continuous recorder to measure a parameter that indicates the carbon bed is regenerated on a regular, predetermined time cycle.

(3) Inspect the readings from each monitoring device required by paragraphs (f) (1) and (2) of this section at least once each operating day to check control device operation and, if necessary, immediately implement the corrective measures necessary to ensure the control device operates in compliance with the requirements of this section.

(g) An owner or operator using a carbon adsorption system such as a fixed-bed carbon adsorber that regenerates the carbon bed directly onsite in the control device, shall replace the existing carbon in the control device with fresh carbon at a regular, predetermined time interval that is no longer than the carbon service life established as a requirement of § 265.1035(b)(4)(iii)(F).

(h) An owner or operator using a carbon adsorption system such as a carbon canister that does not regenerate the carbon bed directly onsite in the control device shall replace the existing carbon in the control device with fresh carbon on a regular basis by using one of the following procedures:

(1) Monitor the concentration level of the organic compounds in the exhaust vent stream from the carbon adsorption system on a regular schedule and replace the existing carbon with fresh carbon immediately when carbon breakthrough is indicated. The monitoring frequency shall be daily or at an interval no greater than 20 percent of the time required to consume the total carbon working capacity established as a requirement of § 265.1035(b)(4)(iii)(G), whichever is longer.

(2) Replace the existing carbon with fresh carbon at a regular, predetermined time interval that is less than the design carbon replacement interval established as a requirement of § 265.1035(b)(4)(iii)(G).

(i) An owner or operator of an affected facility seeking to comply with the provisions of this part by using a control device other than a thermal vapor incinerator, catalytic vapor incinerator, flare, boiler, process heater, condenser, or carbon adsorption system is required to develop documentation including sufficient information to describe the control device operation and identify the process parameter or parameters that indicate proper operation and maintenance of the control device.

(j) A closed-vent system shall meet either of the following design requirements:

(1) A closed-vent system shall be designed to operate with no detectable emissions, as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 ppmv above background as determined by the procedure in § 265.1034(b) of this subpart, and by visual inspections; or

(2) A closed-vent system shall be designed to operate at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. The system shall be equipped with at least one pressure gauge or other pressure measurement device that can be read from a readily accessible location to verify that negative pressure is being maintained in the closed-vent system when the control device is operating.

(k) The owner or operator shall monitor and inspect each closed-vent system required to comply with this section to ensure proper operation and maintenance of the closed-vent system by implementing the following requirements:

(1) Each closed-vent system that is used to comply with paragraph (j)(1) of this section shall be inspected and monitored in accordance with the following requirements:

(i) An initial leak detection monitoring of the closed-vent system shall be conducted by the owner or operator on or before the date that the system becomes subject to this section. The owner or operator shall monitor the closed-vent system components and connections using the procedures specified in § 265.1034(b) of this subpart to demonstrate that the closed-vent system operates with no detectable emissions, as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 ppmv above background.

(ii) After initial leak detection monitoring required in paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section, the owner or operator shall inspect and monitor the closed-vent system as follows:

(A) Closed-vent system joints, seams, or other connections that are permanently or semi-permanently sealed (e.g., a welded joint between two sections of hard piping or a bolted and gasketed ducting flange) shall be visually inspected at least once per year to check for defects that could result in air pollutant emissions. The owner or operator shall monitor a component or connection using the procedures specified in § 265.1034(b) of this subpart to demonstrate that it operates with no detectable emissions following any time the component is repaired or replaced (e.g., a section of damaged hard piping is replaced with new hard piping) or the connection is unsealed (e.g., a flange is unbolted).

(B) Closed-vent system components or connections other than those specified in paragraph (k)(1)(ii)(A) of this section shall be monitored annually and at other times as requested by the Regional Administrator, except as provided for in paragraph (n) of this section, using the procedures specified in § 265.1034(b) of this subpart to demonstrate that the components or connections operate with no detectable emissions.

(iii) In the event that a defect or leak is detected, the owner or operator shall repair the defect or leak in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (k)(3) of this section.

(iv) The owner or operator shall maintain a record of the inspection and monitoring in accordance with the requirements specified in § 265.1035 of this subpart.

(2) Each closed-vent system that is used to comply with paragraph (j)(2) of this section shall be inspected and monitored in accordance with the following requirements:

(i) The closed-vent system shall be visually inspected by the owner or operator to check for defects that could result in air pollutant emissions. Defects include, but are not limited to, visible cracks, holes, or gaps in ductwork or piping or loose connections.

(ii) The owner or operator shall perform an initial inspection of the closed-vent system on or before the date that the system becomes subject to this section. Thereafter, the owner or operator shall perform the inspections at least once every year.

(iii) In the event that a defect or leak is detected, the owner or operator shall repair the defect in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (k)(3) of this section.

(iv) The owner or operator shall maintain a record of the inspection and monitoring in accordance with the requirements specified in § 265.1035 of this subpart.

(3) The owner or operator shall repair all detected defects as follows:

(i) Detectable emissions, as indicated by visual inspection, or by an instrument reading greater than 500 ppmv above background, shall be controlled as soon as practicable, but not later than 15 calendar days after the emission is detected, except as provided for in paragraph (k)(3)(iii) of this section.

(ii) A first attempt at repair shall be made no later than 5 calendar days after the emission is detected.

(iii) Delay of repair of a closed-vent system for which leaks have been detected is allowed if the repair is technically infeasible without a process unit shutdown, or if the owner or operator determines that emissions resulting from immediate repair would be greater than the fugitive emissions likely to result from delay of repair. Repair of such equipment shall be completed by the end of the next process unit shutdown.

(iv) The owner or operator shall maintain a record of the defect repair in accordance with the requirements specified in § 265.1035 of this subpart.

(l) Closed-vent systems and control devices used to comply with provisions of this subpart shall be operated at all times when emissions may be vented to them.

(m) The owner or operator using a carbon adsorption system to control air pollutant emissions shall document that all carbon that is a hazardous waste and that is removed from the control device is managed in one of the following manners, regardless of the average volatile organic concentration of the carbon:

(1) Regenerated or reactivated in a thermal treatment unit that meets one of the following:

(i) The owner or operator of the unit has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 which implements the requirements of 40 CFR part 264 subpart X; or

(ii) The unit is equipped with and operating air emission controls in accordance with the applicable requirements of subparts AA and CC of either this part or of 40 CFR part 264; or

(iii) The unit is equipped with and operating air emission controls in accordance with a national emission standard for hazardous air pollutants under 40 CFR part 61 or 40 CFR part 63.

(2) Incinerated in a hazardous waste incinerator for which the owner or operator either:

(i) Has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 which implements the requirements of 40 CFR part 264, subpart O; or

(ii) Has designed and operates the incinerator in accordance with the interim status requirements of subpart O of this part.

(3) Burned in a boiler or industrial furnace for which the owner or operator either:

(i) Has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 which implements the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or

(ii) Has designed and operates the boiler or industrial furnace in accordance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H.

(n) Any components of a closed-vent system that are designated, as described in § 265.1035(c)(9) of this subpart, as unsafe to monitor are exempt from the requirements of paragraph (k)(1)(ii)(B) of this section if:

(1) The owner or operator of the closed-vent system determines that the components of the closed-vent system are unsafe to monitor because monitoring personnel would be exposed to an immediate danger as a consequence of complying with paragraph (k)(1)(ii)(B) of this section; and

(2) The owner or operator of the closed-vent system adheres to a written plan that requires monitoring the closed-vent system components using the procedure specified in paragraph (k)(1)(ii)(B) of this section as frequently as practicable during safe-to-monitor times.

[59 FR 62935, Dec. 6, 1994, as amended at 61 FR 4913, Feb. 9, 1996; 61 FR 59969, Nov. 25, 1996; 62 FR 64661, Dec. 8, 1997; 71 FR 40276, July 14, 2006]

§ 265.1034 Test methods and procedures.

(a) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with the test methods and procedures requirements provided in this section.

(b) When a closed-vent system is tested for compliance with no detectable emissions, as required in § 265.1033(k) of this subpart, the test shall comply with the following requirements:

(1) Monitoring shall comply with Reference Method 21 in 40 CFR part 60.

(2) The detection instrument shall meet the performance criteria of Reference Method 21.

(3) The instrument shall be calibrated before use on each day of its use by the procedures specified in Reference Method 21.

(4) Calibration gases shall be:

(i) Zero air (less than 10 ppm of hydrocarbon in air).

(ii) A mixture of methane or n-hexane and air at a concentration of approximately, but less than, 10,000 ppm methane or n-hexane.

(5) The background level shall be determined as set forth in Reference Method 21.

(6) The instrument probe shall be traversed around all potential leak interfaces as close to the interface as possible as described in Reference Method 21.

(7) The arithmetic difference between the maximum concentration indicated by the instrument and the background level is compared with 500 ppm for determining compliance.

(c) Performance tests to determine compliance with § 265.1032(a) and with the total organic compound concentration limit of § 265.1033(c) shall comply with the following:

(1) Performance tests to determine total organic compound concentrations and mass flow rates entering and exiting control devices shall be conducted and data reduced in accordance with the following reference methods and calculation procedures:

(i) Method 2 in 40 CFR part 60 for velocity and volumetric flow rate.

(ii) Method 18 or Method 25A in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, for organic content. If Method 25A is used, the organic HAP used as the calibration gas must be the single organic HAP representing the largest percent by volume of the emissions. The use of Method 25A is acceptable if the response from the high-level calibration gas is at least 20 times the standard deviation of the response from the zero calibration gas when the instrument is zeroed on the most sensitive scale.

(iii) Each performance test shall consist of three separate runs; each run conducted for at least 1 hour under the conditions that exist when the hazardous waste management unit is operating at the highest load or capacity level reasonably expected to occur. For the purpose of determining total organic compound concentrations and mass flow rates, the average of results of all runs shall apply. The average shall be computed on a time-weighted basis.

(iv) Total organic mass flow rates shall be determined by the following equation:

(A) For sources utilizing Method 18.

Where:

Eh = Total organic mass flow rate, kg/h;

Q2sd = Volumetric flow rate of gases entering or exiting control device, as determined by Method 2, dscm/h;

n = Number of organic compounds in the vent gas;

Ci = Organic concentration in ppm, dry basis, of compound i in the vent gas, as determined by Method 18;

MWi = Molecular weight of organic compound i in the vent gas, kg/kg-mol;

0.0416 = Conversion factor for molar volume, kg-mol/m3 (@ 293 K and 760 mm Hg);

10−6 = Conversion from ppm

(B) For sources utilizing Method 25A.

Eh = (Q)(C)(MW)(0.0416)(10−6)

Where:

Eh = Total organic mass flow rate, kg/h;

Q = Volumetric flow rate of gases entering or exiting control device, as determined by Method 2, dscm/h;

C = Organic concentration in ppm, dry basis, as determined by Method 25A;

MW = Molecular weight of propane, 44;

0.0416 = Conversion factor for molar volume, kg-mol/m3 (@ 293 K and 760 mm Hg);

10−6 = Conversion from ppm.

(v) The annual total organic emission rate shall be determined by the following equation:

EA = (Eh) (H)

where:

EA = Total organic mass emission rate, kg/y;

Eh = Total organic mass flow rate for the process vent, kg/h;

H = Total annual hours of operations for the affected unit, h.

(vi) Total organic emissions from all affected process vents at the facility shall be determined by summing the hourly total organic mass emission rates (Eh, as determined in paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section) and by summing the annual total organic mass emission rates (EA, as determined in paragraph (c)(1)(v) of this section) for all affected process vents at the facility.

(2) The owner or operator shall record such process information as may be necessary to determine the conditions of the performance tests. Operations during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction shall not constitute representative conditions for the purpose of a performance test.

(3) The owner or operator of an affected facility shall provide, or cause to be provided, performance testing facilities as follows:

(i) Sampling ports adequate for the test methods specified in paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

(ii) Safe sampling platform(s).

(iii) Safe access to sampling platform(s).

(iv) Utilities for sampling and testing equipment.

(4) For the purpose of making compliance determinations, the time-weighted average of the results of the three runs shall apply. In the event that a sample is accidentally lost or conditions occur in which one of the three runs must be discontinued because of forced shutdown, failure of an irreplaceable portion of the sample train, extreme meteorological conditions, or other circumstances beyond the owner or operator's control, compliance may, upon the Regional Administrator's approval, be determined using the average of the results of the two other runs.

(d) To show that a process vent associated with a hazardous waste distillation, fractionation, thin-film evaporation, solvent extraction, or air or steam stripping operation is not subject to the requirements of this subpart, the owner or operator must make an initial determination that the time-weighted, annual average total organic concentration of the waste managed by the waste management unit is less than 10 ppmw using one of the following two methods:

(1) Direct measurement of the organic concentration of the waste using the following procedures:

(i) The owner or operator must take a minimum of four grab samples of waste for each waste stream managed in the affected unit under process conditions expected to cause the maximum waste organic concentration.

(ii) For waste generated onsite, the grab samples must be collected at a point before the waste is exposed to the atmosphere such as in an enclosed pipe or other closed system that is used to transfer the waste after generation to the first affected distillation fractionation, thin-film evaporation, solvent extraction, or air or steam stripping operation. For waste generated offsite, the grab samples must be collected at the inlet to the first waste management unit that receives the waste provided the waste has been transferred to the facility in a closed system such as a tank truck and the waste is not diluted or mixed with other waste.

(iii) Each sample shall be analyzed and the total organic concentration of the sample shall be computed using Method 9060A (incorporated by reference under § 260.11 of this chapter) of “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication SW-846; or analyzed for its individual organic constituents.

(iv) The arithmetic mean of the results of the analyses of the four samples shall apply for each waste stream managed in the unit in determining the time-weighted, annual average total organic concentration of the waste. The time-weighted average is to be calculated using the annual quantity of each waste stream processed and the mean organic concentration of each waste stream managed in the unit.

(2) Using knowledge of the waste to determine that its total organic concentration is less than 10 ppmw. Documentation of the waste determination is required. Examples of documentation that shall be used to support a determination under this provision include production process information documenting that no organic compounds are used, information that the waste is generated by a process that is identical to a process at the same or another facility that has previously been demonstrated by direct measurement to generate a waste stream having a total organic content less than 10 ppmw, or prior speciation analysis results on the same waste stream where it can also be documented that no process changes have occurred since that analysis that could affect the waste total organic concentration.

(e) The determination that distillation fractionation, thin-film evaporation, solvent extraction, or air or steam stripping operations manage hazardous wastes with time-weighted annual average total organic concentrations less than 10 ppmw shall be made as follows:

(1) By the effective date that the facility becomes subject to the provisions of this subpart or by the date when the waste is first managed in a waste management unit, whichever is later; and

(2) For continuously generated waste, annually; or

(3) Whenever there is a change in the waste being managed or a change in the process that generates or treats the waste.

(f) When an owner or operator and the Regional Administrator do not agree on whether a distillation, fractionation, thin-film evaporation, solvent extraction, or air or steam stripping operation manages a hazardous waste with organic concentrations of at least 10 ppmw based on knowledge of the waste, the dispute may be resolved using direct measurement as specified at paragraph (d)(1) of this section.

[55 FR 25507, June 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 19290, Apr. 26, 1991; 61 FR 59970, Nov. 25, 1996; 62 FR 32463, June 13, 1997; 70 FR 34586, June 14, 2005]

§ 265.1035 Recordkeeping requirements.

(a)

(1) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with the recordkeeping requirements of this section.

(2) An owner or operator of more than one hazardous waste management unit subject to the provisions of this subpart may comply with the recordkeeping requirements for these hazardous waste management units in one recordkeeping system if the system identifies each record by each hazardous waste management unit.

(b) Owners and operators must record the following information in the facility operating record:

(1) For facilities that comply with the provisions of § 265.1033(a)(2), an implementation schedule that includes dates by which the closed-vent system and control device will be installed and in operation. The schedule must also include a rationale of why the installation cannot be completed at an earlier date. The implementation schedule must be in the facility operating record by the effective date that the facility becomes subject to the provisions of this subpart.

(2) Up-to-date documentation of compliance with the process vent standards in § 265.1032, including:

(i) Information and data identifying all affected process vents, annual throughput and operating hours of each affected unit, estimated emission rates for each affected vent and for the overall facility (i.e., the total emissions for all affected vents at the facility), and the approximate location within the facility of each affected unit (e.g., identify the hazardous waste management units on a facility plot plan); and

(ii) Information and data supporting determinations of vent emissions and emission reductions achieved by add-on control devices based on engineering calculations or source tests. For the purpose of determining compliance, determinations of vent emissions and emission reductions must be made using operating parameter values (e.g., temperatures, flow rates or vent stream organic compounds and concentrations) that represent the conditions that result in maximum organic emissions, such as when the waste management unit is operating at the highest load or capacity level reasonably expected to occur. If the owner or operator takes any action (e.g., managing a waste of different composition or increasing operating hours of affected waste management units) that would result in an increase in total organic emissions from affected process vents at the facility, then a new determination is required.

(3) Where an owner or operator chooses to use test data to determine the organic removal efficiency or total organic compound concentration achieved by the control device, a performance test plan. The test plan must include:

(i) A description of how it is determined that the planned test is going to be conducted when the hazardous waste management unit is operating at the highest load or capacity level reasonably expected to occur. This shall include the estimated or design flow rate and organic content of each vent stream and define the acceptable operating ranges of key process and control device parameters during the test program.

(ii) A detailed engineering description of the closed-vent system and control device including:

(A) Manufacturer's name and model number of control device.

(B) Type of control device.

(C) Dimensions of the control device.

(D) Capacity.

(E) Construction materials.

(iii) A detailed description of sampling and monitoring procedures, including sampling and monitoring locations in the system, the equipment to be used, sampling and monitoring frequency, and planned analytical procedures for sample analysis.

(4) Documentation of compliance with § 265.1033 shall include the following information:

(i) A list of all information references and sources used in preparing the documentation.

(ii) Records, including the dates, of each compliance test required by § 265.1033(j).

(iii) If engineering calculations are used, a design analysis, specifications, drawings, schematics, and piping and instrumentation diagrams based on the appropriate sections of “APTI Course 415: Control of Gaseous Emissions” (incorporated by reference as specified in § 260.11) or other engineering texts acceptable to the Regional Administrator that present basic control device design information. Documentation provided by the control device manufacturer or vendor that describes the control device design in accordance with paragraphs (b)(4)(iii)(A) through (b)(4)(iii)(G) of this section may be used to comply with this requirement. The design analysis shall address the vent stream characteristics and control device operation parameters as specified below.

(A) For a thermal vapor incinerator, the design analysis shall consider the vent stream composition, constituent concentrations, and flow rate. The design analysis shall also establish the design minimum and average temperature in the combustion zone and the combustion zone residence time.

(B) For a catalytic vapor incinerator, the design analysis shall consider the vent stream composition, constituent concentrations, and flow rate. The design analysis shall also establish the design minimum and average temperatures across the catalyst bed inlet and outlet.

(C) For a boiler or process heater, the design analysis shall consider the vent stream composition, constituent concentrations, and flow rate. The design analysis shall also establish the design minimum and average flame zone temperatures, combustion zone residence time, and description of method and location where the vent stream is introduced into the combustion zone.

(D) For a flare, the design analysis shall consider the vent stream composition, constituent concentrations, and flow rate. The design analysis shall also consider the requirements specified in § 265.1033(d).

(E) For a condenser, the design analysis shall consider the vent stream composition, constituent concentrations, flow rate, relative humidity, and temperature. The design analysis shall also establish the design outlet organic compound concentration level, design average temperature of the condenser exhaust vent stream, and design average temperatures of the coolant fluid at the condenser inlet and outlet.

(F) For a carbon adsorption system such as a fixed-bed adsorber that regenerates the carbon bed directly onsite in the control device, the design analysis shall consider the vent stream composition, constituent concentrations, flow rate, relative humidity, and temperature. The design analysis shall also establish the design exhaust vent stream organic compound concentration level, number and capacity of carbon beds, type and working capacity of activated carbon used for carbon beds, design total steam flow over the period of each complete carbon bed regeneration cycle, duration of the carbon bed steaming and cooling/drying cycles, design carbon bed temperature after regeneration, design carbon bed regeneration time, and design service life of carbon.

(G) For a carbon adsorption system such as a carbon canister that does not regenerate the carbon bed directly onsite in the control device, the design analysis shall consider the vent stream composition, constituent concentrations, flow rate, relative humidity, and temperature. The design analysis shall also establish the design outlet organic concentration level, capacity of carbon bed, type and working capacity of activated carbon used for carbon bed, and design carbon replacement interval based on the total carbon working capacity of the control device and source operating schedule.

(iv) A statement signed and dated by the owner or operator certifying that the operating parameters used in the design analysis reasonably represent the conditions that exist when the hazardous waste management unit is or would be operating at the highest load or capacity level reasonably expected to occur.

(v) A statement signed and dated by the owner or operator certifying that the control device is designed to operate at an efficiency of 95 percent or greater unless the total organic concentration limit of § 265.1032(a) is achieved at an efficiency less than 95 weight percent or the total organic emission limits of § 265.1032(a) for affected process vents at the facility can be attained by a control device involving vapor recovery at an efficiency less than 95 weight percent. A statement provided by the control device manufacturer or vendor certifying that the control equipment meets the design specifications may be used to comply with this requirement.

(vi) If performance tests are used to demonstrate compliance, all test results.

(c) Design documentation and monitoring, operating, and inspection information for each closed-vent system and control device required to comply with the provisions of this part shall be recorded and kept up-to-date in the facility operating record. The information shall include:

(1) Description and date of each modification that is made to the closed-vent system or control device design.

(2) Identification of operating parameter, description of monitoring device, and diagram of monitoring sensor location or locations used to comply with § 265.1033(f)(1) and (f)(2).

(3) Monitoring, operating and inspection information required by paragraphs (f) through (k) of § 265.1033 of this subpart.

(4) Date, time, and duration of each period that occurs while the control device is operating when any monitored parameter exceeds the value established in the control device design analysis as specified below:

(i) For a thermal vapor incinerator designed to operate with a minimum residence time of 0.50 seconds at a minimum temperature of 760 °C, period when the combustion temperature is below 760 °C.

(ii) For a thermal vapor incinerator designed to operate with an organic emission reduction efficiency of 95 percent or greater, period when the combustion zone temperature is more than 28 °C below the design average combustion zone temperature established as a requirement of paragraph (b)(4)(iii)(A) of this section.

(iii) For a catalytic vapor incinerator, period when:

(A) Temperature of the vent stream at the catalyst bed inlet is more than 28 °C below the average temperature of the inlet vent stream established as a requirement of paragraph (b)(4)(iii)(B) of this section; or

(B) Temperature difference across the catalyst bed is less than 80 percent of the design average temperature difference established as a requirement of paragraph (b)(4)(iii)(B) of this section.

(iv) For a boiler or process heater, period when:

(A) Flame zone temperature is more than 28 °C below the design average flame zone temperature established as a requirement of paragraph (b)(4)(iii)(C) of this section; or

(B) Position changes where the vent stream is introduced to the combustion zone from the location established as a requirement of paragraph (b)(4)(iii)(C) of this section.

(v) For a flare, period when the pilot flame is not ignited.

(vi) For a condenser that complies with § 265.1033(f)(2)(vi)(A), period when the organic compound concentration level or readings of organic compounds in the exhaust vent stream from the condenser are more than 20 percent greater than the design outlet organic compound concentration level established as a requirement of paragraph (b)(4)(iii)(E) of this section.

(vii) For a condenser that complies with § 265.1033(f)(2)(vi)(B), period when:

(A) Temperature of the exhaust vent stream from the condenser is more than 6 °C above the design average exhaust vent stream temperature established as a requirement of paragraph (b)(4)(iii)(E) of this section; or

(B) Temperature of the coolant fluid exiting the condenser is more than 6 °C above the design average coolant fluid temperature at the condenser outlet established as a requirement of paragraph (b)(4)(iii)(E) of this section.

(viii) For a carbon adsorption system such as a fixed-bed carbon adsorber that regenerates the carbon bed directly onsite in the control device and complies with § 265.1033(f)(2)(vii)(A), period when the organic compound concentration level or readings of organic compounds in the exhaust vent stream from the carbon bed are more than 20 percent greater than the design exhaust vent stream organic compound concentration level established as a requirement of paragraph (b)(4)(iii)(F) of this section.

(ix) For a carbon adsorption system such as a fixed-bed carbon adsorber that regenerates the carbon bed directly onsite in the control device and complies with § 265.1033(f)(2)(vii)(B), period when the vent stream continues to flow through the control device beyond the predetermined carbon bed regeneration time established as a requirement of paragraph (b)(4)(iii)(F) of this section.

(5) Explanation for each period recorded under paragraph (c)(4) of this section of the cause for control device operating parameter exceeding the design value and the measures implemented to correct the control device operation.

(6) For carbon adsorption systems operated subject to requirements specified in § 265.1033(g) or § 265.1033(h)(2), date when existing carbon in the control device is replaced with fresh carbon.

(7) For carbon adsorption systems operated subject to requirements specified in § 265.1033(h)(1), a log that records:

(i) Date and time when control device is monitored for carbon breakthrough and the monitoring device reading.

(ii) Date when existing carbon in the control device is replaced with fresh carbon.

(8) Date of each control device startup and shutdown.

(9) An owner or operator designating any components of a closed-vent system as unsafe to monitor pursuant to § 265.1033(n) of this subpart shall record in a log that is kept in the facility operating record the identification of closed-vent system components that are designated as unsafe to monitor in accordance with the requirements of § 265.1033(n) of this subpart, an explanation for each closed-vent system component stating why the closed-vent system component is unsafe to monitor, and the plan for monitoring each closed-vent system component.

(10) When each leak is detected as specified in § 265.1033(k) of this subpart, the following information shall be recorded:

(i) The instrument identification number, the closed-vent system component identification number, and the operator name, initials, or identification number.

(ii) The date the leak was detected and the date of first attempt to repair the leak.

(iii) The date of successful repair of the leak.

(iv) Maximum instrument reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A after it is successfully repaired or determined to be nonrepairable.

(v) “Repair delayed” and the reason for the delay if a leak is not repaired within 15 calendar days after discovery of the leak.

(A) The owner or operator may develop a written procedure that identifies the conditions that justify a delay of repair. In such cases, reasons for delay of repair may be documented by citing the relevant sections of the written procedure.

(B) If delay of repair was caused by depletion of stocked parts, there must be documentation that the spare parts were sufficiently stocked on-site before depletion and the reason for depletion.

(d) Records of the monitoring, operating, and inspection information required by paragraphs (c)(3) through (c)(10) of this section shall be maintained by the owner or operator for at least 3 years following the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, or record.

(e) For a control device other than a thermal vapor incinerator, catalytic vapor incinerator, flare, boiler, process heater, condenser, or carbon adsorption system, monitoring and inspection information indicating proper operation and maintenance of the control device must be recorded in the facility operating record.

(f) Up-to-date information and data used to determine whether or not a process vent is subject to the requirements in § 265.1032 including supporting documentation as required by § 265.1034(d)(2) when application of the knowledge of the nature of the hazardous waste stream or the process by which it was produced is used, shall be recorded in a log that is kept in the facility operating record.

[55 FR 25507, June 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 19290, Apr. 26, 1991; 61 FR 59970, Nov. 25, 1996; 71 FR 40276, July 14, 2006]

§§ 265.1036-265.1049 [Reserved]
Subpart BB - Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks
Source:

55 FR 25512, June 21, 1990, unless otherwise noted.

§ 265.1050 Applicability.

(a) The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities that treat, store, or dispose of hazardous wastes (except as provided in § 265.1).

(b) Except as provided in § 265.1064(k), this subpart applies to equipment that contains or contacts hazardous wastes with organic concentrations of at least 10 percent by weight that are managed in one of the following:

(1) A unit that is subject to the permitting requirements of 40 CFR part 270, or

(2) A unit (including a hazardous waste recycling unit) that is not exempt from permitting under the provisions of 40 CFR 262.17 (i.e., a hazardous waste recycling unit that is not a 90-day tank or container) and that is located at a hazardous waste management facility otherwise subject to the permitting requirements of 40 CFR part 270, or

(3) A unit that is exempt from permitting under the provisions of 40 CFR 262.17 (i.e., a “90-day” tank or container) and is not a recycling unit under the provisions of 40 CFR 261.6.

(c) Each piece of equipment to which this subpart applies shall be marked in such a manner that it can be distinguished readily from other pieces of equipment.

(d) Equipment that is in vacuum service is excluded from the requirements of § 265.1052 to § 265.1060 if it is identified as required in § 265.1064(g)(5).

(e) Equipment that contains or contacts hazardous waste with an organic concentration of at least 10 percent by weight for less than 300 hours per calendar year is excluded from the requirements of §§ 265.1052 through 265.1060 of this subpart if it is identified, as required in § 265.1064(g)(6) of this subpart.

(f) The requirements of this subpart do not apply to the pharmaceutical manufacturing facility, commonly referred to as the Stonewall Plant, located at Route 340 South, Elkton, Virginia, provided that facility is operated in compliance with the requirements contained in a Clean Air Act permit issued pursuant to 40 CFR 52.2454. The requirements of this subpart shall apply to the facility upon termination of the Clean Air Act permit issued pursuant to 40 CFR 52.2454.

(g) Purged coatings and solvents from surface coating operations subject to the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for the surface coating of automobiles and light-duty trucks at 40 CFR part 63, subpart IIII, are not subject to the requirements of this subpart.

Note:

The requirements of §§ 265.1052 through 265.1064 apply to equipment associated with hazardous waste recycling units previously exempt under paragraph 261.6(c)(1). Other exemptions under §§ 261.4 and 265.1(c) are not affected by these requirements.

[55 FR 25512, June 21, 1990, as amended at 61 FR 59970, Nov. 25, 1996; 62 FR 52642, Oct. 8, 1997; 62 FR 64661, Dec. 8, 1997; 69 FR 22661, Apr. 26, 2004; 81 FR 85827, Nov. 28, 2016]

§ 265.1051 Definitions.

As used in this subpart, all terms shall have the meaning given them in § 264.1031, the Act, and parts 260-266.

§ 265.1052 Standards: Pumps in light liquid service.

(a)

(1) Each pump in light liquid service shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks by the methods specified in § 265.1063(b), except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section.

(2) Each pump in light liquid service shall be checked by visual inspection each calendar week for indications of liquids dripping from the pump seal.

(b)

(1) If an instrument reading of 10,000 ppm or greater is measured, a leak is detected.

(2) If there are indications of liquids dripping from the pump seal, a leak is detected.

(c)

(1) When a leak is detected, it shall be repaired as soon as practicable, but not later than 15 calendar days after it is detected, except as provided in § 265.1059.

(2) A first attempt at repair (e.g., tightening the packing gland) shall be made no later than 5 calendar days after each leak is detected.

(d) Each pump equipped with a dual mechanical seal system that includes a barrier fluid system is exempt from the requirements of paragraph (a), provided the following requirements are met:

(1) Each dual mechanical seal system must be:

(i) Operated with the barrier fluid at a pressure that is at all times greater than the pump stuffing box pressure, or

(ii) Equipped with a barrier fluid degassing reservoir that is connected by a closed-vent system to a control device that complies with the requirements of § 265.1060, or

(iii) Equipped with a system that purges the barrier fluid into a hazardous waste stream with no detectable emissions to the atmosphere.

(2) The barrier fluid system must not be a hazardous waste with organic concentrations 10 percent or greater by weight.

(3) Each barrier fluid system must be equipped with a sensor that will detect failure of the seal system, the barrier fluid system or both.

(4) Each pump must be checked by visual inspection, each calendar week, for indications of liquids dripping from the pump seals.

(5)

(i) Each sensor as described in paragraph (d)(3) of this section must be checked daily or be equipped with an audible alarm that must be checked monthly to ensure that it is functioning properly.

(ii) The owner or operator must determine, based on design considerations and operating experience, a criterion that indicates failure of the seal system, the barrier fluid system, or both.

(6)

(i) If there are indications of liquids dripping from the pump seal or the sensor indicates failure of the seal system, the barrier fluid system, or both based on the criterion determined in paragraph (d)(5)(ii) of this section, a leak is detected.

(ii) When a leak is detected, it shall be repaired as soon as practicable, but not later than 15 calendar days after it is detected, except as provided in § 265.1059.

(iii) A first attempt at repair (e.g., relapping the seal) shall be made no later than 5 calendar days after each leak is detected.

(e) Any pump that is designated, as described in § 265.1064(g)(2), for no detectable emissions, as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 ppm above background, is exempt from the requirements of paragraphs (a), (c), and (d) of this section if the pump meets the following requirements:

(1) Must have no externally actuated shaft penetrating the pump housing.

(2) Must operate with no detectable emissions as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 ppm above background as measured by the methods specified in § 265.1063(c).

(3) Must be tested for compliance with paragraph (e)(2) of this section initially upon designation, annually, and at other times as requested by the Regional Administrator.

(f) If any pump is equipped with a closed-vent system capable of capturing and transporting any leakage from the seal or seals to a control device that complies with the requirements of § 265.1060, it is exempt from the requirements of paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section.

[55 FR 25512, June 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 19290, Apr. 26, 1991]

§ 265.1053 Standards: Compressors.

(a) Each compressor shall be equipped with a seal system that includes a barrier fluid system and that prevents leakage of total organic emissions to the atmosphere, except as provided in paragraphs (h) and (i) of this section.

(b) Each compressor seal system as required in paragraph (a) of this section shall be:

(1) Operated with the barrier fluid at a pressure that is at all times greater than the compressor stuffing box pressure, or

(2) Equipped with a barrier fluid system that is connected by a closed-vent system to a control device that complies with the requirements of § 265.1060, or

(3) Equipped with a system that purges the barrier fluid into a hazardous waste stream with no detectable emissions to atmosphere.

(c) The barrier fluid must not be a hazardous waste with organic concentrations 10 percent or greater by weight.

(d) Each barrier fluid system as described in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section shall be equipped with a sensor that will detect failure of the seal system, barrier fluid system, or both.

(e)

(1) Each sensor as required in paragraph (d) of this section shall be checked daily or shall be equipped with an audible alarm that must be checked monthly to ensure that it is functioning properly unless the compressor is located within the boundary of an unmanned plant site, in which case the sensor must be checked daily.

(2) The owner or operator shall determine, based on design considerations and operating experience, a criterion that indicates failure of the seal system, the barrier fluid system or both.

(f) If the sensor indicates failure of the seal system, the barrier fluid system, or both based on the criterion determined under paragraph (e)(2) of this section, a leak is detected.

(g)

(1) When a leak is detected, it shall be repaired as soon as practicable, but not later than 15 calendar days after it is detected, except as provided in § 265.1059.

(2) A first attempt at repair (e.g., tightening the packing gland) shall be made no later than 5 calendar days after each leak is detected.

(h) A compressor is exempt from the requirements of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section if it is equipped with a closed-vent system capable of capturing and transporting any leakage from the seal to a control device that complies with the requirements of § 265.1060, except as provided in paragraph (i) of this section.

(i) Any compressor that is designated, as described in § 265.1064(g)(2), for no detectable emission as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 ppm above background is exempt from the requirements of paragraphs (a) through (h) of this section if the compressor:

(1) Is determined to be operating with no detectable emissions, as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 ppm above background, as measured by the method specified in § 265.1063(c).

(2) Is tested for compliance with paragraph (i)(1) of this section initially upon designation, annually, and at other times as requested by the Regional Administrator.

§ 265.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

(a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be operated with no detectable emissions, as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 ppm above background, as measured by the method specified in § 265.1063(c).

(b)

(1) After each pressure release, the pressure relief device shall be returned to a condition of no detectable emissions, as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 ppm above background, as soon as practicable, but no later than 5 calendar days after each pressure release, except as provided in § 265.1059.

(2) No later than 5 calendar days after the pressure release, the pressure relief device shall be monitored to confirm the condition of no detectable emissions, as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 ppm above background, as measured by the method specified in § 265.1063(c).

(c) Any pressure relief device that is equipped with a closed-vent system capable of capturing and transporting leakage from the pressure relief device to a control device as described in § 265.1060 is exempt from the requirements of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

§ 265.1055 Standards: Sampling connection systems.

(a) Each sampling connection system shall be equipped with a closed-purge, closed-loop, or closed-vent system. This system shall collect the sample purge for return to the process or for routing to the appropriate treatment system. Gases displaced during filling of the sample container are not required to be collected or captured.

(b) Each closed-purge, closed-loop, or closed-vent system as required in paragraph (a) of this section shall:

(1) Return the purged process fluid directly to the process line; or

(2) Collect and recycle the purged process fluid; or

(3) Be designed and operated to capture and transport all the purged process fluid to a waste management unit that complies with the applicable requirements of § 265.1085 through § 265.1087 of this subpart or a control device that complies with the requirements of § 265.1060 of this subpart.

(c) In-situ sampling systems and sampling systems without purges are exempt from the requirements of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

[61 FR 59971, Nov. 25, 1996]

§ 265.1056 Standards: Open-ended valves or lines.

(a)

(1) Each open-ended valve or line shall be equipped with a cap, blind flange, plug, or a second valve.

(2) The cap, blind flange, plug, or second valve shall seal the open end at all times except during operations requiring hazardous waste stream flow through the open-ended valve or line.

(b) Each open-ended valve or line equipped with a second valve shall be operated in a manner such that the valve on the hazardous waste stream end is closed before the second valve is closed.

(c) When a double block and bleed system is being used, the bleed valve or line may remain open during operations that require venting the line between the block valves but shall comply with paragraph (a) of this section at all other times.

§ 265.1057 Standards: Valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid service.

(a) Each valve in gas/vapor or light liquid service shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks by the methods specified in § 265.1063(b) and shall comply with paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section, except as provided in paragraphs (f), (g), and (h) of this section, and §§ 265.1061 and 265.1062.

(b) If an instrument reading of 10,000 ppm or greater is measured, a leak is detected.

(c)

(1) Any valve for which a leak is not detected for two successive months may be monitored the first month of every succeeding quarter, beginning with the next quarter, until a leak is detected.

(2) If a leak is detected, the valve shall be monitored monthly until a leak is not detected for 2 successive months.

(d)

(1) When a leak is detected, it shall be repaired as soon as practicable, but no later than 15 calendar days after the leak is detected, except as provided in § 265.1059.

(2) A first attempt at repair shall be made no later than 5 calendar days after each leak is detected.

(e) First attempts at repair include, but are not limited to, the following best practices where practicable:

(1) Tightening of bonnet bolts.

(2) Replacement of bonnet bolts.

(3) Tightening of packing gland nuts.

(4) Injection of lubricant into lubricated packing.

(f) Any valve that is designated, as described in § 265.1064(g)(2), for no detectable emissions, as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 ppm above background, is exempt from the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section if the valve:

(1) Has no external actuating mechanism in contact with the hazardous waste stream.

(2) Is operated with emissions less than 500 ppm above background as determined by the method specified in § 265.1063(c).

(3) Is tested for compliance with paragraph (f)(2) of this section initially upon designation, annually, and at other times as requested by the Regional Administrator.

(g) Any valve that is designated, as described in § 265.1064(h)(1), as an unsafe-to-monitor valve is exempt from the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section if:

(1) The owner or operator of the valve determines that the valve is unsafe to monitor because monitoring personnel would be exposed to an immediate danger as a consequence of complying with paragraph (a) of this section.

(2) The owner or operator of the valve adheres to a written plan that requires monitoring of the valve as frequently as practicable during safe-to-monitor times.

(h) Any valve that is designated, as described in § 265.1064(h)(2), as a difficult-to-monitor valve is exempt from the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section if:

(1) The owner or operator of the valve determines that the valve cannot be monitored without elevating the monitoring personnel more than 2 meters above a support surface.

(2) The hazardous waste management unit within which the valve is located was in operation before June 21, 1990.

(3) The owner or operator of the valve follows a written plan that requires monitoring of the valve at least once per calendar year.

§ 265.1058 Standards: Pumps and valves in heavy liquid service, pressure relief devices in light liquid or heavy liquid service, and flanges and other connectors.

(a) Pumps and valves in heavy liquid service, pressure relief devices in light liquid or heavy liquid service, and flanges and other connectors shall be monitored within 5 days by the method specified in § 265.1063(b) if evidence of a potential leak is found by visual, audible, olfactory, or any other detection method.

(b) If an instrument reading of 10,000 ppm or greater is measured, a leak is detected.

(c)

(1) When a leak is detected, it shall be repaired as soon as practicable, but not later than 15 calendar days after it is detected, except as provided in § 265.1059.

(2) The first attempt at repair shall be made no later than 5 calendar days after each leak is detected.

(d) First attempts at repair include, but are not limited to, the best practices described under § 265.1057(e).

(e) Any connector that is inaccessible or is ceramic or ceramic-lined (e.g., porcelain, glass, or glass-lined) is exempt from the monitoring requirements of paragraph (a) of this section and from the recordkeeping requirements of § 265.1064 of this subpart.

[55 FR 25512, June 21, 1990, as amended at 61 FR 59971, Nov. 25, 1996]

§ 265.1059 Standards: Delay of repair.

(a) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected will be allowed if the repair is technically infeasible without a hazardous waste management unit shutdown. In such a case, repair of this equipment shall occur before the end of the next hazardous waste management unit shutdown.

(b) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected will be allowed for equipment that is isolated from the hazardous waste management unit and that does not continue to contain or contact hazardous waste with organic concentrations at least 10 percent by weight.

(c) Delay of repair for valves will be allowed if:

(1) The owner or operator determines that emissions of purged material resulting from immediate repair are greater than the emissions likely to result from delay of repair.

(2) When repair procedures are effected, the purged material is collected and destroyed or recovered in a control device complying with § 265.1060.

(d) Delay of repair for pumps will be allowed if:

(1) Repair requires the use of a dual mechanical seal system that includes a barrier fluid system.

(2) Repair is completed as soon as practicable, but not later than 6 months after the leak was detected.

(e) Delay of repair beyond a hazardous waste management unit shutdown will be allowed for a valve if valve assembly replacement is necessary during the hazardous waste management unit shutdown, valve assembly supplies have been depleted, and valve assembly supplies had been sufficiently stocked before the supplies were depleted. Delay of repair beyond the next hazardous waste management unit shutdown will not be allowed unless the next hazardous waste management unit shutdown occurs sooner than 6 months after the first hazardous waste management unit shutdown.

§ 265.1060 Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

(a) Owners and operators of closed-vent systems and control devices subject to this subpart shall comply with the provisions of § 265.1033 of this part.

(b)

(1) The owner or operator of an existing facility who can not install a closed-vent system and control device to comply with the provisions of this subpart on the effective date that the facility becomes subject to the provisions of this subpart must prepare an implementation schedule that includes dates by which the closed-vent system and control device will be installed and in operation. The controls must be installed as soon as possible, but the implementation schedule may allow up to 30 months after the effective date that the facility becomes subject to this subpart for installation and startup.

(2) Any units that begin operation after December 21, 1990, and are subject to the provisions of this subpart when operation begins, must comply with the rules immediately (i.e., must have control devices installed and operating on startup of the affected unit); the 30-month implementation schedule does not apply.

(3) The owner or operator of any facility in existence on the effective date of a statutory or EPA regulatory amendment that renders the facility subject to this subpart shall comply with all requirements of this subpart as soon as practicable but no later than 30 months after the amendment's effective date. When control equipment required by this subpart can not be installed and begin operation by the effective date of the amendment, the facility owner or operator shall prepare an implementation schedule that includes the following information: Specific calendar dates for award of contracts or issuance of purchase orders for the control equipment, initiation of on-site installation of the control equipment, completion of the control equipment installation, and performance of any testing to demonstrate that the installed equipment meets the applicable standards of this subpart. The owner or operator shall enter the implementation schedule in the operating record or in a permanent, readily available file located at the facility.

(4) Owners and operators of facilities and units that become newly subject to the requirements of this subpart after December 8, 1997 due to an action other than those described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section must comply with all applicable requirements immediately (i.e., must have control devices installed and operating on the date the facility or unit becomes subject to this subpart; the 30-month implementation schedule does not apply).

[62 FR 64662, Dec. 8, 1997]

§ 265.1061 Alternative standards for valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: percentage of valves allowed to leak.

(a) An owner or operator subject to the requirements of § 265.1057 may elect to have all valves within a hazardous waste management unit comply with an alternative standard which allows no greater than 2 percent of the valves to leak.

(b) The following requirements shall be met if an owner or operator decides to comply with the alternative standard of allowing 2 percent of valves to leak:

(1) A performance test as specified in paragraph (c) of this section shall be conducted initially upon designation, annually, and at other times requested by the Regional Administrator.

(2) If a valve leak is detected, it shall be repaired in accordance with § 265.1057 (d) and (e).

(c) Performance tests shall be conducted in the following manner:

(1) All valves subject to the requirements in § 265.1057 within the hazardous waste management unit shall be monitored within 1 week by the methods specified in § 265.1063(b).

(2) If an instrument reading of 10,000 ppm or greater is measured, a leak is detected.

(3) The leak percentage shall be determined by dividing the number of valves subject to the requirements in § 265.1057 for which leaks are detected by the total number of valves subject to the requirements in § 265.1057 within the hazardous waste management unit.

[55 FR 25512, June 21, 1990, as amended at 71 FR 16912, Apr. 4, 2006]

§ 265.1062 Alternative standards for valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: skip period leak detection and repair.

(a) An owner or operator subject to the requirements of § 265.1057 may elect for all valves within a hazardous waste management unit to comply with one of the alternative work practices specified in paragraphs (b) (2) and (3) of this section.

(b)

(1) An owner or operator shall comply with the requirements for valves, as described in § 265.1057, except as described in paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section.

(2) After two consecutive quarterly leak detection periods with the percentage of valves leaking equal to or less than 2 percent, an owner or operator may begin to skip one of the quarterly leak detection periods (i.e., monitor for leaks once every six months) for the valves subject to the requirements in § 265.1057 of this subpart.

(3) After five consecutive quarterly leak detection periods with the percentage of valves leaking equal to or less than 2 percent, an owner or operator may begin to skip three of the quarterly leak detection periods (i.e., monitor for leaks once every year) for the valves subject to the requirements in § 265.1057 of this subpart.

(4) If the percentage of valves leaking is greater than 2 percent, the owner or operators shall monitor monthly in compliance with the requirements in § 265.1057, but may again elect to use this section after meeting the requirements of § 265.1057(c)(1).

[55 FR 25512, June 21, 1990, as amended at 62 FR 64662, Dec. 8, 1997; 71 FR 16912, Apr. 4, 2006]

§ 265.1063 Test methods and procedures.

(a) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with the test methods and procedures requirements provided in this section.

(b) Leak detection monitoring, as required in §§ 265.1052 through 265.1062, shall comply with the following requirements:

(1) Monitoring shall comply with Reference Method 21 in 40 CFR part 60.

(2) The detection instrument shall meet the performance criteria of Reference Method 21.

(3) The instrument shall be calibrated before use on each day of its use by the procedures specified in Reference Method 21.

(4) Calibration gases shall be:

(i) Zero air (less than 10 ppm of hydrocarbon in air).

(ii) A mixture of methane or n-hexane and air at a concentration of approximately, but less than, 10,000 ppm methane or n-hexane.

(5) The instrument probe shall be traversed around all potential leak interfaces as close to the interface as possible as described in Reference Method 21.

(c) When equipment is tested for compliance with no detectable emissions, as required in §§ 265.1052(e), 265.1053(i), 265.1054, and 265.1057(f), the test shall comply with the following requirements:

(1) The requirements of paragraphs (b) (1) through (4) of this section shall apply.

(2) The background level shall be determined, as set forth in Reference Method 21.

(3) The instrument probe shall be traversed around all potential leak interfaces as close to the interface as possible as described in Reference Method 21.

(4) The arithmetic difference between the maximum concentration indicated by the instrument and the background level is compared with 500 ppm for determining compliance.

(d) In accordance with the waste analysis plan required by § 265.13(b), an owner or operator of a facility must determine, for each piece of equipment, whether the equipment contains or contacts a hazardous waste with organic concentration that equals or exceeds 10 percent by weight using the following:

(1) Methods described in ASTM Methods D 2267-88, E 169-87, E 168-88, E 260-85 (incorporated by reference under § 260.11);

(2) Method 9060A (incorporated by reference under § 260.11 of this chapter) of “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,” EPA Publication SW-846 or analyzed for its individual organic constituents; or

(3) Applicati